Sample records for quantitative three-dimensional analysis

  1. A simple approach to quantitative analysis using three-dimensional spectra based on selected Zernike moments.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hong Lin; Zhai, Yue Yuan; Li, Pei Zhen; Tian, Yue Li

    2013-01-21

    A very simple approach to quantitative analysis is proposed based on the technology of digital image processing using three-dimensional (3D) spectra obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). As the region-based shape features of a grayscale image, Zernike moments with inherently invariance property were employed to establish the linear quantitative models. This approach was applied to the quantitative analysis of three compounds in mixed samples using 3D HPLC-DAD spectra, and three linear models were obtained, respectively. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) for training and test sets were more than 0.999, and the statistical parameters and strict validation supported the reliability of established models. The analytical results suggest that the Zernike moment selected by stepwise regression can be used in the quantitative analysis of target compounds. Our study provides a new idea for quantitative analysis using 3D spectra, which can be extended to the analysis of other 3D spectra obtained by different methods or instruments.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling and quantitative analysis of gap junction distributions in cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Daniel P; Carruth, Eric D; Lasher, Richard A; Boenisch, Jan; Sachse, Frank B; Hitchcock, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    Gap junctions play a fundamental role in intercellular communication in cardiac tissue. Various types of heart disease including hypertrophy and ischemia are associated with alterations of the spatial arrangement of gap junctions. Previous studies applied two-dimensional optical and electron-microscopy to visualize gap junction arrangements. In normal cardiomyocytes, gap junctions were primarily found at cell ends, but can be found also in more central regions. In this study, we extended these approaches toward three-dimensional reconstruction of gap junction distributions based on high-resolution scanning confocal microscopy and image processing. We developed methods for quantitative characterization of gap junction distributions based on analysis of intensity profiles along the principal axes of myocytes. The analyses characterized gap junction polarization at cell ends and higher-order statistical image moments of intensity profiles. The methodology was tested in rat ventricular myocardium. Our analysis yielded novel quantitative data on gap junction distributions. In particular, the analysis demonstrated that the distributions exhibit significant variability with respect to polarization, skewness, and kurtosis. We suggest that this methodology provides a quantitative alternative to current approaches based on visual inspection, with applications in particular in characterization of engineered and diseased myocardium. Furthermore, we propose that these data provide improved input for computational modeling of cardiac conduction.

  3. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional biological cells using interferometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Wax, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Live biological cells are three-dimensional microscopic objects that constantly adjust their sizes, shapes and other biophysical features. Wide-field digital interferometry (WFDI) is a holographic technique that is able to record the complex wavefront of the light which has interacted with in-vitro cells in a single camera exposure, where no exogenous contrast agents are required. However, simple quasi-three-dimensional holographic visualization of the cell phase profiles need not be the end of the process. Quantitative analysis should permit extraction of numerical parameters which are useful for cytology or medical diagnosis. Using a transmission-mode setup, the phase profile represents the multiplication between the integral refractive index and the thickness of the sample. These coupled variables may not be distinct when acquiring the phase profiles of dynamic cells. Many morphological parameters which are useful for cell biologists are based on the cell thickness profile rather than on its phase profile. We first overview methods to decouple the cell thickness and its refractive index using the WFDI-based phase profile. Then, we present a whole-cell-imaging approach which is able to extract useful numerical parameters on the cells even in cases where decoupling of cell thickness and refractive index is not possible or desired.

  4. Three-dimensional quantitative flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Nosenchuck, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    The principles, capabilities, and practical implementation of advanced measurement techniques for the quantitative characterization of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. Consideration is given to particle, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering; fluorescence; flow marking by H2 bubbles, photochromism, photodissociation, and vibrationally excited molecules; light-sheet volume imaging; and stereo imaging. Also discussed are stereo schlieren methods, holographic particle imaging, optical tomography, acoustic and magnetic-resonance imaging, and the display of space-filling data. Extensive diagrams, graphs, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  5. Building quantitative, three-dimensional atlases of gene expression and morphology at cellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Knowles, David W; Biggin, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Animals comprise dynamic three-dimensional arrays of cells that express gene products in intricate spatial and temporal patterns that determine cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. A rigorous understanding of these developmental processes requires automated methods that quantitatively record and analyze complex morphologies and their associated patterns of gene expression at cellular resolution. Here we summarize light microscopy-based approaches to establish permanent, quantitative datasets-atlases-that record this information. We focus on experiments that capture data for whole embryos or large areas of tissue in three dimensions, often at multiple time points. We compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of different methods and highlight some of the discoveries made. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary collaborations and integrated experimental pipelines that link sample preparation, image acquisition, image analysis, database design, visualization, and quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  7. Quantitative three-dimensional low-speed wake surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of conducting three-dimensional wake measurements in large wind tunnels are reviewed with emphasis on applications in low-speed aerodynamics. Such quantitative wake surveys furnish separate values for the components of drag, such as profile drag and induced drag, but also measure lift without the use of a balance. In addition to global data, details of the wake flowfield as well as spanwise distributions of lift and drag are obtained. The paper demonstrates the value of this measurement technique using data from wake measurements conducted by Boeing on a variety of low-speed configurations including the complex high-lift system of a transport aircraft.

  8. A Quantitative Three-Dimensional Image Analysis Tool for Maximal Acquisition of Spatial Heterogeneity Data.

    PubMed

    Allenby, Mark C; Misener, Ruth; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques provide spatial insight into environmental and cellular interactions and are implemented in various fields, including tissue engineering, but have been restricted by limited quantification tools that misrepresent or underutilize the cellular phenomena captured. This study develops image postprocessing algorithms pairing complex Euclidean metrics with Monte Carlo simulations to quantitatively assess cell and microenvironment spatial distributions while utilizing, for the first time, the entire 3D image captured. Although current methods only analyze a central fraction of presented confocal microscopy images, the proposed algorithms can utilize 210% more cells to calculate 3D spatial distributions that can span a 23-fold longer distance. These algorithms seek to leverage the high sample cost of 3D tissue imaging techniques by extracting maximal quantitative data throughout the captured image.

  9. Three-dimensional cardiac architecture determined by two-photon microtomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hayden; MacGillivray, Catherine; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lammerding, Jan; Robbins, Jeffrey; Lee, Richard T.; So, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac architecture is inherently three-dimensional, yet most characterizations rely on two-dimensional histological slices or dissociated cells, which remove the native geometry of the heart. We previously developed a method for labeling intact heart sections without dissociation and imaging large volumes while preserving their three-dimensional structure. We further refine this method to permit quantitative analysis of imaged sections. After data acquisition, these sections are assembled using image-processing tools, and qualitative and quantitative information is extracted. By examining the reconstructed cardiac blocks, one can observe end-to-end adjacent cardiac myocytes (cardiac strands) changing cross-sectional geometries, merging and separating from other strands. Quantitatively, representative cross-sectional areas typically used for determining hypertrophy omit the three-dimensional component; we show that taking orientation into account can significantly alter the analysis. Using fast-Fourier transform analysis, we analyze the gross organization of cardiac strands in three dimensions. By characterizing cardiac structure in three dimensions, we are able to determine that the α crystallin mutation leads to hypertrophy with cross-sectional area increases, but not necessarily via changes in fiber orientation distribution.

  10. Quantitative three-dimensional microtextural analyses of tooth wear as a tool for dietary discrimination in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Mark; Seehausen, Ole; Galis, Frietson

    2012-01-01

    Resource polymorphisms and competition for resources are significant factors in speciation. Many examples come from fishes, and cichlids are of particular importance because of their role as model organisms at the interface of ecology, development, genetics and evolution. However, analysis of trophic resource use in fishes can be difficult and time-consuming, and for fossil fish species it is particularly problematic. Here, we present evidence from cichlids that analysis of tooth microwear based on high-resolution (sub-micrometre scale) three-dimensional data and new ISO standards for quantification of surface textures provides a powerful tool for dietary discrimination and investigation of trophic resource exploitation. Our results suggest that three-dimensional approaches to analysis offer significant advantages over two-dimensional operator-scored methods of microwear analysis, including applicability to rough tooth surfaces that lack distinct scratches and pits. Tooth microwear textures develop over a longer period of time than is represented by stomach contents, and analyses based on textures are less prone to biases introduced by opportunistic feeding. They are more sensitive to subtle dietary differences than isotopic analysis. Quantitative textural analysis of tooth microwear has a useful role to play, complementing existing approaches, in trophic analysis of fishes—both extant and extinct. PMID:22491979

  11. An Integrative Platform for Three-dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Spatially Heterogeneous Metastasis Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ.

  12. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  13. A method for three-dimensional quantitative observation of the microstructure of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Wu, Hongxin; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jialin; Lv, Danyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Ying; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Jinggao; Zhao, Fengying

    2009-07-01

    Contemporary biology has developed into the era of cell biology and molecular biology, and people try to study the mechanism of all kinds of biological phenomena at the microcosmic level now. Accurate description of the microstructure of biological samples is exigent need from many biomedical experiments. This paper introduces a method for 3-dimensional quantitative observation on the microstructure of vital biological samples based on two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). TPLSM is a novel kind of fluorescence microscopy, which has excellence in its low optical damage, high resolution, deep penetration depth and suitability for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Fluorescent stained samples were observed by TPLSM, and afterward the original shapes of them were obtained through 3D image reconstruction. The spatial distribution of all objects in samples as well as their volumes could be derived by image segmentation and mathematic calculation. Thus the 3-dimensionally and quantitatively depicted microstructure of the samples was finally derived. We applied this method to quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of chromosomes in meiotic mouse oocytes at metaphase, and wonderful results came out last.

  14. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  15. Molecular design of anticancer drug leads based on three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao Yan; Shan, Zhi Jie; Zhai, Hong Lin; Li, Li Na; Zhang, Xiao Yun

    2011-08-22

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) takes part in the developments of several cancers. Novobiocin, a typically C-terminal inhibitor for Hsp90, will probably used as an important anticancer drug in the future. In this work, we explored the valuable information and designed new novobiocin derivatives based on a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR). The comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models with high predictive capability were established, and their reliabilities are supported by the statistical parameters. Based on the several important influence factors obtained from these models, six new novobiocin derivatives with higher inhibitory activities were designed and confirmed by the molecular simulation with our models, which provide the potential anticancer drug leads for further research.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of the fetal cerebellar vermis using the median view on three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Wei; Cai, Ailu; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Lizhu; Wang, Bing

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness for quantitative evaluation of cerebellar vermis using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and to establish a nomogram for Chinese fetal vermis measurements during gestation. Sonographic examinations were performed in normal fetuses and in cases suspected of the diagnosis of vermian rotation. 3D median planes were obtained with both OMNIVIEW and tomographic ultrasound imaging. Measurements of the cerebellar vermis were highly correlated between two-dimensional and 3D median planes. The diameter of the cerebellar vermis follows growth approximately predicted by the quadratic regression equation. The normal vermis was almost parallel to the brain stem, with the average angle degree to be <2° in normal fetuses. The average angle degree of the 9 cases of vermian rotation was >5°. Three-dimensional median planes are obtained more easily than two-dimensional ones, and allow accurate measurements of the cerebellar vermis. The 3D approach may enable rapid assessment of fetal cerebral anatomy in standard examination. Measurements of cerebellar vermis may provide a quantitative index for prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa malformations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Three-dimensional structural analysis using interactive graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biffle, J.; Sumlin, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of computer interactive graphics to three-dimensional structural analysis was described, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) structural analysis, and (2) generation and checking of input data and examination of the large volume of output data (stresses, displacements, velocities, accelerations). Handling of three-dimensional input processing with a special MESH3D computer program was explained. Similarly, a special code PLTZ may be used to perform all the needed tasks for output processing from a finite element code. Examples were illustrated.

  18. Quantitative analysis of a reconstruction method for fully three-dimensional PET.

    PubMed

    Suckling, J; Ott, R J; Deehan, B J

    1992-03-01

    The major advantage of positron emission tomography (PET) using large area planar detectors over scintillator-based commercial ring systems is the potentially larger (by a factor of two or three) axial field-of-view (FOV). However, to achieve the space invariance of the point spread function necessary for Fourier filtering a polar angle rejection criterion is applied to the data during backprojection resulting in a trade-off between FOV size and sensitivity. A new algorithm due to Defrise and co-workers developed for list-mode data overcomes this problem with a solution involving the division of the image into several subregions. A comparison between the existing backprojection-then-filter algorithm and the new method (with three subregions) has been made using both simulated and real data collected from the MUP-PET positron camera. Signal-to-noise analysis reveals that improvements of up to a factor of 1.4 are possible resulting from an increased data usage of up to a factor of 2.5 depending on the axial extent of the imaged object. Quantitation is also improved.

  19. Design and prediction of new anticoagulants as a selective Factor IXa inhibitor via three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationships of amidinobenzothiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-Suo; Tong, Xu-Peng; Chang, Yi-Qun; He, Yu-Xuan; Mei, Yu-Dan; Tan, Pei-Hong; Guo, Jia-Liang; Liao, Guo-Chao; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Chen, Wei-Min; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Sun, Ping-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Factor IXa (FIXa), a blood coagulation factor, is specifically inhibited at the initiation stage of the coagulation cascade, promising an excellent approach for developing selective and safe anticoagulants. Eighty-four amidinobenzothiophene antithrombotic derivatives targeting FIXa were selected to establish three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (3D-QSSR) models using comparative molecular field analysis and comparative similarity indices analysis methods. Internal and external cross-validation techniques were investigated as well as region focusing and bootstrapping. The satisfactory q (2) values of 0.753 and 0.770, and r (2) values of 0.940 and 0.965 for 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR, respectively, indicated that the models are available to predict both the inhibitory activity and selectivity on FIXa against Factor Xa, the activated status of Factor X. This work revealed that the steric, hydrophobic, and H-bond factors should appropriately be taken into account in future rational design, especially the modifications at the 2'-position of the benzene and the 6-position of the benzothiophene in the R group, providing helpful clues to design more active and selective FIXa inhibitors for the treatment of thrombosis. On the basis of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationships, 16 new potent molecules have been designed and are predicted to be more active and selective than Compound 33, which has the best activity as reported in the literature.

  20. Design and prediction of new anticoagulants as a selective Factor IXa inhibitor via three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationships of amidinobenzothiophene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jia-Suo; Tong, Xu-Peng; Chang, Yi-Qun; He, Yu-Xuan; Mei, Yu-Dan; Tan, Pei-Hong; Guo, Jia-Liang; Liao, Guo-Chao; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Chen, Wei-Min; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Sun, Ping-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Factor IXa (FIXa), a blood coagulation factor, is specifically inhibited at the initiation stage of the coagulation cascade, promising an excellent approach for developing selective and safe anticoagulants. Eighty-four amidinobenzothiophene antithrombotic derivatives targeting FIXa were selected to establish three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and three-dimensional quantitative structure–selectivity relationship (3D-QSSR) models using comparative molecular field analysis and comparative similarity indices analysis methods. Internal and external cross-validation techniques were investigated as well as region focusing and bootstrapping. The satisfactory q2 values of 0.753 and 0.770, and r2 values of 0.940 and 0.965 for 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR, respectively, indicated that the models are available to predict both the inhibitory activity and selectivity on FIXa against Factor Xa, the activated status of Factor X. This work revealed that the steric, hydrophobic, and H-bond factors should appropriately be taken into account in future rational design, especially the modifications at the 2′-position of the benzene and the 6-position of the benzothiophene in the R group, providing helpful clues to design more active and selective FIXa inhibitors for the treatment of thrombosis. On the basis of the three-dimensional quantitative structure–property relationships, 16 new potent molecules have been designed and are predicted to be more active and selective than Compound 33, which has the best activity as reported in the literature. PMID:25848211

  1. Measurements of morphology and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    We present optical measurements of morphology and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach–Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and morphological parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  2. Quantitative performance characterization of three-dimensional noncontact fluorescence molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favicchio, Rosy; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Schönig, Kai; Bartsch, Dusan; Mamalaki, Clio; Papamatheakis, Joseph; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins and dyes are routine tools for biological research to describe the behavior of genes, proteins, and cells, as well as more complex physiological dynamics such as vessel permeability and pharmacokinetics. The use of these probes in whole body in vivo imaging would allow extending the range and scope of current biomedical applications and would be of great interest. In order to comply with a wide variety of application demands, in vivo imaging platform requirements span from wide spectral coverage to precise quantification capabilities. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) detects and reconstructs in three dimensions the distribution of a fluorophore in vivo. Noncontact FMT allows fast scanning of an excitation source and noninvasive measurement of emitted fluorescent light using a virtual array detector operating in free space. Here, a rigorous process is defined that fully characterizes the performance of a custom-built horizontal noncontact FMT setup. Dynamic range, sensitivity, and quantitative accuracy across the visible spectrum were evaluated using fluorophores with emissions between 520 and 660 nm. These results demonstrate that high-performance quantitative three-dimensional visible light FMT allowed the detection of challenging mesenteric lymph nodes in vivo and the comparison of spectrally distinct fluorescent reporters in cell culture.

  3. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  4. Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of human fibroblasts transformed by ras oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Maher, V M; McCormick, J J

    1992-11-01

    Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the cellular protein patterns of a normal foreskin-derived human fibroblasts cell line (LG1) and three immortal derivatives of LG1. One derivative, designated MSU-1.1 VO, was selected for its ability to grow in the absence of serum and is non-tumorigenic in athymic mice. The other two strains were selected for focus-formation following transfection with either Ha-ras or N-ras oncogenes and form high grade malignant tumors. Correspondence and cluster analysis provided a nonbiased estimate of the relative similarity of the different two-dimensional patterns. These techniques separated the gel patterns into three distinct classes: LG1, MSU-1.1 VO, and the ras transformed cell strains. The MSU-1.1 VO cells were more closely related to the parental LG1 than to the ras-transformed cells. The differences between the three classes were primarily quantitative in nature: 16% of the spots demonstrated statistically significant changes (P < 0.01, T test, mean ratio of intensity > 2) in the rate of incorporation of radioactive amino acids. The patterns from the two ras-transformed cell strains were similar, and variations in the expression of proteins that occurred between the separate experiments obscured consistent differences between the Ha-ras and N-ras transformed cells. However, while only 9 out of 758 spots were classified as different (1%), correspondence analysis could consistently separate the two ras transformants. One of these spots was five times more intense in the Ha-ras transformed cells than the N-ras.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of tubular permanent magnet machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J.; Wang, J.; Howe, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents results from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a tubular permanent magnet machine, and quantifies the influence of the laminated modules from which the stator core is assembled on the flux linkage and thrust force capability as well as on the self- and mutual inductances. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model accounts for the nonlinear, anisotropic magnetization characteristic of the laminated stator structure, and for the voids which exist between the laminated modules. Predicted results are compared with those deduced from an axisymmetric FE model. It is shown that the emf and thrust force deduced from the three-dimensional model are significantly lower than those which are predicted from an axisymmetric field analysis, primarily as a consequence of the teeth and yoke being more highly saturated due to the presence of the voids in the laminated stator core.

  6. Preliminary Discussion On The Three Dimensional Space Quantitative Analysis Of Erythrocytes By SEMP And Some Applications On The Clinic And Research Of Blood Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian-Huang, Lu; Wen-Meng, Tong; Zhi-Jun, Zhang; Gui-Huan, He; Su-Hui, Huan

    1989-04-01

    The abnormity of the quality and quantity for erythrocytes is one of the important changes of blood disease. It shows the abnormal blood-making function of human body. Therefore, the study of the change of shape of erythrocytes is the indispensible and important basis of reference in the clinic, diagnose and research of blood disease. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is made on the acquisition of scanning stereographs for erythrocytes, the application of the theory of photographic measurement on the three dimensional space quantitative analysis of erythrocytes, drawings of isoline map and section map of various erythrocytes for normal persons, paroxysmal nocturanal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and aplastic anemia patients, study of the shape characteristics of normal erythrocytes and various abnormal erytnrocytes and the applications in clinic, diagnose and research. This research is a combination of microphotogrammetry and erythrocyte morphology. It is polssible to push fotward the study of erythrocyte morphology from LM, SEM to a higher stage of scanning electron micrographic photogrammetry(SEMP) for stereograpic observationand three diamensional quantitative analysis to explore a new path for the further study of the shape of erthrocytes.

  7. Three-dimensional shear wave elastography for differentiation of breast lesions: An initial study with quantitative analysis using three orthogonal planes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao

    2018-05-25

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) for breast lesions with quantitative stiffness information from transverse, sagittal and coronal planes. Conventional ultrasound (US), two-dimensional (2D)-SWE and 3D-SWE were performed for 122 consecutive patients with 122 breast lesions before biopsy or surgical excision. Maximum elasticity values of Young's modulus (Emax) were recorded on 2D-SWE and three planes of 3D-SWE. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of US, 2D-SWE and 3D-SWE were evaluated. Two combined sets (i.e., BI-RADS and 2D-SWE; BI-RADS and 3D-SWE) were compared in AUC. Observer consistency was also evaluated. On 3D-SWE, the AUC and sensitivity of sagittal plane were significantly higher than those of transverse and coronal planes (both P < 0.05). Compared with BI-RADS alone, both combined sets had significantly (P < 0.05) higher AUCs and specificities, whereas, the two combined sets showed no significant difference in AUC (P > 0.05). However, the combined set of BI-RADS and sagittal plane of 3D-SWE had significantly higher sensitivity than the combined set of BI-RADS and 2D-SWE. The sagittal plane shows the best diagnostic performance among 3D-SWE. The combination of BI-RADS and 3D-SWE is a useful tool for predicting breast malignant lesions in comparison with BI-RADS alone.

  8. Three-dimensional biofilm structure quantification.

    PubMed

    Beyenal, Haluk; Donovan, Conrad; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Harkin, Gary

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative parameters describing biofilm physical structure have been extracted from three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy images and used to compare biofilm structures, monitor biofilm development, and quantify environmental factors affecting biofilm structure. Researchers have previously used biovolume, volume to surface ratio, roughness coefficient, and mean and maximum thicknesses to compare biofilm structures. The selection of these parameters is dependent on the availability of software to perform calculations. We believe it is necessary to develop more comprehensive parameters to describe heterogeneous biofilm morphology in three dimensions. This research presents parameters describing three-dimensional biofilm heterogeneity, size, and morphology of biomass calculated from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. This study extends previous work which extracted quantitative parameters regarding morphological features from two-dimensional biofilm images to three-dimensional biofilm images. We describe two types of parameters: (1) textural parameters showing microscale heterogeneity of biofilms and (2) volumetric parameters describing size and morphology of biomass. The three-dimensional features presented are average (ADD) and maximum diffusion distances (MDD), fractal dimension, average run lengths (in X, Y and Z directions), aspect ratio, textural entropy, energy and homogeneity. We discuss the meaning of each parameter and present the calculations in detail. The developed algorithms, including automatic thresholding, are implemented in software as MATLAB programs which will be available at site prior to publication of the paper.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Three-dimensional Microstructure of Li-ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted considerable attention in the past two decades due to their widespread applications in portable electronics, and their growing use in electric vehicles and large-scale grid storage. Increasing battery energy density and powder density while maintaining long life, along with battery safety, are the biggest challenges that limit their further development. Various approaches with materials and chemistry have been employed to improve performance. However, one less-studied aspect that also impacts performance is the electrode microstructure. In particular, three-dimensional (3D) electrode microstructural data for LIB electrodes, which were not widely available prior to this thesis, can provide important input for understanding and improving LIB performance. The focus of this thesis is to apply 3D tomographic techniques, together with electrochemical performance data, to obtain LIB microstructure-performance correlations. Two advanced 3D structural analysis techniques, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) nanotomography, are used to quantify LIB electrode microstructure. 3D characterization of LIB electrode microstructure is used to obtain a deeper understanding of mechanisms that limit LIB performance. Microstructural characterization before and after cycling is used to explore capacity loss mechanisms. It is hoped that the results can guide electrode microstructures design to improve performance and stability. Two types of commercial electrodes, LiCoO2 and LiCoO 2/Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are studied using FIB-SEM and TXM. Both methods were found to be applicable to quantifying the oxide particle microstructure, including volume fraction, surface area, and particle size distribution, and results agreed well. However, structural inhomogeneity found in these commercial samples, limited the capability to resolve microstructural changes during cycling. In order to also quantify

  10. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  11. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Multicenter study of quantitative computed tomography analysis using a computer-aided three-dimensional system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Tae; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Hoshi, Toshiko; Ogura, Takashi; Baba, Tomohisa; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Oba, Mari S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of automated quantitative analysis with a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided system (i.e., Gaussian histogram normalized correlation, GHNC) of computed tomography (CT) images from different scanners. Each institution's review board approved the research protocol. Informed patient consent was not required. The participants in this multicenter prospective study were 80 patients (65 men, 15 women) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Their mean age was 70.6 years. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained by four different scanners set at different exposures. We measured the extent of fibrosis using GHNC, and used Pearson's correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and kappa analysis to directly compare the GHNC results with manual scoring by radiologists. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the CT data and forced vital capacity (FVC). For each scanner, the extent of fibrosis as determined by GHNC was significantly correlated with the radiologists' score. In multivariate analysis, the extent of fibrosis as determined by GHNC was significantly correlated with FVC (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the results obtained using different CT scanners. Gaussian histogram normalized correlation was feasible, irrespective of the type of CT scanner used.

  13. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of tongue flicking in Python molurus.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jurriaan H; van der Sluijs, Inke; Snelderwaard, Peter Ch; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2004-02-01

    The forked snake tongue is a muscular organ without hard skeletal support. A functional interpretation of the variable arrangement of the intrinsic muscles along the tongue requires a quantitative analysis of the motion performance during tongue protrusion and flicking. Therefore, high-speed fluoroscopy and high-speed stereo photogrammetry were used to analyse the three-dimensional shape changes of the tongue in Python molurus bivittatus (Boidae). The posterior protruding part of the tongue elongated up to 130% while the flicking anterior portion elongated maximally 60%. The differences in tongue strains relate to the absence or presence, respectively, of longitudinal muscle fibres in the peripheral tongue. Maximum overall protrusion velocity (4.3 m s(-1)) occurred initially when the tongue tip left the mouth. Maximum tongue length of approximately 0.01 body length (20 mm) was reached during the first tongue flick. These observations are discussed within the scope of the biomechanical constraints of hydrostatic tongue protrusion: a negative forward pressure gradient, longitudinal tongue compliance and axial tongue stiffness. The three-dimensional deformation varied along the tongue with a mean curvature of 0.06 mm(-1) and a maximum value of 0.5 mm(-1). At the basis of the anterior forked portion of the tongue tips, extreme curvatures up to 2.0 mm(-1) were observed. These quantitative results support previously proposed inferences about a hydrostatic elongation mechanism and may serve to evaluate future dynamic models of tongue flicking.

  14. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  15. Comparison of three-dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Finegan, Donal P; Eastwood, David S; Fife, Julie L; Brown, Leon D; Darr, Jawwad A; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3-D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3-D microstructures from 2-D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures are examined and compared. Lithium-ion battery electrodes were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. For each electrode sample investigated, stereological analysis was performed on reconstructed 2-D image sections generated from tomographic imaging, whereas direct 3-D analysis was performed on reconstructed image volumes. The analysis showed that geometric parameter estimation using 2-D image sections is bound to be associated with ambiguity and that volume-based 3-D characterization of nonconvex, irregular and interconnected particles can be used to more accurately quantify spatially-dependent parameters, such as tortuosity and pore-phase connectivity. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Comparison of Quantitative Wall Motion Analysis and Strain For Detection Of Coronary Stenosis With Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Katherine M.; Clark, Alexander P.; Goodman, Norman C.; Glover, David K.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative analysis of wall motion from three-dimensional (3D) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) could provide additional diagnostic information not available from qualitative analysis. In this study we compare the effectiveness of 3D fractional shortening (3DFS), a measure of wall motion computed from 3D echocardiography (3DE), to strain and strain rate measured with sonomicrometry for detecting critical stenoses during DSE. Methods Eleven open-chest dogs underwent DSE both with and without a critical stenosis. 3DFS was measured from 3DE images acquired at peak stress. 3DFS was normalized by subtracting average 3DFS during control peak stress (Δ3DFS). Strains in the perfusion defect (PD) were measured from sonomicrometry, and PD size and location were measured with microspheres. Results A Δ3DFS abnormality indicated the presence of a critical stenosis with high sensitivity and specificity (88% and 100%, respectively), and Δ3DFS abnormality size correlated with PD size (R2=0.54). The sensitivity and specificity for Δ3DFS was similar to that for area strain (88%, 100%) and circumferential strain and strain rate (88%, 92% and 88%, 86%, respectively), while longitudinal strain and strain rate were less specific. Δ3DFS correlated significantly with both coronary flow reserve (R2=0.71) and PD size (R2=0.97), while area strain correlated with PD size only (R2=0.67), and other measures were not significantly correlated with flow reserve or PD size. Conclusion Quantitative wall motion analysis using Δ3DFS is effective for detecting critical stenoses during DSE, performing similarly to 3D strain, and provides potentially useful information on the size and location of a perfusion defect. PMID:24815588

  17. Verification of a three-dimensional viscous flow analysis for a single stage compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Akinori; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Nozaki, Osamu; Kikuchi, Kazuo; Fukuda, Masahiro; Tamura, Atsuhiro

    1992-12-01

    A transonic flowfield around rotor blades of a highly loaded single stage axial compressor was numerically analyzed by a three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation code using Chakravarthy and Osher type total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. A stage analysis which calculates both flowfields around inlet guide vane (IGV) and rotor blades simultaneously was carried out. Comparing with design values and experimental data, computed results show slight difference quantitatively. But the numerical calculation simulates well the pressure rise characteristics of the compressor and its flow pattern including strong shock surface.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: a noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) and a posteriori Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0167) revealed a significant reduction of enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.

  19. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.

  20. Quantitative Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Imaging of Human Kidney Biopsies: A Bridge to Precision Medicine in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Seth; Dagher, Pierre C; Dunn, Kenneth W; Eadon, Michael T; Ferkowicz, Michael; Barwinska, Daria; Kelly, Katherine J; Sutton, Timothy A; El-Achkar, Tarek M

    2018-06-05

    Kidney biopsy remains the gold standard for uncovering the pathogenesis of acute and chronic kidney diseases. However, the ability to perform high resolution, quantitative, molecular and cellular interrogation of this precious tissue is still at a developing stage compared to other fields such as oncology. Here, we discuss recent advances in performing large-scale, three-dimensional (3D), multi-fluorescence imaging of kidney biopsies and quantitative analysis referred to as 3D tissue cytometry. This approach allows the accurate measurement of specific cell types and their spatial distribution in a thick section spanning the entire length of the biopsy. By uncovering specific disease signatures, including rare occurrences, and linking them to the biology in situ, this approach will enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, by providing accurate quantitation of cellular events, 3D cytometry may improve the accuracy of prognosticating the clinical course and response to therapy. Therefore, large-scale 3D imaging and cytometry of kidney biopsy is poised to become a bridge towards personalized medicine for patients with kidney disease. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on c-Src inhibitors based on different docking methods.

    PubMed

    Bairy, Santhosh Kumar; Suneel Kumar, B V S; Bhalla, Joseph Uday Tej; Pramod, A B; Ravikumar, Muttineni

    2009-04-01

    c-Src kinase play an important role in cell growth and differentiation and its inhibitors can be useful for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and metastatic bone disease. Three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were carried out on quinazolin derivatives inhibiting c-Src kinase. Molecular field analysis (MFA) models with four different alignment techniques, namely, GLIDE, GOLD, LIGANDFIT and Least squares based methods were developed. glide based MFA model showed better results (Leave one out cross validation correlation coefficient r(2)(cv) = 0.923 and non-cross validation correlation coefficient r(2)= 0.958) when compared with other models. These results help us to understand the nature of descriptors required for activity of these compounds and thereby provide guidelines to design novel and potent c-Src kinase inhibitors.

  2. Disruption of TgPHIL1 Alters Specific Parameters of Toxoplasma gondii Motility Measured in a Quantitative, Three-Dimensional Live Motility Assay

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Rould, Mark A.; Konradt, Christoph; Hunter, Christopher A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct types of gliding motility on coated two-dimensional surfaces: twirling, circular gliding and helical gliding. We show here that motility in a three-dimensional Matrigel-based environment is strikingly different, in that all parasites move in irregular corkscrew-like trajectories. Methods developed for quantitative analysis of motility parameters along the smoothed trajectories demonstrate a complex but periodic pattern of motility with mean and maximum velocities of 0.58±0.07 µm/s and 2.01±0.17 µm/s, respectively. To test how a change in the parasite's crescent shape might affect trajectory parameters, we compared the motility of Δphil1 parasites, which are shorter and wider than wild type, to the corresponding parental and complemented lines. Although comparable percentages of parasites were moving for all three lines, the Δphil1 mutant exhibited significantly decreased trajectory lengths and mean and maximum velocities compared to the parental parasite line. These effects were either partially or fully restored upon complementation of the Δphil1 mutant. These results show that alterations in morphology may have a significant impact on T. gondii motility in an extracellular matrix-like environment, provide a possible explanation for the decreased fitness of Δphil1 parasites in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of the quantitative three-dimensional assay for studying parasite motility. PMID:24489670

  3. Analysis of the Three-Dimensional Vector FAÇADE Model Created from Photogrammetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, I. S.; Seredovich, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The results of the accuracy assessment analysis for creation of a three-dimensional vector model of building façade are described. In the framework of the analysis, analytical comparison of three-dimensional vector façade models created by photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanning data has been done. The three-dimensional model built from TLS point clouds was taken as the reference one. In the course of the experiment, the three-dimensional model to be analyzed was superimposed on the reference one, the coordinates were measured and deviations between the same model points were determined. The accuracy estimation of the three-dimensional model obtained by using non-metric digital camera images was carried out. Identified façade surface areas with the maximum deviations were revealed.

  4. Differential diagnosis of lung carcinoma with three-dimensional quantitative molecular vibrational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Hammoudi, Ahmad A.; Li, Fuhai; Thrall, Michael J.; Cagle, Philip T.; Chen, Yuanxin; Yang, Jian; Xia, Xiaofeng; Fan, Yubo; Massoud, Yehia; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2012-06-01

    The advent of molecularly targeted therapies requires effective identification of the various cell types of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Currently, cell type diagnosis is performed using small biopsies or cytology specimens that are often insufficient for molecular testing after morphologic analysis. Thus, the ability to rapidly recognize different cancer cell types, with minimal tissue consumption, would accelerate diagnosis and preserve tissue samples for subsequent molecular testing in targeted therapy. We report a label-free molecular vibrational imaging framework enabling three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and quantitative analysis of cellular structures for identification of NSCLC cell types. This diagnostic imaging system employs superpixel-based 3-D nuclear segmentation for extracting such disease-related features as nuclear shape, volume, and cell-cell distance. These features are used to characterize cancer cell types using machine learning. Using fresh unstained tissue samples derived from cell lines grown in a mouse model, the platform showed greater than 97% accuracy for diagnosis of NSCLC cell types within a few minutes. As an adjunct to subsequent histology tests, our novel system would allow fast delineation of cancer cell types with minimum tissue consumption, potentially facilitating on-the-spot diagnosis, while preserving specimens for additional tests. Furthermore, 3-D measurements of cellular structure permit evaluation closer to the native state of cells, creating an alternative to traditional 2-D histology specimen evaluation, potentially increasing accuracy in diagnosing cell type of lung carcinomas.

  5. Three-Dimensional Photography for Quantitative Assessment of Penile Volume-Loss Deformities in Peyronie's Disease.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Ezra J; Mlynarczyk, Carrie M; Mulhall, John P; Stember, Doron S; Stahl, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    penile parameters, 3D photography can empower researchers to better study volume-loss deformities in PD and enable clinicians to offer improved clinical assessment, communication, and documentation. This is the first study to apply 3D photography to the assessment of PD and to accurately measure the novel parameters of EPV and percent EPVL. This proof-of-concept study is limited by the lack of data in human subjects, which could present additional challenges in obtaining reliable measurements. EPV and percent EPVL are novel metrics that can be quickly, accurately, and reliably measured using computational analysis of 3D photographs and can be useful in describing non-curvature volume-loss deformities resulting from PD. Margolin EJ, Mlynarczyk CM, Muhall JP, et al. Three-Dimensional Photography for Quantitative Assessment of Penile Volume-Loss Deformities in Peyronie's Disease. J Sex Med 2017;14:829-833. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  7. Visually estimated ejection fraction by two dimensional and triplane echocardiography is closely correlated with quantitative ejection fraction by real-time three dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Gudmundsson, Petri; Manouras, Aristomenis; Brodin, Lars-Ake; Winter, Reidar

    2009-08-25

    Visual assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often used in clinical routine despite general recommendations to use quantitative biplane Simpsons (BPS) measurements. Even thou quantitative methods are well validated and from many reasons preferable, the feasibility of visual assessment (eyeballing) is superior. There is to date only sparse data comparing visual EF assessment in comparison to quantitative methods available. The aim of this study was to compare visual EF assessment by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and triplane echocardiography (TPE) using quantitative real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) as the reference method. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study. Eyeballing EF was assessed using apical 4-and 2 chamber views and TP mode by two experienced readers blinded to all clinical data. The measurements were compared to quantitative RT3DE. There were an excellent correlation between eyeballing EF by 2D and TP vs 3DE (r = 0.91 and 0.95 respectively) without any significant bias (-0.5 +/- 3.7% and -0.2 +/- 2.9% respectively). Intraobserver variability was 3.8% for eyeballing 2DE, 3.2% for eyeballing TP and 2.3% for quantitative 3D-EF. Interobserver variability was 7.5% for eyeballing 2D and 8.4% for eyeballing TP. Visual estimation of LVEF both using 2D and TP by an experienced reader correlates well with quantitative EF determined by RT3DE. There is an apparent trend towards a smaller variability using TP in comparison to 2D, this was however not statistically significant.

  8. Visually estimated ejection fraction by two dimensional and triplane echocardiography is closely correlated with quantitative ejection fraction by real-time three dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Gudmundsson, Petri; Manouras, Aristomenis; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Winter, Reidar

    2009-01-01

    Background Visual assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often used in clinical routine despite general recommendations to use quantitative biplane Simpsons (BPS) measurements. Even thou quantitative methods are well validated and from many reasons preferable, the feasibility of visual assessment (eyeballing) is superior. There is to date only sparse data comparing visual EF assessment in comparison to quantitative methods available. The aim of this study was to compare visual EF assessment by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and triplane echocardiography (TPE) using quantitative real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) as the reference method. Methods Thirty patients were enrolled in the study. Eyeballing EF was assessed using apical 4-and 2 chamber views and TP mode by two experienced readers blinded to all clinical data. The measurements were compared to quantitative RT3DE. Results There were an excellent correlation between eyeballing EF by 2D and TP vs 3DE (r = 0.91 and 0.95 respectively) without any significant bias (-0.5 ± 3.7% and -0.2 ± 2.9% respectively). Intraobserver variability was 3.8% for eyeballing 2DE, 3.2% for eyeballing TP and 2.3% for quantitative 3D-EF. Interobserver variability was 7.5% for eyeballing 2D and 8.4% for eyeballing TP. Conclusion Visual estimation of LVEF both using 2D and TP by an experienced reader correlates well with quantitative EF determined by RT3DE. There is an apparent trend towards a smaller variability using TP in comparison to 2D, this was however not statistically significant. PMID:19706183

  9. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    PubMed

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Three-dimensional Bragg coherent diffraction imaging of an extended ZnO crystal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Leake, Steven; Clark, Jesse; Robinson, Ian

    2012-08-01

    A complex three-dimensional quantitative image of an extended zinc oxide (ZnO) crystal has been obtained using Bragg coherent diffraction imaging integrated with ptychography. By scanning a 2.5 µm-long arm of a ZnO tetrapod across a 1.3 µm X-ray beam with fine step sizes while measuring a three-dimensional diffraction pattern at each scan spot, the three-dimensional electron density and projected displacement field of the entire crystal were recovered. The simultaneously reconstructed complex wavefront of the illumination combined with its coherence properties determined by a partial coherence analysis implemented in the reconstruction process provide a comprehensive characterization of the incident X-ray beam.

  11. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response characteristics of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. In addition, a numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flow, which is based upon an existing nonlinear, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis, is described. These aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into an unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. A preliminary version of the LINFLUX code is applied herein to selected, benchmark three-dimensional, subsonic, unsteady flows, to illustrate its current capabilities and to uncover existing problems and deficiencies. The numerical results indicate that good progress has been made toward developing a reliable and useful three-dimensional prediction capability. However, some problems, associated with the implementation of an unsteady displacement field and numerical errors near solid boundaries, still exist. Also, accurate far-field conditions must be incorporated into the FINFLUX analysis, so that this analysis can be applied to unsteady flows driven be external aerodynamic excitations.

  13. Three-Dimensional Analysis and Surgical Planning in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Steinbacher, Derek M

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) analysis and planning are powerful tools in craniofacial and reconstructive surgery. The elements include 1) analysis, 2) planning, 3) virtual surgery, 4) 3D printouts of guides or implants, and 5) verification of actual to planned results. The purpose of this article is to review different applications of 3D planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Case examples involving 3D analysis and planning were reviewed. Common threads pertaining to all types of reconstruction are highlighted and contrasted with unique aspects specific to new applications in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Six examples of 3D planning are described: 1) cranial reconstruction, 2) craniosynostosis, 3) midface advancement, 4) mandibular distraction, 5) mandibular reconstruction, and 6) orthognathic surgery. Planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery is useful and has applicability across different procedures and reconstructions. Three-dimensional planning and virtual surgery enhance efficiency, accuracy, creativity, and reproducibility in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo, label-free, three-dimensional quantitative imaging of liver surface using multi-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Yan, Jie; Kang, Yuzhan; Xu, Shuoyu; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

    2014-07-01

    Various structural features on the liver surface reflect functional changes in the liver. The visualization of these surface features with molecular specificity is of particular relevance to understanding the physiology and diseases of the liver. Using multi-photon microscopy (MPM), we have developed a label-free, three-dimensional quantitative and sensitive method to visualize various structural features of liver surface in living rat. MPM could quantitatively image the microstructural features of liver surface with respect to the sinuosity of collagen fiber, the elastic fiber structure, the ratio between elastin and collagen, collagen content, and the metabolic state of the hepatocytes that are correlative with the pathophysiologically induced changes in the regions of interest. This study highlights the potential of this technique as a useful tool for pathophysiological studies and possible diagnosis of the liver diseases with further development.

  15. In vivo, label-free, three-dimensional quantitative imaging of liver surface using multi-photon microscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu, E-mail: shuangmuzhuo@gmail.com, E-mail: hanry-yu@nuhs.edu.sg; Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007; Yan, Jie

    2014-07-14

    Various structural features on the liver surface reflect functional changes in the liver. The visualization of these surface features with molecular specificity is of particular relevance to understanding the physiology and diseases of the liver. Using multi-photon microscopy (MPM), we have developed a label-free, three-dimensional quantitative and sensitive method to visualize various structural features of liver surface in living rat. MPM could quantitatively image the microstructural features of liver surface with respect to the sinuosity of collagen fiber, the elastic fiber structure, the ratio between elastin and collagen, collagen content, and the metabolic state of the hepatocytes that are correlativemore » with the pathophysiologically induced changes in the regions of interest. This study highlights the potential of this technique as a useful tool for pathophysiological studies and possible diagnosis of the liver diseases with further development.« less

  16. Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.

  17. Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx; Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H.

    2017-03-15

    In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiwmore » constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.« less

  18. Morphometric analysis of acetabular dysplasia in cerebral palsy: three-dimensional CT study.

    PubMed

    Gose, Shinichi; Sakai, Takashi; Shibata, Toru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) eliminates the positioning errors and allows the clinician to more accurately assess the radiographic parameters present. To elucidate the 3D geometry of the acetabulum and the extent of hip subluxation/dislocation in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), quantitative morphometric analysis was performed using 3D-CT data. We evaluated 150 hips in 75 patients with bilateral spastic CP. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years (range: 2.7 to 6.9 y). The fitting plane of the ilium was projected onto the coronal plane and then onto the sagittal plane, and then the angle formed with a horizontal line was defined as CTalpha (the lateral opening angle) and CTbeta (the sagittal inclination angle), respectively. The center of the acetabulum and the femoral head were defined, and the distance between these centers was divided by the femoral head diameter, defined as CT migration percentage (CTMP, %). In 123 (82%) of the 150 hips, the femoral head center was located posteriorly, superiorly, and laterally relative to the acetabular center. Large CTalpha cases tended to show large CTMP. CTalpha and CTMP were significantly larger in the cases with Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level IV/V and spastic quadriplegia, than in the cases with GMFCS level II/III and spastic diplegia. CTbeta showed significant correlation with the acetabular defect on the lateral 3D reconstructed images. Three-dimensional acetabular geometry and migration percentage in CP patients can be analyzed quantitatively using 3D-CT regardless of the abnormal spastic posture. The extent of acetabular dysplasia and subluxation is more severe in patients with GMFCS level IV/V and spastic quadriplesia. Level 4.

  19. Three-dimensional Stress Analysis Using the Boundary Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary element method is to be extended (as part of the NASA Inelastic Analysis Methods program) to the three-dimensional stress analysis of gas turbine engine hot section components. The analytical basis of the method (as developed in elasticity) is outlined, its numerical implementation is summarized, and the approaches to be followed in extending the method to include inelastic material response indicated.

  20. Quantitative Analysis Of Three-dimensional Branching Systems From X-ray Computed Microtomography Data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McKinney, Adriana L.; Varga, Tamas

    Branching structures such as lungs, blood vessels and plant roots play a critical role in life. Growth, structure, and function of these branching structures have an immense effect on our lives. Therefore, quantitative size information on such structures in their native environment is invaluable for studying their growth and the effect of the environment on them. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been an effective tool for in situ imaging and analysis of branching structures. We developed a costless tool that approximates the surface and volume of branching structures. Our methodology of noninvasive imaging, segmentation and extraction of quantitative information ismore » demonstrated through the analysis of a plant root in its soil medium from 3D tomography data. XCT data collected on a grass specimen was used to visualize its root structure. A suite of open-source software was employed to segment the root from the soil and determine its isosurface, which was used to calculate its volume and surface. This methodology of processing 3D data is applicable to other branching structures even when the structure of interest is of similar x-ray attenuation to its environment and difficulties arise with sample segmentation.« less

  1. Statistical assessment of normal mitral annular geometry using automated three-dimensional echocardiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pouch, Alison M; Vergnat, Mathieu; McGarvey, Jeremy R; Ferrari, Giovanni; Jackson, Benjamin M; Sehgal, Chandra M; Yushkevich, Paul A; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H

    2014-01-01

    The basis of mitral annuloplasty ring design has progressed from qualitative surgical intuition to experimental and theoretical analysis of annular geometry with quantitative imaging techniques. In this work, we present an automated three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic image analysis method that can be used to statistically assess variability in normal mitral annular geometry to support advancement in annuloplasty ring design. Three-dimensional patient-specific models of the mitral annulus were automatically generated from 3D echocardiographic images acquired from subjects with normal mitral valve structure and function. Geometric annular measurements including annular circumference, annular height, septolateral diameter, intercommissural width, and the annular height to intercommissural width ratio were automatically calculated. A mean 3D annular contour was computed, and principal component analysis was used to evaluate variability in normal annular shape. The following mean ± standard deviations were obtained from 3D echocardiographic image analysis: annular circumference, 107.0 ± 14.6 mm; annular height, 7.6 ± 2.8 mm; septolateral diameter, 28.5 ± 3.7 mm; intercommissural width, 33.0 ± 5.3 mm; and annular height to intercommissural width ratio, 22.7% ± 6.9%. Principal component analysis indicated that shape variability was primarily related to overall annular size, with more subtle variation in the skewness and height of the anterior annular peak, independent of annular diameter. Patient-specific 3D echocardiographic-based modeling of the human mitral valve enables statistical analysis of physiologically normal mitral annular geometry. The tool can potentially lead to the development of a new generation of annuloplasty rings that restore the diseased mitral valve annulus back to a truly normal geometry. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of a three-dimensional viscous analysis of axisymmetric supersonic inlet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, T. J.; Anderson, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    A three-dimensional viscous marching analysis for supersonic inlets was developed. To verify this analysis several benchmark axisymmetric test configurations were studied and are compared to experimental data. Detailed two-dimensional results for shock-boundary layer interactions are presented for flows with and without boundary layer bleed. Three dimensional calculations of a cone at angle of attack and a full inlet at attack are also discussed and evaluated. Results of the calculations demonstrate the code's ability to predict complex flow fields and establish guidelines for future calculations using similar codes.

  3. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Imaging of Heterogeneous Materials by Thermal Tomography

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sun, J. G.

    2016-07-19

    Infrared thermal imaging based on active thermal excitations has been widely used for nondestructive evaluation ( NDE) of materials. While the experimental systems have remained essentially the same during the last few decades, development of advanced data-processing methods has significantly improved the capabilities of this technology. However, many limitations still exist. One fundamental limitation is the requirement, either explicitly or implicitly, of the tested material to be homogeneous such that detected thermal contrasts may be used to determine an average material property or attributed to flaws. In this paper, a new thermal tomography ( TT) method is introduced, which formore » the first time can evaluate heterogeneous materials by directly imaging their thermal-property variations with space. It utilizes one-sided flash thermal-imaging data to construct the three-dimensional ( 3D) distribution of thermal effusivity in the entire volume of a test sample. Theoretical analyses for single and multilayer material systems were conducted to validate its formulation and to demonstrate its performance. Experimental results for a ceramic composite plate and a thermal barrier coating ( TBC) sample are also presented. It was shown that thermal diffusion is the primary factor that degrades the spatial resolution with depth for TT; the spatial resolutions in the lateral and axial directions were quantitatively evaluated.« less

  4. Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

  5. Principal component analysis of three-dimensional face shape: Identifying shape features that change with age.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, M; Mizukoshi, K

    2018-05-01

    The types of shape feature that constitutes a face have not been comprehensively established, and most previous studies of age-related changes in facial shape have focused on individual characteristics, such as wrinkle, sagging skin, etc. In this study, we quantitatively measured differences in face shape between individuals and investigated how shape features changed with age. We analyzed three-dimensionally the faces of 280 Japanese women aged 20-69 years and used principal component analysis to establish the shape features that characterized individual differences. We also evaluated the relationships between each feature and age, clarifying the shape features characteristic of different age groups. Changes in facial shape in middle age were a decreased volume of the upper face and increased volume of the whole cheeks and around the chin. Changes in older people were an increased volume of the lower cheeks and around the chin, sagging skin, and jaw distortion. Principal component analysis was effective for identifying facial shape features that represent individual and age-related differences. This method allowed straightforward measurements, such as the increase or decrease in cheeks caused by soft tissue changes or skeletal-based changes to the forehead or jaw, simply by acquiring three-dimensional facial images. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quantitative and qualitative measure of intralaboratory two-dimensional protein gel reproducibility and the effects of sample preparation, sample load, and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Choe, Leila H; Lee, Kelvin H

    2003-10-01

    We investigate one approach to assess the quantitative variability in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) separations based on gel-to-gel variability, sample preparation variability, sample load differences, and the effect of automation on image analysis. We observe that 95% of spots present in three out of four replicate gels exhibit less than a 0.52 coefficient of variation (CV) in fluorescent stain intensity (% volume) for a single sample run on multiple gels. When four parallel sample preparations are performed, this value increases to 0.57. We do not observe any significant change in quantitative value for an increase or decrease in sample load of 30% when using appropriate image analysis variables. Increasing use of automation, while necessary in modern 2-DE experiments, does change the observed level of quantitative and qualitative variability among replicate gels. The number of spots that change qualitatively for a single sample run in parallel varies from a CV = 0.03 for fully manual analysis to CV = 0.20 for a fully automated analysis. We present a systematic method by which a single laboratory can measure gel-to-gel variability using only three gel runs.

  7. Quantitative three-dimensional ice roughness from scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Nicholas; Rowe, Penny M.; Stewart, Emily; Roesel, David; Neshyba, Steven

    2017-03-01

    We present a method for inferring surface morphology of ice from scanning electron microscope images. We first develop a novel functional form for the backscattered electron intensity as a function of ice facet orientation; this form is parameterized using smooth ice facets of known orientation. Three-dimensional representations of rough surfaces are retrieved at approximately micrometer resolution using Gauss-Newton inversion within a Bayesian framework. Statistical analysis of the resulting data sets permits characterization of ice surface roughness with a much higher statistical confidence than previously possible. A survey of results in the range -39°C to -29°C shows that characteristics of the roughness (e.g., Weibull parameters) are sensitive not only to the degree of roughening but also to the symmetry of the roughening. These results suggest that roughening characteristics obtained by remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric ice clouds can potentially provide more facet-specific information than has previously been appreciated.

  8. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-01-01

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor. PMID:27649194

  9. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  10. On-line analysis of algae in water by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nanjing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yin, Gaofang; Yang, Ruifang; Hu, Li; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2018-03-19

    In view of the problem of the on-line measurement of algae classification, a method of algae classification and concentration determination based on the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was studied in this work. The discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of twelve common species of algae belonging to five categories were analyzed, the discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of five categories were built, and the recognition, classification and concentration prediction of algae categories were realized by the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with non-negative weighted least squares linear regression analysis. The results show that similarities between discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of different categories were reduced and the accuracies of recognition, classification and concentration prediction of the algae categories were significantly improved. By comparing with that of the chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra is improved 1.38%, and the recovery rate and classification accuracy in pure diatom samples 34.1% and 46.8%, respectively; the recognition accuracy rate of mixed samples by discrete-three dimensional fluorescence spectra is enhanced by 26.1%, the recovery rate of mixed samples with Chlorophyta 37.8%, and the classification accuracy of mixed samples with diatoms 54.6%.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional Human Mammary Epithelial Tissue Architecture Reveals a Role for Tenascin-C in Regulating c-Met Function

    PubMed Central

    Taraseviciute, Agne; Vincent, Benjamin T.; Schedin, Pepper; Jones, Peter Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix and elevated expression of specific proto-oncogenes within the adjacent epithelium represent cardinal features of breast cancer, yet how these events become integrated is not fully understood. To address this question, we focused on tenascin-C (TN-C), a stromal extracellular matrix glycoprotein whose expression increases with disease severity. Initially, nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane (BM) where they formed three-dimensional (3-D) polarized, growth-attenuated, multicellular acini, enveloped by a continuous endogenous BM. In the presence of TN-C, however, acini failed to generate a normal BM, and net epithelial cell proliferation increased. To quantify how TN-C alters 3-D tissue architecture and function, we developed a computational image analysis algorithm, which showed that although TN-C disrupted acinar surface structure, it had no effect on their volume. Thus, TN-C promoted epithelial cell proliferation leading to luminal filling, a process that we hypothesized involved c-met, a proto-oncogene amplified in breast tumors that promotes intraluminal filling. Indeed, TN-C increased epithelial c-met expression and promoted luminal filling, whereas blockade of c-met function reversed this phenotype, resulting in normal BM deposition, proper lumen formation, and decreased cell proliferation. Collectively, these studies, combining a novel quantitative image analysis tool with 3-D organotypic cultures, demonstrate that stromal changes associated with breast cancer can control proto-oncogene function. PMID:20042668

  12. Three-dimensional representation of curved nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Dikin, D A; Ding, W; Qiao, Y; Chen, X; Fridman, Y; Ruoff, R S

    2004-12-01

    Nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanocoils, can be described in many cases as quasi one-dimensional curved objects projecting in three-dimensional space. A parallax method to construct the correct three-dimensional geometry of such one-dimensional nanostructures is presented. A series of scanning electron microscope images was acquired at different view angles, thus providing a set of image pairs that were used to generate three-dimensional representations using a matlab program. An error analysis as a function of the view angle between the two images is presented and discussed. As an example application, the importance of knowing the true three-dimensional shape of boron nanowires is demonstrated; without the nanowire's correct length and diameter, mechanical resonance data cannot provide an accurate estimate of Young's modulus.

  13. Three dimensional finite-element analysis of finite-thickness fracture specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The stress-intensity factors for most of the commonly used fracture specimens (center-crack tension, single and double edge-crack tension, and compact), those that have a through-the-thickness crack, were calculated using a three dimensional finite-element elastic stress analysis. Three-dimensional singularity elements were used around the crack front. The stress intensity factors along the crack front were evaluated by using a force method, developed herein, that requires no prior assumption of either plane stress or plane strain. The calculated stress-intensity factors from the present analysis were compared with those from the literature whenever possible and were generally found to be in good agreement. The stress-intensity factors at the midplane for all specimens analyzed were within 3 percent of the two dimensional plane strain values. The stress intensity factors at the specimen surfaces were considerably lower than at the midplanes. For the center-crack tension specimens with large thickness to crack-length ratios, the stress-intensity factor reached a maximum near the surface of the specimen. In all other specimens considered the maximum stress intensity occurred at the midplane.

  14. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOEpatents

    Schiek, Richard [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  15. Theory and design of compact hybrid microphone arrays on two-dimensional planes for three-dimensional soundfield analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanchi; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Zhang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Soundfield analysis based on spherical harmonic decomposition has been widely used in various applications; however, a drawback is the three-dimensional geometry of the microphone arrays. In this paper, a method to design two-dimensional planar microphone arrays that are capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) spatial soundfields is proposed. Through the utilization of both omni-directional and first order microphones, the proposed microphone array is capable of measuring soundfield components that are undetectable to conventional planar omni-directional microphone arrays, thus providing the same functionality as 3D arrays designed for the same purpose. Simulations show that the accuracy of the planar microphone array is comparable to traditional spherical microphone arrays. Due to its compact shape, the proposed microphone array greatly increases the feasibility of 3D soundfield analysis techniques in real-world applications.

  16. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 μm and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  17. Simulation of wave propagation in three-dimensional random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, William A.; Filice, J. P.; Frehlich, R. G.; Yadlowsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative error analysis for simulation of wave propagation in three dimensional random media assuming narrow angular scattering are presented for the plane wave and spherical wave geometry. This includes the errors resulting from finite grid size, finite simulation dimensions, and the separation of the two-dimensional screens along the propagation direction. Simple error scalings are determined for power-law spectra of the random refractive index of the media. The effects of a finite inner scale are also considered. The spatial spectra of the intensity errors are calculated and compared to the spatial spectra of intensity. The numerical requirements for a simulation of given accuracy are determined for realizations of the field. The numerical requirements for accurate estimation of higher moments of the field are less stringent.

  18. The stress analysis method for three-dimensional composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Kanehiro; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Maekawa, Zen'ichiro; Hamada, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    This study proposes a stress analysis method for three-dimensionally fiber reinforced composite materials. In this method, the rule-of mixture for composites is successfully applied to 3-D space in which material properties would change 3-dimensionally. The fundamental formulas for Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio are derived. Also, we discuss a strength estimation and an optimum material design technique for 3-D composite materials. The analysis is executed for a triaxial orthogonally woven fabric, and their results are compared to the experimental data in order to verify the accuracy of this method. The present methodology can be easily understood with basic material mechanics and elementary mathematics, so it enables us to write a computer program of this theory without difficulty. Furthermore, this method can be applied to various types of 3-D composites because of its general-purpose characteristics.

  19. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Long-Term Midface Volume Change After Vertical Vector Deep-Plane Rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Malone, Melanie H; Talei, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    Facial aging is a complicated process that includes volume loss and soft tissue descent. This study provides quantitative 3-dimensional (3D) data on the long-term effect of vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy on restoring volume to the midface. To determine if primary vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy resulted in long-term volume change in the midface. We performed a prospective study on patients undergoing primary vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy to quantitate 3D volume changes in the midface. Quantitative analysis of volume changes was made using the Vectra 3D imaging software (Canfield Scientific, Inc, Fairfield, New Jersey) at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Forty-three patients (86 hemifaces) were analyzed. The average volume gained in each hemi-midface after vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy was 3.2 mL. Vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy provides significant long-term augmentation of volume in the midface. These quantitative data demonstrate that some midface volume loss is related to gravitational descent of the cheek fat compartments and that vertical vector deep-plane rhytidectomy may obviate the need for other volumization procedures such as autologous fat grafting in selected cases. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Validating two-dimensional leadership models on three-dimensionally structured fish schools

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Máté; Holbrook, Robert I.; Biro, Dora; Burt de Perera, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Identifying leader–follower interactions is crucial for understanding how a group decides where or when to move, and how this information is transferred between members. Although many animal groups have a three-dimensional structure, previous studies investigating leader–follower interactions have often ignored vertical information. This raises the question of whether commonly used two-dimensional leader–follower analyses can be used justifiably on groups that interact in three dimensions. To address this, we quantified the individual movements of banded tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) within shoals by computing the three-dimensional trajectories of all individuals using a stereo-camera technique. We used these data firstly to identify and compare leader–follower interactions in two and three dimensions, and secondly to analyse leadership with respect to an individual's spatial position in three dimensions. We show that for 95% of all pairwise interactions leadership identified through two-dimensional analysis matches that identified through three-dimensional analysis, and we reveal that fish attend to the same shoalmates for vertical information as they do for horizontal information. Our results therefore highlight that three-dimensional analyses are not always required to identify leader–follower relationships in species that move freely in three dimensions. We discuss our results in terms of the importance of taking species' sensory capacities into account when studying interaction networks within groups. PMID:28280582

  1. Analysis of absorption and reflection mechanisms in a three-dimensional plate silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunqi; Huang, Lixi

    2008-06-01

    When a segment of a rigid duct is replaced by a plate backed by a hard-walled cavity, grazing incident sound waves induce plate vibration, hence sound reflection. Based on this mechanism, a broadband plate silencer, which works effectively from low-to-medium frequencies have been developed recently. A typical plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch cavities covered by light but extremely stiff plates. Such a configuration is two-dimensional in nature. In this paper, numerical study is extended to three-dimensional configurations to investigate the potential improvement in sound reflection. Finite element simulation shows that the three-dimensional configurations perform better than the corresponding two-dimensional design, especially in the relatively high frequency region. Further analysis shows that the three-dimensional design gives better plate response at higher axial modes than the simple two-dimensional design. Sound absorption mechanism is also introduced to the plate silencer by adding two dissipative chambers on the two lateral sides of a two-cavity wave reflector, hence a hybrid silencer. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed hybrid silencer is able to achieve a good moderate bandwidth with much reduced total length in comparison with pure absorption design.

  2. Three-Dimensional Structure Analysis and Percolation Properties of a Barrier Marine Coating

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Xiong, Gang; Shemilt, Laura; Diaz, Ana; Nutter, John; Burdet, Nicolas; Huo, Suguo; Mancuso, Joel; Monteith, Alexander; Vergeer, Frank; Burgess, Andrew; Robinson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Artificially structured coatings are widely employed to minimize materials deterioration and corrosion, the annual direct cost of which is over 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) for industrial countries. Manufacturing higher performance anticorrosive coatings is one of the most efficient approaches to reduce this loss. However, three-dimensional (3D) structure of coatings, which determines their performance, has not been investigated in detail. Here we present a quantitative nano-scale analysis of the 3D spatial structure of an anticorrosive aluminium epoxy barrier marine coating obtained by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) and ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT). We then use finite element simulations to demonstrate how percolation through this actual 3D structure impedes ion diffusion in the composite materials. We found the aluminium flakes align within 15° of the coating surface in the material, causing the perpendicular diffusion resistance of the coating to be substantially higher than the pure epoxy. PMID:23378910

  3. Multifunctional, three-dimensional tomography for analysis of eletrectrohydrodynamic jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Gim, Yeonghyeon; Ko, Han Seo

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional optical tomography technique was developed to reconstruct three-dimensional objects using a set of two-dimensional shadowgraphic images and normal gray images. From three high-speed cameras, which were positioned at an offset angle of 45° between each other, number, size, and location of electrohydrodynamic jets with respect to the nozzle position were analyzed using shadowgraphic tomography employing multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). Additionally, a flow field inside a cone-shaped liquid (Taylor cone) induced under an electric field was observed using a simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), a tomographic method for reconstructing light intensities of particles, combined with three-dimensional cross-correlation. Various velocity fields of circulating flows inside the cone-shaped liquid caused by various physico-chemical properties of liquid were also investigated.

  4. Three-dimensional finite element analysis for high velocity impact. [of projectiles from space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. T. K.; Lee, C. H.; Brashears, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element algorithm for solving unsteady, three-dimensional high velocity impact problems is presented. A computer program was developed based on the Eulerian hydroelasto-viscoplastic formulation and the utilization of the theorem of weak solutions. The equations solved consist of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, equation of state, and appropriate constitutive equations. The solution technique is a time-dependent finite element analysis utilizing three-dimensional isoparametric elements, in conjunction with a generalized two-step time integration scheme. The developed code was demonstrated by solving one-dimensional as well as three-dimensional impact problems for both the inviscid hydrodynamic model and the hydroelasto-viscoplastic model.

  5. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  6. Lenz's law and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelesko, John A.; Cesky, Michael; Huertas, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    We show that the time it takes a magnet to fall through a nonmagnetic metallic tube may be found via dimensional analysis. The simple analysis makes this classic demonstration of Lenz's law accessible qualitatively and quantitatively to students with little knowledge of electromagnetism and only elementary knowledge of calculus. The analysis provides a new example of the power and limitations of dimensional analysis.

  7. Kinematics of swimming of the manta ray: three-dimensional analysis of open-water maneuverability.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E; Kolpas, Allison; Crossett, Andrew; Dudas, Michael A; Moored, Keith W; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2018-03-22

    For aquatic animals, turning maneuvers represent a locomotor activity that may not be confined to a single coordinate plane, making analysis difficult, particularly in the field. To measure turning performance in a three-dimensional space for the manta ray ( Mobula birostris ), a large open-water swimmer, scaled stereo video recordings were collected. Movements of the cephalic lobes, eye and tail base were tracked to obtain three-dimensional coordinates. A mathematical analysis was performed on the coordinate data to calculate the turning rate and curvature (1/turning radius) as a function of time by numerically estimating the derivative of manta trajectories through three-dimensional space. Principal component analysis was used to project the three-dimensional trajectory onto the two-dimensional turn. Smoothing splines were applied to these turns. These are flexible models that minimize a cost function with a parameter controlling the balance between data fidelity and regularity of the derivative. Data for 30 sequences of rays performing slow, steady turns showed the highest 20% of values for the turning rate and smallest 20% of turn radii were 42.65±16.66 deg s -1 and 2.05±1.26 m, respectively. Such turning maneuvers fall within the range of performance exhibited by swimmers with rigid bodies. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Three-dimensional segmented poincare plot analysis - A new approach of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory regulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Claudia; Voss, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive pregnancy disorders affect 6 to 8 percent of all pregnancies which can cause severe complications for the mother and the fetus. The aim of this study was to develop a new method suitable for a three dimensional coupling analysis. Therefore, the three-dimensional segmented Poincaré plot analysis (SPPA3) is introduced that represents the Poincare analysis based on a cubic box model representation. The box representing the three dimensional phase space is (based on the SPPA method) subdivided into 12×12×12 equal cubelets according to the predefined range of signals and all single probabilities of occurring points in a specific cubelet related to the total number of points are calculated. From 10 healthy non-pregnant women, 66 healthy pregnant women and 56 hypertensive pregnant women suffering from chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, 30 minutes of beat-to-beat intervals (BBI), noninvasive blood pressure and respiration (RESP) were continuously recorded and analyzed. Couplings between the different signals were analyzed. The ability of SPPA3 for a screening could be confirmed by multivariate discriminant analysis differentiating between all pregnant woman and preeclampsia (index BBI3_SBP9_RESP6/ BBI8_SBP11_RESP4 leads to an area under the ROC curve of AUC=91.2%). In conclusion, SPPA3 could be a useful method for enhanced risk stratification in pregnant women.

  9. [Differential diagnosis of papillary carcinomas of the thyroid, using image analysis and three dimensional reconstruction from serial sections].

    PubMed

    Holschbach, A; Kriete, A; Schäffer, R

    1990-01-01

    Papillae with fibrovascular cores are characteristic of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Papillae may be found in diffuse hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, Hashimoto's disease and follicular adenoma. Tissues from ten benign hyperplasias and ten papillary carcinomas were reconstructed from serial sections with three dimensional reconstruction programs. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the hyperplasia and the carcinoma. The principal differences between papillae of papillary carcinoma and hyperplasia were more clearly seen in the three dimensional reconstruction, than by means of morphometric methods. Certain criteria, e.g. the volume of papillae, were useful only with regard to the third dimension. Nevertheless, three dimensional reconstruction of biological tissue is a time consuming procedure which is not yet suitable for routine examination.

  10. Three-dimensional coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Rui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Huang, Zhifeng; Jiang, Huaidong; Chen, Allan L.; Raines, Kevin S.; Pryor Jr, Alan; Nam, Daewoong; Wiegart, Lutz; Song, Changyong; Madsen, Anders; Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico; Bradley, Peter J.; Miao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    A structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of X-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. By alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-CDI) can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. Here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-CDI for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells using 8 keV X-rays is reported. As a proof of principle, a tilt series of 72 diffraction patterns was collected from a frozen-hydrated Neospora caninum cell and the three-dimensional mass density of the cell was reconstructed and quantified based on its natural contrast. This three-dimensional reconstruction reveals the surface and internal morphology of the cell, including its complex polarized sub-cellular structure. It is believed that this work represents an experimental milestone towards routine quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole cells in their natural state with spatial resolutions in the tens of nanometres. PMID:26306199

  11. Three-dimensional coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Rui; Chen, Chien -Chun; ...

    2015-09-01

    Here, a structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of X-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. By alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-CDI) can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. Here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-CDI for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells using 8 Kev X-rays is reported. As a proof of principle, a tilt series of 72 diffraction patterns was collected from a frozen-hydrated Neospora caninum cell and themore » three-dimensional mass density of the cell was reconstructed and quantified based on its natural contrast. This three-dimensional reconstruction reveals the surface and internal morphology of the cell, including its complex polarized sub-cellular structure. Finally, it is believed that this work represents an experimental milestone towards routine quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole cells in their natural state with spatial resolutions in the tens of nanometres.« less

  12. Three-dimensional coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Xu, Rui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Huang, Zhifeng; Jiang, Huaidong; Chen, Allan L; Raines, Kevin S; Pryor, Alan; Nam, Daewoong; Wiegart, Lutz; Song, Changyong; Madsen, Anders; Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico; Bradley, Peter J; Miao, Jianwei

    2015-09-01

    A structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of X-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. By alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-CDI) can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. Here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-CDI for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells using 8 keV X-rays is reported. As a proof of principle, a tilt series of 72 diffraction patterns was collected from a frozen-hydrated Neospora caninum cell and the three-dimensional mass density of the cell was reconstructed and quantified based on its natural contrast. This three-dimensional reconstruction reveals the surface and internal morphology of the cell, including its complex polarized sub-cellular structure. It is believed that this work represents an experimental milestone towards routine quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole cells in their natural state with spatial resolutions in the tens of nanometres.

  13. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    DOE PAGES

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffrey C.; Jiang, Bin; ...

    2015-10-20

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript we describe results using XPC to image a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted inmore » a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. In quantitative results, there were no differences between XPC and the gold-standard histological measurements. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response.« less

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetometer array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, A. D.; Baumjohann, W.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is developed for mapping magnetic variation fields in three dimensions using data from an array of magnetometers, based on the theory of optimal linear estimation. The technique is applied to data from the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array. Estimates of the spatial power spectra for the internal and external magnetic variations are derived, which in turn provide estimates of the spatial autocorrelation functions of the three magnetic variation components. Statistical errors involved in mapping the external and internal fields are quantified and displayed over the mapping region. Examples of field mapping and of separation into external and internal components are presented. A comparison between the three-dimensional field separation and a two-dimensional separation from a single chain of stations shows that significant differences can arise in the inferred internal component.

  15. Three-dimensional gait analysis of obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peggy P K; Leung, Aaron K L; Li, Agnes N M; Zhang, M

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has been clinically associated with musculoskeletal disorders. However, the findings were mainly focused on the analysis in the sagittal plane. The objectives of this study were to investigate the three-dimensional gait characteristics of Chinese obese adults and to compare the results with normal subjects. Fourteen obese subjects, mean age 35.4 (8.8)years, eight females and six males, with body mass index 33.06 (4.2)kg/m(2) and 14 non-obese subjects, mean age 27.6 (8.6)years, eight females and six males, with body mass index 21.33 (1.5)kg/m(2) participated in this study. All subjects did not have current or past neurological or cardiovascular illness, orthopaedic abnormality, or pain which might affect gait. The kinematics and kinetics data of all subjects were recorded during their self-selected walking speed with a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The obese group walked slower and had a shorter stride length. They also spent more time on stance phase and double support in walking. Greater hip adduction was shown in the obese group during terminal stance and pre-swing. The maximum knee adduction angles of the obese group in both stance and swing phases were significantly higher. The ankle eversion angle of the obese group was significantly higher from mid stance to pre-swing. There were reduction of peak ankle plantar flexor moment, and increase of ankle inversion moment. There were some significant differences in temporal-spatial, joint motion and joint moment data between the obese and the non-obese participants. The obese individuals might adjust their gait characteristics in response to their heavy bodies to reduce the moment about the knee and the energy expenditure per unit time.

  16. An Energy-Based Three-Dimensional Segmentation Approach for the Quantitative Interpretation of Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Bartesaghi, Alberto; Sapiro, Guillermo; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2006-01-01

    Electron tomography allows for the determination of the three-dimensional structures of cells and tissues at resolutions significantly higher than that which is possible with optical microscopy. Electron tomograms contain, in principle, vast amounts of information on the locations and architectures of large numbers of subcellular assemblies and organelles. The development of reliable quantitative approaches for the analysis of features in tomograms is an important problem, and a challenging prospect due to the low signal-to-noise ratios that are inherent to biological electron microscopic images. This is, in part, a consequence of the tremendous complexity of biological specimens. We report on a new method for the automated segmentation of HIV particles and selected cellular compartments in electron tomograms recorded from fixed, plastic-embedded sections derived from HIV-infected human macrophages. Individual features in the tomogram are segmented using a novel robust algorithm that finds their boundaries as global minimal surfaces in a metric space defined by image features. The optimization is carried out in a transformed spherical domain with the center an interior point of the particle of interest, providing a proper setting for the fast and accurate minimization of the segmentation energy. This method provides tools for the semi-automated detection and statistical evaluation of HIV particles at different stages of assembly in the cells and presents opportunities for correlation with biochemical markers of HIV infection. The segmentation algorithm developed here forms the basis of the automated analysis of electron tomograms and will be especially useful given the rapid increases in the rate of data acquisition. It could also enable studies of much larger data sets, such as those which might be obtained from the tomographic analysis of HIV-infected cells from studies of large populations. PMID:16190467

  17. Two-dimensional auto-correlation analysis and Fourier-transform analysis of second-harmonic-generation image for quantitative analysis of collagen fiber in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    We compare two-dimensional auto-correlation (2D-AC) analysis and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) for evaluation of age-dependent structural change of facial dermal collagen fibers caused by intrinsic aging and extrinsic photo-aging. The age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers for female subjects' cheek skin in their 20s, 40s, and 60s were more noticeably reflected in 2D-AC analysis than in 2D-FT analysis. Furthermore, 2D-AC analysis indicated significantly higher correlation with the skin elasticity measured by Cutometer® than 2D-AC analysis. 2D-AC analysis of SHG image has a high potential for quantitative evaluation of not only age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers but also skin elasticity.

  18. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; ...

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  19. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Batlle, F

    2011-12-01

    Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The "equivalent" three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also

  20. Analysis of autostereoscopic three-dimensional images using multiview wavelets.

    PubMed

    Saveljev, Vladimir; Palchikova, Irina

    2016-08-10

    We propose that multiview wavelets can be used in processing multiview images. The reference functions for the synthesis/analysis of multiview images are described. The synthesized binary images were observed experimentally as three-dimensional visual images. The symmetric multiview B-spline wavelets are proposed. The locations recognized in the continuous wavelet transform correspond to the layout of the test objects. The proposed wavelets can be applied to the multiview, integral, and plenoptic images.

  1. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  2. CFD three dimensional wake analysis in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, F.; Astolfi, D.; Terzi, L.

    2017-11-01

    Even if wind energy technology is nowadays fully developed, the use of wind energy in very complex terrain is still challenging. In particular, it is challenging to characterize the combination effects of wind ow over complex terrain and wake interactions between nearby turbines and this has a practical relevance too, for the perspective of mitigating anomalous vibrations and loads as well improving the farm efficiency. In this work, a very complex terrain site has been analyzed through a Reynolds-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical wind field model; in the simulation the inuence of wakes has been included through the Actuator Disk (AD) approach. In particular, the upstream turbine of a cluster of 4 wind turbines having 2.3 MW of rated power is studied. The objective of this study is investigating the full three-dimensional wind field and the impact of three-dimensionality on the evolution of the waked area between nearby turbines. A post-processing method of the output of the CFD simulation is developed and this allows to estimate the wake lateral deviation and the wake width. The reliability of the numerical approach is inspired by and crosschecked through the analysis of the operational SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data of the cluster of interest.

  3. Dynamic three-dimensional phase-contrast technique in MRI: application to complex flow analysis around the artificial heart valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Song, Inchang; Kim, Nam Gook; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, JongHyo; Han, Man Chung; Min, Byong Goo

    1998-07-01

    Phase-contrast (PC) method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has bee used for quantitative measurements of flow velocity and volume flow rate. It is a noninvasive technique which provides an accurate two-dimensional velocity image. Moreover, Phase Contrast Cine magnetic resonance imaging combines the flow dependent contrast of PC-MRI with the ability of cardiac cine imaging to produce images throughout the cardiac cycle. However, the accuracy of the data acquired from the single through-plane velocity encoding can be reduced by the effect of flow direction, because in many practical cases flow directions are not uniform throughout the whole region of interest. In this study, we present dynamic three-dimensional velocity vector mapping method using PC-MRI which can visualize the complex flow pattern through 3D volume rendered images displayed dynamically. The direction of velocity mapping can be selected along any three orthogonal axes. By vector summation, the three maps can be combined to form a velocity vector map that determines the velocity regardless of the flow direction. At the same time, Cine method is used to observe the dynamic change of flow. We performed a phantom study to evaluate the accuracy of the suggested PC-MRI in continuous and pulsatile flow measurement. Pulsatile flow wave form is generated by the ventricular assistant device (VAD), HEMO-PULSA (Biomedlab, Seoul, Korea). We varied flow velocity, pulsatile flow wave form, and pulsing rate. The PC-MRI-derived velocities were compared with Doppler-derived results. The velocities of the two measurements showed a significant linear correlation. Dynamic three-dimensional velocity vector mapping was carried out for two cases. First, we applied to the flow analysis around the artificial heart valve in a flat phantom. We could observe the flow pattern around the valve through the 3-dimensional cine image. Next, it is applied to the complex flow inside the polymer sac that is used as ventricle in

  4. Quantitation of valve regurgitation severity by three-dimensional vena contracta area is superior to flow convergence method of quantitation on transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Abudiab, Muaz M; Chao, Chieh-Ju; Liu, Shuang; Naqvi, Tasneem Z

    2017-07-01

    Quantitation of regurgitation severity using the proximal isovelocity acceleration (PISA) method to calculate effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area has limitations. Measurement of three-dimensional (3D) vena contracta area (VCA) accurately grades mitral regurgitation (MR) severity on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We evaluated 3D VCA quantitation of regurgitant jet severity using 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in 110 native mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves and six prosthetic valves in patients with at least mild valvular regurgitation. The ASE-recommended integrative method comprising semiquantitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation was used as a reference method, including ERO area by 2D PISA for assigning severity of regurgitation grade. Mean age was 62.2±14.4 years; 3D VCA quantitation was feasible in 91% regurgitant valves compared to 78% by the PISA method. When both methods were feasible and in the presence of a single regurgitant jet, 3D VCA and 2D PISA were similar in differentiating assigned severity (ANOVAP<.001). In valves with multiple jets, however, 3D VCA had a better correlation to assigned severity (ANOVAP<.0001). The agreement of 2D PISA and 3D VCA with the integrative method was 47% and 58% for moderate and 65% and 88% for severe regurgitation, respectively. Measurement of 3D VCA by TEE is superior to the 2D PISA method in determination of regurgitation severity in multiple native and prosthetic valves. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element analysis of fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Chermahini, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Fatigue cracks are a major problem in designing structures subjected to cyclic loading. Cracks frequently occur in structures such as aircraft and spacecraft. The inspection intervals of many aircraft structures are based on crack-propagation lives. Therefore, improved prediction of propagation lives under flight-load conditions (variable-amplitude loading) are needed to provide more realistic design criteria for these structures. The main thrust was to develop a three-dimensional, nonlinear, elastic-plastic, finite element program capable of extending a crack and changing boundary conditions for the model under consideration. The finite-element model is composed of 8-noded (linear-strain) isoparametric elements. In the analysis, the material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. The cycle stress-strain curve for the material is shown Zienkiewicz's initial-stress method, von Mises's yield criterion, and Drucker's normality condition under small-strain assumptions are used to account for plasticity. The three-dimensional analysis is capable of extending the crack and changing boundary conditions under cyclic loading.

  6. Three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic quantification of tricuspid regurgitation orifice area: comparison with conventional two-dimensional measures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-En; Kwon, Susan H; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Wong, Benjamin F; Mankad, Sunil V

    2013-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) provides directly measured vena contracta area (VCA). However, a large comprehensive 3D color Doppler echocardiographic study with sufficiently severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) to verify its value in determining TR severity in comparison with conventional quantitative and semiquantitative two-dimensional (2D) parameters has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to examine the utility and feasibility of directly measured VCA by 3D transthoracic CDE, its correlation with 2D echocardiographic measurements of TR, and its ability to determine severe TR. Ninety-two patients with mild or greater TR prospectively underwent 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography. Two-dimensional evaluation of TR severity included the ratio of jet area to right atrial area, vena contracta width, and quantification of effective regurgitant orifice area using the flow convergence method. Full-volume breath-hold 3D color data sets of TR were obtained using a real-time 3D echocardiography system. VCA was directly measured by 3D-guided direct planimetry of the color jet. Subgroup analysis included the presence of a pacemaker, eccentricity of the TR jet, ellipticity of the orifice shape, underlying TR mechanism, and baseline rhythm. Three-dimensional VCA correlated well with effective regurgitant orifice area (r = 0.62, P < .0001), moderately with vena contracta width (r = 0.42, P < .0001), and weakly with jet area/right atrial area ratio. Subgroup analysis comparing 3D VCA with 2D effective regurgitant orifice area demonstrated excellent correlation for organic TR (r = 0.86, P < .0001), regular rhythm (r = 0.78, P < .0001), and circular orifice (r = 0.72, P < .0001) but poor correlation in atrial fibrillation rhythm (r = 0.23, P = .0033). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for 3D VCA demonstrated good accuracy for severe TR determination. Three-dimensional VCA measurement is feasible and obtainable

  7. Three-dimensional Analysis of Nanomaterials by Scanning Probe Nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anton E.; Agapova, Olga I.; Mochalov, Konstantin E.; Agapov, Igor I.

    Micro and nanostructure of scaffolds made from fibroin of Bombyx mori silkworm by salt leaching technique was studied by scanning probe nanotomography. Nanopores with dimensions in range from 30 to 180 nm are observed in the scaffold volume. Three - dimensional analysis of obtained data shows that degree of scaffold nanoporosity is 0.5% and nanopores are not interconnected with each other. Usage of scanning probe nanotomography technique enables to obtain unique nanoscale information of 3D structure of biopolymer nanomaterials.

  8. Noncontact three-dimensional evaluation of surface alterations and wear in NiTi endodontic instruments.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabiano Guerra; Barbosa, Igor Bastos; Scelza, Pantaleo; Montagnana, Marcello Bulhões; Russano, Daniel; Neff, John; Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative assessment of nanoscale alterations and wear on the surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments, before and after use, through a high-resolution, noncontact, three-dimensional optical profiler, and to verify the accuracy of the evaluation method. Cutting blade surfaces of two different brands of NiTi endodontic instruments, Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were examined and compared before and after two uses in simulated root canals made in clear resin blocks. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional images which were obtained from surface areas measuring 211 × 211 µm, located 3 mm from their tips. The quantitative evaluation of the samples was conducted before and after the first and second usage, by the recordings of three amplitude parameters. The data were subjected to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant increases in the surface wear of both instruments groups after the second use. The presence of irregularities was found on the surface topography of all the instruments, before and after use. Regardless of the evaluation stage, most of the defects were observed in the WaveOne instruments. The three-dimensional technique was suitable and effective for the accurate investigation of the same surfaces of the instruments in different periods of time.

  9. Integrated Aeromechanics with Three-Dimensional Solid-Multibody Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Anubhav; Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    A full three-dimensional finite element-multibody structural dynamic solver is coupled to a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for the prediction of integrated aeromechanical stresses and strains on a rotor blade in forward flight. The objective is to lay the foundations of all major pieces of an integrated three-dimensional rotor dynamic analysis - from model construction to aeromechanical solution to stress/strain calculation. The primary focus is on the aeromechanical solution. Two types of three-dimensional CFD/CSD interfaces are constructed for this purpose with an emphasis on resolving errors from geometry mis-match so that initial-stage approximate structural geometries can also be effectively analyzed. A three-dimensional structural model is constructed as an approximation to a UH-60A-like fully articulated rotor. The aerodynamic model is identical to the UH-60A rotor. For preliminary validation measurements from a UH-60A high speed flight is used where CFD coupling is essential to capture the advancing side tip transonic effects. The key conclusion is that an integrated aeromechanical analysis is indeed possible with three-dimensional structural dynamics but requires a careful description of its geometry and discretization of its parts.

  10. Value of Quantitative Three-dimensional Doppler Ultrasound in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the role of quantitative three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodule. A total of 92 lesions in 86 patients were preoperatively examined using 3D power Doppler ultrasound. The Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis(VOCAL)-imaging program was used to analyze the stored volume ultrasound. The differences in the mean gray value (MG), vascularization index (VI), flow index(FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were compared between benign and malignant lesions. The MG of the malignant thyroid nodules was significantly lower than that of the benign ones (28.27±7.21 vs. 32.89±8.73,P=0.007). The benign nodules had significantly higher VI,FI,and VFI than the malignant nodules [VI:(40.43±26.55)% vs. (26.87±23.06)%,P=0.011;FI:41.03±7.19 vs. 37.51±7.17,P=0.022;VFI:18.23±14.60 vs. 11.47±12.47, P=0.009]. Also,76.5% (39/51) of the malignant nodules and 92.7% (38/41) of the benign nodules had higher VIs in the shell of the lesion than that of the whole lesion,and 80.4%(41/51) of the malignant nodules and 95.1% (39/41) of the benign nodules had higher FIs in the shell of the lesion than that of the whole lesion. Quantitative 3D power Doppler ultrasound provides a useful tool in distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The malignant thyroid nodules have lower echoes than the benign nodules, wherese the benign nodules have larger blood flow than the malignant nodules.

  11. Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456

  12. Computational hemodynamics of an implanted coronary stent based on three-dimensional cine angiography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mounter C Y; Lu, Po-Chien; Chen, James S Y; Hwang, Ned H C

    2005-01-01

    Coronary stents are supportive wire meshes that keep narrow coronary arteries patent, reducing the risk of restenosis. Despite the common use of coronary stents, approximately 20-35% of them fail due to restenosis. Flow phenomena adjacent to the stent may contribute to restenosis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and reconstruction based on biplane cine angiography were used to assess coronary geometry and volumetric blood flows. A patient-specific left anterior descending (LAD) artery was reconstructed from single-plane x-ray imaging. With corresponding electrocardiographic signals, images from the same time phase were selected from the angiograms for dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction. The resultant three-dimensional LAD artery at end-diastole was adopted for detailed analysis. Both the geometries and flow fields, based on a computational model from CAE software (ANSYS and CATIA) and full three-dimensional Navier-Stroke equations in the CFD-ACE+ software, respectively, changed dramatically after stent placement. Flow fields showed a complex three-dimensional spiral motion due to arterial tortuosity. The corresponding wall shear stresses, pressure gradient, and flow field all varied significantly after stent placement. Combined angiography and CFD techniques allow more detailed investigation of flow patterns in various segments. The implanted stent(s) may be quantitatively studied from the proposed hemodynamic modeling approach.

  13. Clinical value of patient-specific three-dimensional printing of congenital heart disease: Quantitative and qualitative assessments

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ivan Wen Wen; Liu, Dongting; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming

    2018-01-01

    Objective Current diagnostic assessment tools remain suboptimal in demonstrating complex morphology of congenital heart disease (CHD). This limitation has posed several challenges in preoperative planning, communication in medical practice, and medical education. This study aims to investigate the dimensional accuracy and the clinical value of 3D printed model of CHD in the above three areas. Methods Using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) data, a patient-specific 3D model of a 20-month-old boy with double outlet right ventricle was printed in Tango Plus material. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate correlation of the quantitative measurements taken at analogous anatomical locations between the CCTA images pre- and post-3D printing. Qualitative analysis was conducted by distributing surveys to six health professionals (two radiologists, two cardiologists and two cardiac surgeons) and three medical academics to assess the clinical value of the 3D printed model in these three areas. Results Excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was noted in the measurements between CCTA and 3D printed model, with a mean difference of 0.23 mm. Four out of six health professionals found the model to be useful in facilitating preoperative planning, while all of them thought that the model would be invaluable in enhancing patient-doctor communication. All three medical academics found the model to be helpful in teaching, and thought that the students will be able to learn the pathology quicker with better understanding. Conclusion The complex cardiac anatomy can be accurately replicated in flexible material using 3D printing technology. 3D printed heart models could serve as an excellent tool in facilitating preoperative planning, communication in medical practice, and medical education, although further studies with inclusion of more clinical cases are needed. PMID:29561912

  14. Quality Inspection and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Geographic Information Model Based on Oblique Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.; Yan, Q.; Xu, Y.; Bai, J.

    2018-04-01

    In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  15. X-ray microbeam three-dimensional topography for dislocation strain-field analysis of 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, R.; Mori, D.; Kamata, I.; Tsuchida, H.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the strain-field analysis of threading edge dislocations (TEDs) and basal-plane dislocations (BPDs) in 4H-SiC using x-ray microbeam three-dimensional (3D) topography. This 3D topography enables quantitative strain-field analysis, which measures images of effective misorientations (Δω maps) around the dislocations. A deformation-matrix-based simulation algorithm is developed to theoretically evaluate the Δω mapping. Systematic linear calculations can provide simulated Δω maps (Δωsim maps) of dislocations with different Burgers vectors, directions, and reflection vectors for the desired cross-sections. For TEDs and BPDs, Δω maps are compared with Δωsim maps, and their excellent correlation is demonstrated. Two types of asymmetric reflections, high- and low-angle incidence types, are compared. Strain analyses are also conducted to investigate BPD-TED conversion near an epilayer/substrate interface in 4H-SiC.

  16. Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.

    1979-01-01

    The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.

  17. Performance and analysis of a three-dimensional nonorthogonal laser Doppler anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Orloff, K. L.; Aoyagi, K.

    1981-01-01

    A three dimensional laser Doppler anemometer with a nonorthogonal third axis coupled by 14 deg was designed and tested. A highly three dimensional flow field of a jet in a crossflow was surveyed to test the three dimensional capability of the instrument. Sample data are presented demonstrating the ability of the 3D LDA to resolve three orthogonal velocity components. Modifications to the optics, signal processing electronics, and data reduction methods are suggested.

  18. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Karla P.; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13–47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices. PMID:25517512

  19. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices.

  20. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  1. Validation of a Three-Dimensional Method for Counting and Sizing Podocytes in Whole Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    van der Wolde, James W.; Schulze, Keith E.; Short, Kieran M.; Wong, Milagros N.; Bensley, Jonathan G.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.; Caruana, Georgina; Hokke, Stacey N.; Li, Jinhua; Firth, Stephen D.; Harper, Ian S.; Nikolic-Paterson, David J.; Bertram, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Podocyte depletion is sufficient for the development of numerous glomerular diseases and can be absolute (loss of podocytes) or relative (reduced number of podocytes per volume of glomerulus). Commonly used methods to quantify podocyte depletion introduce bias, whereas gold standard stereologic methodologies are time consuming and impractical. We developed a novel approach for assessing podocyte depletion in whole glomeruli that combines immunofluorescence, optical clearing, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional analysis. We validated this method in a transgenic mouse model of selective podocyte depletion, in which we determined dose-dependent alterations in several quantitative indices of podocyte depletion. This new approach provides a quantitative tool for the comprehensive and time-efficient analysis of podocyte depletion in whole glomeruli. PMID:26975438

  2. Towards effective interactive three-dimensional colour postprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, B. C.; Hajjar, J. F.; Abel, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Recommendations for the development of effective three-dimensional, graphical color postprocessing are made. First, the evaluation of large, complex numerical models demands that a postprocessor be highly interactive. A menu of available functions should be provided and these operations should be performed quickly so that a sense of continuity and spontaneity exists during the post-processing session. Second, an agenda for three-dimensional color postprocessing is proposed. A postprocessor must be versatile with respect to application and basic algorithms must be designed so that they are flexible. A complete selection of tools is necessary to allow arbitrary specification of views, extraction of qualitative information, and access to detailed quantitative and problem information. Finally, full use of advanced display hardware is necessary if interactivity is to be maximized and effective postprocessing of today's numerical simulations is to be achieved.

  3. Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Michio; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures.

  4. Analysis of eletrectrohydrodynamic jetting using multifunctional and three-dimensional tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Han Seo; Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Young Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional optical tomography technique was developed to reconstruct three-dimensional flow fields using a set of two-dimensional shadowgraphic images and normal gray images. From three high speed cameras, which were positioned at an offset angle of 45° relative to one another, number, size and location of electrohydrodynamic jets with respect to the nozzle position were analyzed using shadowgraphic tomography employing a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). Additionally, a flow field inside cone-shaped liquid (Taylor cone) which was induced under electric field was also observed using a simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART) for reconstructing intensities of particle light and combining with a three-dimensional cross correlation. Various velocity fields of a circulating flow inside the cone-shaped liquid due to different physico-chemical properties of liquid and applied voltages were also investigated. This work supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. S-2011-0023457).

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  6. Three-dimensional Imaging Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Facial Soft Tissues and Skeletal Morphology in Patients with Orofacial Clefts: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, Mette A. R.; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Nada, Rania M.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Fudalej, Piotr S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for evaluating cleft palate treatments are mostly based on two-dimensional (2D) evaluation, but three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods to assess treatment outcome are steadily rising. Objective To identify 3D imaging methods for quantitative assessment of soft tissue and skeletal morphology in patients with cleft lip and palate. Data sources Literature was searched using PubMed (1948–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), Scopus (2004–2012), Web of Science (1945–2012), and the Cochrane Library. The last search was performed September 30, 2012. Reference lists were hand searched for potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. Study selection We included publications using 3D imaging techniques to assess facial soft tissue or skeletal morphology in patients older than 5 years with a cleft lip with/or without cleft palate. We reviewed studies involving the facial region when at least 10 subjects in the sample size had at least one cleft type. Only primary publications were included. Data extraction Independent extraction of data and quality assessments were performed by two observers. Results Five hundred full text publications were retrieved, 144 met the inclusion criteria, with 63 high quality studies. There were differences in study designs, topics studied, patient characteristics, and success measurements; therefore, only a systematic review could be conducted. Main 3D-techniques that are used in cleft lip and palate patients are CT, CBCT, MRI, stereophotogrammetry, and laser surface scanning. These techniques are mainly used for soft tissue analysis, evaluation of bone grafting, and changes in the craniofacial skeleton. Digital dental casts are used to evaluate treatment and changes over time. Conclusion Available evidence implies that 3D imaging methods can be used for documentation of CLP patients. No data are available yet showing that 3D methods are more informative than conventional 2D methods. Further research

  7. Analysis of high-rise constructions with the using of three-dimensional models of rods in the finite element program PRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The necessity of new approaches to the modeling of rods in the analysis of high-rise constructions is justified. The possibility of the application of the three-dimensional superelements of rods with rectangular cross section for the static and dynamic calculation of the bar and combined structures is considered. The results of the eighteen-story spatial frame free vibrations analysis using both one-dimensional and three-dimensional models of rods are presented. A comparative analysis of the obtained results is carried out and the conclusions on the possibility of three-dimensional superelements application in static and dynamic analysis of high-rise constructions are given on its basis.

  8. Optical frequency shot-noise suppression in electron beams: Three-dimensional analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nause, A.; Dyunin, E.; Gover, A.

    2010-05-15

    A predicted effect of current shot-noise suppression at optical-frequencies in a drifting charged-particle-beam and the corresponding process of particles self-ordering are analyzed in a one-dimensional (1D) model and verified by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The analysis confirms the prediction of a 1D single mode Langmuir plasma wave model of longitudinal plasma oscillation in the beam, and it defines the regime of beam parameters in which this effect takes place. The suppression of relativistic beam shot noise can be utilized to enhance the coherence of free electron lasers and of any coherent radiation device using an electron beam.

  9. Photogrammetry of the Human Brain: A Novel Method for Three-Dimensional Quantitative Exploration of the Structural Connectivity in Neurosurgery and Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Nocerino, Erica; Menna, Fabio; Remondino, Fabio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Rozzanigo, Umberto; Corsini, Francesco; Olivetti, Emanuele; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Chioffi, Franco; Avesani, Paolo; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2018-04-13

    Anatomic awareness of the structural connectivity of the brain is mandatory for neurosurgeons, to select the most effective approaches for brain resections. Although standard microdissection is a validated technique to investigate the different white matter (WM) pathways and to verify the results of tractography, the possibility of interactive exploration of the specimens and reliable acquisition of quantitative information has not been described. Photogrammetry is a well-established technique allowing an accurate metrology on highly defined three-dimensional (3D) models. The aim of this work is to propose the application of the photogrammetric technique for supporting the 3D exploration and the quantitative analysis on the cerebral WM connectivity. The main perisylvian pathways, including the superior longitudinal fascicle and the arcuate fascicle were exposed using the Klingler technique. The photogrammetric acquisition followed each dissection step. The point clouds were registered to a reference magnetic resonance image of the specimen. All the acquisitions were coregistered into an open-source model. We analyzed 5 steps, including the cortical surface, the short intergyral fibers, the indirect posterior and anterior superior longitudinal fascicle, and the arcuate fascicle. The coregistration between the magnetic resonance imaging mesh and the point clouds models was highly accurate. Multiple measures of distances between specific cortical landmarks and WM tracts were collected on the photogrammetric model. Photogrammetry allows an accurate 3D reproduction of WM anatomy and the acquisition of unlimited quantitative data directly on the real specimen during the postdissection analysis. These results open many new promising neuroscientific and educational perspectives and also optimize the quality of neurosurgical treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the living cornea and ocular lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-07-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of the optic zone of the cornea and the ocular crystalline lens has been accomplished using confocal microscopy and volume rendering computer techniques. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used in the reflected light mode to obtain the two-dimensional images from the cornea and the ocular lens of a freshly enucleated rabbit eye. The light source was an argon ion laser with a 488 nm wavelength. The microscope objective was a Leitz X25, NA 0.6 water immersion lens. The 400 micron thick cornea was optically sectioned into 133 three micron sections. The semi-transparent cornea and the in-situ ocular lens was visualized as high resolution, high contrast two-dimensional images. The structures observed in the cornea include: superficial epithelial cells and their nuclei, basal epithelial cells and their 'beaded' cell borders, basal lamina, nerve plexus, nerve fibers, nuclei of stromal keratocytes, and endothelial cells. The structures observed in the in- situ ocular lens include: lens capsule, lens epithelial cells, and individual lens fibers. The three-dimensional data sets of the cornea and the ocular lens were reconstructed in the computer using volume rendering techniques. Stereo pairs were also created of the two- dimensional ocular images for visualization. The stack of two-dimensional images was reconstructed into a three-dimensional object using volume rendering techniques. This demonstration of the three-dimensional visualization of the intact, enucleated eye provides an important step toward quantitative three-dimensional morphometry of the eye. The important aspects of three-dimensional reconstruction are discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  12. Three Dimensional CFD Analysis of the GTX Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Bond, R. B.; Edwards, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    The annular combustor geometry of a combined-cycle engine has been analyzed with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Both subsonic combustion and supersonic combustion flowfields have been simulated. The subsonic combustion analysis was executed in conjunction with a direct-connect test rig. Two cold-flow and one hot-flow results are presented. The simulations compare favorably with the test data for the two cold flow calculations; the hot-flow data was not yet available. The hot-flow simulation indicates that the conventional ejector-ramjet cycle would not provide adequate mixing at the conditions tested. The supersonic combustion ramjet flowfield was simulated with frozen chemistry model. A five-parameter test matrix was specified, according to statistical design-of-experiments theory. Twenty-seven separate simulations were used to assemble surrogate models for combustor mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery. ScramJet injector design parameters (injector angle, location, and fuel split) as well as mission variables (total fuel massflow and freestream Mach number) were included in the analysis. A promising injector design has been identified that provides good mixing characteristics with low total pressure losses. The surrogate models can be used to develop performance maps of different injector designs. Several complex three-way variable interactions appear within the dataset that are not adequately resolved with the current statistical analysis.

  13. Analysis of Invasive Activity of CAF Spheroids into Three Dimensional (3D) Collagen Matrices.

    PubMed

    Villaronga, María Ángeles; Teijeiro, Saúl Álvarez; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Garzón-Arango, Marta; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2018-01-01

    Tumor growth and progression is the result of a complex process controlled not only by malignant cancer cells but also by the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant cellular component of TME, play an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis by promoting cancer cell invasion through cell-cell interactions and secretion of pro-invasive factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases. Due to their tumor-promoting activities, there is an emerging interest in investigating CAFs biology and its potential as drug targets for cancer therapies. Here we describe an easy and highly reproducible quantitative method to analyze CAF invasive activity by forming multicellular spheroids embedded into a three-dimensional (3D) matrix that mimics in vivo ECM. Subsequently, invasion is monitored over time using a time-lapse microscope. We also provide an automated image analysis system that enables the rapid quantification of the spheroid area increase (invasive area) over time. The use of a 96-well plate format with one CAF spheroid per well and the automated analysis provides a method suitable for drug screening test, such as protease inhibitors.

  14. The effect of incidence angle on the overall three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical annular airfoil cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    To be of quantitative value to the designer and analyst, it is necessary to experimentally verify the flow modeling and the numerics inherent in calculation codes being developed to predict the three dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows. This experimental verification requires that predicted flow fields be correlated with three dimensional data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental phenomena existing in the flow passages of modern turbomachines. The Purdue Annular Cascade Facility was designed specifically to provide these required three dimensional data. The overall three dimensional aerodynamic performance of an instrumented classical airfoil cascade was determined over a range of incidence angle values. This was accomplished utilizing a fully automated exit flow data acquisition and analysis system. The mean wake data, acquired at two downstream axial locations, were analyzed to determine the effect of incidence angle, the three dimensionality of the cascade exit flow field, and the similarity of the wake profiles. The hub, mean, and tip chordwise airfoil surface static pressure distributions determined at each incidence angle are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL and TSONIC computer codes.

  15. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis for human pregnane X receptor for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction in human hepatocytes: structure-based comparative molecular field analysis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Koichi; Nakagome, Izumi; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor [PXR (NR1I2)] induces the expression of xenobiotic metabolic genes and transporter genes. In this study, we aimed to establish a computational method for quantifying the enzyme-inducing potencies of different compounds via their ability to activate PXR, for the application in drug discovery and development. To achieve this purpose, we developed a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) for predicting enzyme-inducing potencies, based on computer-ligand docking to multiple PXR protein structures sampled from the trajectory of a molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular mechanics-generalized born/surface area scores representing the ligand-protein-binding free energies were calculated for each ligand. As a result, the predicted enzyme-inducing potencies for compounds generated by the CoMFA model were in good agreement with the experimental values. Finally, we concluded that this 3D-QSAR model has the potential to predict the enzyme-inducing potencies of novel compounds with high precision and therefore has valuable applications in the early stages of the drug discovery process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of a bubble wake using PIV and Galilean decomposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1999-07-01

    Bubbly flow plays a key role in a variety of natural and industrial processes. An accurate and complete description of the phase interactions in two-phase bubbly flow is not available at this time. These phase interactions are, in general, always three-dimensional and unsteady. Therefore, measurement techniques utilized to obtain qualitative and quantitative data from two-phase flow should be able to acquire transient and three-dimensional data, in order to provide information to test theoretical models and numerical simulations. Even for dilute bubble flows, in which bubble interaction is at a minimum, the turbulent motion of the liquid generated by the bubblemore » is yet to be completely understood. For many years, the design of systems with bubbly flows was based primarily on empiricism. Dilute bubbly flows are an extension of single bubble dynamics, and therefore improvements in the description and modeling of single bubble motion, the flow field around the bubble, and the dynamical interactions between the bubble and the flow will consequently improve bubbly flow modeling. The improved understanding of the physical phenomena will have far-reaching benefits in upgrading the operation and efficiency of current processes and in supporting the development of new and innovative approaches. A stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurement of the flow generated by the passage of a single air-bubble rising in stagnant water, in a circular pipe is presented. Three-dimensional velocity fields within the measurement zone were obtained. Ensemble-averaged instantaneous velocities for a specific bubble path were calculated and interpolated to obtain mean three-dimensional velocity fields. A Galilean velocity decomposition is used to study the vorticity generated in the flow.« less

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of a postbuckled embedded delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1988-01-01

    Delamination growth caused by local buckling of a delaminated group of plies was investigated. Delamination growth was assumed to be governed by the strain energy release rates, G(1), G(2) and G(3). The strain energy release rates were calculated using a geometrically nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis. The program is described and several checks of the analysis are discussed. Based on a limited parametric study, the following conclusions were reached: (1) the problem is definitely mixed mode (in some cases G(1) is larger than G(2), for other cases the opposite is true); (2) in general, there is a large gradient in the strain energy release rates along the delamination front; (3) the locations of maximum G(1) and G(2) depend on the delamination shape and the applied strain; (4) the mode 3 component was negligible for all cases considered; and (5) the analysis predicted that parts of the delamination would overlap. The results presented did not impose contact constraints to prevent overlapping. Further work is needed to determine the effects of allowing the overlapping.

  18. Population-scale three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative profiling of microglia arbors

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Lu, Yanbin; Mukherjee, Amit; Trett, Kristen; Chong, Peter; Harris, Carolyn; Shain, William; Roysam, Badrinath

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The arbor morphologies of brain microglia are important indicators of cell activation. This article fills the need for accurate, robust, adaptive and scalable methods for reconstructing 3-D microglial arbors and quantitatively mapping microglia activation states over extended brain tissue regions. Results: Thick rat brain sections (100–300 µm) were multiplex immunolabeled for IBA1 and Hoechst, and imaged by step-and-image confocal microscopy with automated 3-D image mosaicing, producing seamless images of extended brain regions (e.g. 5903 × 9874 × 229 voxels). An over-complete dictionary-based model was learned for the image-specific local structure of microglial processes. The microglial arbors were reconstructed seamlessly using an automated and scalable algorithm that exploits microglia-specific constraints. This method detected 80.1 and 92.8% more centered arbor points, and 53.5 and 55.5% fewer spurious points than existing vesselness and LoG-based methods, respectively, and the traces were 13.1 and 15.5% more accurate based on the DIADEM metric. The arbor morphologies were quantified using Scorcioni’s L-measure. Coifman’s harmonic co-clustering revealed four morphologically distinct classes that concord with known microglia activation patterns. This enabled us to map spatial distributions of microglial activation and cell abundances. Availability and implementation: Experimental protocols, sample datasets, scalable open-source multi-threaded software implementation (C++, MATLAB) in the electronic supplement, and website (www.farsight-toolkit.org). http://www.farsight-toolkit.org/wiki/Population-scale_Three-dimensional_Reconstruction_and_Quanti-tative_Profiling_of_Microglia_Arbors Contact: broysam@central.uh.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25701570

  19. Three-dimensional Hessian matrix-based quantitative vascular imaging of rat iris with optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huangxuan; Wang, Guangsong; Lin, Riqiang; Gong, Xiaojing; Song, Liang; Li, Tan; Wang, Wenjia; Zhang, Kunya; Qian, Xiuqing; Zhang, Haixia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhicheng; Liu, Chengbo

    2018-04-01

    For the diagnosis and evaluation of ophthalmic diseases, imaging and quantitative characterization of vasculature in the iris are very important. The recently developed photoacoustic imaging, which is ultrasensitive in imaging endogenous hemoglobin molecules, provides a highly efficient label-free method for imaging blood vasculature in the iris. However, the development of advanced vascular quantification algorithms is still needed to enable accurate characterization of the underlying vasculature. We have developed a vascular information quantification algorithm by adopting a three-dimensional (3-D) Hessian matrix and applied for processing iris vasculature images obtained with a custom-built optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging system (OR-PAM). For the first time, we demonstrate in vivo 3-D vascular structures of a rat iris with a the label-free imaging method and also accurately extract quantitative vascular information, such as vessel diameter, vascular density, and vascular tortuosity. Our results indicate that the developed algorithm is capable of quantifying the vasculature in the 3-D photoacoustic images of the iris in-vivo, thus enhancing the diagnostic capability of the OR-PAM system for vascular-related ophthalmic diseases in vivo.

  20. Three dimensional identification card and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Li, Chao; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Three dimensional Identification Card, with its three-dimensional personal image displayed and stored for personal identification, is supposed be the advanced version of the present two-dimensional identification card in the future [1]. Three dimensional Identification Card means that there are three-dimensional optical techniques are used, the personal image on ID card is displayed to be three-dimensional, so we can see three dimensional personal face. The ID card also stores the three-dimensional face information in its inside electronics chip, which might be recorded by using two-channel cameras, and it can be displayed in computer as three-dimensional images for personal identification. Three-dimensional ID card might be one interesting direction to update the present two-dimensional card in the future. Three-dimension ID card might be widely used in airport custom, entrance of hotel, school, university, as passport for on-line banking, registration of on-line game, etc...

  1. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of performance of three-dimensional printed lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawedzinski, John; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the shape, surface quality, and imaging capabilities of custom three-dimensional (3-D) printed lenses. 3-D printing technology enables lens prototypes to be fabricated without restrictions on surface geometry. Thus, spherical, aspherical, and rotationally nonsymmetric lenses can be manufactured in an integrated production process. This technique serves as a noteworthy alternative to multistage, labor-intensive, abrasive processes, such as grinding, polishing, and diamond turning. Here, we evaluate the quality of lenses fabricated by Luxexcel using patented Printoptical©; technology that is based on an inkjet printing technique by comparing them to lenses made with traditional glass processing technologies (grinding, polishing, etc.). The surface geometry and roughness of the lenses were evaluated using white-light and Fizeau interferometers. We have compared peak-to-valley wavefront deviation, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error, radii of curvature, and the arithmetic roughness average (Ra) profile of plastic and glass lenses. In addition, the imaging performance of selected pairs of lenses was tested using 1951 USAF resolution target. The results indicate performance of 3-D printed optics that could be manufactured with surface roughness comparable to that of injection molded lenses (Ra<20 nm). The RMS wavefront error of 3-D printed prototypes was at a minimum 18.8 times larger than equivalent glass prototypes for a lens with a 12.7 mm clear aperture, but, when measured within 63% of its clear aperture, the 3-D printed components' RMS wavefront error was comparable to glass lenses.

  3. Virtual three-dimensional blackboard: three-dimensional finger tracking with a single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Andrew; Hassan-Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak; da Vitoria Lobo, N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for three-dimensional (3D) tracking of a human finger from a monocular sequence of images. To recover the third dimension from the two-dimensional images, we use the fact that the motion of the human arm is highly constrained owing to the dependencies between elbow and forearm and the physical constraints on joint angles. We use these anthropometric constraints to derive a 3D trajectory of a gesticulating arm. The system is fully automated and does not require human intervention. The system presented can be used as a visualization tool, as a user-input interface, or as part of some gesture-analysis system in which 3D information is important.

  4. Evaluation of the marginal and internal gaps of three different dental prostheses: comparison of the silicone replica technique and three-dimensional superimposition analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purposes of this study were to evaluate the marginal and internal gaps, and the potential clinical applications of three different methods of dental prostheses fabrication, and to compare the prostheses prepared using the silicone replica technique (SRT) and those prepared using the three-dimensional superimposition analysis (3DSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS Five Pekkton, lithium disilicate, and zirconia crowns were each manufactured and tested using both the SRT and the two-dimensional section of the 3DSA. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric version of a two-way analysis of variance using rank-transformed values and the Tukey's post-hoc test (α = .05). RESULTS Significant differences were observed between the fabrication methods in the marginal gap (P < .010), deep chamfer (P < .001), axial wall (P < .001), and occlusal area (P < .001). A significant difference in the occlusal area was found between the two measurement methods (P < .030), whereas no significant differences were found in the marginal gap (P > .350), deep chamfer (P > .719), and axial wall (P > .150). As the 3DSA method is three-dimensional, it allows for the measurement of arbitrary points. CONCLUSION All of the three fabrication methods are valid for measuring clinical objectives because they produced prostheses within the clinically acceptable range. Furthermore, a three-dimensional superimposition analysis verification method such as the silicone replica technique is also applicable in clinical settings. PMID:28680546

  5. Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Michio

    2018-01-01

    Conventional manufacturing techniques—moulding, machining and casting—exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures. PMID:29515894

  6. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gok, Gulay; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Thind, Munveer; Uygur, Begum; Abtahi, Firoozeh; Chahwala, Jugal R; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Kayacıoğlu, İlyas; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-07-01

    We describe a case of primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma where live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography added incremental value to the two-dimensional modalities. Specifically, the three-dimensional technique allowed us to delineate the true extent and infiltration of the tumor, to identify characteristics of the tumor mass suggestive of its malignant nature, and to quantitatively assess the total tumor burden. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiography: rational mode of component images for left ventricular volume quantitation.

    PubMed

    Nixdorff, Uwe; Feddersen, Isa; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Flachskampf, Frank A

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) improves the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) volumetry compared with the two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) approach because geometric assumptions in the algorithms may be eliminated. The relationship between accuracy of mode (short- versus long-axis planimetry) and the number of component images versus time required for analysis remains to be determined. Sixteen latex models simulating heterogeneously distorted (aneurysmatic) human LVs (56-303 ml; mean 182+/-82 ml) were scanned from an 'apical' position (simultaneous 2DE and 3DE). For 3DE volumetry, the slice thickness was varied for the short (C-scan) and long axes (B-scan) in 5-mm steps between 1 and 25 mm. The mean differences (true-echocardiographic volumes) were 16.5+/-44.3 ml in the 2DE approach (95% confidence intervals -27.8 to +60.8) and 0.6+/-4.0 ml (short axis; 95% confidence intervals -3.4 to +4.6) as well as 2.1+/-9.9 ml (long axis; 95% confidence intervals -7.8 to +12.0) in the 3DE approach (in both cases, the slice thickness was 1 mm). Above a slice thickness of 15 mm, the 95% confidence intervals increased steeply; in the short versus long axes, these were -6.5 to +8.5 versus -7.0 to +10.6 at 15 mm and -10.1 to +15.7 versus -11.3 to +10.9 at 20 mm. The intra-observer variance differed significantly (p<0.001) only above 15 mm (short axis). Time required for analysis derived by measuring short-axis slice thicknesses of 1, 15, and 25 mm was 58+/-16, 7+/-2 and 3+/-1 min, respectively. The most rational component image analysis for 3DE volumetry in the in vitro model uses short-axis slices with a thickness of 15 mm. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Morphological and Electrical Paraneters from Two-Dimensional Sections of Neurones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brawn, A. D.; Wheal, H. V.

    1986-07-01

    A system is described which can be used to create a three-dimensional model of a neurone from the central nervous system. This model can then be used to obtain quantitative data on the physical and electrical pro, perties of the neurone. Living neurones are either raised in culture, or taken from in vitro preparations of brain tissue and optically sectioned. These two-dimensional sections are digitised, and input to a 68008-based microcomputer. The system reconstructs the three-dimensional structure of the neurone, both geanetrically and electrically. The user can a) View the structure fran any point at any angle b) "Move through" the structure along any given vector c) Nave through" the structure following a neurone process d) Fire the neurone at any point, and "watch" the action potentials propagate e) Vary the parameters of the electrical model of a process element. The system is targeted to a research programme on epilepsy, which makes frequent use of both geometric and electrical neurone modelling. Current techniques which may involve crude histology and two-dimensional drawings have considerable short camings.

  9. Incremental Value of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography over the Two-Dimensional Technique in the Assessment of a Thrombus in Transit through a Patent Foramen Ovale.

    PubMed

    Thind, Munveer; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gok, Gulay; Joson, Marisa; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Tuck, Benjamin C; Townsley, Matthew M; Klas, Berthold; McGiffin, David C; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a right atrial thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale into the left atrium, where three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided considerable incremental value over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in its assessment. As well as allowing us to better spatially characterize the thrombus, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided a more quantitative assessment through estimation of total thrombus burden. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images].

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Shoji, K; Kojima, H; Hirano, S; Naito, Y; Honjo, I

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: 1) routine images by SPM, 2) three-dimensional static images, and 3) three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the

  11. Cross-ply laminates with holes in compression - Straight free-edge stresses determined by two- to three-dimensional global/local finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Danniella Muheim; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Vidussoni, Marco A.

    1990-01-01

    A practical example of applying two- to three-dimensional (2- to 3-D) global/local finite element analysis to laminated composites is presented. Cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates of 0.1-in. (0.254-cm) thickness with central circular holes ranging from 1 to 6 in. (2.54 to 15.2 cm) in diameter, subjected to in-plane compression were analyzed. Guidelines for full three-dimensional finite element analysis and two- to three-dimensional global/local analysis of interlaminar stresses at straight free edges of laminated composites are included. The larger holes were found to reduce substantially the interlaminar stresses at the straight free-edge in proximity to the hole. Three-dimensional stress results were obtained for thin laminates which require prohibitive computer resources for full three-dimensional analyses of comparative accuracy.

  12. Simulation of wave propagation in three-dimensional random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Wm. A.; Filice, J. P.; Frehlich, R. G.; Yadlowsky, M.

    1995-04-01

    Quantitative error analyses for the simulation of wave propagation in three-dimensional random media, when narrow angular scattering is assumed, are presented for plane-wave and spherical-wave geometry. This includes the errors that result from finite grid size, finite simulation dimensions, and the separation of the two-dimensional screens along the propagation direction. Simple error scalings are determined for power-law spectra of the random refractive indices of the media. The effects of a finite inner scale are also considered. The spatial spectra of the intensity errors are calculated and compared with the spatial spectra of

  13. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of cocaine binding by a novel human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Paula, Stefan; Tabet, Michael R; Farr, Carol D; Norman, Andrew B; Ball, W James

    2004-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) designed for immunotherapy have a high potential for avoiding the complications that may result from human immune system responses to the introduction of nonhuman mAbs into patients. This study presents a characterization of cocaine/antibody interactions that determine the binding properties of the novel human sequence mAb 2E2 using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology. We have experimentally determined the binding affinities of mAb 2E2 for cocaine and 38 cocaine analogues. The K(d) of mAb 2E2 for cocaine was 4 nM, indicating a high affinity. Also, mAb 2E2 displayed good cocaine specificity, as reflected in its 10-, 1500-, and 25000-fold lower binding affinities for the three physiologically relevant cocaine metabolites benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and ecgonine, respectively. 3D-QSAR models of cocaine binding were developed by comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA). A model of high statistical quality was generated showing that cocaine binds to mAb 2E2 in a sterically restricted binding site that leaves the methyl group attached to the ring nitrogen of cocaine solvent-exposed. The methyl ester group of cocaine appears to engage in attractive van der Waals interactions with mAb 2E2, whereas the phenyl group contributes to the binding primarily via hydrophobic interactions. The model further indicated that an increase in partial positive charge near the nitrogen proton and methyl ester carbonyl group enhances binding affinity and that the ester oxygen likely forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with mAb 2E2. Overall, the cocaine binding properties of mAb 2E2 support its clinical potential for development as a treatment of cocaine overdose and addiction.

  14. Three-dimensional ultrasound-based texture analysis of the effect of atorvastatin on carotid atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Joseph; Krasinski, Adam; Spence, David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is the major cause of ischemic stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. This is driving the development of image analysis methods to quantitatively evaluate local arterial effects of potential treatments of carotid disease. Here we investigate the use of novel texture analysis tools to detect potential changes in the carotid arteries after statin therapy. Three-dimensional (3D) carotid ultrasound images were acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of 35 subjects (16 treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and 19 treated with placebo) at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Two-hundred and seventy texture features were extracted from 3D ultrasound carotid artery images. These images previously had their vessel walls (VW) manually segmented. Highly ranked individual texture features were selected and compared to the VW volume (VWV) change using 3 measures: distance between classes, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and accuracy of the classifiers. Six classifiers were used. Using texture feature (L7R7) increases the average accuracy and area under the ROC curve to 74.4% and 0.72 respectively compared to 57.2% and 0.61 using VWV change. Thus, the results demonstrate that texture features are more sensitive in detecting drug effects on the carotid vessel wall than VWV change.

  15. A quantitative three-dimensional dose attenuation analysis around Fletcher-Suit-Delclos due to stainless steel tube for high-dose-rate brachytherapy by Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Parsai, E Ishmael; Zhang, Zhengdong; Feldmeier, John J

    2009-01-01

    The commercially available brachytherapy treatment-planning systems today, usually neglects the attenuation effect from stainless steel (SS) tube when Fletcher-Suit-Delclos (FSD) is used in treatment of cervical and endometrial cancers. This could lead to potential inaccuracies in computing dwell times and dose distribution. A more accurate analysis quantifying the level of attenuation for high-dose-rate (HDR) iridium 192 radionuclide ((192)Ir) source is presented through Monte Carlo simulation verified by measurement. In this investigation a general Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP) transport code was used to construct a typical geometry of FSD through simulation and compare the doses delivered to point A in Manchester System with and without the SS tubing. A quantitative assessment of inaccuracies in delivered dose vs. the computed dose is presented. In addition, this investigation expanded to examine the attenuation-corrected radial and anisotropy dose functions in a form parallel to the updated AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report (AAPM TG-43) formalism. This will delineate quantitatively the inaccuracies in dose distributions in three-dimensional space. The changes in dose deposition and distribution caused by increased attenuation coefficient resulted from presence of SS are quantified using MCNP Monte Carlo simulations in coupled photon/electron transport. The source geometry was that of the Vari Source wire model VS2000. The FSD was that of the Varian medical system. In this model, the bending angles of tandem and colpostats are 15 degrees and 120 degrees , respectively. We assigned 10 dwell positions to the tandem and 4 dwell positions to right and left colpostats or ovoids to represent a typical treatment case. Typical dose delivered to point A was determined according to Manchester dosimetry system. Based on our computations, the reduction of dose to point A was shown to be at least 3%. So this effect presented by SS-FSD systems on patient dose is of concern.

  16. Improved Determination of Subnuclear Position Enabled by Three-Dimensional Membrane Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Schreiner, Sarah M; Koo, Peter K; Colombi, Paolo; King, Megan C; Mochrie, Simon G J

    2016-07-12

    Many aspects of chromatin biology are influenced by the nuclear compartment in which a locus resides, from transcriptional regulation to DNA repair. Further, the dynamic and variable localization of a particular locus across cell populations and over time makes analysis of a large number of cells critical. As a consequence, robust and automatable methods to measure the position of individual loci within the nuclear volume in populations of cells are necessary to support quantitative analysis of nuclear position. Here, we describe a three-dimensional membrane reconstruction approach that uses fluorescently tagged nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum membrane marker proteins to precisely map the nuclear volume. This approach is robust to a variety of nuclear shapes, providing greater biological accuracy than alternative methods that enforce nuclear circularity, while also describing nuclear position in all three dimensions. By combining this method with established approaches to reconstruct the position of diffraction-limited chromatin markers-in this case, lac Operator arrays bound by lacI-GFP-the distribution of loci positions within the nuclear volume with respect to the nuclear periphery can be quantitatively obtained. This stand-alone image analysis pipeline should be of broad practical utility for individuals interested in various aspects of chromatin biology, while also providing, to our knowledge, a new conceptual framework for investigators who study organelle shape. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationship (3D-QSPR) models for prediction of thermodynamic properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): enthalpy of vaporization.

    PubMed

    Puri, Swati; Chickos, James S; Welsh, William J

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models have been derived using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) to correlate the vaporization enthalpies of a representative set of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 298.15 K with their CoMFA-calculated physicochemical properties. Various alignment schemes, such as inertial, as is, and atom fit, were employed in this study. The CoMFA models were also developed using different partial charge formalisms, namely, electrostatic potential (ESP) charges and Gasteiger-Marsili (GM) charges. The most predictive model for vaporization enthalpy (Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K)), with atom fit alignment and Gasteiger-Marsili charges, yielded r2 values 0.852 (cross-validated) and 0.996 (conventional). The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for the meta- and para-substituted isomers. This model was used to predict Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K) of the entire set of 209 PCB congeners.

  18. Modeling Three-Dimensional Flow in Confined Aquifers by Superposition of Both Two- and Three-Dimensional Analytic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitjema, Henk M.

    1985-10-01

    A technique is presented to incorporate three-dimensional flow in a Dupuit-Forchheimer model. The method is based on superposition of approximate analytic solutions to both two- and three-dimensional flow features in a confined aquifer of infinite extent. Three-dimensional solutions are used in the domain of interest, while farfield conditions are represented by two-dimensional solutions. Approximate three- dimensional solutions have been derived for a partially penetrating well and a shallow creek. Each of these solutions satisfies the condition that no flow occurs across the confining layers of the aquifer. Because of this condition, the flow at some distance of a three-dimensional feature becomes nearly horizontal. Consequently, remotely from a three-dimensional feature, its three-dimensional solution is replaced by a corresponding two-dimensional one. The latter solution is trivial as compared to its three-dimensional counterpart, and its use greatly enhances the computational efficiency of the model. As an example, the flow is modeled between a partially penetrating well and a shallow creek that occur in a regional aquifer system.

  19. Three-dimensional real-time imaging of bi-phasic flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prerna; Aswathi, P.; Sane, Anit; Ghosh, Shankar; Bhattacharya, S.

    2011-11-01

    We present a scanning laser-sheet video imaging technique to image bi-phasic flow in three-dimensional porous media in real time with pore-scale spatial resolution, i.e., 35 μm and 500 μm for directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow, respectively. The technique is illustrated for the case of viscous fingering. Using suitable image processing protocols, both the morphology and the movement of the two-fluid interface, were quantitatively estimated. Furthermore, a macroscopic parameter such as the displacement efficiency obtained from a microscopic (pore-scale) analysis demonstrates the versatility and usefulness of the method.

  20. FT3D: three-dimensional Fourier analysis on small Unix workstations for electron microscopy and tomographic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanzavecchia, S; Bellon, P L; Tosoni, L

    1993-12-01

    FT3D is a self-contained package of tools for three-dimensional Fourier analysis, written in the C language for Unix workstations. It can evaluate direct transforms of three-dimensional real functions, inverse transforms, auto- and cross-correlations and spectra. The library has been developed to support three-dimensional reconstructions of biological structures from projections obtained in the electron microscope. This paper discusses some features of the library, which has been implemented in such a way as to profit from the resources of modern workstations. A table of elapsed times for jobs of different dimensions with different RAM buffers is reported for the particular hardware used in the authors' laboratory.

  1. Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of root canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ki; Ha, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Heo, Seok-Mo; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2006-10-01

    In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT (502 image slices/tooth, 1024 X 1024 pixels, voxel size of 19.5 x 19.5 x 39.0 microm) and their canals reconstructed by 3D modeling software. The intersection of major and minor axes in the canal space of each image slice were connected to create an imaginary central axis for each canal. The radius of curvature of the tangential circle was measured and inverted as a measure of curvature using custom-made mathematical modeling software. Root canal curvature was greatest in the apical third and least in the middle third for all canals. The greatest curvatures were in the mesiobuccal (MB) canal (0.76 +/- 0.48 mm(-1)) with abrupt curves, and the least curvatures were in the palatal (P) canal (0.38 +/- 0.34 mm(-1)) with a gradual curve. This study has measured the 3D curvature of root canals in maxillary first molars and reinforced the value of microCT with mathematical modeling.

  2. Two-Dimensional Versus Three-Dimensional Conceptualization in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Michael David

    Numerous science conceptual issues are naturally three-dimensional. Classroom presentations are often two -dimensional or at best multidimensional. Several astronomy topics are of this nature, e. g. mechanics of the phases of the moon. Textbooks present this three-dimensional topic in two-dimensions; such is often the case in the classroom. This study was conducted to examine conceptions exhibited by pairs of like-sex 11th grade standard physics students as they modeled the lunar phases. Student pairs, 13 male and 13 female, were randomly selected and assigned. Pairing comes closer to classroom emulation, minimizes needs for direct probes, and pair discussion is more likely to display variety and depth. Four hypotheses were addressed: (1) Participants who model three-dimensionally will more likely achieve a higher explanation score. (2) Students who experienced more earth or physical science exposure will more likely model three-dimensionally. (3) Pairs that exhibit a strong science or mathematics preference will more likely model three-dimensionally. (4) Males will model in three dimensions more than females. Students provided background information, including science course exposure and subject preference. Each pair laid out a 16-card set representing two complete lunar phase changes. The pair was asked to explain why the phases occur. Materials were provided for use, including disks, spheres, paper and pen, and flashlight. Activities were videotaped for later evaluation. Statistics of choice was a correlation determination between course preference and model type and ANOVA for the other hypotheses. It was determined that pairs who modeled three -dimensionally achieved a higher score on their phases mechanics explanation at p <.05 level. Pairs with earth science or physical science exposure, those who prefer science or mathematics, and male participants were not more likely to model three-dimensionally. Possible reasons for lack of significance was small sample

  3. Three-dimensional MRI perfusion maps: a step beyond volumetric analysis in mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fabene, Paolo F; Farace, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Andreone, Nicola; Cerini, Roberto; Pelizza, Luisa; Versace, Amelia; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Birbaumer, Niels; Tansella, Michele; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A new type of magnetic resonance imaging analysis, based on fusion of three-dimensional reconstructions of time-to-peak parametric maps and high-resolution T1-weighted images, is proposed in order to evaluate the perfusion of selected volumes of interest. Because in recent years a wealth of data have suggested the crucial involvement of vascular alterations in mental diseases, we tested our new method on a restricted sample of schizophrenic patients and matched healthy controls. The perfusion of the whole brain was compared with that of the caudate nucleus by means of intrasubject analysis. As expected, owing to the encephalic vascular pattern, a significantly lower time-to-peak was observed in the caudate nucleus than in the whole brain in all healthy controls, indicating that the suggested method has enough sensitivity to detect subtle perfusion changes even in small volumes of interest. Interestingly, a less uniform pattern was observed in the schizophrenic patients. The latter finding needs to be replicated in an adequate number of subjects. In summary, the three-dimensional analysis method we propose has been shown to be a feasible tool for revealing subtle vascular changes both in normal subjects and in pathological conditions. PMID:17229290

  4. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of a uniform beam with offset inertial masses at the ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of a flexible beam with displaced end-located inertial masses is presented. The resulting three-dimensional mode shape is shown to consist of two one-plane bending modes and one torsional mode. These three components of the mode shapes are shown to be linear combinations of trigonometric and hyperbolic sine and cosine functions. Boundary conditions are derived to obtain nonlinear algebraic equations through kinematic coupling of the general solutions of the three governing partial differential equations. A method of solution which takes these boundary conditions into account is also presented. A computer program has been written to obtain unique solutions to the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations. This program, which calculates natural frequencies and three-dimensional mode shapes for any number of modes, is presented and discussed.

  5. In Situ Three-Dimensional Reciprocal-Space Mapping of Diffuse Scattering Intensity Distribution and Data Analysis for Precursor Phenomenon in Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tian-Le; Ma, Fengde D.; Zhou, Jie E.; Jennings, Guy; Ren, Yang; Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering contains rich information on various structural disorders, thus providing a useful means to study the nanoscale structural deviations from the average crystal structures determined by Bragg peak analysis. Extraction of maximal information from diffuse scattering requires concerted efforts in high-quality three-dimensional (3D) data measurement, quantitative data analysis and visualization, theoretical interpretation, and computer simulations. Such an endeavor is undertaken to study the correlated dynamic atomic position fluctuations caused by thermal vibrations (phonons) in precursor state of shape-memory alloys. High-quality 3D diffuse scattering intensity data around representative Bragg peaks are collected by using in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction and two-dimensional digital x-ray detector (image plate). Computational algorithms and codes are developed to construct the 3D reciprocal-space map of diffuse scattering intensity distribution from the measured data, which are further visualized and quantitatively analyzed to reveal in situ physical behaviors. Diffuse scattering intensity distribution is explicitly formulated in terms of atomic position fluctuations to interpret the experimental observations and identify the most relevant physical mechanisms, which help set up reduced structural models with minimal parameters to be efficiently determined by computer simulations. Such combined procedures are demonstrated by a study of phonon softening phenomenon in precursor state and premartensitic transformation of Ni-Mn-Ga shape-memory alloy.

  6. Three-Dimensional Ignition and Flame Propagation Above Liquid Fuel Pools: Computational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Jinsheng; Sirignano, William A.

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady reactive Navier-Stokes code is developed to study the ignition and flame spread above liquid fuels initially below the flashpoint temperature. Opposed air flow to the flame spread due to forced and/or natural convection is considered. Pools of finite width and length are studied in air channels of prescribed height and width. Three-dimensional effects of the flame front near the edge of the pool are captured in the computation. The formation of a recirculation zone in the gas phase similar to that found in two-dimensional calculations is also present in the three-dimensional calculations. Both uniform spread and pulsating spread modes are found in the calculated results.

  7. Experiments with a three-dimensional statistical objective analysis scheme using FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Wayman E.; Bloom, Stephen C.; Woollen, John S.; Nestler, Mark S.; Brin, Eugenia

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D), multivariate, statistical objective analysis scheme (referred to as optimum interpolation or OI) has been developed for use in numerical weather prediction studies with the FGGE data. Some novel aspects of the present scheme include: (1) a multivariate surface analysis over the oceans, which employs an Ekman balance instead of the usual geostrophic relationship, to model the pressure-wind error cross correlations, and (2) the capability to use an error correlation function which is geographically dependent. A series of 4-day data assimilation experiments are conducted to examine the importance of some of the key features of the OI in terms of their effects on forecast skill, as well as to compare the forecast skill using the OI with that utilizing a successive correction method (SCM) of analysis developed earlier. For the three cases examined, the forecast skill is found to be rather insensitive to varying the error correlation function geographically. However, significant differences are noted between forecasts from a two-dimensional (2D) version of the OI and those from the 3D OI, with the 3D OI forecasts exhibiting better forecast skill. The 3D OI forecasts are also more accurate than those from the SCM initial conditions. The 3D OI with the multivariate oceanic surface analysis was found to produce forecasts which were slightly more accurate, on the average, than a univariate version.

  8. An Application of Overset Grids to Payload/Fairing Three-Dimensional Internal Flow CFD Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Nallasamy, R.; Schallhorn, P.; Duncil, L.

    2007-01-01

    The application of overset grids to the computational fluid dynamics analysis of three-dimensional internal flow in the payload/fairing of an expendable launch vehicle is described. In conjunction with the overset grid system, the flowfield in the payload/fairing configuration is obtained with the aid of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes code. The solution exhibits a highly three dimensional complex flowfield with swirl, separation, and vortices. Some of the computed flow features are compared with the measured Laser-Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) data on a 1/5th scale model of the payload/fairing configuration. The counter-rotating vortex structures and the location of the saddle point predicted by the CFD analysis are in general agreement with the LDV data. Comparisons of the computed (CFD) velocity profiles on horizontal and vertical lines in the LDV measurement plane in the faring nose region show reasonable agreement with the LDV data.

  9. Dynamic analysis of geometrically non-linear three-dimensional beams under moving mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupan, E.; Zupan, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a coupled dynamic analysis of a moving particle on a deformable three-dimensional frame. The presented numerical model is capable of considering arbitrary curved and twisted initial geometry of the beam and takes into account geometric non-linearity of the structure. Coupled with dynamic equations of the structure, the equations of moving particle are solved. The moving particle represents the dynamic load and varies the mass distribution of the structure and at the same time its path is adapting due to deformability of the structure. A coupled geometrically non-linear behaviour of beam and particle is studied. The equation of motion of the particle is added to the system of the beam dynamic equations and an additional unknown representing the coordinate of the curvilinear path of the particle is introduced. The specially designed finite-element formulation of the three-dimensional beam based on the weak form of consistency conditions is employed where only the boundary conditions are affected by the contact forces.

  10. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of facial shape and symmetry in twins using laser surface scanning.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Jadallah, M; Zhurov, A I; Toma, A M; Richmond, S

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional analysis of facial shape and symmetry in twins. Faces of 37 twin pairs [19 monozygotic (MZ) and 18 dizygotic (DZ)] were laser scanned at the age of 15 during a follow-up of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West of England. Facial shape was analysed using two methods: 1) Procrustes analysis of landmark configurations (63 x, y and z coordinates of 21 facial landmarks) and 2) three-dimensional comparisons of facial surfaces within each twin pair. Monozygotic and DZ twins were compared using ellipsoids representing 95% of the variation in landmark configurations and surface-based average faces. Facial symmetry was analysed by superimposing the original and mirror facial images. Both analyses showed greater similarity of facial shape in MZ twins, with lower third being the least similar. Procrustes analysis did not reveal any significant difference in facial landmark configurations of MZ and DZ twins. The average faces of MZ and DZ males were coincident in the forehead, supraorbital and infraorbital ridges, the bridge of the nose and lower lip. In MZ and DZ females, the eyes, supraorbital and infraorbital ridges, philtrum and lower part of the cheeks were coincident. Zygosity did not seem to influence the amount of facial symmetry. Lower facial third was the most asymmetrical. Three-dimensional analyses revealed differences in facial shapes of MZ and DZ twins. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors is different for the upper, middle and lower facial thirds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Three dimensional characterization of laser ablation craters using high resolution X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galmed, A. H.; du Plessis, A.; le Roux, S. G.; Hartnick, E.; Von Bergmann, H.; Maaza, M.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory X-ray computed tomography is an emerging technology for the 3D characterization and dimensional analysis of many types of materials. In this work we demonstrate the usefulness of this characterization method for the full three dimensional analysis of laser ablation craters, in the context of a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy setup. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy relies on laser ablation for sampling the material of interest. We demonstrate here qualitatively (in images) and quantitatively (in terms of crater cone angles, depths, diameters and volume) laser ablation crater analysis in 3D for metal (aluminum) and rock (false gold ore). We show the effect of a Gaussian beam profile on the resulting crater geometry, as well as the first visual evidence of undercutting in the rock sample, most likely due to ejection of relatively large grains. The method holds promise for optimization of laser ablation setups especially for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  13. Three-dimensional characterization of pigment dispersion in dried paint films using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Ching; Heeschen, William; Reffner, John; Hook, John

    2012-04-01

    The combination of integrated focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) serial sectioning and imaging techniques with image analysis provided quantitative characterization of three-dimensional (3D) pigment dispersion in dried paint films. The focused ion beam in a FIB-SEM dual beam system enables great control in slicing paints, and the sectioning process can be synchronized with SEM imaging providing high quality serial cross-section images for 3D reconstruction. Application of Euclidean distance map and ultimate eroded points image analysis methods can provide quantitative characterization of 3D particle distribution. It is concluded that 3D measurement of binder distribution in paints is effective to characterize the order of pigment dispersion in dried paint films.

  14. Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Srinivasan, Vivek; Fujimoto, James G; Ko, Tony; Schuman, Joel S; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Duker, Jay S

    2005-10-01

    To demonstrate high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution, 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D OCT) and new protocols for retinal imaging. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT using broadband light sources achieves axial image resolutions of approximately 2 microm compared with standard 10-microm-resolution OCT current commercial instruments. High-speed OCT using spectral/Fourier domain detection enables dramatic increases in imaging speeds. Three-dimensional OCT retinal imaging is performed in normal human subjects using high-speed ultrahigh-resolution OCT. Three-dimensional OCT data of the macula and optic disc are acquired using a dense raster scan pattern. New processing and display methods for generating virtual OCT fundus images; cross-sectional OCT images with arbitrary orientations; quantitative maps of retinal, nerve fiber layer, and other intraretinal layer thicknesses; and optic nerve head topographic parameters are demonstrated. Three-dimensional OCT imaging enables new imaging protocols that improve visualization and mapping of retinal microstructure. An OCT fundus image can be generated directly from the 3D OCT data, which enables precise and repeatable registration of cross-sectional OCT images and thickness maps with fundus features. Optical coherence tomography images with arbitrary orientations, such as circumpapillary scans, can be generated from 3D OCT data. Mapping of total retinal thickness and thicknesses of the nerve fiber layer, photoreceptor layer, and other intraretinal layers is demonstrated. Measurement of optic nerve head topography and disc parameters is also possible. Three-dimensional OCT enables measurements that are similar to those of standard instruments, including the StratusOCT, GDx, HRT, and RTA. Three-dimensional OCT imaging can be performed using high-speed ultrahigh-resolution OCT. Three-dimensional OCT provides comprehensive visualization and mapping of retinal microstructures. The high data acquisition speeds enable high

  15. Three-dimensional visualization and quantitation of fibrin in solid tumors by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A; Francis, J L

    1997-10-01

    Fibrin forms part of the stroma essential for growth of solid tumors. Anticoagulants reduce primary tumor growth and tumor metastasis in murine and some human tumors. These effects may be partly mediated by reduction of intra-tumor fibrin, although there are no quantitative data to support this hypothesis. We therefore evaluated the effect of warfarin on fibrin deposition in a subcutaneously (s.c.) implanted murine tumor using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). AJ mice received no treatment (n = 6) or sodium warfarin (3.5 mg/L in drinking water, n = 5). All animals received 2 x 10(6) syngeneic Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells s.c. After 14 days, primary tumors were excised and placed in liquid nitrogen. Warfarin treatment resulted in a small, but significant (P < 0.05), decrease in wet tumor weight. Frozen sections (20 microns) were incubated with goat anti-mouse fibrin(ogen) or normal goat serum (isotypic control) and stained with FITC-conjugated rabbit anti-goat antibody. Using a Multiprobe 2001 CLSM (Molecular Dynamics, Sunnyvale, CA), 20 serial optical sections were taken from five, randomly chosen, high power fields (60x objective) for each slide. A threshold excluded all fluorescence except that from structural components within the tumor stroma (fibrin). The volume of fibrin in each section series was determined, and the percentage of tumor volume occupied by fibrin calculated. Intra- and inter-assay variation were assessed on serial frozen tumor sections from an untreated animal. The percentage fibrin volume was not significantly different among or within experiments, indicating that the procedure was reproducible. In controls, the median (range) volume occupied by fibrin was 8.1% (2.4-22.3%), whereas in anticoagulated animals, this was reduced to 3.7% (0.4-14.0%; P < 0.001). This is the first quantitative demonstration that warfarin reduces fibrin deposition in solid tumors. We conclude that three-dimensional CLSM is useful for the quantitation of

  16. A three-dimensional inverse finite element analysis of the heel pad.

    PubMed

    Chokhandre, Snehal; Halloran, Jason P; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Erdemir, Ahmet

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of plantar tissue behavior of the heel pad is essential in developing computational models for predictive analysis of preventive treatment options such as footwear for patients with diabetes. Simulation based studies in the past have generally adopted heel pad properties from the literature, in return using heel-specific geometry with material properties of a different heel. In exceptional cases, patient-specific material characterization was performed with simplified two-dimensional models, without further evaluation of a heel-specific response under different loading conditions. The aim of this study was to conduct an inverse finite element analysis of the heel in order to calculate heel-specific material properties in situ. Multidimensional experimental data available from a previous cadaver study by Erdemir et al. ("An Elaborate Data Set Characterizing the Mechanical Response of the Foot," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(9), pp. 094502) was used for model development, optimization, and evaluation of material properties. A specimen-specific three-dimensional finite element representation was developed. Heel pad material properties were determined using inverse finite element analysis by fitting the model behavior to the experimental data. Compression dominant loading, applied using a spherical indenter, was used for optimization of the material properties. The optimized material properties were evaluated through simulations representative of a combined loading scenario (compression and anterior-posterior shear) with a spherical indenter and also of a compression dominant loading applied using an elevated platform. Optimized heel pad material coefficients were 0.001084 MPa (μ), 9.780 (α) (with an effective Poisson's ratio (ν) of 0.475), for a first-order nearly incompressible Ogden material model. The model predicted structural response of the heel pad was in good agreement for both the optimization (<1.05% maximum tool force, 0.9% maximum tool

  17. Methods for analysis of cracks in three-dimensional solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods evaluating the stress-intensity factors for three-dimensional cracks in solids are presented, with reference to fatigue failure in aerospace structures. The exact solutions for embedded elliptical and circular cracks in infinite solids, and the approximate methods, including the finite-element, the boundary-integral equation, the line-spring models, and the mixed methods are discussed. Among the mixed methods, the superposition of analytical and finite element methods, the stress-difference, the discretization-error, the alternating, and the finite element-alternating methods are reviewed. Comparison of the stress-intensity factor solutions for some three-dimensional crack configurations showed good agreement. Thus, the choice of a particular method in evaluating the stress-intensity factor is limited only to the availability of resources and computer programs.

  18. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Talbert, Leslie; Pan, Feng

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate sexual dimorphism for facial features within Chinese and African American populations and to compare the facial morphology by sex between these 2 populations. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired by using the portable 3dMDface System, which captured 189 subjects from 2 population groups of Chinese (n = 72) and African American (n = 117). Each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the groups were aged between 18 and 30 years and had no apparent facial anomalies. A total of 23 anthropometric landmarks were identified on the three-dimensional faces of each subject. Twenty-one measurements in 4 regions, including 19 distances and 2 angles, were not only calculated but also compared within and between the Chinese and African American populations. The Student's t-test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were presented between the examined subgroups. When comparing the sex differences of facial morphology in the Chinese population, significant differences were noted in 71.43% of the parameters calculated, and the same proportion was found in the African American group. The facial morphologic differences between the Chinese and African American populations were evaluated by sex. The proportion of significant differences in the parameters calculated was 90.48% for females and 95.24% for males between the 2 populations. The African American population had a more convex profile and greater face width than those of the Chinese population. Sexual dimorphism for facial features was presented in both the Chinese and African American populations. In addition, there were significant differences in facial morphology between these 2 populations.

  20. Shape design sensitivity analysis and optimization of three dimensional elastic solids using geometric modeling and automatic regridding. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Tse-Min; Choi, Kyung K.

    1987-01-01

    An automatic regridding method and a three dimensional shape design parameterization technique were constructed and integrated into a unified theory of shape design sensitivity analysis. An algorithm was developed for general shape design sensitivity analysis of three dimensional eleastic solids. Numerical implementation of this shape design sensitivity analysis method was carried out using the finite element code ANSYS. The unified theory of shape design sensitivity analysis uses the material derivative of continuum mechanics with a design velocity field that represents shape change effects over the structural design. Automatic regridding methods were developed by generating a domain velocity field with boundary displacement method. Shape design parameterization for three dimensional surface design problems was illustrated using a Bezier surface with boundary perturbations that depend linearly on the perturbation of design parameters. A linearization method of optimization, LINRM, was used to obtain optimum shapes. Three examples from different engineering disciplines were investigated to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of this shape design sensitivity analysis method.

  1. Performance of dental impression materials: Benchmarking of materials and techniques by three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Heike; Graf, Michael R S; Kuhn, Katharina; Rupf-Köhler, Stephanie; Eirich, Alfred; Edelmann, Cornelia; Quaas, Sebastian; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2015-01-01

    Among other factors, the precision of dental impressions is an important and determining factor for the fit of dental restorations. The aim of this study was to examine the three-dimensional (3D) precision of gypsum dies made using a range of impression techniques and materials. Ten impressions of a steel canine were fabricated for each of the 24 material-method-combinations and poured with type 4 die stone. The dies were optically digitized, aligned to the CAD model of the steel canine, and 3D differences were calculated. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Depending on material and impression technique, the mean values had a range between +10.9/-10.0 µm (SD 2.8/2.3) and +16.5/-23.5 µm (SD 11.8/18.8). Qualitative analysis using colorcoded graphs showed a characteristic location of deviations for different impression techniques. Three-dimensional analysis provided a comprehensive picture of the achievable precision. Processing aspects and impression technique were of significant influence.

  2. Transition of a Three-Dimensional Unsteady Viscous Flow Analysis from a Research Environment to the Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank; Sheffler, David A.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The advent of advanced computer architectures and parallel computing have led to a revolutionary change in the design process for turbomachinery components. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state computational flow procedures are now routinely used in the early stages of design. Unsteady flow analyses, however, are just beginning to be incorporated into design systems. This paper outlines the transition of a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis from the research environment into the design environment. The test case used to demonstrate the analysis is the full turbine system (high-pressure turbine, inter-turbine duct and low-pressure turbine) from an advanced turboprop engine.

  3. Three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals based on artificial opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, A. V.; Kodama, T.; Nishimura, K.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2004-06-01

    We fabricated and experimentally investigated three-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (3D MPCs) based on artificial opals. Opal samples with three-dimensional dielectric lattices were impregnated with different types of magnetic material. Magnetic and structural properties of 3D MPCs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer. We have shown that magnetic materials synthesized in voids of opal lattices and the composites obtained have typical magnetic properties.

  4. The Contribution of Particle Swarm Optimization to Three-Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    A Rashid, Ahmad Safuan; Ali, Nazri

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes. PMID:24991652

  5. The contribution of particle swarm optimization to three-dimensional slope stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalatehjari, Roohollah; Rashid, Ahmad Safuan A; Ali, Nazri; Hajihassani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes.

  6. Design, synthesis, antiviral bioactivity and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study of novel ferulic acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline moiety.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zengxue; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Jixiang; Pan, Jianke; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Dengyue; Zhang, Awei; Chen, Jin; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-10-01

    Ferulic acid and quinazoline derivatives possess good antiviral activities. In order to develop novel compounds with high antiviral activities, a series of ferulic acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activities. Bioassays indicated that some of the compounds exhibited good antiviral activities in vivo against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). One of the compounds demonstrated significant curative and protective activities against TMV and CMV, with EC 50 values of 162.14, 114.61 and 255.49, 138.81 mg L -1 , respectively, better than those of ningnanmycin (324.51, 168.84 and 373.88, 272.70 mg L -1 ). The values of q 2 and r 2 for comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis in the TMV (0.508, 0.663 and 0.992, 0.930) and CMV (0.530, 0.626 and 0.997, 0.981) models presented good predictive abilities. Some of the title compounds demonstrated good antiviral activities. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models revealed that the antiviral activities depend on steric and electrostatic properties. These results could provide significant structural insights for the design of highly active ferulic acid derivatives. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Three-dimensional labeling program for elucidation of the geometric properties of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Yamazaki, Y; Tsuji, T; Kawasaki, Y; Tanaka, S

    1996-09-15

    For all biological particles such as cells or cellular organelles, there are three-dimensional coordinates representing the centroid or center of gravity. These coordinates and other numerical parameters such as volume, fluorescence intensity, surface area, and shape are referred to in this paper as geometric properties, which may provide critical information for the clarification of in situ mechanisms of molecular and cellular functions in living organisms. We have established a method for the elucidation of these properties, designated the three-dimensional labeling program (3DLP). Algorithms of 3DLP are so simple that this method can be carried out through the use of software combinations in image analysis on a personal computer. To evaluate 3DLP, it was applied to a 32-cell-stage sea urchin embryo, double stained with FITC for cellular protein of blastomeres and propidium iodide for nuclear DNA. A stack of optical serial section images was obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The method was found effective for determining geometric properties and should prove applicable to the study of many different kinds of biological particles in three-dimensional space.

  8. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Protrusion, Grooving and Symmetry: Data from 12 Normal Speakers and a Partial Glossectomee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Thind, Parveen; Uy, Catherine; Bollig, Carmen; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    The functional determinants for a good speech outcome after a partial tongue resection and reconstruction are not well established. The purpose of the present study was to assess the protrusion, grooving and symmetry of the tongue during sustained speech sound production using three-dimensional ultrasound. The participants were twelve normal…

  9. Novel Three-Dimensional Interphase Characterisation of Polymer Nanocomposites Using Nanoscaled Topography.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mohanad; Dong, Yu

    2018-06-19

    Mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites depend primarily on nanointerphases as transitional zones between nanoparticles and surrounding matrices. Due to the difficulty in the quantitative characterisation of nanointerphases, previous literatures generally deemed such interphases as one-dimensional uniform zones around nanoparticles by assumption for analytical or theoretical modelling. We hereby have demonstrated for the first time direct three-dimensional topography and physical measurement of nanophase mechanical properties between nanodimeter bamboo charcoals (NBCs) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in polymer nanocomposites. Topographical features, nanomechanical properties and dimensions of nanointerphases were systematically determined via peak force quantitative nanomechanical tapping mode (PFQNM). Significantly different mechanical properties of nanointerphases were revealed as opposed to those of individual NBCs and PVA matrices. Non-uniform irregular three-dimensional structures and shapes of nanointerphases are manifested around individual NBCs, which can be greatly influenced by nanoparticle size and roughness, and nanoparticle dispersion and distribution. Elastic moduli of nanointerphases were experimentally determined in range from 25.32 ±3.4 to 66.3±3.2 GPa. Additionally, it is clearly shown that the interphase modulus strongly depends on interphase surface area SAInterphase and interphase volume VInterphase. Different NBC distribution patterns from fully to partially embedded nanoparticles are proven to yield a remarkable reduction in elastic moduli of nanointerphases. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Three-dimensional finite element analysis on cell culture membrane under mechanical load].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Fan, Yubo; Song, Jinlin; Chen, Junkai

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model of the cell culture membrane was developed in the culture device under tension state made by us. The magnitude of tension and the displacement distribution in the membrane made of silicon rubber under different hydrostatic load were obtained by use of FEM analysis. A comparative study was made between the numerical and the experimental results. These results can serve as guides to the related cellular mechanical research.

  11. Plastic Surgery Applications Using Three-Dimensional Planning and Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Miles J; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional analysis and planning is a powerful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery, enabling improved diagnosis, patient education and communication, and intraoperative transfer to achieve the best possible results. Three-dimensional planning can increase efficiency and accuracy, and entails five core components: (1) analysis, (2) planning, (3) virtual surgery, (4) three-dimensional printing, and (5) comparison of planned to actual results. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three-dimensional virtual planning and to provide a framework for applying these systems to clinical practice. Therapeutic, V.

  12. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Ken; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To reevaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane peeling during vitrectomy on the Müller cell damage, we examined the ultrastructure of the internal limiting membrane by using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Methods A total of 12 internal limiting membranes obtained during surgery in both the macular hole and the idiopathic epiretinal membrane groups were processed for observation by FIB/SEM. Three-dimensional structures of the internal limiting membrane were analyzed. Results The number of cell fragments in the macular hole group was 5.07 ± 1.03 per unit area of internal limiting membrane (100 μm2). The total volume of cell fragments was 3.54 ± 1.24 μm3/100 μm2. In contrast, the number of cell fragments in the epiretinal membrane group was 12.85 ± 3.45/100 μm2, and the total volume of cell fragments was 10.45 ± 2.77 μm3/100 μm2. Data for both values were significantly higher than those observed in the macular hole group (P = 0.0024 and P = 0.0022, respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). No statistical difference was found for the mean volume of the cell fragment between the two groups. Conclusions All of the internal limiting membrane examined in this study showed cell fragments on the retinal surface of the internal limiting membrane. As compared with macular hole, epiretinal membrane exhibited a higher number and total volume of cell fragments, indicating that internal limiting membrane peeling for epiretinal membrane might have a higher risk of causing inner retinal damage. Translational Relevance FIB/SEM was a useful tool for three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the internal limiting membrane. PMID:29423341

  13. Three-dimensional shape analysis of miarolitic cavities and enclaves in the Kakkonda granite by X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Tsukasa; Nakashima, Yoshito; Muraoka, Hirofumi

    2001-11-01

    Three-dimensional shape analysis of miarolitic cavities and enclaves from the Kakkonda granite, NE Japan, was performed by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and image analysis. The three-dimensional shape of the miarolitic cavities and enclaves was reconstructed by stacked two-dimensional CT slice images with an in-plane resolution of 0.3 mm and an inter-slice spacing of 1 mm. An ellipsoid was fitted to each reconstructed object by the image processing programs. The shortest, intermediate, and longest axes of the ellipsoids fitted to miarolitic cavities had E-W, N-S, and vertical directions, respectively. The shortest axes of the ellipsoids fitted to enclaves were sub-vertical to vertical. Three-dimensional strains calculated from miarolitic cavities and enclaves have E-W and vertical shortening, respectively. The shape characteristics of miarolitic cavities probably reflect regional stress during the late magmatic stage, and those of enclaves reflect shortening by later-intruded magma or body rotation during the early magmatic stage. The miarolitic cavities may not be strained homogeneously with the surrounding granite, because the competence of minerals is different from that of the fluid-filled cavities. Although the strain markers require sufficient contrast between their CT numbers and those of the surrounding minerals, this method has several advantages over conventional methods, including the fact that it is non-destructive, expedient, and allows direct three-dimensional observation of each object.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  15. Coupled boundary and finite element analysis of vibration from railway tunnels—a comparison of two- and three-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, L.; Jones, C. J. C.

    2006-06-01

    The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore computing times can be large. There is a need to be able to apply very fast calculations that can be used in tunnel design and studies of environmental impacts. Taking advantage of the fact that tunnels often have a two-dimensional geometry in the sense that the cross section is constant along the tunnel axis, it is useful to evaluate the potential uses of two-dimensional models before committing to much more costly three-dimensional approaches. The vibration forces in the track due to the passage of a train are by nature three-dimensional and a complete analysis undoubtedly requires a model of three-dimensional wave propagation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of the information that can be gained from a two-dimensional model of a railway tunnel. The vibration transmission from the tunnel floor to the ground surface is analysed for the frequency range relevant to the perception of whole body vibration (about 4-80 Hz). A coupled finite element and boundary element scheme is applied in both two and three dimensions. Two tunnel designs are considered: a cut-and-cover tunnel for a double track and a single-track tunnel dug with the New Austrian tunnelling method (NATM).

  16. Three-dimensional nanomagnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Amalio; Streubel, Robert; Fruchart, Olivier; ...

    2017-06-09

    Magnetic nanostructures are being developed for use in many aspects of our daily life, spanning areas such as data storage, sensing and biomedicine. Whereas patterned nanomagnets are traditionally two-dimensional planar structures, recent work is expanding nanomagnetism into three dimensions; a move triggered by the advance of unconventional synthesis methods and the discovery of new magnetic effects. In three-dimensional nanomagnets more complex magnetic configurations become possible, many with unprecedented properties. Here we review the creation of these structures and their implications for the emergence of new physics, the development of instrumentation and computational methods, and exploitation in numerous applications.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine segmental motion in rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiong; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Han, Bao-Jun; Yan, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2013-06-20

    The movements of the cervical spine during head rotation are too complicated to measure using conventional radiography or computed tomography (CT) techniques. In this study, we measure three-dimensional segmental motion of cervical spine rotation in vivo using a non-invasive measurement technique. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent three-dimensional CT of the cervical spine during head rotation. Occiput (Oc) - T1 reconstructions were created of volunteers in each of 3 positions: supine and maximum left and right rotations of the head with respect to the bosom. Segmental motions were calculated using Euler angles and volume merge methods in three major planes. Mean maximum axial rotation of the cervical spine to one side was 1.6° to 38.5° at each level. Coupled lateral bending opposite to lateral bending was observed in the upper cervical levels, while in the subaxial cervical levels, it was observed in the same direction as axial rotation. Coupled extension was observed in the cervical levels of C5-T1, while coupled flexion was observed in the cervical levels of Oc-C5. The three-dimensional cervical segmental motions in rotation were accurately measured with the non-invasive measure. These findings will be helpful as the basis for understanding cervical spine movement in rotation and abnormal conditions. The presented data also provide baseline segmental motions for the design of prostheses for the cervical spine.

  18. Three-dimensional structure-activity relationship modeling of cocaine binding to two monoclonal antibodies by comparative molecular field analysis.

    PubMed

    Paula, Stefan; Tabet, Michael R; Keenan, Susan M; Welsh, William J; Ball, W James

    2003-01-17

    Successful immunotherapy of cocaine addiction and overdoses requires cocaine-binding antibodies with specific properties, such as high affinity and selectivity for cocaine. We have determined the affinities of two cocaine-binding murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb: clones 3P1A6 and MM0240PA) for cocaine and its metabolites by [3H]-radioligand binding assays. mAb 3P1A6 (K(d) = 0.22 nM) displayed a 50-fold higher affinity for cocaine than mAb MM0240PA (K(d) = 11 nM) and also had a greater specificity for cocaine. For the systematic exploration of both antibodies' binding specificities, we used a set of approximately 35 cocaine analogues as structural probes by determining their relative binding affinities (RBAs) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent competition assay. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models on the basis of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) techniques correlated the binding data with structural features of the ligands. The analysis indicated that despite the mAbs' differing specificities for cocaine, the relative contributions of the steric (approximately 80%) and electrostatic (approximately 20%) field interactions to ligand-binding were similar. Generated three-dimensional CoMFA contour plots then located the specific regions about cocaine where the ligand/receptor interactions occurred. While the overall binding patterns of the two mAbs had many features in common, distinct differences were observed about the phenyl ring and the methylester group of cocaine. Furthermore, using previously published data, a 3D-QSAR model was developed for cocaine binding to the dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) that was compared to the mAb models. Although the relative steric and electrostatic field contributions were similar to those of the mAbs, the DAT cocaine-binding site showed a preference for negatively charged ligands. Besides establishing molecular level insight into the interactions that govern cocaine

  19. Construction and validation of the midsagittal reference plane based on the skull base symmetry for three-dimensional cephalometric craniofacial analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jin; Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin-Geun; Zhengguo, Piao; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliable midsagittal (MS) reference plane in practical ways for the three-dimensional craniofacial analysis on three-dimensional computed tomography images. Five normal human dry skulls and 20 normal subjects without any dysmorphoses or asymmetries were used. The accuracies and stability on repeated plane construction for almost every possible candidate MS plane based on the skull base structures were examined by comparing the discrepancies in distances and orientations from the reference points and planes of the skull base and facial bones on three-dimensional computed tomography images. The following reference points of these planes were stable, and their distribution was balanced: nasion and foramen cecum at the anterior part of the skull base, sella at the middle part, and basion and opisthion at the posterior part. The candidate reference planes constructed using the aforementioned reference points were thought to be reliable for use as an MS reference plane for the three-dimensional analysis of maxillofacial dysmorphosis.

  20. Extracting Metrics for Three-dimensional Root Systems: Volume and Surface Analysis from In-soil X-ray Computed Tomography Data.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A; Adams, Lexor; Beck, Anthon N; McKinney, Adriana L; Varga, Tamas

    2016-04-26

    Plant roots play a critical role in plant-soil-microbe interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, as well as processes with important implications to climate change and crop management. Quantitative size information on roots in their native environment is invaluable for studying root growth and environmental processes involving plants. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for in situ root scanning and analysis. We aimed to develop a costless and efficient tool that approximates the surface and volume of the root regardless of its shape from three-dimensional (3D) tomography data. The root structure of a Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) specimen was imaged using XCT. The root was reconstructed, and the primary root structure was extracted from the data using a combination of licensed and open-source software. An isosurface polygonal mesh was then created for ease of analysis. We have developed the standalone application imeshJ, generated in MATLAB(1), to calculate root volume and surface area from the mesh. The outputs of imeshJ are surface area (in mm(2)) and the volume (in mm(3)). The process, utilizing a unique combination of tools from imaging to quantitative root analysis, is described. A combination of XCT and open-source software proved to be a powerful combination to noninvasively image plant root samples, segment root data, and extract quantitative information from the 3D data. This methodology of processing 3D data should be applicable to other material/sample systems where there is connectivity between components of similar X-ray attenuation and difficulties arise with segmentation.

  1. Three-dimensional spectral analysis of compositional heterogeneity at Arruntia crater on (4) Vesta using Dawn FC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangjam, Guneshwar; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Schäfer, Michael; Hoffmann, Martin; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Müller, Christian; Platz, Thomas; Schäfer, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We introduce an innovative three-dimensional spectral approach (three band parameter space with polyhedrons) that can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analyzes improving the characterization of surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta. It is an advanced and more robust methodology compared to the standard two-dimensional spectral approach (two band parameter space). The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data obtained during High Altitude Mapping Orbit (resolution ∼ 60 m/pixel) is used. The main focus is on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) lithologies containing carbonaceous chondritic material, olivine, and impact-melt. The archived spectra of HEDs and their mixtures, from RELAB, HOSERLab and USGS databases as well as our laboratory-measured spectra are used for this study. Three-dimensional convex polyhedrons are defined using computed band parameter values of laboratory spectra. Polyhedrons based on the parameters of Band Tilt (R0.92μm/R0.96μm), Mid Ratio ((R0.75μm/R0.83μm)/(R0.83μm/R0.92μm)) and reflectance at 0.55 μm (R0.55μm) are chosen for the present analysis. An algorithm in IDL programming language is employed to assign FC data points to the respective polyhedrons. The Arruntia region in the northern hemisphere of Vesta is selected for a case study because of its geological and mineralogical importance. We observe that this region is eucrite-dominated howarditic in composition. The extent of olivine-rich exposures within an area of 2.5 crater radii is ∼12% larger than the previous finding (Thangjam, G. et al. [2014]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 49, 1831-1850). Lithologies of nearly pure CM2-chondrite, olivine, glass, and diogenite are not found in this region. Although there are no unambiguous spectral features of impact melt, the investigation of morphological features using FC clear filter data from Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (resolution ∼ 18 m/pixel) suggests potential impact-melt features inside and outside of the crater

  2. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  3. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  4. A high-throughput three-dimensional cell migration assay for toxicity screening with mobile device-based macroscopic image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Timm, David M.; Chen, Jianbo; Sing, David; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Raphael, Robert M.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Killian, T. C.; Tseng, Hubert; Souza, Glauco R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing demand for in vitro assays for toxicity screening in three-dimensional (3D) environments. In this study, 3D cell culture using magnetic levitation was used to create an assay in which cells were patterned into 3D rings that close over time. The rate of closure was determined from time-lapse images taken with a mobile device and related to drug concentration. Rings of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and tracheal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were tested with ibuprofen and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ring closure correlated with the viability and migration of cells in two dimensions (2D). Images taken using a mobile device were similar in analysis to images taken with a microscope. Ring closure may serve as a promising label-free and quantitative assay for high-throughput in vivo toxicity in 3D cultures. PMID:24141454

  5. Numerical simulation of supersonic inlets using a three-dimensional viscous flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.; Towne, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    A three dimensional fully viscous computer analysis was evaluated to determine its usefulness in the design of supersonic inlets. This procedure takes advantage of physical approximations to limit the high computer time and storage associated with complete Navier-Stokes solutions. Computed results are presented for a Mach 3.0 supersonic inlet with bleed and a Mach 7.4 hypersonic inlet. Good agreement was obtained between theory and data for both inlets. Results of a mesh sensitivity study are also shown.

  6. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  7. Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, William D.

    1983-12-01

    Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.

  8. The three-dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Jeffrey; Hahn, Roger; Schwartz, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Stanford Telecom developed the Three-Dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE) for NASA GSFC's (GSFC) Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS). 3D-EDGE consists of a library of object-oriented subroutines which allow engineers with little or no computer graphics experience to programmatically manipulate, render, animate, and access complex three-dimensional objects.

  9. Quantification of three-dimensional cell-mediated collagen remodeling using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Lund, Amanda W; Can, Ali; Plopper, George E; Yener, Bülent

    2010-09-30

    Cell cooperation is a critical event during tissue development. We present the first precise metrics to quantify the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and extra cellular matrix (ECM). In particular, we describe cooperative collagen alignment process with respect to the spatio-temporal organization and function of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions. We defined two precise metrics: Collagen Alignment Index and Cell Dissatisfaction Level, for quantitatively tracking type I collagen and fibrillogenesis remodeling by mesenchymal stem cells over time. Computation of these metrics was based on graph theory and vector calculus. The cells and their three dimensional type I collagen microenvironment were modeled by three dimensional cell-graphs and collagen fiber organization was calculated from gradient vectors. With the enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, acceleration through different phases was quantitatively demonstrated. The phases were clustered in a statistically significant manner based on collagen organization, with late phases of remodeling by untreated cells clustering strongly with early phases of remodeling by differentiating cells. The experiments were repeated three times to conclude that the metrics could successfully identify critical phases of collagen remodeling that were dependent upon cooperativity within the cell population. Definition of early metrics that are able to predict long-term functionality by linking engineered tissue structure to function is an important step toward optimizing biomaterials for the purposes of regenerative medicine.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of anisotropic spatially reinforced structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.

    1993-01-01

    The material-adaptive three-dimensional analysis of inhomogeneous structures based on the meso-volume concept and application of deficient spline functions for displacement approximations is proposed. The general methodology is demonstrated on the example of a brick-type mosaic parallelepiped arbitrarily composed of anisotropic meso-volumes. A partition of each meso-volume into sub-elements, application of deficient spline functions for a local approximation of displacements and, finally, the use of the variational principle allows one to obtain displacements, strains, and stresses at anypoint within the structural part. All of the necessary external and internal boundary conditions (including the conditions of continuity of transverse stresses at interfaces between adjacent meso-volumes) can be satisfied with requisite accuracy by increasing the density of the sub-element mesh. The application of the methodology to textile composite materials is described. Several numerical examples for woven and braided rectangular composite plates and stiffened panels under transverse bending are considered. Some typical effects of stress concentrations due to the material inhomogeneities are demonstrated.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of TMJ MR images: a technical note and case report.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Noriyuki; Eriksson, Lars; Kreiborg, Sven; Wagner, Aase; Takada, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    MR images of the temporomandibular joint at occlusion and at various stages of mouth opening were registered and reconstructed three-dimensionally before and after a modified condylotomy in a patient with painful disk displacement. Following the condylotomy, the condyle/disk relationship had become normalized in all three planes of space at closed mouth and during mouth opening. The post-operative distances of the condylar and diskal paths had increased when compared with the preoperative distances. The three-dimensional visualizing method may, besides providing diagnostic advantages, be a valuable tool for qualitative and quantitative documentation of the efficiency of different treatment methods for normalization of the disk/condyle relationship in patients with TMJ disk displacement.

  12. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-09-01

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  13. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi

    2014-09-08

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  14. Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1990-01-01

    We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.

  15. Three-dimensional patterning methods and related devices

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-12-27

    Three-dimensional patterning methods of a three-dimensional microstructure, such as a semiconductor wire array, are described, in conjunction with etching and/or deposition steps to pattern the three-dimensional microstructure.

  16. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Tadano, Shigeru; Takeda, Ryo; Miyagawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC) were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively. PMID:23877128

  17. High-resolution three-dimensional partially coherent diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Clark, J N; Huang, X; Harder, R; Robinson, I K

    2012-01-01

    The wave properties of light, particularly its coherence, are responsible for interference effects, which can be exploited in powerful imaging applications. Coherent diffractive imaging relies heavily on coherence and has recently experienced rapid growth. Coherent diffractive imaging recovers an object from its diffraction pattern by computational phasing with the potential of wavelength-limited resolution. Diminished coherence results in reconstructions that suffer from artefacts or fail completely. Here we demonstrate ab initio phasing of partially coherent diffraction patterns in three dimensions, while simultaneously determining the coherence properties of the illuminating wavefield. Both the dramatic improvements in image interpretability and the three-dimensional evaluation of the coherence will have broad implications for quantitative imaging of nanostructures and wavefield characterization with X-rays and electrons.

  18. Calculation of three-dimensional, inviscid, supersonic, steady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of a computational program for the evaluation of three dimensional supersonic, inviscid, steady flow past airplanes is presented. Emphasis was put on how a powerful, automatic mapping technique is coupled to the fluid mechanical analysis. Each of the three constituents of the analysis (body geometry, mapping technique, and gas dynamical effects) was carefully coded and described. Results of computations based on sample geometrics and discussions are also presented.

  19. Three-Dimensional Anatomic Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament for Planning Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Yuichi; Kim, Donghwi; Fu, Freddie H.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic study related to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery has been developed in accordance with the progress of imaging technology. Advances in imaging techniques, especially the move from two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) image analysis, substantially contribute to anatomic understanding and its application to advanced ACL reconstruction surgery. This paper introduces previous research about image analysis of the ACL anatomy and its application to ACL reconstruction surgery. Crucial bony landmarks for the accurate placement of the ACL graft can be identified by 3D imaging technique. Additionally, 3D-CT analysis of the ACL insertion site anatomy provides better and more consistent evaluation than conventional “clock-face” reference and roentgenologic quadrant method. Since the human anatomy has a complex three-dimensional structure, further anatomic research using three-dimensional imaging analysis and its clinical application by navigation system or other technologies is warranted for the improvement of the ACL reconstruction. PMID:22567310

  20. Quantitative Microbial Community Analysis of Three Different Sulfidic Mine Tailing Dumps Generating Acid Mine Drainage▿

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 109 cells g−1 dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general. PMID:18586975

  1. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general.

  2. Three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy using a high-energy proton probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, G.; Reichart, P.; Datzmann, G.; Hauptner, A.; Körner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    It is a challenge to measure two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) hydrogen profiles on a micrometer scale. Quantitative hydrogen analyses of micrometer resolution are demonstrated utilizing proton-proton scattering at a high-energy proton microprobe. It has more than an-order-of-magnitude better position resolution and in addition higher sensitivity than any other technique for 3D hydrogen analyses. This type of hydrogen imaging opens plenty room to characterize microstructured materials, and semiconductor devices or objects in microbiology. The first hydrogen image obtained with a 10 MeV proton microprobe shows the hydrogen distribution of the microcapillary system being present in the wing of a mayfly and demonstrates the potential of the method.

  3. Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hayden; Dong, Chen Y; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Sutin, Jason D; Kamm, Roger D; So, Peter T C

    2002-04-01

    The ability to apply quantifiable mechanical stresses at the microscopic scale is critical for studying cellular responses to mechanical forces. This necessitates the use of force transducers that can apply precisely controlled forces to cells while monitoring the responses noninvasively. This paper describes the development of a micromanipulation workstation integrating two-photon, three-dimensional imaging with a high-force, uniform-gradient magnetic manipulator. The uniform-gradient magnetic field applies nearly uniform forces to a large cell population, permitting statistical quantification of select molecular responses to mechanical stresses. The magnetic transducer design is capable of exerting over 200 pN of force on 4.5-microm-diameter paramagnetic particles and over 800 pN on 5.0-microm ferromagnetic particles. These forces vary within +/-10% over an area 500 x 500 microm2. The compatibility with the use of high numerical aperture (approximately 1.0) objectives is an integral part of the workstation design allowing submicron-resolution, three-dimensional, two-photon imaging. Three-dimensional analyses of cellular deformation under localized mechanical strain are reported. These measurements indicate that the response of cells to large focal stresses may contain three-dimensional global deformations and show the suitability of this workstation to further studying cellular response to mechanical stresses.

  4. Three-dimensional finite elements for the analysis of soil contamination using a multiple-porosity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zein, Abbas; Carter, John P.; Airey, David W.

    2006-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element model of contaminant migration in fissured clays or contaminated sand which includes multiple sources of non-equilibrium processes is proposed. The conceptual framework can accommodate a regular network of fissures in 1D, 2D or 3D and immobile solutions in the macro-pores of aggregated topsoils, as well as non-equilibrium sorption. A Galerkin weighted-residual statement for the three-dimensional form of the equations in the Laplace domain is formulated. Equations are discretized using linear and quadratic prism elements. The system of algebraic equations is solved in the Laplace domain and solution is inverted to the time domain numerically. The model is validated and its scope is illustrated through the analysis of three problems: a waste repository deeply buried in fissured clay, a storage tank leaking into sand and a sanitary landfill leaching into fissured clay over a sand aquifer.

  5. Computer-Generated, Three-Dimensional Character Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baerle, Susan Lynn

    This master's thesis begins by discussing the differences between 3-D computer animation of solid three-dimensional, or monolithic, objects, and the animation of characters, i.e., collections of movable parts with soft pliable surfaces. Principles from two-dimensional character animation that can be transferred to three-dimensional character…

  6. Three-dimensional audio-magnetotelluric sounding in monitoring coalbed methane reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Zhao, Shanshan; Hui, Jian; Qin, Qiming

    2017-03-01

    Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sounding is widely employed in rapid resistivity delineation of objective geometry in near surface exploration. According to reservoir patterns and electrical parameters obtained in Qinshui Basin, China, two-dimensional and three-dimensional synthetic "objective anomaly" models were designed and inverted with the availability of a modular system for electromagnetic inversion (ModEM). The results revealed that 3-D full impedance inversion yielded the subsurface models closest to synthetic models. One or more conductive targets were correctly recovered. Therefore, conductive aquifers in the study area, including hydrous coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs, were suggested to be the interpretation signs for reservoir characterization. With the aim of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, the AMT surveys in continuous years (June 2013-May 2015) were carried out. 3-D inversion results demonstrated that conductive anomalies accumulated around the producing reservoirs at the corresponding depths if CBM reservoirs were in high water production rates. In contrast, smaller conductive anomalies were generally identical with rapid gas production or stopping production of reservoirs. These analyses were in accordance with actual production history of CBM wells. The dynamic traces of conductive anomalies revealed that reservoir water migrated deep or converged in axial parts and wings of folds, which contributed significantly to formations of CBM traps. Then the well spacing scenario was also evaluated based on the dynamic production analysis. Wells distributed near closed faults or flat folds, rather than open faults, had CBM production potential to ascertain stable gas production. Therefore, three-dimensional AMT sounding becomes an attractive option with the ability of dynamic monitoring of CBM reservoirs, and lays a solid foundation of quantitative evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  7. SABRINA: an interactive three-dimensional geometry-mnodeling program for MCNP

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    West, J.T. III

    SABRINA is a fully interactive three-dimensional geometry-modeling program for MCNP, a Los Alamos Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport. In SABRINA, a user constructs either body geometry or surface geometry models and debugs spatial descriptions for the resulting objects. This enhanced capability significantly reduces effort in constructing and debugging complicated three-dimensional geometry models for Monte Carlo analysis. 2 refs., 33 figs.

  8. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness according to myopia and optic disc area: a quantitative and three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sam; Lee, Chong Eun; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-03-11

    To determine the influences of myopia and optic disc size on ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness profiles obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). One hundred and sixty-eight eyes of 168 young myopic subjects were recruited and assigned to one of three groups according to their spherical equivalent (SE) values and optic disc area. All underwent Cirrus HD-OCT imaging. The influences of myopia and optic disc size on the GCIPL and RNFL thickness profiles were evaluated by multiple comparisons and linear regression analysis. Three-dimensional surface plots of GCIPL and RNFL thickness corresponding to different combinations of myopia and optic disc size were constructed. Each of the quadrant RNFL thicknesses and their overall average were significantly thinner in high myopia compared to low myopia, except for the temporal quadrant (all Ps ≤0.003). The average and all-sectors GCIPL were significantly thinner in high myopia than in moderate- and/or low-myopia (all Ps ≤0.002). The average OCT RNFL thickness was correlated significantly with SE (0.81 μm/diopter, P < 0.001), axial length (-1.44 μm/mm, P < 0.001), and optic disc area (5.35 μm/mm 2 , P < 0.001) by linear regression analysis. As for the OCT GCIPL parameters, average GCIPL thickness showed a significant correlation with SE (0.84 μm/diopter, P < 0.001) and axial length (-1.65 μm/mm, P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation of average GCIPL thickness with optic disc area. Three-dimensional curves showed that larger optic discs were associated with increased average RNFL thickness and that more-myopic eyes were associated with decreased average GCIPL and RNFL thickness. Myopia can significantly affect GCIPL and RNFL thickness profiles, and optic disc size has a significant influence on RNFL thickness. The current OCT maps employed in the evaluation of glaucoma should be analyzed in

  9. OBSERVER RATING VERSUS THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOTION ANALYSIS OF LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS DURING FUNCTIONAL SCREENING TESTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, Liam; White, Steven G; Reid, Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Functional assessments are conducted in both clinical and athletic settings in an attempt to identify those individuals who exhibit movement patterns that may increase their risk of non-contact injury. In place of highly sophisticated three-dimensional motion analysis, functional testing can be completed through observation. To evaluate the validity of movement observation assessments by summarizing the results of articles comparing human observation in real-time or video play-back and three-dimensional motion analysis of lower extremity kinematics during functional screening tests. Systematic review. A computerized systematic search was conducted through Medline, SPORTSdiscus, Scopus, Cinhal, and Cochrane health databases between February and April of 2014. Validity studies comparing human observation (real-time or video play-back) to three-dimensional motion analysis of functional tasks were selected. Only studies comprising uninjured, healthy subjects conducting lower extremity functional assessments were appropriate for review. Eligible observers were certified health practitioners or qualified members of sports and athletic training teams that conduct athlete screening. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) was used to appraise the literature. Results are presented in terms of functional tasks. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Across these studies, two-legged squats, single-leg squats, drop-jumps, and running and cutting manoeuvres were the functional tasks analysed. When compared to three-dimensional motion analysis, observer ratings of lower extremity kinematics, such as knee position in relation to the foot, demonstrated mixed results. Single-leg squats achieved target sensitivity values (≥ 80%) but not specificity values (≥ 50%>%). Drop-jump task agreement ranged from poor (< 50%) to excellent (> 80%). Two-legged squats achieved 88% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Mean underestimations as large as 198 (peak knee

  10. [Zn(INO) 2(DMF)]·DMF: A new three-dimensional supramolecular open framework containing one-dimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jun

    2006-02-01

    A three-dimensional supramolecular compound, [Zn(INO) 2(DMF)]·DMF (1) (INO=isonicotinic acid N-oxide), has been prepared in the DMF solution at room temperature, and characterized by elemental analysis, TG and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The three-dimensional supramolecular open framework of 1 contains rectangular channels with the dimensions of 9.02×10.15 Å, assembled from one-dimensional helical chains via hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. Furthermore, compound 1 shows blue photoluminescence at room temperature.

  11. Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. C., III

    1976-01-01

    The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.

  12. Three-dimensional concentration mapping of organic blends

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Roehling, John D.; Batenburg, Kees J.; Swain, F. B.

    2013-05-06

    We quantitatively measure the three-dimensional morphology of mixed organic layers using high-angle annular darkfield scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) with electron tomography for the first time. The mixed organic layers used for organic photovoltaic applications have not been previously imaged using STEM tomography as there is insufficient contrast between donor and acceptor components. We generate contrast by substituting fullerenes with endohedral fullerenes that contain a Lu3N cluster within the fullerene cage. The high contrast and signal-to-noise ratio, in combination with use of the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART), allowed us to generate the most detailed and accurate three-dimensional map ofmore » BHJ morphology to date. From the STEM tomography reconstructions we determined that three distinct material phases are present within the BHJs. By observation of the changes to morphology and mixing ratio that occur during thermal and solvent annealing, we are able to determine how mutual solubility and fullerene crystallization affect the formation of morphology and long term stability of the material mixture. This material/technique combination shows itself as a powerful tool for examining morphology in detail and allows for observation of nanoscopic changes in local concentration. This research was supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.« less

  13. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification andmore » quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.« less

  14. Large-Scale and Deep Quantitative Proteome Profiling Using Isobaric Labeling Coupled with Two-Dimensional LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.

  15. Cornea and ocular lens visualized with three-dimensional confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1992-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea and the ocular crystalline lens by confocal microscopy and volume rendering computer techniques. The advantages of noninvasive observation of ocular structures in living, unstained, unfixed tissue include the following: the tissue is in a natural living state without the artifacts of fixation, mechanical sectioning, and staining; the three-dimensional structure can be observed from any view point and quantitatively analyzed; the dynamics of morphological changes can be studied; and the use of confocal microscopic observation results in a reduction of the number of animals required for ocular morphometric studies. The main advantage is that the dynamic morphology of ocular structures can be investigated in living ocular tissue. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used in the reflected light mode to obtain the two- dimensional images from the cornea and the ocular lens of a freshly enucleated rabbit eye. The light source was an argon ion laser with 488 nm wavelength. The microscope objective was a Leitz 25X, NA 0.6 water immersion lens. The 400 micron thick cornea was optically sectioned into 133, three micron sections. The semi-transparent cornea and the in-situ ocular lens was visualized as high resolution, high contrast two-dimensional images. The under sampling resulted in a three-dimensional visualization rendering in which the corneal thickness (z-axis) is compressed. The structures observed in the cornea include: superficial epithelial cells and their nuclei, basal epithelial cells and their `beaded' cell borders, basal lamina, nerve plexus, nerve fibers, free nerve endings in the basal epithelial cells, nuclei of stromal keratocytes, and endothelial cells. The structures observed in the in-situ ocular lens include: lens capsule, lens epithelial cells, and individual lens fibers.

  16. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Qin, J X; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2000-11-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  17. Determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructed three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography is an accurate and reproducible method of assessing left ventricular (LV) functions. However, it has limitations for clinical study due to the requirement of complex computer and echocardiographic analysis systems, electrocardiographic/respiratory gating, and prolonged imaging times. Real-time 3-D echocardiography has a major advantage of conveniently visualizing the entire cardiac anatomy in three dimensions and of potentially accurately quantifying LV volumes, ejection fractions, and myocardial mass in patients even in the presence of an LV aneurysm. Although the image quality of the current real-time 3-D echocardiographic methods is not optimal, its widespread clinical application is possible because of the convenient and fast image acquisition. We review real-time 3-D echocardiographic image acquisition and quantitative analysis for the evaluation of LV function and LV mass.

  18. Trading spaces: building three-dimensional nets from two-dimensional tilings

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Evans, Myfanwy E.; Hyde, Stephen T.; Ramsden, Stuart; Robins, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    We construct some examples of finite and infinite crystalline three-dimensional nets derived from symmetric reticulations of homogeneous two-dimensional spaces: elliptic (S2), Euclidean (E2) and hyperbolic (H2) space. Those reticulations are edges and vertices of simple spherical, planar and hyperbolic tilings. We show that various projections of the simplest symmetric tilings of those spaces into three-dimensional Euclidean space lead to topologically and geometrically complex patterns, including multiple interwoven nets and tangled nets that are otherwise difficult to generate ab initio in three dimensions. PMID:24098839

  19. Strategic planning for aircraft noise route impact analysis: A three dimensional approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.; Rowan, M. J.; Ahuja, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    The strategic routing of aircraft through navigable and controlled airspace to minimize adverse noise impact over sensitive areas is critical in the proper management and planning of the U.S. based airport system. A major objective of this phase of research is to identify, inventory, characterize, and analyze the various environmental, land planning, and regulatory data bases, along with potential three dimensional software and hardware systems that can be potentially applied for an impact assessment of any existing or planned air route. There are eight data bases that have to be assembled and developed in order to develop three dimensional aircraft route impact methodology. These data bases which cover geographical information systems, sound metrics, land use, airspace operational control measures, federal regulations and advisories, census data, and environmental attributes have been examined and aggregated. A three dimensional format is necessary for planning, analyzing space and possible noise impact, and formulating potential resolutions. The need to develop this three dimensional approach is essential due to the finite capacity of airspace for managing and planning a route system, including airport facilities. It appears that these data bases can be integrated effectively into a strategic aircraft noise routing system which should be developed as soon as possible, as part of a proactive plan applied to our FAA controlled navigable airspace for the United States.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of the Educational Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Visualization Technologies in Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yammine, Kaissar; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many medical graduates are deficient in anatomy knowledge and perhaps below the standards for safe medical practice. Three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) has been advanced as a promising tool to enhance anatomy knowledge. The purpose of this review is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 3DVT in teaching and learning…

  1. Efficient analysis of three dimensional EUV mask induced imaging artifacts using the waveguide decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Feng; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    This paper employs the Waveguide decomposition method as an efficient rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) solver to investigate three dimensional mask-induced imaging artifacts in EUV lithography. The major mask diffraction induced imaging artifacts are first identified by applying the Zernike analysis of the mask nearfield spectrum of 2D lines/spaces. Three dimensional mask features like 22nm semidense/dense contacts/posts, isolated elbows and line-ends are then investigated in terms of lithographic results. After that, the 3D mask-induced imaging artifacts such as feature orientation dependent best focus shift, process window asymmetries, and other aberration-like phenomena are explored for the studied mask features. The simulation results can help lithographers to understand the reasons of EUV-specific imaging artifacts and to devise illumination and feature dependent strategies for their compensation in the optical proximity correction (OPC) for EUV masks. At last, an efficient approach using the Zernike analysis together with the Waveguide decomposition technique is proposed to characterize the impact of mask properties for the future OPC process.

  2. Three-way analysis of the UPLC-PDA dataset for the multicomponent quantitation of hydrochlorothiazide and olmesartan medoxomil in tablets by parallel factor analysis and three-way partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Erdal; Ertekin, Zehra Ceren

    2016-01-01

    An application of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and three-way partial least squares (3W-PLS1) regression models to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA) data with co-eluted peaks in the same wavelength and time regions was described for the multicomponent quantitation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) in tablets. Three-way dataset of HCT and OLM in their binary mixtures containing telmisartan (IS) as an internal standard was recorded with a UPLC-PDA instrument. Firstly, the PARAFAC algorithm was applied for the decomposition of three-way UPLC-PDA data into the chromatographic, spectral and concentration profiles to quantify the concerned compounds. Secondly, 3W-PLS1 approach was subjected to the decomposition of a tensor consisting of three-way UPLC-PDA data into a set of triads to build 3W-PLS1 regression for the analysis of the same compounds in samples. For the proposed three-way analysis methods in the regression and prediction steps, the applicability and validity of PARAFAC and 3W-PLS1 models were checked by analyzing the synthetic mixture samples, inter-day and intra-day samples, and standard addition samples containing HCT and OLM. Two different three-way analysis methods, PARAFAC and 3W-PLS1, were successfully applied to the quantitative estimation of the solid dosage form containing HCT and OLM. Regression and prediction results provided from three-way analysis were compared with those obtained by traditional UPLC method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis of an indirect heating furnace

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ito, H.; Umeda, Y.; Nakamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an accurate design method for industrial furnaces from the viewpoint of heat transfer. The authors carried out a three-dimensional nonsteady heat-transfer analysis for a practical-size heat- treatment furnace equipped with radiant heaters. The authors applied three software package programs, STREAM, MORSE, and TRUMP, for the analysis of the combined heat-transfer problems of radiation, conduction, and convection. The authors also carried out experiments of the heating of a charge consisting of packed bolts. The authors found that the air swirled inside the furnace. As for the temperature in each part in the furnace, analytical results were generallymore » in close agreement with the experimental ones. This suggests that our analytical method is useful for a fundamental heat- transfer-based design of a practical-size industrial furnace with an actual charge such as packed bolts. As for the temperature distribution inside the bolt charge (work), the analytical results were also in close agreement with the experimental ones. Consequently, it was found that the heat transfer in the bolt charge could be described with an effective thermal conductivity.« less

  4. Three-dimensional structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella/cilia by electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Khanh Huy; Pigino, Gaia; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Electron cryo-tomography is a potential approach to analyzing the three-dimensional conformation of frozen hydrated biological macromolecules using electron microscopy. Since projections of each individual object illuminated from different orientations are merged, electron tomography is capable of structural analysis of such heterogeneous environments as in vivo or with polymorphism, although radiation damage and the missing wedge are severe problems. Here, recent results on the structure of eukaryotic flagella, which is an ATP-driven bending organelle, from green algae Chlamydomonas are presented. Tomographic analysis reveals asymmetric molecular arrangements, especially that of the dynein motor proteins, in flagella, giving insight into the mechanism of planar asymmetric bending motion. Methodological challenges to obtaining higher-resolution structures from this technique are also discussed. PMID:21169680

  5. An empirically derived three-dimensional Laplace resonance in the Gliese 876 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Benjamin E.; Robertson, Paul M.; Payne, Matthew J.; Pritchard, Seth M.; Deck, Katherine M.; Ford, Eric B.; Wright, Jason T.; Isaacson, Howard T.

    2016-01-01

    We report constraints on the three-dimensional orbital architecture for all four planets known to orbit the nearby M dwarf Gliese 876 based solely on Doppler measurements and demanding long-term orbital stability. Our data set incorporates publicly available radial velocities taken with the ELODIE and CORALIE spectrographs, High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), and Keck HIgh Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) as well as previously unpublished HIRES velocities. We first quantitatively assess the validity of the planets thought to orbit GJ 876 by computing the Bayes factors for a variety of different coplanar models using an importance sampling algorithm. We find that a four-planet model is preferred over a three-planet model. Next, we apply a Newtonian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to perform a Bayesian analysis of the planet masses and orbits using an N-body model in three-dimensional space. Based on the radial velocities alone, we find that a 99 per cent credible interval provides upper limits on the mutual inclinations for the three resonant planets (Φcb < 6.20° for the {c} and {b} pair and Φbe < 28.5° for the {b} and {e} pair). Subsequent dynamical integrations of our posterior sample find that the GJ 876 planets must be roughly coplanar (Φcb < 2.60° and Φbe < 7.87°, suggesting that the amount of planet-planet scattering in the system has been low. We investigate the distribution of the respective resonant arguments of each planet pair and find that at least one argument for each planet pair and the Laplace argument librate. The libration amplitudes in our three-dimensional orbital model support the idea of the outer three planets having undergone significant past disc migration.

  6. Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the repaired mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy-based relative localization analysis (STORM-RLA) for quantitative nanoscale assessment of spatial protein organization.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Gourdie, Robert G

    2016-11-07

    The spatial association between proteins is crucial to understanding how they function in biological systems. Colocalization analysis of fluorescence microscopy images is widely used to assess this. However, colocalization analysis performed on two-dimensional images with diffraction-limited resolution merely indicates that the proteins are within 200-300 nm of each other in the xy-plane and within 500-700 nm of each other along the z-axis. Here we demonstrate a novel three-dimensional quantitative analysis applicable to single-molecule positional data: stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy-based relative localization analysis (STORM-RLA). This method offers significant advantages: 1) STORM imaging affords 20-nm resolution in the xy-plane and <50 nm along the z-axis; 2) STORM-RLA provides a quantitative assessment of the frequency and degree of overlap between clusters of colabeled proteins; and 3) STORM-RLA also calculates the precise distances between both overlapping and nonoverlapping clusters in three dimensions. Thus STORM-RLA represents a significant advance in the high-throughput quantitative assessment of the spatial organization of proteins. © 2016 Veeraraghavan and Gourdie. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-01-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity v→S, streamwise vorticity ωS, and λ2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters (ES/P,

  9. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  10. Liarozole inhibits transforming growth factor-β3–mediated extracellular matrix formation in human three-dimensional leiomyoma cultures

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Gary; Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Gilden, Melissa; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of liarozole on transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) expression, TGF-β3 controlled profibrotic cytokines, and extracellular matrix formation in a three-dimensional (3D) leiomyoma model system. Design Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis in a cell line evaluated in a three-dimensional culture. Setting Laboratory study. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Treatment of leiomyoma and myometrial cells with liarozole and TGF-β3 in a three-dimensional culture system. Main Outcome Measure(s) Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to assess fold gene and protein expression of TGF-β3 and TGF-β3 regulated fibrotic cytokines: collagen 1A1 (COL1A1), fibronectin, and versican before and after treatment with liarozole, and confirmatory immunohistochemical stains of treated three-dimensional cultures. Result(s) Both TGF-β3 gene and protein expression were elevated in leiomyoma cells compared with myometrium in two-dimensional and 3D cultures. Treatment with liarozole decreased TGF-β3 gene and protein expression. Extracellular matrix components versican, COL1A1, and fibronectin were also decreased by liarozole treatment in 3D cultures. Treatment of 3D cultures with TGF-β3 increased gene expression and protein production of COL1A1, fibronectin, and versican. Conclusion(s) Liarozole decreased TGF-β3 and TGF-β3–mediated extracellular matrix expression in a 3D uterine leiomyoma culture system. PMID:24825427

  11. Three-dimensional organization of vestibular related eye movements to rotational motion in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Beyer, M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During rotational motions, compensatory eye movement adjustments must continually occur in order to maintain objects of visual interest as stable images on the retina. In the present study, the three-dimensional organization of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in pigeons was quantitatively examined. Rotations about different head axes produced horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements, whose component magnitude was dependent upon the cosine of the stimulus axis relative to the animal's visual axis. Thus, the three-dimensional organization of the VOR in pigeons appears to be compensatory for any direction of head rotation. Frequency responses of the horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow phase components exhibited high pass filter properties with dominant time constants of approximately 3 s.

  12. Three-dimensional architecture of the whole human soleus muscle in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Finni, Taija; D’Souza, Arkiev; Eguchi, Junya; Clarke, Elizabeth C.; Herbert, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Background Most data on the architecture of the human soleus muscle have been obtained from cadaveric dissection or two-dimensional ultrasound imaging. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative study on the three-dimensional anatomy of the human soleus muscle in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques. Methods We report three-dimensional fascicle lengths, pennation angles, fascicle curvatures, physiological cross-sectional areas and volumes in four compartments of the soleus at ankle joint angles of 69 ± 12° (plantarflexion, short muscle length; average ± SD across subjects) and 108 ± 7° (dorsiflexion, long muscle length) of six healthy young adults. Microdissection and three-dimensional digitisation on two cadaveric muscles corroborated the compartmentalised structure of the soleus, and confirmed the validity of DTI-based muscle fascicle reconstructions. Results The posterior compartments of the soleus comprised 80 ± 5% of the total muscle volume (356 ± 58 cm3). At the short muscle length, the average fascicle length, pennation angle and curvature was 37 ± 8 mm, 31 ± 3° and 17 ± 4 /m, respectively. We did not find differences in fascicle lengths between compartments. However, pennation angles were on average 12° larger (p < 0.01) in the posterior compartments than in the anterior compartments. For every centimetre that the muscle-tendon unit lengthened, fascicle lengths increased by 3.7 ± 0.8 mm, pennation angles decreased by −3.2 ± 0.9° and curvatures decreased by −2.7 ± 0.8 /m. Fascicles in the posterior compartments rotated almost twice as much as in the anterior compartments during passive lengthening. Discussion The homogeneity in fascicle lengths and inhomogeneity in pennation angles of the soleus may indicate a functionally different role for the anterior and posterior compartments. The data and techniques presented here demonstrate how DTI can be used to obtain detailed, quantitative measurements of the

  13. Quantifying the relationship between sequence and three-dimensional structure conservation in RNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, the number of available RNA structures has rapidly grown reflecting the increased interest on RNA biology. Similarly to the studies carried out two decades ago for proteins, which gave the fundamental grounds for developing comparative protein structure prediction methods, we are now able to quantify the relationship between sequence and structure conservation in RNA. Results Here we introduce an all-against-all sequence- and three-dimensional (3D) structure-based comparison of a representative set of RNA structures, which have allowed us to quantitatively confirm that: (i) there is a measurable relationship between sequence and structure conservation that weakens for alignments resulting in below 60% sequence identity, (ii) evolution tends to conserve more RNA structure than sequence, and (iii) there is a twilight zone for RNA homology detection. Discussion The computational analysis here presented quantitatively describes the relationship between sequence and structure for RNA molecules and defines a twilight zone region for detecting RNA homology. Our work could represent the theoretical basis and limitations for future developments in comparative RNA 3D structure prediction. PMID:20550657

  14. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluation of the deformation relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfyorova, E. A.; Lychagin, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the experimental results concerning the research of the morphology of the face-centered cubic single crystal surface after compression deformation. Our aim is to identify the method of forming a quasiperiodic profile of single crystals with different crystal geometrical orientation and quantitative description of deformation structures. A set of modern methods such as optical and confocal microscopy is applied to determine the morphology of surface parameters. The results show that octahedral slip is an integral part of the formation of the quasiperiodic profile surface starting with initial strain. The similarity of the formation process of the surface profile at different scale levels is given. The size of consistent deformation regions is found. This is 45 µm for slip lines ([001]-single crystal) and 30 µm for mesobands ([110]-single crystal). The possibility of using two- and three-dimensional roughness parameters to describe the deformation structures was shown.

  15. Mitral Annular Dynamics in Mitral Annular Calcification: A Three-Dimensional Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Gregg S; Movva, Rajesh; Topilsky, Yan; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Saldanha, Jason A; Watanabe, Nozomi; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2015-07-01

    The mitral annulus displays complex conformational changes during the cardiac cycle that can now be quantified by three-dimensional echocardiography. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is increasingly encountered, but its structural and dynamic consequences are largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe alterations in mitral annular dimensions and dynamics in patients with MAC. Transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 43 subjects with MAC and 36 age- and sex-matched normal control subjects. Mitral annular dimensions were quantified, using dedicated software, at six time points (three diastolic, three systolic) during the cardiac cycle. In diastole, the calcified annulus was larger and flatter than normal, with increased anteroposterior diameter (29.4 ± 0.6 vs 27.8 ± 0.6 mm, P = .046), reduced height (2.8 ± 0.2 vs 3.6 ± 0.2 mm, P = .006), and decreased saddle shape (8.9 ± 0.6% vs 11.4 ± 0.6%, P = .005). In systole, patients with MAC had greater annular area at all time points (P < .05 for each) compared with control subjects, because of reduced contraction along the anteroposterior diameter (P < .001). Saddle shape increased in early systole (from 10.5% to 13.5%, P = .04) in control subjects but not in those with MAC (P = NS). Valvular alterations were also noted; although mitral valve tent length decreased during systole in both groups, decreases were less in patients with MAC (P < .05 for mid- and late systole). For certain parameters (e.g., annular area), changes were confined largely to those patients with moderate to severe MAC (P = .006 vs control subjects, but nonsignificant for patients with mild MAC). Quantitative three-dimensional echocardiography provides new insights into the dynamic consequences of MAC. This imaging technique demonstrates that the mitral annulus is not made smaller by calcification. However, there is loss of annular contraction, particularly along the anteroposterior diameter, and loss

  16. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  17. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of acoustic instability of solid propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, R. M.; Juruf, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element solution of the acoustic vibration problem in a solid propellant rocket motor is presented. The solution yields the natural circular frequencies of vibration and the corresponding acoustic pressure mode shapes, considering the coupled response of the propellant grain to the acoustic oscillations occurring in the motor cavity. The near incompressibility of the solid propellant is taken into account in the formulation. A relatively simple example problem is solved in order to illustrate the applicability of the analysis and the developed computer code.

  18. The efficient simulation of separated three-dimensional viscous flows using the boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalsem, W. R.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient algorithm for solving the unsteady three-dimensional boundary-layer equations in the time-accurate or relaxation mode is presented. Results of the new algorithm are shown to be in quantitative agreement with detailed experimental data for flow over a swept infinite wing. The separated flow over a 6:1 ellipsoid at angle of attack, and the transonic flow over a finite-wing with shock-induced 'mushroom' separation are also computed and compared with available experimental data. It is concluded that complex, separated, three-dimensional viscous layers can be economically and routinely computed using a time-relaxation boundary-layer algorithm.

  19. Cross-stream diffusion under pressure-driven flow in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios: a phase diagram study using a three-dimensional analytical model.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional analytical model to investigate cross-stream diffusion transport in rectangular microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios under pressure-driven flow. The Fourier series solution to the three-dimensional convection-diffusion equation is obtained using a double integral transformation method and associated eigensystem calculation. A phase diagram derived from the dimensional analysis is presented to thoroughly interrogate the characteristics in various transport regimes and examine the validity of the model. The analytical model is verified against both experimental and numerical models in terms of the concentration profile, diffusion scaling law, and mixing efficiency with excellent agreement (with <0.5% relative error). Quantitative comparison against other prior analytical models in extensive parameter space is also performed, which demonstrates that the present model accommodates much broader transport regimes with significantly enhanced applicability.

  20. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  1. Stochastic analysis of three-dimensional flow in a bounded domain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    A commonly accepted first-order approximation of the equation for steady state flow in a fully saturated spatially random medium has the form of Poisson's equation. This form allows for the advantageous use of Green's functions to solve for the random output (hydraulic heads) in terms of a convolution over the random input (the logarithm of hydraulic conductivity). A solution for steady state three- dimensional flow in an aquifer bounded above and below is presented; consideration of these boundaries is made possible by use of Green's functions to solve Poisson's equation. Within the bounded domain the medium hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be a second-order stationary random process as represented by a simple three-dimensional covariance function. Upper and lower boundaries are taken to be no-flow boundaries; the mean flow vector lies entirely in the horizontal dimensions. The resulting hydraulic head covariance function exhibits nonstationary effects resulting from the imposition of boundary conditions. Comparisons are made with existing infinite domain solutions.

  2. X-ray μ-Laue diffraction analysis of Cu through-silicon vias: A two-dimensional and three-dimensional study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sanchez, Dario Ferreira; Weleguela, Monica Larissa Djomeni; Audoit, Guillaume

    2014-10-28

    Here, white X-ray μ-beam Laue diffraction is developed and applied to investigate elastic strain distributions in three-dimensional (3D) materials, more specifically, for the study of strain in Cu 10 μm diameter–80 μm deep through-silicon vias (TSVs). Two different approaches have been applied: (i) two-dimensional μ-Laue scanning and (ii) μ-beam Laue tomography. 2D μ-Laue scans provided the maps of the deviatoric strain tensor integrated along the via length over an array of TSVs in a 100 μm thick sample prepared by Focused Ion Beam. The μ-beam Laue tomography analysis enabled to obtain the 3D grain and elemental distribution of both Cu and Si. Themore » position, size (about 3 μm), shape, and orientation of Cu grains were obtained. Radial profiles of the equivalent deviatoric strain around the TSVs have been derived through both approaches. The results from both methods are compared and discussed.« less

  3. Element Library for Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis by the Integrated Force Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    The Integrated Force Method, a recently developed method for analyzing structures, is extended in this paper to three-dimensional structural analysis. First, a general formulation is developed to generate the stress interpolation matrix in terms of complete polynomials of the required order. The formulation is based on definitions of the stress tensor components in term of stress functions. The stress functions are written as complete polynomials and substituted into expressions for stress components. Then elimination of the dependent coefficients leaves the stress components expressed as complete polynomials whose coefficients are defined as generalized independent forces. Such derived components of the stress tensor identically satisfy homogenous Navier equations of equilibrium. The resulting element matrices are invariant with respect to coordinate transformation and are free of spurious zero-energy modes. The formulation provides a rational way to calculate the exact number of independent forces necessary to arrive at an approximation of the required order for complete polynomials. The influence of reducing the number of independent forces on the accuracy of the response is also analyzed. The stress fields derived are used to develop a comprehensive finite element library for three-dimensional structural analysis by the Integrated Force Method. Both tetrahedral- and hexahedral-shaped elements capable of modeling arbitrary geometric configurations are developed. A number of examples with known analytical solutions are solved by using the developments presented herein. The results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. The responses obtained with the Integrated Force Method are also compared with those generated by the standard displacement method. In most cases, the performance of the Integrated Force Method is better overall.

  4. Development of a three-dimensional core dynamics analysis program for commercial boiling water reactors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bessho, Yasunori; Yokomizo, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro

    1997-03-01

    Development and qualification results are described for a three-dimensional, time-domain core dynamics analysis program for commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs). The program allows analysis of the reactor core with a detailed mesh division, which eliminates calculational ambiguity in the nuclear-thermal-hydraulic stability analysis caused by reactor core regional division. During development, emphasis was placed on high calculational speed and large memory size as attained by the latest supercomputer technology. The program consists of six major modules, namely a core neutronics module, a fuel heat conduction/transfer module, a fuel channel thermal-hydraulic module, an upper plenum/separator module, a feedwater/recirculation flow module, and amore » control system module. Its core neutronics module is based on the modified one-group neutron kinetics equation with the prompt jump approximation and with six delayed neutron precursor groups. The module is used to analyze one fuel bundle of the reactor core with one mesh (region). The fuel heat conduction/transfer module solves the one-dimensional heat conduction equation in the radial direction with ten nodes in the fuel pin. The fuel channel thermal-hydraulic module is based on separated three-equation, two-phase flow equations with the drift flux correlation, and it analyzes one fuel bundle of the reactor core with one channel to evaluate flow redistribution between channels precisely. Thermal margin is evaluated by using the GEXL correlation, for example, in the module.« less

  5. The Evolution of Photography and Three-Dimensional Imaging in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M

    2017-03-01

    Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.

  6. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  7. A sedimentological approach to hydrologic characterization: A detailed three-dimensional study of an outcrop of the Sierra Ladrones Formation, Albuquerque basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lohmann, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional geologic outcrop studies which quantitatively describe the geologic architecture of deposits of a specific depositional environment are a necessary requirement for characterization of the permeability structure of an aquifer. The objective of this study is to address this need for quantitative, three-dimensional outcrop studies. For this study, a 10,000 m{sup 2} by 25 m high outcrop of Pliocene-Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation located near Belen, New Mexico was mapped in detail, and the geologic architecture was quantified using geostatistical variogram analysis. In general, the information contained in this study should be useful for hydrologists working on the characterization of aquifersmore » from similar depositional environments such as this one. However, for the permeability correlation study to be truly useful, the within-element correlation structure needs to be superimposed on the elements themselves instead of using mean log (k) values, as was done for this study. Such information is derived from outcrop permeability sampling such as the work of Davis (1990) and Goggin et al. (1988).« less

  8. Experiments on an unsteady, three-dimensional separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henk, R. W.; Reynolds, W. C.; Reed, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation occurs in a variety of technical situations including turbomachinery and low-speed aircraft. An experimental program at Stanford in unsteady, three-dimensional, pressure-driven laminar separation has investigated the structure and time-scaling of these flows; of particular interest is the development, washout, and control of flow separation. Results reveal that a two-dimensional, laminar boundary layer passes through several stages on its way to a quasi-steady three-dimensional separation. The quasi-steady state of the separation embodies a complex, unsteady, vortical structure.

  9. Pursuing Mirror Image Reconstruction in Unilateral Microtia: Customizing Auricular Framework by Application of Three-Dimensional Imaging and Three-Dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Ng, Li-Shia; Chang, Chun-Shin; Lu, Ting-Chen; Chen, Ning-Hung; Chen, Zung-Chung

    2017-06-01

    Advances in three-dimensional imaging and three-dimensional printing technology have expanded the frontier of presurgical design for microtia reconstruction from two-dimensional curved lines to three-dimensional perspectives. This study presents an algorithm for combining three-dimensional surface imaging, computer-assisted design, and three-dimensional printing to create patient-specific auricular frameworks in unilateral microtia reconstruction. Between January of 2015 and January of 2016, six patients with unilateral microtia were enrolled. The average age of the patients was 7.6 years. A three-dimensional image of the patient's head was captured by 3dMDcranial, and virtual sculpture carried out using Geomagic Freeform software and a Touch X Haptic device for fabrication of the auricular template. Each template was tailored according to the patient's unique auricular morphology. The final construct was mirrored onto the defective side and printed out with biocompatible acrylic material. During the surgery, the prefabricated customized template served as a three-dimensional guide for surgical simulation and sculpture of the MEDPOR framework. Average follow-up was 10.3 months. Symmetric and good aesthetic results with regard to auricular shape, projection, and orientation were obtained. One case with severe implant exposure was salvaged with free temporoparietal fascia transfer and skin grafting. The combination of three-dimensional imaging and manufacturing technology with the malleability of MEDPOR has surpassed existing limitations resulting from the use of autologous materials and the ambiguity of two-dimensional planning. This approach allows surgeons to customize the auricular framework in a highly precise and sophisticated manner, taking a big step closer to the goal of mirror-image reconstruction for unilateral microtia patients. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Development of Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yao; Kiou, Meng-Sing; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1999-01-01

    For a typical three dimensional flow in a practical engineering device, the time spent in grid generation can take 70 percent of the total analysis effort, resulting in a serious bottleneck in the design/analysis cycle. The present research attempts to develop a procedure that can considerably reduce the grid generation effort. The DRAGON grid, as a hybrid grid, is created by means of a Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid Overlapping by Nonstructured grid. The DRAGON grid scheme is an adaptation to the Chimera thinking. The Chimera grid is a composite structured grid, composing a set of overlapped structured grids, which are independently generated and body-fitted. The grid is of high quality and amenable for efficient solution schemes. However, the interpolation used in the overlapped region between grids introduces error, especially when a sharp-gradient region is encountered. The DRAGON grid scheme is capable of completely eliminating the interpolation and preserving the conservation property. It maximizes the advantages of the Chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured and while at the same time keeping its weaknesses minimal. In the present paper, we describe the progress towards extending the DRAGON grid technology into three dimensions. Essential and programming aspects of the extension, and new challenges for the three-dimensional cases, are addressed.

  11. Three-dimensional viscous design methodology for advanced technology aircraft supersonic inlet systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    A broad program to develop advanced, reliable, and user oriented three-dimensional viscous design techniques for supersonic inlet systems, and encourage their transfer into the general user community is discussed. Features of the program include: (1) develop effective methods of computing three-dimensional flows within a zonal modeling methodology; (2) ensure reasonable agreement between said analysis and selective sets of benchmark validation data; (3) develop user orientation into said analysis; and (4) explore and develop advanced numerical methodology.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Cell Nucleus Organisation

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Carol; Adams, Niall M; Islam, Suhail A; Stephens, David A; Freemont, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    There are almost 1,300 entries for higher eukaryotes in the Nuclear Protein Database. The proteins' subcellular distribution patterns within interphase nuclei can be complex, ranging from diffuse to punctate or microspeckled, yet they all work together in a coordinated and controlled manner within the three-dimensional confines of the nuclear volume. In this review we describe recent advances in the use of quantitative methods to understand nuclear spatial organisation and discuss some of the practical applications resulting from this work. PMID:17676980

  13. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer spheroid models for Photodynamic Therapy: Strengths and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional, in vitro spheroid cultures offer considerable utility for the development and testing of anticancer photodynamic therapy regimens. More complex than monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid systems replicate many of the important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that modulate treatment response in vivo. Simple enough to be grown by the thousands and small enough to be optically interrogated, spheroid cultures lend themselves to high-content and high-throughput imaging approaches. These advantages have enabled studies investigating photosensitizer uptake, spatiotemporal patterns of therapeutic response, alterations in oxygen diffusion and consumption during therapy, and the exploration of mechanisms that underlie therapeutic synergy. The use of quantitative imaging methods, in particular, has accelerated the pace of three-dimensional in vitro photodynamic therapy studies, enabling the rapid compilation of multiple treatment response parameters in a single experiment. Improvements in model cultures, the creation of new molecular probes of cell state and function, and innovations in imaging toolkits will be important for the advancement of spheroid culture systems for future photodynamic therapy studies.

  14. A New Classification of Three-Dimensional Printing Technologies: Systematic Review of Three-Dimensional Printing for Patient-Specific Craniomaxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Carly A; Lin, Alexander Y

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional printing technology has been advancing in surgical applications. This systematic review examines its patient-specific applications in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Terms related to "three-dimensional printing" and "surgery" were searched on PubMed on May 4, 2015; 313 unique articles were returned. Inclusion and exclusion criteria concentrated on patient-specific surgical applications, yielding 141 full-text articles, of which 33 craniomaxillofacial articles were analyzed. Thirty-three articles included 315 patients who underwent three-dimensional printing-assisted operations. The most common modeling software was Mimics, the most common printing software was 3D Systems, the average time to create a printed object was 18.9 hours (range, 1.5 to 96 hours), and the average cost of a printed object was $1353.31 (range, $69.75 to $5500). Surgical procedures were divided among 203 craniofacial patients (205 three-dimensional printing objects) and 112 maxillofacial patients (137 objects). Printing technologies could be classified as contour models, guides, splints, and implants. For craniofacial patients, 173 contour models (84 percent), 13 guides (6 percent), two splints (1 percent), and 17 implants (8 percent) were made. For maxillofacial patients, 41 contour models (30 percent), 48 guides (35 percent), 40 splints (29 percent), and eight implants (6 percent) were made. These distributions were significantly different (p < 0.0001). Four studies compared three-dimensional printing techniques to conventional techniques; two of them found that three-dimensional printing produced improved outcomes. Three-dimensional printing technology in craniomaxillofacial surgery can be classified into contour models (type I), guides (type II), splints (type III), and implants (type IV). These four methods vary in their use between craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery, reflecting their different goals. This understanding may help advance and predict three-dimensional

  15. TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng

    2014-01-01

    The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure–activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein–ligand docking. Database URL: http://cwtung.kmu.edu.tw/tipdb. PMID:24930145

  16. Three-dimensional printing and pediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Naim; Zein, Nizar N

    2016-10-01

    Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries. Medical educators are exploring the use of three-dimensional printed organs in anatomy classes and surgical residencies. Moreover, mini-livers are being developed by regenerative medicine scientist as a way to test new drugs and, eventually, whole livers will be grown in the laboratory to replace organs with end-stage disease solving the organ shortage problem. From presurgical planning to medical education to ultimately the bioprinting of whole organs for transplantation, three-dimensional printing will change medicine as we know in the next few years.

  17. An adaptive front tracking technique for three-dimensional transient flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, O. S.; Anderson, P. D.; Peters, G. W. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive technique, based on both surface stretching and surface curvature analysis for tracking strongly deforming fluid volumes in three-dimensional flows is presented. The efficiency and accuracy of the technique are demonstrated for two- and three-dimensional flow simulations. For the two-dimensional test example, the results are compared with results obtained using a different tracking approach based on the advection of a passive scalar. Although for both techniques roughly the same structures are found, the resolution for the front tracking technique is much higher. In the three-dimensional test example, a spherical blob is tracked in a chaotic mixing flow. For this problem, the accuracy of the adaptive tracking is demonstrated by the volume conservation for the advected blob. Adaptive front tracking is suitable for simulation of the initial stages of fluid mixing, where the interfacial area can grow exponentially with time. The efficiency of the algorithm significantly benefits from parallelization of the code. Copyright

  18. Bifurcation and stability of single and multiple vortex rings in three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bisset, R. N.; Wang, Wenlong; Ticknor, C.

    Here, we investigate how single- and multi-vortex-ring states can emerge from a planar dark soliton in three-dimensional (3D) Bose-Einstein condensates (confined in isotropic or anisotropic traps) through bifurcations. We characterize such bifurcations quantitatively using a Galerkin-type approach and find good qualitative and quantitative agreement with our Bogoliubov–de Gennes (BdG) analysis. We also systematically characterize the BdG spectrum of the dark solitons, using perturbation theory, and obtain a quantitative match with our 3D BdG numerical calculations. We then turn our attention to the emergence of single- and multi-vortex-ring states. We systematically capture these as stationary states of the system and quantifymore » their BdG spectra numerically. We found that although the vortex ring may be unstable when bifurcating, its instabilities weaken and may even eventually disappear for sufficiently large chemical potentials and suitable trap settings. For instance, we demonstrate the stability of the vortex ring for an isotropic trap in the large-chemical-potential regime.« less

  19. Bifurcation and stability of single and multiple vortex rings in three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates

    DOE PAGES

    Bisset, R. N.; Wang, Wenlong; Ticknor, C.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Here, we investigate how single- and multi-vortex-ring states can emerge from a planar dark soliton in three-dimensional (3D) Bose-Einstein condensates (confined in isotropic or anisotropic traps) through bifurcations. We characterize such bifurcations quantitatively using a Galerkin-type approach and find good qualitative and quantitative agreement with our Bogoliubov–de Gennes (BdG) analysis. We also systematically characterize the BdG spectrum of the dark solitons, using perturbation theory, and obtain a quantitative match with our 3D BdG numerical calculations. We then turn our attention to the emergence of single- and multi-vortex-ring states. We systematically capture these as stationary states of the system and quantifymore » their BdG spectra numerically. We found that although the vortex ring may be unstable when bifurcating, its instabilities weaken and may even eventually disappear for sufficiently large chemical potentials and suitable trap settings. For instance, we demonstrate the stability of the vortex ring for an isotropic trap in the large-chemical-potential regime.« less

  20. Maxillary reaction patterns identified by three-dimensional analysis of casts from infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Neuschulz, J; Schaefer, I; Scheer, M; Christ, H; Braumann, B

    2013-07-01

    In order to visualize and quantify the direction and extent of morphological upper-jaw changes in infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) during early orthodontic treatment, a three-dimensional method of cast analysis for routine application was developed. In the present investigation, this method was used to identify reaction patterns associated with specific cleft forms. The study included a cast series reflecting the upper-jaw situations of 46 infants with complete (n=27) or incomplete (n=19) UCLP during week 1 and months 3, 6, and 12 of life. Three-dimensional datasets were acquired and visualized with scanning software (DigiModel®; OrthoProof, The Netherlands). Following interactive identification of landmarks on the digitized surface relief, a defined set of representative linear parameters were three-dimensionally measured. At the same time, the three-dimensional surfaces of one patient series were superimposed based on a defined reference plane. Morphometric differences were statistically analyzed. Thanks to the user-friendly software, all landmarks could be identified quickly and reproducibly, thus, allowing for simultaneous three-dimensional measurement of all defined parameters. The measured values revealed that significant morphometric differences were present in all three planes of space between the two patient groups. Patients with complete UCLP underwent significantly larger reductions in cleft width (p<0.001), and sagittal growth in the complete UCLP group exceeded sagittal growth in the incomplete UCLP group by almost 50% within the first year of life. Based on patients with incomplete versus complete UCLP, different reaction patterns were identified that depended not on apparent severities of malformation but on cleft forms.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of tokamaks and stellarators

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The NSTAB equilibrium and stability code and the TRAN Monte Carlo transport code furnish a simple but effective numerical simulation of essential features of present tokamak and stellarator experiments. When the mesh size is comparable to the island width, an accurate radial difference scheme in conservation form captures magnetic islands successfully despite a nested surface hypothesis imposed by the mathematics. Three-dimensional asymmetries in bifurcated numerical solutions of the axially symmetric tokamak problem are relevant to the observation of unstable neoclassical tearing modes and edge localized modes in experiments. Islands in compact stellarators with quasiaxial symmetry are easier to control, so these configurations will become good candidates for magnetic fusion if difficulties with safety and stability are encountered in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. PMID:18768807

  2. Biodynamic profiling of three-dimensional tissue growth techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Merrill, Dan; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional tissue culture presents a more biologically relevant environment in which to perform drug development than conventional two-dimensional cell culture. However, obtaining high-content information from inside three dimensional tissue has presented an obstacle to rapid adoption of 3D tissue culture for pharmaceutical applications. Biodynamic imaging is a high-content three-dimensional optical imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry and digital holography that uses intracellular dynamics as high-content image contrast. In this paper, we use biodynamic imaging to compare pharmaceutical responses to Taxol of three-dimensional multicellular spheroids grown by three different growth techniques: rotating bioreactor, hanging-drop and plate-grown spheroids. The three growth techniques have systematic variations among tissue cohesiveness and intracellular activity and consequently display different pharmacodynamics under identical drug dose conditions. The in vitro tissue cultures are also compared to ex vivo living biopsies. These results demonstrate that three-dimensional tissue cultures are not equivalent, and that drug-response studies must take into account the growth method.

  3. Quality Control of Laser-Beam-Melted Parts by a Correlation Between Their Mechanical Properties and a Three-Dimensional Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, T.; Wiora, G.; Witt, G.

    2017-03-01

    Good correlations between three-dimensional surface analyses of laser-beam-melted parts of nickel alloy HX and their mechanical properties were found. The surface analyses were performed with a confocal microscope, which offers a more profound surface data basis than a conventional, two-dimensional tactile profilometry. This new approach results in a wide range of three-dimensional surface parameters, which were each evaluated with respect to their feasibility for quality control in additive manufacturing. As a result of an automated surface analysis process by the confocal microscope and an industrial six-axis robot, the results are an innovative approach for quality control in additive manufacturing.

  4. Quantification of source impact to PM using three-dimensional weighted factor model analysis on multi-site data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guoliang; Peng, Xing; Huangfu, Yanqi; Wang, Wei; Xu, Jiao; Tian, Yingze; Feng, Yinchang; Ivey, Cesunica E.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2017-07-01

    Source apportionment technologies are used to understand the impacts of important sources of particulate matter (PM) air quality, and are widely used for both scientific studies and air quality management. Generally, receptor models apportion speciated PM data from a single sampling site. With the development of large scale monitoring networks, PM speciation are observed at multiple sites in an urban area. For these situations, the models should account for three factors, or dimensions, of the PM, including the chemical species concentrations, sampling periods and sampling site information, suggesting the potential power of a three-dimensional source apportionment approach. However, the principle of three-dimensional Parallel Factor Analysis (Ordinary PARAFAC) model does not always work well in real environmental situations for multi-site receptor datasets. In this work, a new three-way receptor model, called "multi-site three way factor analysis" model is proposed to deal with the multi-site receptor datasets. Synthetic datasets were developed and introduced into the new model to test its performance. Average absolute error (AAE, between estimated and true contributions) for extracted sources were all less than 50%. Additionally, three-dimensional ambient datasets from a Chinese mega-city, Chengdu, were analyzed using this new model to assess the application. Four factors are extracted by the multi-site WFA3 model: secondary source have the highest contributions (64.73 and 56.24 μg/m3), followed by vehicular exhaust (30.13 and 33.60 μg/m3), crustal dust (26.12 and 29.99 μg/m3) and coal combustion (10.73 and 14.83 μg/m3). The model was also compared to PMF, with general agreement, though PMF suggested a lower crustal contribution.

  5. Synthesis, Spectra, and Theoretical Investigations of 1,3,5-Triazines Compounds as Ultraviolet Rays Absorber Based on Time-Dependent Density Functional Calculations and three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueding; Xu, Yilian; Yang, Lu; Lu, Xiang; Zou, Hao; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Zicheng; Ma, Menglin

    2018-03-01

    A series of 1,3,5-triazines were synthesized and their UV absorption properties were tested. The computational chemistry methods were used to construct quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), which was used to computer aided design of new 1,3,5-triazines ultraviolet rays absorber compounds. The experimental UV absorption data are in good agreement with those predicted data using the Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) [B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p)]. A suitable forecasting model (R > 0.8, P < 0.0001) was revealed. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationship (3D-QSPR) model was established using multifit molecular alignment rule of Sybyl program, which conclusion is consistent with the TD-DFT calculation. The exceptional photostability mechanism of such ultraviolet rays absorber compounds was studied and confirmed as principally banked upon their ability to undergo excited-state deactivation via an ultrafast excited-state proton transfer (ESIPT). The intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) of 1,3,5-triazines compounds is the basis for the excited state proton transfer, which was explored by IR spectroscopy, UV spectra, structural and energetic aspects of different conformers and frontier molecular orbitals analysis.

  6. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Withers, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored. PMID:25624521

  7. Cross-stream diffusion under pressure-driven flow in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios: a phase diagram study using a three-dimensional analytical model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a three-dimensional analytical model to investigate cross-stream diffusion transport in rectangular microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios under pressure-driven flow. The Fourier series solution to the three-dimensional convection–diffusion equation is obtained using a double integral transformation method and associated eigensystem calculation. A phase diagram derived from the dimensional analysis is presented to thoroughly interrogate the characteristics in various transport regimes and examine the validity of the model. The analytical model is verified against both experimental and numerical models in terms of the concentration profile, diffusion scaling law, and mixing efficiency with excellent agreement (with <0.5% relative error). Quantitative comparison against other prior analytical models in extensive parameter space is also performed, which demonstrates that the present model accommodates much broader transport regimes with significantly enhanced applicability. PMID:22247719

  8. Farley Three-Dimensional-Braiding Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Process and device known as Farley three-dimensional-braiding machine conceived to fabricate dry continuous fiber-reinforced preforms of complex three-dimensional shapes for subsequent processing into composite structures. Robotic fiber supply dispenses yarn as it traverses braiding surface. Combines many attributes of weaving and braiding processes with other attributes and capabilities. Other applications include decorative cloths, rugs, and other domestic textiles. Concept could lead to large variety of fiber layups and to entirely new products as well as new fiber-reinforcing applications.

  9. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.

  10. Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2003-06-24

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  11. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2006-09-26

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  12. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2001-10-02

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  13. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA; York, Jeremy [Bothell, WA

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  14. Analysis of Facial Asymmetry in Deformational Plagiocephaly Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Yung; Oh, Kap Sung

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) usually present with cranial vault deformities as well as facial asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional anthropometric data to evaluate the influence of cranial deformities on facial asymmetry. Methods We analyzed three-dimensional computed tomography data for infants with DP (n=48) and without DP (n=30, control). Using 16 landmarks and 3 reference planes, 22 distance parameters and 2 angular parameters were compared. This cephalometric assessment focused on asymmetry of the orbits, nose, ears, maxilla, and mandible. We then assessed the correlation between 23 of the measurements and cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) for statistical significance using relative differences and correlation analysis. Results With the exception of few orbital asymmetry variables, most measurements indicated that the facial asymmetry was greater in infants with DP. Mandibular and nasal asymmetry was correlated highly with severity of CVA. Shortening of the ipsilateral mandibular body was particularly significant. There was no significant deformity in the maxilla or ear. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the cranial vault deformity in DP is associated with facial asymmetry. Compared with the control group, the infants with DP were found to have prominent asymmetry of the nose and mandible. PMID:28913202

  15. NASA-Ames three-dimensional potential flow analysis system (POTFAN) equation solver code (SOLN) version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Bonnett, W. S.; Medan, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program known as SOLN was developed as an independent segment of the NASA-Ames three-dimensional potential flow analysis systems of linear algebraic equations. Methods used include: LU decomposition, Householder's method, a partitioning scheme, and a block successive relaxation method. Due to the independent modular nature of the program, it may be used by itself and not necessarily in conjunction with other segments of the POTFAN system.

  16. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  17. Three-dimensional transonic potential flow about complex 3-dimensional configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhner, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis has been developed and a computer code written to predict three-dimensional subsonic or transonic potential flow fields about lifting or nonlifting configurations. Possible condfigurations include inlets, nacelles, nacelles with ground planes, S-ducts, turboprop nacelles, wings, and wing-pylon-nacelle combinations. The solution of the full partial differential equation for compressible potential flow written in terms of a velocity potential is obtained using finite differences, line relaxation, and multigrid. The analysis uses either a cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate system. The computational mesh is not body fitted. The analysis has been programmed in FORTRAN for both the CDC CYBER 203 and the CRAY-1 computers. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurement are presented. Descriptions of the program input and output formats are included.

  18. Right ventricular strain analysis from three-dimensional echocardiography by using temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijun; Zhu, Meihua; Ashraf, Muhammad; Broberg, Craig S; Sahn, David J; Song, Xubo

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of right ventricle (RV) motion is important for study of the mechanism of congenital and acquired diseases. Unlike left ventricle (LV), motion estimation of RV is more difficult because of its complex shape and thin myocardium. Although attempts of finite element models on MR images and speckle tracking on echocardiography have shown promising results on RV strain analysis, these methods can be improved since the temporal smoothness of the motion is not considered. The authors have proposed a temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation method in which a spatiotemporal transformation is estimated by optimization of a registration energy functional of the velocity field in their earlier work. The proposed motion estimation method is a fully automatic process for general image sequences. The authors apply the method by combining with a semiautomatic myocardium segmentation method to the RV strain analysis of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic sequences of five open-chest pigs under different steady states. The authors compare the peak two-point strains derived by their method with those estimated from the sonomicrometry, the results show that they have high correlation. The motion of the right ventricular free wall is studied by using segmental strains. The baseline sequence results show that the segmental strains in their methods are consistent with results obtained by other image modalities such as MRI. The image sequences of pacing steady states show that segments with the largest strain variation coincide with the pacing sites. The high correlation of the peak two-point strains of their method and sonomicrometry under different steady states demonstrates that their RV motion estimation has high accuracy. The closeness of the segmental strain of their method to those from MRI shows the feasibility of their method in the study of RV function by using 3D echocardiography. The strain analysis of the pacing steady states shows the potential

  19. Three-dimensional characterization of microporosity and permeability in fault zones hosted in heterolithic succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, H. B.; Zambrano, M.; Jablonska, D.; Emanuele, T.; Agosta, F.; Mattioni, L.; Rustichelli, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic properties of fault zones depend upon the individual contributions of the damage zone and the fault core. In the case of the damage zone, it is generally characterized by means of fracture analysis and modelling implementing multiple approaches, for instance the discrete fracture network model, the continuum model, and the channel network model. Conversely, the fault core is more difficult to characterize because it is normally composed of fine grain material generated by friction and wear. If the dimensions of the fault core allows it, the porosity and permeability are normally studied by means of laboratory analysis or in the other case by two dimensional microporosity analysis and in situ measurements of permeability (e.g. micro-permeameter). In this study, a combined approach consisting of fracture modeling, three-dimensional microporosity analysis, and computational fluid dynamics was applied to characterize the hydraulic properties of fault zones. The studied fault zones crosscut a well-cemented heterolithic succession (sandstone and mudstones) and may vary in terms of fault core thickness and composition, fracture properties, kinematics (normal or strike-slip), and displacement. These characteristics produce various splay and fault core behavior. The alternation of sandstone and mudstone layers is responsible for the concurrent occurrence of brittle (fractures) and ductile (clay smearing) deformation. When these alternating layers are faulted, they produce corresponding fault cores which act as conduits or barriers for fluid migration. When analyzing damage zones, accurate field and data acquisition and stochastic modeling was used to determine the hydraulic properties of the rock volume, in relation to the surrounding, undamaged host rock. In the fault cores, the three-dimensional pore network quantitative analysis based on X-ray microtomography images includes porosity, pore connectivity, and specific surface area. In addition, images were

  20. Synchrotron X-ray computed laminography of the three-dimensional anatomy of tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Pieter; Herremans, Els; Helfen, Lukas; Ho, Quang T; Abera, Metadel; Baumbach, Tilo; Wevers, Martine; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SR-CL) is presented as an imaging method for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of leaves. The SR-CL method was used to provide 3D images of 1-mm² samples of intact leaves at a pixel resolution of 750 nm. The method allowed visualization and quantitative analysis of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, and showed local venation patterns, aspects of xylem vascular structure and stomata. The method failed to image subcellular organelles such as chloroplasts. We constructed 3D computer models of leaves that can provide a basis for calculating gas exchange, light penetration and water and solute transport. The leaf anatomy of two different tomato genotypes grown in saturating light conditions was compared by 3D analysis. Differences were found in calculated values of tissue porosity, cell number density, cell area to volume ratio and cell volume and cell shape distributions of palisade and spongy cell layers. In contrast, the exposed cell area to leaf area ratio in mesophyll, a descriptor that correlates to the maximum rate of photosynthesis in saturated light conditions, was no different between spongy and palisade cells or between genotypes. The use of 3D image processing avoids many of the limitations of anatomical analysis with two-dimensional sections. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  2. The impact of acquisition angle differences on three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shengxian; Holm, Niels R; Koning, Gerhard; Maeng, Michael; Reiber, Johan H C

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) requires two angiographic views to restore vessel dimensions. This study investigated the impact of acquisition angle differences (AADs) of the two angiographic views on the assessed dimensions by 3D QCA. X-ray angiograms of an assembled brass phantom with different types of straight lesions were recorded at multiple angiographic projections. The projections were randomly matched as pairs and 3D QCA was performed in those pairs with AAD larger than 25°. The lesion length and diameter stenosis in three different lesions, a circular concentric severe lesion (A), a circular concentric moderate lesion (B), and a circular eccentric moderate lesion (C), were measured by 3D QCA. The acquisition protocol was repeated for a silicone bifurcation phantom, and the bifurcation angles and bifurcation core volume were measured by 3D QCA. The measurements were compared with the true dimensions if applicable and their correlation with AAD was studied. 50 matched pairs of angiographic views were analyzed for the brass phantom. The average value of AAD was 48.0 ± 14.1°. The percent diameter stenosis was slightly overestimated by 3D QCA for all lesions: A (error 1.2 ± 0.9%, P < 0.001); B (error 0.6 ± 0.5%, P < 0.001); C (error 1.1 ± 0.6%, P < 0.001). The correlation of the measurements with AAD was only significant for lesion A (R(2) = 0.151, P = 0.005). The lesion length was slightly overestimated by 3D QCA for lesion A (error 0.06 ± 0.18 mm, P = 0.026), but well assessed for lesion B (error -0.00 ± 0.16 mm, P = 0.950) and lesion C (error -0.01 ± 0.18 mm, P = 0.585). The correlation of the measurements with AAD was not significant for any lesion. Forty matched pairs of angiographic views were analyzed for the bifurcation phantom. The average value of AAD was 49.1 ± 15.4°. 3D QCA slightly overestimated the proximal angle (error 0.4 ± 1.1°, P = 0.046) and the distal angle (error 1.5 ± 1.3°, P < 0.001). The

  3. Automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis for evaluation of facial movement.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, B; Aubá, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new 3D capture system of facial movements called FACIAL CLIMA. It is an automatic optical motion system that involves placing special reflecting dots on the subject's face and video recording with three infrared-light cameras the subject performing several face movements such as smile, mouth puckering, eye closure and forehead elevation. Images from the cameras are automatically processed with a software program that generates customised information such as 3D data on velocities and areas. The study has been performed in 20 healthy volunteers. The accuracy of the measurement process and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities have been evaluated. Comparison of a known distance and angle with those obtained by FACIAL CLIMA shows that this system is accurate to within 0.13 mm and 0.41 degrees . In conclusion, the accuracy of the FACIAL CLIMA system for evaluation of facial movements is demonstrated and also the high intrarater and interrater reliability. It has advantages with respect to other systems that have been developed for evaluation of facial movements, such as short calibration time, short measuring time, easiness to use and it provides not only distances but also velocities and areas. Thus the FACIAL CLIMA system could be considered as an adequate tool to assess the outcome of facial paralysis reanimation surgery. Thus, patients with facial paralysis could be compared between surgical centres such that effectiveness of facial reanimation operations could be evaluated.

  4. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging and analysis of rock falls in Yosemite valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Gregory M.; Bawden, G.W.; Green, J.K.; Hanson, E.; Downing, G.; Collins, B.D.; Bond, S.; Leslar, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present quantitative analyses of recent large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, California, using integrated high-resolution imaging techniques. Rock falls commonly occur from the glacially sculpted granitic walls of Yosemite Valley, modifying this iconic landscape but also posing signifi cant potential hazards and risks. Two large rock falls occurred from the cliff beneath Glacier Point in eastern Yosemite Valley on 7 and 8 October 2008, causing minor injuries and damaging structures in a developed area. We used a combination of gigapixel photography, airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, and ground-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to characterize the rock-fall detachment surface and adjacent cliff area, quantify the rock-fall volume, evaluate the geologic structure that contributed to failure, and assess the likely failure mode. We merged the ALS and TLS data to resolve the complex, vertical to overhanging topography of the Glacier Point area in three dimensions, and integrated these data with gigapixel photographs to fully image the cliff face in high resolution. Three-dimensional analysis of repeat TLS data reveals that the cumulative failure consisted of a near-planar rock slab with a maximum length of 69.0 m, a mean thickness of 2.1 m, a detachment surface area of 2750 m2, and a volume of 5663 ?? 36 m3. Failure occurred along a surfaceparallel, vertically oriented sheeting joint in a clear example of granitic exfoliation. Stress concentration at crack tips likely propagated fractures through the partially attached slab, leading to failure. Our results demonstrate the utility of high-resolution imaging techniques for quantifying far-range (>1 km) rock falls occurring from the largely inaccessible, vertical rock faces of Yosemite Valley, and for providing highly accurate and precise data needed for rock-fall hazard assessment. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Partial spline models for the inclusion of tropopause and frontal boundary information in otherwise smooth two- and three-dimensional objective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiau, Jyh-Jen; Wahba, Grace; Johnson, Donald R.

    1986-01-01

    A new method, based on partial spline models, is developed for including specified discontinuities in otherwise smooth two- and three-dimensional objective analyses. The method is appropriate for including tropopause height information in two- and three-dimensinal temperature analyses, using the O'Sullivan-Wahba physical variational method for analysis of satellite radiance data, and may in principle be used in a combined variational analysis of observed, forecast, and climate information. A numerical method for its implementation is described and a prototype two-dimensional analysis based on simulated radiosonde and tropopause height data is shown. The method may also be appropriate for other geophysical problems, such as modeling the ocean thermocline, fronts, discontinuities, etc.

  6. Self-assembled three-dimensional nanocrown array.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soongweon; Kang, Taewook; Choi, Dukhyun; Choi, Yeonho; Lee, Luke P

    2012-07-24

    Although an ordered nanoplasmonic probe array will have a huge impact on light harvesting, selective frequency response (i.e., nanoantenna), and quantitative molecular/cellular imaging, the realization of such an array is still limited by conventional techniques due to the serial processing or resolution limit by light diffraction. Here, we demonstrate a thermodynamically driven, self-assembled three-dimensional nanocrown array that consists of a core and six satellite gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Our ordered nanoprobe array is fabricated over a large area by thermal dewetting of thin gold film on hexagonally ordered porous anodic alumina (PAA). During thermal dewetting, the structural order of the PAA template dictates the periodic arrangement of gold nanoparticles, rendering the array of gold nanocrown. Because of its tunable size (i.e., 50 nm core and 20 nm satellite GNPs), arrangement, and periodicity, the nanocrown array shows multiple optical resonance frequencies at visible wavelengths as well as angle-dependent optical properties.

  7. An Empirically Derived Three-Dimensional Laplace Resonance in the GJ 876 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Benjamin Earl; Robertson, Paul; Pritchard, Seth

    2015-08-01

    We report constraints on the three-dimensional orbital architecture for all four planets known to orbit the nearby M dwarf Gliese 876 (=GJ 876) based solely on Doppler measurements and demanding long-term orbital stability. Our dataset incorporates publicly available radial velocities taken with the ELODIE and CORALIE spectrographs, HARPS, and Keck HIRES as well as previously unpublished HIRES RVs. We first quantitatively assess the validity of the planets thought to orbit GJ 876 by computing the Bayes factors for a variety of different coplanar models using an importance sampling algorithm. We confirm that a four-planet model is indeed preferred over a three-planet model. Next, we apply a Newtonian MCMC algorithm (RUN DMC, B. Nelson et al. 2014) to perform a Bayesian analysis of the planet masses and orbits using an n-body model that allows each planet to take on its own orbit in three-dimensional space. Based on the radial velocities alone, the mutual inclinations for the outer three resonant planets are constrained to Φcb = 2.8±1.71.3 degrees for the "c" and "b" pair and Φbe = 10.3±6.35.1 degrees for the "b" and "e" pair. We integrate the equations of motion of a sample of initial conditions drawn from our posterior for 107 years. We identify dynamically unstable models and find that the GJ 876 planets must be roughly coplanar (Φcb = 1.41±0.620.57 degrees) and (Φbe = 3.9±2.01.9 degrees), indicating the amount of planet-planet scattering in the system has been low. We investigate the distribution of the respective resonant arguments of each planet pair and find that at least one resonant argument for each planet pair and the Laplace argument librate. The libration amplitudes in our three-dimensional orbital model supports the idea of the outer-three planets having undergone significant past disk migration.

  8. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) and pharmacophore elucidation of tetrahydropyran derivatives as serotonin and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkar, Prashant S.; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on a series of substituted tetrahydropyran (THP) derivatives possessing serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter inhibitory activities. The study aimed to rationalize the potency of these inhibitors for SERT and NET as well as the observed selectivity differences for NET over SERT. The dataset consisted of 29 molecules, of which 23 molecules were used as the training set for deriving CoMFA models for SERT and NET uptake inhibitory activities. Superimpositions were performed using atom-based fitting and 3-point pharmacophore-based alignment. Two charge calculation methods, Gasteiger-Hückel and semiempirical PM3, were tried. Both alignment methods were analyzed in terms of their predictive abilities and produced comparable results with high internal and external predictivities. The models obtained using the 3-point pharmacophore-based alignment outperformed the models with atom-based fitting in terms of relevant statistics and interpretability of the generated contour maps. Steric fields dominated electrostatic fields in terms of contribution. The selectivity analysis (NET over SERT), though yielded models with good internal predictivity, showed very poor external test set predictions. The analysis was repeated with 24 molecules after systematically excluding so-called outliers (5 out of 29) from the model derivation process. The resulting CoMFA model using the atom-based fitting exhibited good statistics and was able to explain most of the selectivity (NET over SERT)-discriminating factors. The presence of -OH substituent on the THP ring was found to be one of the most important factors governing the NET selectivity over SERT. Thus, a 4-point NET-selective pharmacophore, after introducing this newly found H-bond donor/acceptor feature in addition to the initial 3-point pharmacophore, was proposed.

  9. [Bone drilling simulation by three-dimensional imaging].

    PubMed

    Suto, Y; Furuhata, K; Kojima, T; Kurokawa, T; Kobayashi, M

    1989-06-01

    The three-dimensional display technique has a wide range of medical applications. Pre-operative planning is one typical application: in orthopedic surgery, three-dimensional image processing has been used very successfully. We have employed this technique in pre-operative planning for orthopedic surgery, and have developed a simulation system for bone-drilling. Positive results were obtained by pre-operative rehearsal; when a region of interest is indicated by means of a mouse on the three-dimensional image displayed on the CRT, the corresponding region appears on the slice image which is displayed simultaneously. Consequently, the status of the bone-drilling is constantly monitored. In developing this system, we have placed emphasis on the quality of the reconstructed three-dimensional images, on fast processing, and on the easy operation of the surgical planning simulation.

  10. Femoral articular shape and geometry. A three-dimensional computerized analysis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Siu, D; Rudan, J; Wevers, H W; Griffiths, P

    1996-02-01

    An average, three-dimensional anatomic shape and geometry of the distal femur were generated from x-ray computed tomography data of five fresh asymptomatic cadaver knees using AutoCAD (AutoDesk, Sausalito, CA), a computer-aided design and drafting software. Each femur model was graphically repositioned to a standardized orientation using a series of alignment templates and scaled to a nominal size of 85 mm in mediolateral and 73 mm in anteroposterior dimensions. An average generic shape of the distal femur was synthesized by combining these pseudosolid models and reslicing the composite structure at different elevations using clipping and smoothing techniques in interactive computer graphics. The resulting distal femoral geometry was imported into a computer-aided manufacturing system, and anatomic prototypes of the distal femur were produced. Quantitative geometric analyses of the generic femur in the coronal and transverse planes revealed definite condylar camber (3 degrees-6 degrees) and toe-in (8 degrees-10 degrees) with an oblique patellofemoral groove (15 degrees) with respect to the mechanical axis of the femur. In the sagittal plane, each condyle could be approximated by three concatenated circular arcs (anterior, distal, and posterior) with slope continuity and a single arc for the patellofemoral groove. The results of this study may have important implications in future femoral prosthesis design and clinical applications.

  11. Recognition Of Complex Three Dimensional Objects Using Three Dimensional Moment Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for the recognition of complex three dimensional objects is presented. The complex 3-D objects are represented in terms of their 3-D moment invariants, algebraic expressions that remain invariant independent of the 3-D objects' orientations and locations in the field of view. The technique of 3-D moment invariants has been used successfully for simple 3-D object recognition in the past. In this work we have extended this method for the representation of more complex objects. Two complex objects are represented digitally; their 3-D moment invariants have been calculated, and then the invariancy of these 3-D invariant moment expressions is verified by changing the orientation and the location of the objects in the field of view. The results of this study have significant impact on 3-D robotic vision, 3-D target recognition, scene analysis and artificial intelligence.

  12. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    PubMed

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  13. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  14. Three-dimensional accuracy of plastic transfer impression copings for three implant systems.

    PubMed

    Teo, Juin Wei; Tan, Keson B; Nicholls, Jack I; Wong, Keng Mun; Uy, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional accuracy of indirect plastic impression copings and direct implant-level impression copings from three implant systems (Nobel Biocare [NB], Biomet 3i [3i], and Straumann [STR]) at three interimplant buccolingual angulations (0, 8, and 15 degrees). Two-implant master models were used to simulate a three-unit implant fixed partial denture. Test models were made from Impregum impressions using direct implant-level impression copings (DR). Abutments were then connected to the master models for impressions using the plastic impression copings (INDR) at three different angulations for a total of 18 test groups (n = 5 in each group). A coordinate measuring machine was used to measure linear distortions, three-dimensional (3D) distortions, angular distortions, and absolute angular distortions between the master and test models. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the implant system had a significant effect on 3D distortions and absolute angular distortions in the x- and y-axes. Interimplant angulation had a significant effect on 3D distortions and absolute angular distortions in the y-axis. Impression technique had a significant effect on absolute angular distortions in the y-axis. With DR, the NB and 3i systems were not significantly different. With INDR, 3i appeared to have less distortion than the other systems. Interimplant angulations did not significantly affect the accuracy of NBDR, 3iINDR, and STRINDR. The accuracy of INDR and DR was comparable at all interimplant angulations for 3i and STR. For NB, INDR was comparable to DR at 0 and 8 degrees but was less accurate at 15 degrees. Three-dimensional accuracy of implant impressions varied with implant system, interimplant angulation, and impression technique.

  15. C-reactive protein estimation: a quantitative analysis for three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Salgia, Gaurav; Kulkarni, Deepak G; Shetty, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) estimation for quantitative analysis to assess anti-inflammatory action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after surgery in maxillofacial surgery. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of CRP as a quantitative analysis for objective assessment of efficacy of three NSAIDs in postoperative inflammation and pain control. The parallel study group design of randomization was done. Totally 60 patients were divided into three groups. CRP was evaluated at baseline and postoperatively (immediate and 72 h) after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar. The respective group received the drugs by random coding postoperatively. The assessment of pain control and inflammation using NSAIDs postoperatively after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed with CRP levels. The blood sample of the patient was assessed immediate postoperatively and after 72 h. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for assessment of pain and its correlation with CRP levels. Comparison of difference in levels of CRP levels had P < 0.05 with immediate postoperative and baseline levels. The duration of surgery with association of CRP levels P = 0.425 which was nonsignificant. The pain score was increased with mefenamic acid (P = 0.003), which was significant on VAS. Diclofenac had the best anti-inflammatory action. There was a significant increase in CRP levels in immediate postoperative values and 72 h. CRP test proved to be a useful indicator as a quantitative assessment tool for monitoring postsurgical inflammation and therapeutic effects of various anti-inflammatory drugs. CRP test is a useful indicator for quantitative assessment for comparative evaluation of NSAIDs.

  16. Multifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs.

    PubMed

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Boterberg, Veerle; Dubruel, Peter; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan; Geris, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial 'design of experiments' approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology.

  17. Nonlocal continuous models for forced vibration analysis of two- and three-dimensional ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2014-06-01

    Novel nonlocal discrete and continuous models are proposed for dynamic analysis of two- and three-dimensional ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The generated extra van der Waals forces between adjacent SWCNTs due to their lateral motions are evaluated via Lennard-Jones potential function. Using a nonlocal Rayleigh beam model, the discrete and continuous models are developed for both two- and three-dimensional ensembles of SWCNTs acted upon by transverse dynamic loads. The capabilities of the proposed continuous models in capturing the vibration behavior of SWCNTs ensembles are then examined through various numerical simulations. A reasonably good agreement between the results of the continuous models and those of the discrete ones is also reported. The effects of the applied load frequency, intertube spaces, and small-scale parameter on the transverse dynamic responses of both two- and three-dimensional ensembles of SWCNTs are explained. The proposed continuous models would be very useful for dynamic analyses of large populated ensembles of SWCNTs whose discrete models suffer from both computational efforts and labor costs.

  18. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  19. Rigorous joining of advanced reduced-dimensional beam models to three-dimensional finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huimin

    In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and

  20. Three dimensional empirical mode decomposition analysis apparatus, method and article manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus and method of analysis for three-dimensional (3D) physical phenomena. The physical phenomena may include any varying 3D phenomena such as time varying polar ice flows. A repesentation of the 3D phenomena is passed through a Hilbert transform to convert the data into complex form. A spatial variable is separated from the complex representation by producing a time based covariance matrix. The temporal parts of the principal components are produced by applying Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Based on the rapidity with which the eigenvalues decay, the first 3-10 complex principal components (CPC) are selected for Empirical Mode Decomposition into intrinsic modes. The intrinsic modes produced are filtered in order to reconstruct the spatial part of the CPC. Finally, a filtered time series may be reconstructed from the first 3-10 filtered complex principal components.

  1. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra; Park, Chan-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05).

  2. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. RESULTS In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. CONCLUSION The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05). PMID:26816576

  3. Computation of the three-dimensional medial surface dynamics of the vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Döllinger, Michael; Berry, David A

    2006-01-01

    To increase our understanding of pathological and healthy voice production, quantitative measurement of the medial surface dynamics of the vocal folds is significant, albeit rarely performed because of the inaccessibility of the vocal folds. Using an excised hemilarynx methodology, a new calibration technique, herein referred to as the linear approximate (LA) method, was introduced to compute the three-dimensional coordinates of fleshpoints along the entire medial surface of the vocal fold. The results were compared with results from the direct linear transform. An associated error estimation was presented, demonstrating the improved accuracy of the new method. A test on real data was reported including computation of quantitative measurements of vocal fold dynamics.

  4. TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng

    2014-01-01

    The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein-ligand docking. Database URL: http://cwtung.kmu.edu.tw/tipdb. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. On three-dimensional misorientation spaces

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Robbie J.; Vukmanovic, Zoja; Solano-Alvarez, Wilberth; Lainé, Steven J.; Einsle, Joshua F.; Midgley, Paul A.; Rae, Catherine M. F.; Hielscher, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Determining the local orientation of crystals in engineering and geological materials has become routine with the advent of modern crystallographic mapping techniques. These techniques enable many thousands of orientation measurements to be made, directing attention towards how such orientation data are best studied. Here, we provide a guide to the visualization of misorientation data in three-dimensional vector spaces, reduced by crystal symmetry, to reveal crystallographic orientation relationships. Domains for all point group symmetries are presented and an analysis methodology is developed and applied to identify crystallographic relationships, indicated by clusters in the misorientation space, in examples from materials science and geology. This analysis aids the determination of active deformation mechanisms and evaluation of cluster centres and spread enables more accurate description of transformation processes supporting arguments regarding provenance. PMID:29118660

  6. On three-dimensional misorientation spaces.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Robert; Bennett, Robbie J; Johnstone, Duncan N; Vukmanovic, Zoja; Solano-Alvarez, Wilberth; Lainé, Steven J; Einsle, Joshua F; Midgley, Paul A; Rae, Catherine M F; Hielscher, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    Determining the local orientation of crystals in engineering and geological materials has become routine with the advent of modern crystallographic mapping techniques. These techniques enable many thousands of orientation measurements to be made, directing attention towards how such orientation data are best studied. Here, we provide a guide to the visualization of misorientation data in three-dimensional vector spaces, reduced by crystal symmetry, to reveal crystallographic orientation relationships. Domains for all point group symmetries are presented and an analysis methodology is developed and applied to identify crystallographic relationships, indicated by clusters in the misorientation space, in examples from materials science and geology. This analysis aids the determination of active deformation mechanisms and evaluation of cluster centres and spread enables more accurate description of transformation processes supporting arguments regarding provenance.

  7. On three-dimensional misorientation spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakow, Robert; Bennett, Robbie J.; Johnstone, Duncan N.; Vukmanovic, Zoja; Solano-Alvarez, Wilberth; Lainé, Steven J.; Einsle, Joshua F.; Midgley, Paul A.; Rae, Catherine M. F.; Hielscher, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    Determining the local orientation of crystals in engineering and geological materials has become routine with the advent of modern crystallographic mapping techniques. These techniques enable many thousands of orientation measurements to be made, directing attention towards how such orientation data are best studied. Here, we provide a guide to the visualization of misorientation data in three-dimensional vector spaces, reduced by crystal symmetry, to reveal crystallographic orientation relationships. Domains for all point group symmetries are presented and an analysis methodology is developed and applied to identify crystallographic relationships, indicated by clusters in the misorientation space, in examples from materials science and geology. This analysis aids the determination of active deformation mechanisms and evaluation of cluster centres and spread enables more accurate description of transformation processes supporting arguments regarding provenance.

  8. Linear stability theory and three-dimensional boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spall, Robert E.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of linear stability theory and three dimensional boundary layer transition are provided. The ability to predict, using analytical tools, the location of boundary layer transition over aircraft-type configurations is of great importance to designers interested in laminar flow control (LFC). The e(sup N) method has proven to be fairly effective in predicting, in a consistent manner, the location of the onset of transition for simple geometries in low disturbance environments. This method provides a correlation between the most amplified single normal mode and the experimental location of the onset of transition. Studies indicate that values of N between 8 and 10 correlate well with the onset of transition. For most previous calculations, the mean flows were restricted to two-dimensional or axisymmetric cases, or have employed simple three-dimensional mean flows (e.g., rotating disk, infinite swept wing, or tapered swept wing with straight isobars). Unfortunately, for flows over general wing configurations, and for nearly all flows over fuselage-type bodies at incidence, the analysis of fully three-dimensional flow fields is required. Results obtained for the linear stability of fully three-dimensional boundary layers formed over both wing and fuselage-type geometries, and for both high and low speed flows are discussed. When possible, transition estimates form the e(sup N) method are compared to experimentally determined locations. The stability calculations are made using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Mean flows were computed using both Navier Stokes and boundary-layer codes.

  9. Three-dimensional quantification of cardiac surface motion: a newly developed three-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system for beating heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshiki; Omata, Sadao; Odamura, Motoki; Okada, Masahumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate our newly developed 3-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system in an animal experiment setting and to characterize quantitatively the three regional cardiac surface motions, in the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, before and after stabilization using a stabilizer. Six pigs underwent a full sternotomy. Three tiny metallic markers (diameter 2 mm) coated with a reflective material were attached on three regional cardiac surfaces (left anterior descending, right coronary, and left circumflex coronary artery regions). These markers were captured by two high-speed digital video cameras (955 frames per second) as 2-dimensional coordinates and reconstructed to 3-dimensional data points (about 480 xyz-position data per second) by a newly developed computer program. The remaining motion after stabilization ranged from 0.4 to 1.01 mm at the left anterior descending, 0.91 to 1.52 mm at the right coronary artery, and 0.53 to 1.14 mm at the left circumflex regions. Significant differences before and after stabilization were evaluated in maximum moving velocity (left anterior descending 456.7 +/- 178.7 vs 306.5 +/- 207.4 mm/s; right coronary artery 574.9 +/- 161.7 vs 446.9 +/- 170.7 mm/s; left circumflex 578.7 +/- 226.7 vs 398.9 +/- 192.6 mm/s; P < .0001) and maximum acceleration (left anterior descending 238.8 +/- 137.4 vs 169.4 +/- 132.7 m/s2; right coronary artery 315.0 +/- 123.9 vs 242.9 +/- 120.6 m/s2; left circumflex 307.9 +/- 151.0 vs 217.2 +/- 132.3 m/s2; P < .0001). This system is useful for a precise quantification of the heart surface movement. This helps us better understand the complexity of the heart, its motion, and the need for developing a better stabilizer for beating heart surgery.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional Confined Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A three dimensional confined flow model is presented. The flow field is computed by calculating velocity and enthalpy along a set of streamlines. The finite difference equations are obtained by applying conservation principles to streamtubes constructed around the chosen streamlines. With appropriate substitutions for the body force terms, the approach computes three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic channel flows. A listing of a computer code, based on this approach is presented in FORTRAN IV language. The code computes three dimensional compressible viscous flow through a rectangular duct, with the duct cross section specified along the axis.

  11. More About The Farley Three-Dimensional Braider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Farley three-dimensional braider, undergoing development, is machine for automatic fabrication of three-dimensional braided structures. Incorporates yarns into structure at arbitrary braid angles to produce complicated shape. Braiding surface includes movable braiding segments containing pivot points, along which yarn carriers travel during braiding process. Yarn carrier travels along sequence of pivot points as braiding segments move. Combined motions position yarns for braiding onto preform. Intended for use in making fiber preforms for fiber/matrix composite parts, such as multiblade propellers. Machine also described in "Farley Three-Dimensional Braiding Machine" (LAR-13911).

  12. I-Wire Heart-on-a-Chip II: Biomechanical analysis of contractile, three-dimensional cardiomyocyte tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Schroer, Alison K; Shotwell, Matthew S; Sidorov, Veniamin Y; Wikswo, John P; Merryman, W David

    2017-01-15

    This companion study presents the biomechanical analysis of the "I-Wire" platform using a modified Hill model of muscle mechanics that allows for further characterization of construct function and response to perturbation. The I-Wire engineered cardiac tissue construct (ECTC) is a novel experimental platform to investigate cardiac cell mechanics during auxotonic contraction. Whereas passive biomaterials often exhibit nonlinear and dissipative behavior, active tissue equivalents, such as ECTCs, also expend metabolic energy to perform mechanical work that presents additional challenges in quantifying their properties. The I-Wire model uses the passive mechanical response to increasing applied tension to measure the inherent stress and resistance to stretch of the construct before, during, and after treatments. Both blebbistatin and isoproterenol reduced prestress and construct stiffness; however, blebbistatin treatment abolished subsequent force-generating potential while isoproterenol enhanced this property. We demonstrate that the described model can replicate the response of these constructs to intrinsic changes in force-generating potential in response to both increasing frequency of stimulation and decreasing starting length. This analysis provides a useful mathematical model of the I-Wire platform, increases the number of parameters that can be derived from the device, and serves as a demonstration of quantitative characterization of nonlinear, active biomaterials. We anticipate that this quantitative analysis of I-Wire constructs will prove useful for qualifying patient-specific cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts prior to their utilization for cardiac regenerative medicine. Passive biomaterials may have non-linear elasticity and losses, but engineered muscle tissue also exhibits time- and force-dependent contractions. Historically, mathematical muscle models include series-elastic, parallel-elastic, contractile, and viscous elements. While hearts-on-a-chip can

  13. Quantitative analysis of in vivo mucosal bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Deepti; Boase, Sam; Field, John; Jardeleza, Camille; Foreman, Andrew; Wormald, Peter-John

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assays of mucosal biofilms on ex vivo samples are challenging using the currently applied specialized microscopic techniques to identify them. The COMSTAT2 computer program has been applied to in vitro biofilm models for quantifying biofilm structures seen on confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The aim of this study was to quantify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms seen via CSLM on ex situ samples of sinonasal mucosa, using the COMSTAT2 program. S. aureus biofilms were grown in frontal sinuses of 4 merino sheep as per a previously standardized sheep sinusitis model for biofilms. Two sinonasal mucosal samples, 10 mm × 10 mm in size, from each of the 2 sinuses of the 4 sheep were analyzed for biofilm presence with Baclight stain and CSLM. Two random image stacks of mucosa with S. aureus biofilm were recorded from each sample, and analyzed using COMSTAT2 software that translates image stacks into a simplified 3-dimensional matrix of biofilm mass by eliminating surrounding host tissue. Three independent observers analyzed images using COMSTAT2 and 3 repeated rounds of analyses were done to calculate biofilm biomass. The COMSTAT2 application uses an observer-dependent threshold setting to translate CSLM biofilm images into a simplified 3-dimensional output for quantitative analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between thresholds set by the 3 observers for each image stacks was 0.59 (p = 0.0003). Threshold values set at different points of time by a single observer also showed significant correlation as seen by ICC of 0.80 (p < 0.001). COMSTAT2 can be applied to quantify and study the complex 3-dimensional biofilm structures that are recorded via CSLM on mucosal tissue like the sinonasal mucosa. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  14. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  15. An Interactive Preprocessor Program with Graphics for a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Claude Hayden, III

    The development and capabilities of an interactive preprocessor program with graphics for an existing three-dimensional finite element code is presented. This preprocessor program, EDGAP3D, is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Three Dimensional Grain Analysis Program (TXCAP3D). The code presented in this research is capable of the…

  16. Finite-Element Analysis of Residual Stresses Generated Under Nitriding Process: a Three-Dimensional Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, J.; Siedlaczek, P.; Staszczyk, A.

    2018-03-01

    A numerical three-dimensional model for computing residual stresses generated in cross section of steel 42CrMo4 after nitriding is presented. The diffusion process is analyzed by the finite-element method. The internal stresses are computed using the obtained profile of the distribution of the nitrogen concentration. The special features of the intricate geometry of the treated articles including edges and angles are considered. Comparative analysis of the results of the simulation and of the experimental measurement of residual stresses is performed by the Waisman-Philips method.

  17. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Deep Space Network Antenna Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Fuentes, Michael; Meyer, Nicholas; Sil, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to understand NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage gaps and any limitations to provide redundant communication coverage for future deep space missions, especially for manned missions to Moon and Mars. The DSN antennas are required to provide continuous communication coverage for deep space flights, interplanetary missions, and deep space scientific observations. The DSN consists of ground antennas located at three sites: Goldstone in USA, Canberra in Australia, and Madrid in Spain. These locations are not separated by the exactly 120 degrees and some DSN antennas are located in the bowl-shaped mountainous terrain to shield against radiofrequency interference resulting in a coverage gap in the southern hemisphere for the current DSN architecture. To analyze the extent of this gap and other coverage limitations, simulations of the DSN architecture were performed. In addition to the physical properties of the DSN assets, the simulation incorporated communication forward link calculations and azimuth/elevation masks that constrain the effects of terrain for each DSN antenna. Analysis of the simulation data was performed to create coverage profiles with the receiver settings at a deep space altitudes ranging from 2 million to 10 million km and a spherical grid resolution of 0.25 degrees with respect to longitude and latitude. With the results of these simulations, two- and three-dimensional representations of the area without communication coverage and area with coverage were developed, showing the size and shape of the communication coverage gap projected in space. Also, the significance of this communication coverage gap is analyzed from the simulation data.

  18. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schultheis, M.; Zasowski, G.; Allende Prieto, C.

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmosphericmore » parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.« less

  19. Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.

  20. Investigation of the three-dimensional flow field within a transonic fan rotor: Experiment and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierzga, M. J.; Wood, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the three dimensional flow field through a low aspect ratio, transonic, axial flow fan rotor has been conducted using an advanced laser anemometer (LA) system. Laser velocimeter measurements of the rotor flow field at the design operating speed and over a range of through flow conditions are compared to analytical solutions. The numerical technique used herein yields the solution to the full, three dimensional, unsteady Euler equations using an explicit time marching, finite volume approach. The numerical analysis, when coupled with a simplified boundary layer calculation, generally yields good agreement with the experimental data. The test rotor has an aspect ratio of 1.56, a design total pressure ratio of 1.629 and a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The high spatial resolution of the LA data matrix (9 radial by 30 axial by 50 blade to blade) permits details of the transonic flow field such as shock location, turning distribution and blade loading levels to be investigated and compared to analytical results.

  1. Improved full analytical polygon-based method using Fourier analysis of the three-dimensional affine transformation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Previous research [Appl. Opt.52, A290 (2013)] has revealed that Fourier analysis of three-dimensional affine transformation theory can be used to improve the computation speed of the traditional polygon-based method. In this paper, we continue our research and propose an improved full analytical polygon-based method developed upon this theory. Vertex vectors of primitive and arbitrary triangles and the pseudo-inverse matrix were used to obtain an affine transformation matrix representing the spatial relationship between the two triangles. With this relationship and the primitive spectrum, we analytically obtained the spectrum of the arbitrary triangle. This algorithm discards low-level angular dependent computations. In order to add diffusive reflection to each arbitrary surface, we also propose a whole matrix computation approach that takes advantage of the affine transformation matrix and uses matrix multiplication to calculate shifting parameters of similar sub-polygons. The proposed method improves hologram computation speed for the conventional full analytical approach. Optical experimental results are demonstrated which prove that the proposed method can effectively reconstruct three-dimensional scenes.

  2. Nondestructive analysis of three-dimensional objects using a fluid displacement method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantification of three-dimensional (3-D) objects has been a real challenge in agricultural, hydrological and environmental studies. We designed and tested a method that is capable of quantifying 3-D objects using measurements of fluid displacement. The device consists of a stand that supports a mov...

  3. Mobile three-dimensional visualisation technologies for clinician-led fall prevention assessments.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2017-08-01

    The assistive equipment provision process is routinely carried out with patients to mitigate fall risk factors via the fitment of assistive equipment within the home. However, currently, over 50% of assistive equipment is abandoned by the patients due to poor fit between the patient and the assistive equipment. This paper explores clinician perceptions of an early stage three-dimensional measurement aid prototype, which provides enhanced assistive equipment provision process guidance to clinicians. Ten occupational therapists trialled the three-dimensional measurement aid prototype application; think-aloud and semi-structured interview data was collected. Usability was measured with the System Usability Scale. Participants scored three-dimensional measurement aid prototype as 'excellent' and agreed strongly with items relating to the usability and learnability of the application. The qualitative analysis identified opportunities for improving existing practice, including, improved interpretation/recording measurements; enhanced collaborative practice within the assistive equipment provision process. Future research is needed to determine the clinical utility of this application compared with two-dimensional counterpart paper-based guidance leaflets.

  4. Multifractal analysis with the probability density function at the three-dimensional anderson transition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alberto; Vasquez, Louella J; Römer, Rudolf A

    2009-03-13

    The probability density function (PDF) for critical wave function amplitudes is studied in the three-dimensional Anderson model. We present a formal expression between the PDF and the multifractal spectrum f(alpha) in which the role of finite-size corrections is properly analyzed. We show the non-Gaussian nature and the existence of a symmetry relation in the PDF. From the PDF, we extract information about f(alpha) at criticality such as the presence of negative fractal dimensions and the possible existence of termination points. A PDF-based multifractal analysis is shown to be a valid alternative to the standard approach based on the scaling of inverse participation ratios.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of flexible pavements : executive summary, August 2001.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    A linear viscoelastic model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional finite element program for analysis of flexible pavements. Linear and quadratic versions of hexahedral elements and quadrilateral axisymmetrix elements are provided. Dynamic p...

  6. Three dimensional modeling of flexible pavements : final report, March 2002.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    A linear viscoelastic model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional finite element program for analysis of flexible pavements. Linear and quadratic versions of hexahedral elements and quadrilateral axisymmetrix elements are provided. Dynamic p...

  7. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  8. Two-dimensional chromatographic analysis using three second-dimension columns for continuous comprehensive analysis of intact proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zaifang; Chen, Huang; Ren, Jiangtao; Lu, Juan J; Gu, Congying; Lynch, Kyle B; Wu, Si; Wang, Zhe; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2018-03-01

    We develop a new two-dimensional (2D) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) approach for intact protein analysis. Development of 2D HPLC has a bottleneck problem - limited second-dimension (second-D) separation speed. We solve this problem by incorporating multiple second-D columns to allow several second-D separations to be proceeded in parallel. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this approach for comprehensive protein analysis, we select ion-exchange chromatography as the first-dimension and reverse-phase chromatography as the second-D. We incorporate three second-D columns in an innovative way so that three reverse-phase separations can be performed simultaneously. We test this system for separating both standard proteins and E. coli lysates and achieve baseline resolutions for eleven standard proteins and obtain more than 500 peaks for E. coli lysates. This is an indication that the sample complexities are greatly reduced. We see less than 10 bands when each fraction of the second-D effluents are analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), compared to hundreds of SDS-PAGE bands as the original sample is analyzed. This approach could potentially be an excellent and general tool for protein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational models for the analysis of three-dimensional internal and exhaust plume flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Delguidice, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes computational procedures developed for the analysis of three-dimensional supersonic ducted flows and multinozzle exhaust plume flowfields. The models/codes embodying these procedures cater to a broad spectrum of geometric situations via the use of multiple reference plane grid networks in several coordinate systems. Shock capturing techniques are employed to trace the propagation and interaction of multiple shock surfaces while the plume interface, separating the exhaust and external flows, and the plume external shock are discretely analyzed. The computational grid within the reference planes follows the trace of streamlines to facilitate the incorporation of finite-rate chemistry and viscous computational capabilities. Exhaust gas properties consist of combustion products in chemical equilibrium. The computational accuracy of the models/codes is assessed via comparisons with exact solutions, results of other codes and experimental data. Results are presented for the flows in two-dimensional convergent and divergent ducts, expansive and compressive corner flows, flow in a rectangular nozzle and the plume flowfields for exhausts issuing out of single and multiple rectangular nozzles.

  10. Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Seoeun; Yoon, Jonghee; Heo, Jihan; Choi, Chulhee; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-11-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles with important roles in lipid storage and metabolism and involved in various diseases including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Conventional methods, however, have limited ability to provide quantitative information on individual LDs and have limited capability for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of LDs in live cells especially for fast acquisition of 3-D dynamics. Here, we present an optical method based on 3-D quantitative phase imaging to measure the 3-D structural distribution and biochemical parameters (concentration and dry mass) of individual LDs in live cells without using exogenous labelling agents. The biochemical change of LDs under oleic acid treatment was quantitatively investigated, and 4-D tracking of the fast dynamics of LDs revealed the intracellular transport of LDs in live cells.

  11. Three-dimensional to two-dimensional transition in mode-I fracture microbranching in a perturbed hexagonal close-packed lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heizler, Shay I.; Kessler, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Mode-I fracture exhibits microbranching in the high velocity regime where the simple straight crack is unstable. For velocities below the instability, classic modeling using linear elasticity is valid. However, showing the existence of the instability and calculating the dynamics postinstability within the linear elastic framework is difficult and controversial. The experimental results give several indications that the microbranching phenomenon is basically a three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon. Nevertheless, the theoretical effort has been focused mostly on two-dimensional (2D) modeling. In this paper we study the microbranching instability using three-dimensional atomistic simulations, exploring the difference between the 2D and the 3D models. We find that the basic 3D fracture pattern shares similar behavior with the 2D case. Nevertheless, we exhibit a clear 3D-2D transition as the crack velocity increases, whereas as long as the microbranches are sufficiently small, the behavior is pure 3D behavior, whereas at large driving, as the size of the microbranches increases, more 2D-like behavior is exhibited. In addition, in 3D simulations, the quantitative features of the microbranches, separating the regimes of steady-state cracks (mirror) and postinstability (mist-hackle) are reproduced clearly, consistent with the experimental findings.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification.

    PubMed

    Bergeon, N; Tourret, D; Chen, L; Debierre, J-M; Guérin, R; Ramirez, A; Billia, B; Karma, A; Trivedi, R

    2013-05-31

    We report results of directional solidification experiments conducted on board the International Space Station and quantitative phase-field modeling of those experiments. The experiments image for the first time in situ the spatially extended dynamics of three-dimensional cellular array patterns formed under microgravity conditions where fluid flow is suppressed. Experiments and phase-field simulations reveal the existence of oscillatory breathing modes with time periods of several 10's of minutes. Oscillating cells are usually noncoherent due to array disorder, with the exception of small areas where the array structure is regular and stable.

  13. Three-dimensional digital mapping of the optic nerve head cupping in glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Ramirez, Manuel; Morales, Jose

    1992-08-01

    Visualization of the optic nerve head cupping is clinically achieved by stereoscopic viewing of a fundus image pair of the suspected eye. A novel algorithm for three-dimensional digital surface representation of the optic nerve head, using fusion of stereo depth map with a linearly stretched intensity image of a stereo fundus image pair, is presented. Prior to depth map acquisition, a number of preprocessing tasks including feature extraction, registration by cepstral analysis, and correction for intensity variations are performed. The depth map is obtained by using a coarse to fine strategy for obtaining disparities between corresponding areas. The required matching techniques to obtain the translational differences in every step, uses cepstral analysis and correlation-like scanning technique in the spatial domain for the finest details. The quantitative and precise representation of the optic nerve head surface topography following this algorithm is not computationally intensive and should provide more useful information than just qualitative stereoscopic viewing of the fundus as one of the diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of glaucoma.

  14. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J.-M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guérin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in microgravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed us to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 min. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelated at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (i.e., low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exists, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is observed in both

  15. Lagrangian chaos in three- dimensional steady buoyancy-driven flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Natural convection plays a key role in fluid dynamics owing to its ubiquitous presence in nature and industry. Buoyancy-driven flows are prototypical systems in the study of thermal instabilities and pattern formation. The differentially heated cavity problem has been widely studied for the investigation of buoyancy-induced oscillatory flow. However, far less attention has been devoted to the three-dimensional Lagrangian transport properties in such flows. This study seeks to address this by investigating Lagrangian transport in the steady flow inside a cubic cavity differentially-heated from the side. The theoretical and numerical analysis expands on previously reported similarities between the current flow and lid-driven flows. The Lagrangian dynamics are controlled by the Péclet number (Pe) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Pe controls the behaviour qualitatively in that growing Pe progressively perturbs the integable state (Pe =0), thus paving the way to chaotic dynamics. Pr plays an entirely quantitative role in that Pr<1 and Pr>1 amplifies and diminishes, respectively, the perturbative effect of non-zero Pe. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  16. Development and Application of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Vapor Intrusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings. PMID:19418819

  17. A GPU-based calculation using the three-dimensional FDTD method for electromagnetic field analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations with the numerical human model using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method have recently been performed frequently in a number of fields in biomedical engineering. However, the FDTD calculation runs too slowly. We focus, therefore, on general purpose programming on the graphics processing unit (GPGPU). The three-dimensional FDTD method was implemented on the GPU using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). In this study, we used the NVIDIA Tesla C1060 as a GPGPU board. The performance of the GPU is evaluated in comparison with the performance of a conventional CPU and a vector supercomputer. The results indicate that three-dimensional FDTD calculations using a GPU can significantly reduce run time in comparison with that using a conventional CPU, even a native GPU implementation of the three-dimensional FDTD method, while the GPU/CPU speed ratio varies with the calculation domain and thread block size.

  18. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  19. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess themore » mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.« less

  20. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan; ...

    2016-11-29

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta,more » GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.« less

  1. Impact Study of Metal Fasteners in Roofing Assemblies using Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Manan; Gulati, Rupesh; Ravi, Srinivasan

    Heat transfer analysis was performed on typical roofing assemblies using HEAT3, a three-dimensional heat transfer analysis software. The difference in heat transferred through the roofing assemblies considered is compared between two cases - without any steel fasteners and with steel fasteners. In the latter case, the metal roofing fasteners were arranged as per Factor Mutual Global (FMG) approvals, in the field, perimeter, and corner zones of the roof. The temperature conditions used for the analysis represented summer and winter conditions for three separate Climate Zones (CZ) namely Climate Zone 2 or CZ2 represented by Orlando, FL; CZ3 represented by Atlanta,more » GA; and CZ6 zone represented by St. Paul, MN. In all the climatic conditions, higher energy transfer was observed with increase in the number of metal fasteners attributed to high thermal conductivity of metals as compared to the insulation and other materials used in the roofing assembly. This difference in heat loss was also quantified in the form of percentage change in the overall or effective insulation of the roofing assembly for better understanding of the practical aspects. Besides, a comparison of 2D heat transfer analysis (using THERM software) and 3D analysis using HEAT3 is also discussed.« less

  2. Three-dimensional rocking curve imaging to measure the effective distortion in the neighbourhood of a defect within a crystal: an ice example.

    PubMed

    Philip, Armelle; Meyssonnier, Jacques; Kluender, Rafael T; Baruchel, José

    2013-08-01

    Rocking curve imaging (RCI) is a quantitative version of monochromatic beam diffraction topography that involves using a two-dimensional detector, each pixel of which records its own 'local' rocking curve. From these local rocking curves one can reconstruct maps of particularly relevant quantities ( e.g. integrated intensity, angular position of the centre of gravity, FWHM). Up to now RCI images have been exploited in the reflection case, giving a quantitative picture of the features present in a several-micrometre-thick subsurface layer. Recently, a three-dimensional Bragg diffraction imaging technique, which combines RCI with 'pinhole' and 'section' diffraction topography in the transmission case, was implemented. It allows three-dimensional images of defects to be obtained and measurement of three-dimensional distortions within a 50 × 50 × 50 µm elementary volume inside the crystal with angular misorientations down to 10 -5 -10 -6  rad. In the present paper, this three-dimensional-RCI (3D-RCI) technique is used to study one of the grains of a three-grained ice polycrystal. The inception of the deformation process is followed by reconstructing virtual slices in the crystal bulk. 3D-RCI capabilities allow the effective distortion in the bulk of the crystal to be investigated, and the predictions of diffraction theories to be checked, well beyond what has been possible up to now.

  3. Noncontact three-dimensional quantitative profiling of fast aspheric lenses by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, Bujagouni Karthik; Udupa, Dinesh Venkatesh; Prathap, Chilakala; Shinde, Deepak Dilip; Rao, Kompalli Divakar; Sahoo, Naba Kishore

    2016-12-01

    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noncontact three-dimensional aspheric lens profiling and retrieval of aspheric surface parameters is demonstrated. Two commercially available aspheric lenses with different focal length-to-diameter ratio have been imaged using OCT, and the measured optical path length distribution has been least square fitted with the aspheric lens surface retrieving the radius of curvature, aspheric constant, and conic constants. The refractive index of these lenses has also been measured referencing with a standard Zerodur glass flat. The fitted aspheric surface coefficients of the lenses are in close agreement with the manufacturer's values, thus, envisaging the potential of OCT in rapid screening, testing of aspheric lenses, and other micro-optical components such as those used in illumination optics.

  4. The perception of three-dimensionality across continuous surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Kent A.

    1989-01-01

    The apparent three-dimensionality of a viewed surface presumably corresponds to several internal preceptual quantities, such as surface curvature, local surface orientation, and depth. These quantities are mathematically related for points within the silhouette bounds of a smooth, continuous surface. For instance, surface curvature is related to the rate of change of local surface orientation, and surface orientation is related to the local gradient of distance. It is not clear to what extent these 3D quantities are determined directly from image information rather than indirectly from mathematically related forms, by differentiation or by integration within boundary constraints. An open empirical question, for example, is to what extent surface curvature is perceived directly, and to what extent it is quantitative rather than qualitative. In addition to surface orientation and curvature, one derives an impression of depth, i.e., variations in apparent egocentric distance. A static orthographic image is essentially devoid of depth information, and any quantitative depth impression must be inferred from surface orientation and other sources. Such conversion of orientation to depth does appear to occur, and even to prevail over stereoscopic depth information under some circumstances.

  5. Pattern formation and three-dimensional instability in rotating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Erik A.; Aubry, Nadine; Sorensen, Jens N.

    1997-03-01

    A fluid flow enclosed in a cylindrical container where fluid motion is created by the rotation of one end wall as a centrifugal fan is studied. Direct numerical simulations and spatio-temporal analysis have been performed in the early transition scenario, which includes a steady-unsteady transition and a breakdown of axisymmetric to three-dimensional flow behavior. In the early unsteady regime of the flow, the central vortex undergoes a vertical beating motion, accompanied by axisymmetric spikes formation on the edge of the breakdown bubble. As traveling waves, the spikes move along the central vortex core toward the rotating end-wall. As the Reynolds number is increased further, the flow undergoes a three-dimensional instability. The influence of the latter on the previous patterns is studied.

  6. Effects of B1 inhomogeneity correction for three-dimensional variable flip angle T1 measurements in hip dGEMRIC at 3 T and 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Siversson, Carl; Chan, Jenny; Tiderius, Carl-Johan; Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Jellus, Vladimir; Svensson, Jonas; Kim, Young-Jo

    2012-06-01

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage is a technique for studying the development of osteoarthritis using quantitative T(1) measurements. Three-dimensional variable flip angle is a promising method for performing such measurements rapidly, by using two successive spoiled gradient echo sequences with different excitation pulse flip angles. However, the three-dimensional variable flip angle method is very sensitive to inhomogeneities in the transmitted B(1) field in vivo. In this study, a method for correcting for such inhomogeneities, using an additional B(1) mapping spin-echo sequence, was evaluated. Phantom studies concluded that three-dimensional variable flip angle with B(1) correction calculates accurate T(1) values also in areas with high B(1) deviation. Retrospective analysis of in vivo hip delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage data from 40 subjects showed the difference between three-dimensional variable flip angle with and without B(1) correction to be generally two to three times higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T. In conclusion, the B(1) variations should always be taken into account, both at 1.5 T and at 3 T. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Analysis of three-dimensional SAR distributions emitted by mobile phones in an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Deltour, Isabelle; Wiart, Joe; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Mann, Simon; Schüz, Joachim; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the specific absorption rate of energy (SAR) in phantom models was analysed to detect clusters of mobile phones producing similar spatial deposition of energy in the head. The clusters' characteristics were described from the phones external features, frequency band and communication protocol. Compliance measurements with phones in cheek and tilt positions, and on the left and right side of a physical phantom were used. Phones used the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Code division multiple access One (CdmaOne), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) communication systems, in the 800, 900, 1500 and 1800 MHz bands. Each phone's measurements were summarised by the half-ellipsoid in which the SAR values were above half the maximum value. Cluster analysis used the Partitioning Around Medoids algorithm. The dissimilarity measure was based on the overlap of the ellipsoids, and the Manhattan distance was used for robustness analysis. Within the 800 MHz frequency band, and in part within the 900 MHz and the 1800 MHz frequency bands, weak clustering was obtained for the handset shape (bar phone, flip with top and flip with central antennas), but only in specific positions (tilt or cheek). On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Innovative techniques for analyzing the three-dimensional behavioral results from acoustically tagged fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, Tracey W.; Timko, Mark A.

    2005-04-01

    Acoustic tags were used to monitor the swimming patterns of downstream migrating salmon smolts approaching various dams on the Columbia River, USA. Downstream migrating yearling chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and sub-yearling chinook smolts were surgically implanted with acoustic tags. Fish were tracked in three-dimensions as they approached and passed into the turbine intakes, spillways, and surface bypass channel entrances at the dams during the 2004 spring and summer outmigrations. A number of advances in the analysis techniques and software have been made over the past few years. Some of these improvements include the development of various fish density algorithms, stream trace modeling analysis, and advances of three-dimensional animation programs. Three-dimensional tracks of fish approaching the turbine intakes, spillways, and surface bypass channel entrances will be presented. Concentrations of fish passage will be presented as three-dimensional fish densities superimposed over dam structures. Stream trace modeling animation will be presented showing predicted fish passage routes.

  9. Mathematics Competency for Beginning Chemistry Students Through Dimensional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pursell, David P; Forlemu, Neville Y; Anagho, Leonard E

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics competency in nursing education and practice may be addressed by an instructional variation of the traditional dimensional analysis technique typically presented in beginning chemistry courses. The authors studied 73 beginning chemistry students using the typical dimensional analysis technique and the variation technique. Student quantitative problem-solving performance was evaluated. Students using the variation technique scored significantly better (18.3 of 20 points, p < .0001) on the final examination quantitative titration problem than those who used the typical technique (10.9 of 20 points). American Chemical Society examination scores and in-house assessment indicate that better performing beginning chemistry students were more likely to use the variation technique rather than the typical technique. The variation technique may be useful as an alternative instructional approach to enhance beginning chemistry students' mathematics competency and problem-solving ability in both education and practice. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(1):22-26.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Fernández, Jose Francisco; Caballero-Calero, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures combine properties of nanoscale materials with the advantages of being macro-sized pieces when the time comes to manipulate, measure their properties, or make a device. However, the amount of compounds with the ability to self-organize in ordered three-dimensional nanostructures is limited. Therefore, template-based fabrication strategies become the key approach towards three-dimensional nanostructures. Here we report the simple fabrication of a template based on anodic aluminum oxide, having a well-defined, ordered, tunable, homogeneous 3D nanotubular network in the sub 100 nm range. The three-dimensional templates are then employed to achieve three-dimensional, ordered nanowire-networks in Bi2Te3 and polystyrene. Lastly, we demonstrate the photonic crystal behavior of both the template and the polystyrene three-dimensional nanostructure. Our approach may establish the foundations for future high-throughput, cheap, photonic materials and devices made of simple commodity plastics, metals, and semiconductors. PMID:25342247

  11. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  12. On the Transition from Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thess, A.; Zikanov, Oleg

    2004-01-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of the robustness of two-dimensional inviscid MHD flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers with respect to three-dimensional perturbations. We analyze three model problems, namely flow in the interior of a triaxial ellipsoid, an unbounded vortex with elliptical streamlines, and a vortex sheet parallel to the magnetic field. We demonstrate that motion perpendicular to the magnetic field with elliptical streamlines becomes unstable with respect to the elliptical instability once the velocity has reached a critical magnitude whose value tends to zero as the eccentricity of the streamlines becomes large. Furthermore, vortex sheets parallel to the magnetic field, which are unstable for any velocity and any magnetic field, are found to emit eddies with vorticity perpendicular to the magnetic field and with an aspect ratio proportional to N(sup 1/2). The results suggest that purely two-dimensional motion without Joule energy dissipation is a singular type of flow which does not represent the asymptotic behaviour of three-dimensional MHD turbulence in the limit of infinitely strong magnetic fields.

  13. A Comparative Study on Quantitative Assessment of Blood Flow and Vascularization in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients and Normal Women Using Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Garg, Nitasha; Khaira, Harkiran Kaur; Kaur, Manjot; Sinha, Smita

    2018-04-01

    To compare the quantitative assessment of blood flow and vascularization of ovaries in polycystic ovary syndrome patients and normal women using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. This cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted on women of reproductive age group (15-45 years) attending Gynaecology OPD AIMSR, Bathinda, Punjab. Thirty women were enrolled in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) group and 30 healthy women in control group. Women were categorized as polycystic ovary syndrome according to Rotterdam's criteria. The women with PCOS underwent transvaginal USG Doppler on day 6 of the cycle using 3D power Doppler USG equipment (GE Voluson E8), and vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured. The mean values of VI, FI and VFI measured by power Doppler ultrasonography were significantly increased ( P value = 0.000) in women with PCOS when compared with healthy women. This study suggests that blood flow and vascularization measured by 3D power Doppler ultrasonography in ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients were significantly more than the ovaries of normal women.

  14. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of upper forelimb morphology in the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) hints at subtle variations in locomotor ecology.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Jamie A; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    Forelimb morphology is an indicator for terrestrial locomotor ecology. The limb morphology of the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) has often been compared to that of basal perissodactyls, despite the lack of quantitative studies comparing forelimb variation in modern tapirs. Here, we present a quantitative assessment of tapir upper forelimb osteology using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to test whether the four modern tapir species are monomorphic in their forelimb skeleton. The shape of the upper forelimb bones across four species (T. indicus; T. bairdii; T. terrestris; T. pinchaque) was investigated. Bones were laser scanned to capture surface morphology and 3D landmark analysis was used to quantify shape. Discriminant function analyses were performed to reveal features which could be used for interspecific discrimination. Overall our results show that the appendicular skeleton contains notable interspecific differences. We demonstrate that upper forelimb bones can be used to discriminate between species (>91% accuracy), with the scapula proving the most diagnostic bone (100% accuracy). Features that most successfully discriminate between the four species include the placement of the cranial angle of the scapula, depth of the humeral condyle, and the caudal deflection of the olecranon. Previous studies comparing the limbs of T. indicus and T. terrestris are corroborated by our quantitative findings. Moreover, the mountain tapir T. pinchaque consistently exhibited the greatest divergence in morphology from the other three species. Despite previous studies describing tapirs as functionally mediportal in their locomotor style, we find osteological evidence suggesting a spectrum of locomotor adaptations in the tapirs. We conclude that modern tapir forelimbs are neither monomorphic nor are tapirs as conserved in their locomotor habits as previously described. J. Morphol. 277:1469-1485, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  15. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…

  16. A parallel algorithm for viewshed analysis in three-dimensional Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Gang, Wang; Deji, Pan; Yuan, Liu; Liuzhong, Yang; Hongbo, Wang

    2015-02-01

    Viewshed analysis, often supported by geographic information systems, is widely used in the three-dimensional (3D) Digital Earth system. Many of the analyzes involve the siting of features and real-timedecision-making. Viewshed analysis is usually performed at a large scale, which poses substantial computational challenges, as geographic datasets continue to become increasingly large. Previous research on viewshed analysis has been generally limited to a single data structure (i.e., DEM), which cannot be used to analyze viewsheds in complicated scenes. In this paper, a real-time algorithm for viewshed analysis in Digital Earth is presented using the parallel computing of graphics processing units (GPUs). An occlusion for each geometric entity in the neighbor space of the viewshed point is generated according to line-of-sight. The region within the occlusion is marked by a stencil buffer within the programmable 3D visualization pipeline. The marked region is drawn with red color concurrently. In contrast to traditional algorithms based on line-of-sight, the new algorithm, in which the viewshed calculation is integrated with the rendering module, is more efficient and stable. This proposed method of viewshed generation is closer to the reality of the virtual geographic environment. No DEM interpolation, which is seen as a computational burden, is needed. The algorithm was implemented in a 3D Digital Earth system (GeoBeans3D) with the DirectX application programming interface (API) and has been widely used in a range of applications.

  17. Quantitative three-dimensional confocal imaging of the cornea in situ and in vivo: system design and calibration.

    PubMed

    Petroll, W M; Jester, J V; Cavanagh, H D

    1996-01-01

    A new depth encoding system (DES) is presented, which makes it possible to calculate, display, and record the z-axis position continuously during in vivo imaging using tandem scanning confocal microscopy (TSCM). In order to verify the accuracy of the DES for calculating the position of the focal plane in the cornea both in vitro and in vivo, we compared TSCM measurements of corneal thickness to measurements made using an ultrasonic pachymeter (UP, a standard clinical instrument) in both enucleated rabbit, cat, and human eyes (n = 15), and in both human patients (n = 7). Very close agreement was found between the UP and TSCM measurements in enucleated eyes; the mean percent difference was 0.50 +/- 2.58% (mean +/- SD, not significant). A significant correlation (R = 0.995, n = 15, p < 0.01) was found between UP and TSCM measurements. These results verify that the theoretical equation for calculating focal depth provided by the TSCM manufacturer is accurate for corneal imaging. Similarly, close agreement was found between the in vivo UP and TSCM measurements; the mean percent differences was 1.67 +/- 1.38% (not significant), confirming that z-axis drift can be minimized with proper applanation of the objective. These results confirm the accuracy of the DES for imaging of the cornea both ex vivo and in vivo. This system should be of great utility for applications where quantitation of the three-dimensional location of cellular structures is needed.

  18. Topology of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.

  19. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  20. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  1. Inverse energy cascades in three-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Murshed

    1991-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at large kinetic and low magnetic Reynolds numbers is considered in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field. It is shown by numerical simulation of a model of MHD that the energy inverse cascades to longer length scales when the interaction parameter is large. While the steady-state dynamics of the driven problem is three-dimensional in character, the behavior has resemblance to two-dimensional hydrodynamics. These results have implications in turbulence theory, MHD power generator, planetary dynamos, and fusion reactor blanket design.

  2. A three-dimensional finite element model of near-field scanning microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balusek, Curtis; Friedman, Barry; Luna, Darwin; Oetiker, Brian; Babajanyan, Arsen; Lee, Kiejin

    2012-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model of an experimental near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM) has been developed and compared to experiment on non conducting samples. The microwave reflection coefficient S11 is calculated as a function of frequency with no adjustable parameters. There is qualitative agreement with experiment in that the resonant frequency can show a sizable increase with sample dielectric constant; a result that is not obtained with a two-dimensional model. The most realistic model shows a semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. The effect of different sample thicknesses and varying tip sample distances is investigated numerically and shown to effect NSMM performance in a way consistent with experiment. Visualization of the electric field indicates that the field is primarily determined by the shape of the coupling hooks.

  3. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jorn W. F.; Fu, Liang

    2016-12-07

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary naturemore » of chiral pairing in spin-orbit–coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4Sb 12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.« less

  4. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors.

    PubMed

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jörn W F; Fu, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.

  5. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Fu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit–coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions. PMID:27957543

  6. Three-dimensional polypyrrole-derived carbon nanotube framework for dye adsorption and electrochemical supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shengchang; Yang, Na; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Li, Liang; Teng, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotube frameworks have been prepared via pyrolysis of polypyrrole nanotube aerogels that are synthesized by the simultaneous self-degraded template synthesis and hydrogel assembly followed by freeze-drying. The microstructure and composition of the materials are investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis, Raman spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and specific surface analyzer. The results confirm the formation of three-dimensional carbon nanotube frameworks with low density, high mechanical properties, and high specific surface area. Compared with PPy aerogel precursor, the as-prepared three-dimensional carbon nanotube frameworks exhibit outstanding adsorption capacity towards organic dyes. Moreover, electrochemical tests show that the products possess high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent cycling performance with no capacitance loss over 1000 cycles. These characteristics collectively indicate the potential of three-dimensional polypyrrole-derived carbon nanotube framework as a promising macroscopic device for the applications in environmental and energy storages.

  7. Advancing three-dimensional MEMS by complimentary laser micro manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Williams, John D.; Lemp, Tom; Lehecka, Tom M.; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes improvements that enable engineers to create three-dimensional MEMS in a variety of materials. It also provides a means for selectively adding three-dimensional, high aspect ratio features to pre-existing PMMA micro molds for subsequent LIGA processing. This complimentary method involves in situ construction of three-dimensional micro molds in a stand-alone configuration or directly adjacent to features formed by x-ray lithography. Three-dimensional micro molds are created by micro stereolithography (MSL), an additive rapid prototyping technology. Alternatively, three-dimensional features may be added by direct femtosecond laser micro machining. Parameters for optimal femtosecond laser micro machining of PMMA at 800 nanometers are presented. The technical discussion also includes strategies for enhancements in the context of material selection and post-process surface finish. This approach may lead to practical, cost-effective 3-D MEMS with the surface finish and throughput advantages of x-ray lithography. Accurate three-dimensional metal microstructures are demonstrated. Challenges remain in process planning for micro stereolithography and development of buried features following femtosecond laser micro machining.

  8. Analysis of traditional versus three-dimensional augmented curriculum on anatomical learning outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Diana Coomes; Mlynarczyk, Gregory S A

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether student learning outcome measures are influenced by the addition of three-dimensional and digital teaching tools to a traditional dissection and lecture learning format curricula. The study was performed in a semester long graduate level course that incorporated both gross anatomy and neuroanatomy curricula. Methods compared student examination performance on material taught using lecture and cadaveric dissection teaching tools alone or lecture and cadaveric dissection augmented with computerized three-dimensional teaching tools. Additional analyses were performed to examine potential correlations between question difficulty and format, previous student performance (i.e., undergraduate grade point average), and a student perception survey. The results indicated that students performed better on material in which three-dimensional (3D) technologies are utilized in conjunction with lecture and dissection methodologies. The improvement in performance was observed across the student population primarily on laboratory examinations. Although, student performance was increased, students did not perceive that the use of the additional 3D technology significantly influenced their learning. The results indicate that the addition of 3D learning tools can influence long-term retention of gross anatomy material and should be considered as a beneficial supplement for anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 529-536. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3Dthree-dimensional) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCChepatocellular carcinoma) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACEtransarterial chemoembolization). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCChepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TACEtransarterial chemoembolization before surgery. Semiautomatic 3Dthree-dimensional volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCapparent diffusion coefficient) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual

  10. Developing High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques to Characterize Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Karla Patricia E.

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for the repair or replacement of native tissues and organs. Further advancements in the fabrication of functional engineered tissues are partly dependent on developing new and improved technologies to monitor the properties of engineered tissues volumetrically, quantitatively, noninvasively, and nondestructively over time. Currently, engineered tissues are evaluated during fabrication using histology, biochemical assays, and direct mechanical tests. However, these techniques destroy tissue samples and, therefore, lack the capability for real-time, longitudinal monitoring. The research reported in this thesis developed nondestructive, noninvasive approaches to characterize the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of 3-D engineered tissues using high-frequency quantitative ultrasound and elastography technologies. A quantitative ultrasound technique, using a system-independent parameter known as the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), was employed to visualize and quantify structural properties of engineered tissues. Specifically, the IBC was demonstrated to estimate cell concentration and quantitatively detect differences in the microstructure of 3-D collagen hydrogels. Additionally, the feasibility of an ultrasound elastography technique called Single Tracking Location Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (STL-ARFI) imaging was demonstrated for estimating the shear moduli of 3-D engineered tissues. High-frequency ultrasound techniques can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, these high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable noninvasive, volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation.

  11. Three-Dimensional Computer Simulation as an Important Competence Based Aspect of a Modern Mining Professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, Olesya; Pachkina, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the problem of necessity of educational process transformation to meet the requirements of modern miming industry; cooperative developing of new educational programs and implementation of educational process taking into account modern manufacturability. The paper proves the idea of introduction into mining professionals learning process studying of three-dimensional models of surface technological complex, ore reserves and underground digging complex as well as creating these models in different graphic editors and working with the information analysis model obtained on the basis of these three-dimensional models. The technological process of manless coal mining at the premises of the mine Polysaevskaya controlled by the information analysis models built on the basis of three-dimensional models of individual objects and technological process as a whole, and at the same time requiring the staff able to use the programs of three-dimensional positioning in the miners and equipment global frame of reference is covered.

  12. Three-dimensional viscous rotor flow calculations using a viscous-inviscid interaction approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ching S.; Bridgeman, John O.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional viscous-inviscid interaction analysis was developed to predict the performance of rotors in hover and in forward flight at subsonic and transonic tip speeds. The analysis solves the full-potential and boundary-layer equations by finite-difference numerical procedures. Calculations were made for several different model rotor configurations. The results were compared with predictions from a two-dimensional integral method and with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreement between predictions and test data.

  13. Three-dimensional rocking curve imaging to measure the effective distortion in the neighbourhood of a defect within a crystal: an ice example

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Armelle; Meyssonnier, Jacques; Kluender, Rafael T.; Baruchel, José

    2013-01-01

    Rocking curve imaging (RCI) is a quantitative version of monochromatic beam diffraction topography that involves using a two-dimensional detector, each pixel of which records its own ‘local’ rocking curve. From these local rocking curves one can reconstruct maps of particularly relevant quantities (e.g. integrated intensity, angular position of the centre of gravity, FWHM). Up to now RCI images have been exploited in the reflection case, giving a quantitative picture of the features present in a several-micrometre-thick subsurface layer. Recently, a three-dimensional Bragg diffraction imaging technique, which combines RCI with ‘pinhole’ and ‘section’ diffraction topography in the transmission case, was implemented. It allows three-dimensional images of defects to be obtained and measurement of three-dimensional distortions within a 50 × 50 × 50 µm elementary volume inside the crystal with angular misorientations down to 10−5–10−6 rad. In the present paper, this three-dimensional-RCI (3D-RCI) technique is used to study one of the grains of a three-grained ice polycrystal. The inception of the deformation process is followed by reconstructing virtual slices in the crystal bulk. 3D-RCI capabilities allow the effective distortion in the bulk of the crystal to be investigated, and the predictions of diffraction theories to be checked, well beyond what has been possible up to now. PMID:24046486

  14. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  15. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis of chevron-notched fracture specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Stress-intensity factors and load-line displacements were calculated for chevron-notched bar and rod fracture specimens using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis. Both specimens were subjected to simulated wedge loading (either uniform applied displacement or uniform applied load). The chevron-notch sides and crack front were assumed to be straight. Crack-length-to-specimen width ratios (a/w) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7. The width-to-thickness ratio (w/B) was 1.45 or 2. The bar specimens had a height-to-width ratio of 0.435 or 0.5. Finite-element models were composed of singularity elements around the crack front and 8-noded isoparametric elements elsewhere. The models had about 11,000 degrees of freedom. Stress-intensity factors were calculated by using a nodal-force method for distribution along the crack front and by using a compliance method for average values. The stress intensity factors and load-line displacements are presented and compared with experimental solutions from the literature. The stress intensity factors and load-line displacements were about 2.5 and 5 percent lower than the reported experimental values, respectively.

  16. Three-dimensional distribution of cortical synapses: a replicated point pattern-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Merchán-Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority) and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse). Here we are interested in exploring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of chemical synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent research has showed that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of synapses in layer III of the neocortex can be modeled by a random sequential adsorption (RSA) point process, i.e., synapses are distributed in space almost randomly, with the only constraint that they cannot overlap. In this study we hypothesize that RSA processes can also explain the distribution of synapses in all cortical layers. We also investigate whether there are differences in both the synaptic density and spatial distribution of synapses between layers. Using combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we obtained three-dimensional samples from the six layers of the rat somatosensory cortex and identified and reconstructed the synaptic junctions. A total volume of tissue of approximately 4500μm3 and around 4000 synapses from three different animals were analyzed. Different samples, layers and/or animals were aggregated and compared using RSA replicated spatial point processes. The results showed no significant differences in the synaptic distribution across the different rats used in the study. We found that RSA processes described the spatial distribution of synapses in all samples of each layer. We also found that the synaptic distribution in layers II to VI conforms to a common underlying RSA process with different densities per layer. Interestingly, the results showed that synapses in layer I had a slightly different spatial distribution from the other layers. PMID:25206325

  17. Three-dimensional distribution of cortical synapses: a replicated point pattern-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Merchán-Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority) and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse). Here we are interested in exploring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of chemical synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent research has showed that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of synapses in layer III of the neocortex can be modeled by a random sequential adsorption (RSA) point process, i.e., synapses are distributed in space almost randomly, with the only constraint that they cannot overlap. In this study we hypothesize that RSA processes can also explain the distribution of synapses in all cortical layers. We also investigate whether there are differences in both the synaptic density and spatial distribution of synapses between layers. Using combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we obtained three-dimensional samples from the six layers of the rat somatosensory cortex and identified and reconstructed the synaptic junctions. A total volume of tissue of approximately 4500μm(3) and around 4000 synapses from three different animals were analyzed. Different samples, layers and/or animals were aggregated and compared using RSA replicated spatial point processes. The results showed no significant differences in the synaptic distribution across the different rats used in the study. We found that RSA processes described the spatial distribution of synapses in all samples of each layer. We also found that the synaptic distribution in layers II to VI conforms to a common underlying RSA process with different densities per layer. Interestingly, the results showed that synapses in layer I had a slightly different spatial distribution from the other layers.

  18. Development of a three-dimensional supersonic inlet flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggeln, R. C.; Mcdonald, H.; Levy, R.; Kreskovsky, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A method for computing three dimensional flow in supersonic inlets is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The governing equations are written in general orthogonal coordinates. These equations are modified in the subsonic region of the flow to prevent the phenomenon of branching. Results are presented for the two sample cases: a Mach number equals 2.5 flow in a square duct, and a Mach number equals 3.0 flow in a research jet engine inlet. In the latter case the computed results are compared with the experimental data. A users' manual is included.

  19. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of a Film Cooled Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Guidos, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Transient three-dimensional numerical investigations on the side load physics for an engine encompassing a film cooled nozzle extension and a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber, were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Ultimately, the computational results will be provided to the nozzle designers for estimating of effect of the peak side load on the nozzle structure. Computations simulating engine startup at ambient pressures corresponding to sea level and three high altitudes were performed. In addition, computations for both engine startup and shutdown transients were also performed for a stub nozzle, operating at sea level. For engine with the full nozzle extension, computational result shows starting up at sea level, the peak side load occurs when the lambda shock steps into the turbine exhaust flow, while the side load caused by the transition from free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation comes at second; and the side loads decreasing rapidly and progressively as the ambient pressure decreases. For the stub nozzle operating at sea level, the computed side loads during both startup and shutdown becomes very small due to the much reduced flow area.

  20. Lagrangian coherent structure analysis in the three-dimensional wake of a bio-inspired trapezoidal pitching panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; King, Justin; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional Lagrangian analysis using the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field has been carried out on experimentally captured wake downstream of an oscillating trapezoidal panel. The trapezoidal geometry of the panel served as a simple model of a fish caudal fin. Three-dimensional FTLE isosurface appears as a shell wrapped around the wake vortex structures. A slice through the isosurfaces results in the familiar two-dimensional FTLE ridges. The attracting ridges (nFTLE) and the repelling ridges (pFTLE) are near-material lines and their intersections are analogous to topological saddle points in the flow field. A vortex-ring-based wake structure induces a streamwise momentum jet, evolution of which appears to be related to the timing of saddle point generation and behavior at the trailing edge. The time of release of these saddles at the trailing edge inside a pitching period appears to coincide with thrust extrema in similar experimental and numerical studies on foils and fins published in the literature. The merger of a pair of saddles from two consecutively shed vortices at a downstream location coincides with the occurrence of wake breakdown and precedes the formation of interconnected vortex loops and beginning of momentum-deficit zone in the time-averaged sense. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0418.

  1. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 2: Three-dimensional inviscid mixer analysis (FLOMIX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional potential analysis (FLOMIX) was formulated and applied to the inviscid flow over a turbofan foced mixer. The method uses a small disturbance formulation to analytically uncouple the circumferential flow from the radial and axial flow problem, thereby reducing the analysis to the solution of a series of axisymmetric problems. These equations are discretized using a flux volume formulation along a Cartesian grid. The method extends earlier applications of the Cartesian method to complex cambered geometries. The effects of power addition are also included within the potential formulation. Good agreement is obtained with an alternate small disturbance analysis for a high penetration symmetric mixer in a planar duct. In addition, calculations showing pressure distributions and induced secondary vorticity fields are presented for practical trubofan mixer configurations, and where possible, comparison was made with available experimental data. A detailed description of the required data input and coordinate definition is presented along with a sample data set for a practical forced mixer configuration. A brief description of the program structure and subroutines is also provided.

  2. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

  3. Three-dimensional implicit lambda methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, M.; Dadone, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper derives the three dimensional lambda-formulation equations for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and provides various block-explicit and block-implicit methods for solving them, numerically. Three model problems, characterized by subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow conditions, are used to assess the reliability and compare the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  4. CUBIC pathology: three-dimensional imaging for pathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Satoshi; Susaki, Etsuo A; Yoshida, Kyotaro; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Tsujimura, Naoto; Iijima, Shohei; Takachi, Ko; Nakahara, Yujiro; Tahara, Shinichiro; Ohshima, Kenji; Kurashige, Masako; Hori, Yumiko; Wada, Naoki; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Morii, Eiichi; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2017-08-24

    The examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissues on glass slides by conventional light microscopy is the foundation for histopathological diagnosis. However, this conventional method has some limitations in x-y axes due to its relatively narrow range of observation area and in z-axis due to its two-dimensionality. In this study, we applied a CUBIC pipeline, which is the most powerful tissue-clearing and three-dimensional (3D)-imaging technique, to clinical pathology. CUBIC was applicable to 3D imaging of both normal and abnormal patient-derived, human lung and lymph node tissues. Notably, the combination of deparaffinization and CUBIC enabled 3D imaging of specimens derived from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, allowing quantitative evaluation of nuclear and structural atypia of an archival malignant lymphoma tissue. Furthermore, to examine whether CUBIC can be applied to practical use in pathological diagnosis, we performed a histopathological screening of a lymph node metastasis based on CUBIC, which successfully improved the sensitivity in detecting minor metastatic carcinoma nodules in lymph nodes. Collectively, our results indicate that CUBIC significantly contributes to retrospective and prospective clinicopathological diagnosis, which might lead to the establishment of a novel field of medical science based on 3D histopathology.

  5. Chromatographic background drift correction coupled with parallel factor analysis to resolve coelution problems in three-dimensional chromatographic data: quantification of eleven antibiotics in tap water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Fu, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Juan; Li, Yuan-Na; Li, Shu-Fang; Kang, Chao; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-08-09

    Chromatographic background drift correction has been an important field of research in chromatographic analysis. In the present work, orthogonal spectral space projection for background drift correction of three-dimensional chromatographic data was described in detail and combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve overlapped chromatographic peaks and obtain the second-order advantage. This strategy was verified by simulated chromatographic data and afforded significant improvement in quantitative results. Finally, this strategy was successfully utilized to quantify eleven antibiotics in tap water samples. Compared with the traditional methodology of introducing excessive factors for the PARAFAC model to eliminate the effect of background drift, clear improvement in the quantitative performance of PARAFAC was observed after background drift correction by orthogonal spectral space projection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Three Dimensional Underwater Sound Propagation Over Sloping Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glegg, Stewart A. L.; Riley, J. M.

    This article reviews the work which has been carried out over the past few years on three dimensional underwater sound propagation over sloping bottoms. When sound propagates across a slope three dimensional effects can cause shadow zones and mode cut off effects to occur, which could not be predicted by a two dimensional model. For many years the theory for this type of propagation over realistic ocean floors, which can support both compressional and shear waves, eluded workers in this field. Recently the complete solution for the acoustic field in a "wedge domain with penetrable boundaries" has been developed, and this has allowed for complete understanding of three dimensional bottom interacting sound propagation. These theories have been verified by a series of laboratory scale experiments and excellent agreement has been obtained. However only one full scale ocean experiment has been carried out on three dimensional, bottom interacting, acoustic propagation. This showed significant horizontal refraction of sound propagating across a continental slope and further verifies the importance of bottom slopes on underwater sound propagation.

  7. Quantitative imaging reveals heterogeneous growth dynamics and treatment-dependent residual tumor distributions in a three-dimensional ovarian cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Rizvi, Imran; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable in vitro research tools, though the power of such systems as quantitative reporters of tumor growth and treatment response has not been adequately explored. We introduce an approach combining a 3-D model of disseminated ovarian cancer with high-throughput processing of image data for quantification of growth characteristics and cytotoxic response. We developed custom MATLAB routines to analyze longitudinally acquired dark-field microscopy images containing thousands of 3-D nodules. These data reveal a reproducible bimodal log-normal size distribution. Growth behavior is driven by migration and assembly, causing an exponential decay in spatial density concomitant with increasing mean size. At day 10, cultures are treated with either carboplatin or photodynamic therapy (PDT). We quantify size-dependent cytotoxic response for each treatment on a nodule by nodule basis using automated segmentation combined with ratiometric batch-processing of calcein and ethidium bromide fluorescence intensity data (indicating live and dead cells, respectively). Both treatments reduce viability, though carboplatin leaves micronodules largely structurally intact with a size distribution similar to untreated cultures. In contrast, PDT treatment disrupts micronodular structure, causing punctate regions of toxicity, shifting the distribution toward smaller sizes, and potentially increasing vulnerability to subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment.

  8. Dynamic analysis of a needle insertion for soft materials: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian-based three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Kihei; Satake, Koji; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Shirai, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiromi T

    2014-10-01

    Our goal was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model that enables dynamic analysis of needle insertion for soft materials. To demonstrate large deformation and fracture, we used the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method for fluid analysis. We performed ALE-based finite element analysis for 3% agar gel and three types of copper needle with bevel tips. To evaluate simulation results, we compared the needle deflection and insertion force with corresponding experimental results acquired with a uniaxial manipulator. We studied the shear stress distribution of agar gel on various time scales. For 30°, 45°, and 60°, differences in deflections of each needle between both sets of results were 2.424, 2.981, and 3.737mm, respectively. For the insertion force, there was no significant difference for mismatching area error (p<0.05) between simulation and experimental results. Our results have the potential to be a stepping stone to develop pre-operative surgical planning to estimate an optimal needle insertion path for MR image-guided microwave coagulation therapy and for analyzing large deformation and fracture in biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensionally modulated anisotropic structure for diffractive optical elements created by one-step three-beam polarization holographic photoalignment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kawai, Kotaro, E-mail: s135016@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei

    2016-03-28

    A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams.more » These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.« less

  10. Power-scaling performance of a three-dimensional tritium betavoltaic diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baojun; Chen, Kevin P.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Zukotynski, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional diodes fabricated by electrochemical etching are exposed to tritium gas at pressures from 0.05 to 33 atm at room temperature to examine its power scaling performance. It is shown that the three-dimensional microporous structure overcomes the self-absorption limited saturation of beta flux at high tritium pressures. These results are contrasted against the three-dimensional device powered in one instance by tritium absorbed in the near surface region of the three-dimensional microporous network, and in another by a planar scandium tritide foil. These findings suggest that direct tritium occlusion in the near surface of three-dimensional diode can improve the specific power production.

  11. Stress analysis of different post-luting systems: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Romeed, S A; Dunne, S M

    2013-03-01

    The longevity of endodontically treated teeth is usually determined by the adequacy of root canal treatments, coronal seal and favourable stress distribution within the remaining tooth tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of post material and luting cement on the biomechanics of endodontically treated teeth using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). A 3 mm section of endodontically treated canine tooth was scanned and reconstructed for 3-D modelling and FE analyses. A metal post (MP) and a glass fibre post (GFP) were tested individually with four luting cements [zinc phosphate (ZPH), glass ionomer (GI), resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and resin based cements (RC)]. A push-out test was conducted by subjecting all models to 100 N perpendicular loading at the post. The maximum stresses generated along the MP-cement interface were significantly higher than corresponding stresses in the GFP-cement interface regardless of the cement type. GFP generated seven times higher stresses within the root dentine than metal posts when ZPH and GI were used, and three times higher when RMGI and RC were used. The displacement of GFP was double (50 μ) the displacement of MP (20 μ) in all groups. The low elastic modulus of GFP generated lower stresses along its interface and higher stresses within the root dentine, therefore the probability of debonding and root fracture in the GFP group was lower. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Biomechanical factors associated with mandibular cantilevers: analysis with three-dimensional finite element models.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Tomoya; Yasuda, Daiisa; Ikebe, Kazunori; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Although the risks of using a cantilever to treat missing teeth have been described, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal these mechanisms from a biomechanical perspective. The effects of various implant sites, number of implants, and superstructural connections on stress distribution in the marginal bone were analyzed with three-dimensional finite element models based on mandibular computed tomography data. Forces from the masseter, temporalis, and internal pterygoid were applied as vectors. Two three-dimensional finite element models were created with the edentulous mandible showing severe and relatively modest residual ridge resorption. Cantilevers of the premolar and molar were simulated in the superstructures in the models. The following conditions were also included as factors in the models to investigate changes: poor bone quality, shortened dental arch, posterior occlusion, lateral occlusion, double force of the masseter, and short implant. Multiple linear regression analysis with a forced-entry method was performed with stress values as the objective variable and the factors as the explanatory variable. When bone mass was high, stress around the implant caused by differences in implantation sites was reduced. When bone mass was low, the presence of a cantilever was a possible risk factor. The stress around the implant increased significantly if bone quality was poor or if increased force (eg, bruxism) was applied. The addition of a cantilever to the superstructure increased stress around implants. When large muscle forces were applied to a superstructure with cantilevers or if bone quality was poor, stress around the implants increased.

  13. Multigrid finite element method in stress analysis of three-dimensional elastic bodies of heterogeneous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, A. D.

    2016-11-01

    To calculate the three-dimensional elastic body of heterogeneous structure under static loading, a method of multigrid finite element is provided, when implemented on the basis of algorithms of finite element method (FEM), using homogeneous and composite threedimensional multigrid finite elements (MFE). Peculiarities and differences of MFE from the currently available finite elements (FE) are to develop composite MFE (without increasing their dimensions), arbitrarily small basic partition of composite solids consisting of single-grid homogeneous FE of the first order can be used, i.e. in fact, to use micro approach in finite element form. These small partitions allow one to take into account in MFE, i.e. in the basic discrete models of composite solids, complex heterogeneous and microscopically inhomogeneous structure, shape, the complex nature of the loading and fixation and describe arbitrarily closely the stress and stain state by the equations of three-dimensional elastic theory without any additional simplifying hypotheses. When building the m grid FE, m of nested grids is used. The fine grid is generated by a basic partition of MFE, the other m —1 large grids are applied to reduce MFE dimensionality, when m is increased, MFE dimensionality becomes smaller. The procedures of developing MFE of rectangular parallelepiped, irregular shape, plate and beam types are given. MFE generate the small dimensional discrete models and numerical solutions with a high accuracy. An example of calculating the laminated plate, using three-dimensional 3-grid FE and the reference discrete model is given, with that having 2.2 milliards of FEM nodal unknowns.

  14. Evolution of the three-dimensional collagen structure in vascular walls during deformation: an in situ mechanical testing under multiphoton microscopy observation.

    PubMed

    Nierenberger, Mathieu; Fargier, Guillaume; Ahzi, Saïd; Rémond, Yves

    2015-08-01

    The collagen fibers' three-dimensional architecture has a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of biological tissues. To accurately model this behavior, it is necessary to get some knowledge about the structure of the collagen network. In the present paper, we focus on the in situ characterization of the collagenous structure, which is present in porcine jugular vein walls. An observation of the vessel wall is first proposed in an unloaded configuration. The vein is then put into a mechanical tensile testing device. As the vein is stretched, three-dimensional images of its collagenous structure are acquired using multiphoton microscopy. Orientation analyses are provided for the multiple images recorded during the mechanical test. From these analyses, the reorientation of the two families of collagen fibers existing in the vein wall is quantified. We noticed that the reorientation of the fibers stops as the tissue stiffness starts decreasing, corresponding to the onset of damage. Besides, no relevant evolutions of the out of plane collagen orientations were observed. Due to the applied loading, our analysis also allowed for linking the stress relaxation within the tissue to its internal collagenous structure. Finally, this analysis constitutes the first mechanical test performed under a multiphoton microscope with a continuous three-dimensional observation of the tissue structure all along the test. It allows for a quantitative evaluation of microstructural parameters combined with a measure of the global mechanical behavior. Such data are useful for the development of structural mechanical models for living tissues.

  15. Modern cosmology and the origin of our three dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M A; Woodbury, M F

    1998-01-01

    We are three dimensional egocentric beings existing within a specific space/time continuum and dimensionality which we assume wrongly is the same for all times and places throughout the entire universe. Physicists name Omnipoint the origin of the universe at Dimension zero, which exploded as a Big Bang of energy proceeding at enormous speed along one dimension which eventually curled up into matter: particles, atoms, molecules and Galaxies which exist in two dimensional space. Finally from matter spread throughout the cosmos evolved life generating eventually the DNA molecules which control the construction of brains complex enough to construct our three dimensional Body Representation from which is extrapolated what we perceive as a 3-D universe. The whole interconnected structures which conjure up our three dimensionality are as fragile as Humpty Dumpty, capable of breaking apart with terrifying effects for the individual patient during a psychotic panic, revealing our three dimensionality to be but "maya", an illusion, which we psychiatrists work at putting back together.

  16. Undecalcified temporal bone morphology: a methodology useful for gross to fine observation and three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, T; Mogi, G; Watanabe, T; Matsushita, F

    1992-01-01

    Using a novel method of cutting undecalcified temporal bone specimens, quantitative structural analysis in the human and the Japanese monkey was undertaken. One millimeter thick serial slices made from unembedded temporal bones retained fine structure. Therefore, gross to fine observation could be performed systematically at the macroscopic, light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopic levels. The entire temporal bone three-dimensional reconstruction was completed from embedded sections; consequently, the volume of the tubotympanum and air cell system could be calculated. Available methods by embedding, tungsten carbide sectioning, grinding, and microwave irradiation for decalcification were also examined. These morphologic studies suggest that these novel methods offer timesaving advantages over any presently available techniques, and allow for elucidation of temporal bone morphology with only a few specimens.

  17. Efficient implementation of parallel three-dimensional FFT on clusters of PCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Daisuke

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a high-performance parallel three-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm on clusters of PCs. The three-dimensional FFT algorithm can be altered into a block three-dimensional FFT algorithm to reduce the number of cache misses. We show that the block three-dimensional FFT algorithm improves performance by utilizing the cache memory effectively. We use the block three-dimensional FFT algorithm to implement the parallel three-dimensional FFT algorithm. We succeeded in obtaining performance of over 1.3 GFLOPS on an 8-node dual Pentium III 1 GHz PC SMP cluster.

  18. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results.

  19. A moving observer in a three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many tasks such as retrieving a previously viewed object, an observer must form a representation of the world at one location and use it at another. A world-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the scene built up from visual information would fulfil this requirement, something computer vision now achieves with great speed and accuracy. However, I argue that it is neither easy nor necessary for the brain to do this. I discuss biologically plausible alternatives, including the possibility of avoiding three-dimensional coordinate frames such as ego-centric and world-based representations. For example, the distance, slant and local shape of surfaces dictate the propensity of visual features to move in the image with respect to one another as the observer's perspective changes (through movement or binocular viewing). Such propensities can be stored without the need for three-dimensional reference frames. The problem of representing a stable scene in the face of continual head and eye movements is an appropriate starting place for understanding the goal of three-dimensional vision, more so, I argue, than the case of a static binocular observer. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269608

  20. Evaluation of three-dimensional virtual perception of garments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydoğdu, G.; Yeşilpinar, S.; Erdem, D.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional design, dressing and simulation programs came into prominence in the textile industry. By these programs, the need to produce clothing samples for every design in design process has been eliminated. Clothing fit, design, pattern, fabric and accessory details and fabric drape features can be evaluated easily. Also, body size of virtual mannequin can be adjusted so more realistic simulations can be created. Moreover, three-dimensional virtual garment images created by these programs can be used while presenting the product to end-user instead of two-dimensional photograph images. In this study, a survey was carried out to investigate the visual perception of consumers. The survey was conducted for three different garment types, separately. Questions about gender, profession etc. was asked to the participants and expected them to compare real samples and artworks or three-dimensional virtual images of garments. When survey results were analyzed statistically, it is seen that demographic situation of participants does not affect visual perception and three-dimensional virtual garment images reflect the real sample characteristics better than artworks for each garment type. Also, it is reported that there is no perception difference depending on garment type between t-shirt, sweatshirt and tracksuit bottom.

  1. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    DOE PAGES

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; ...

    2015-09-11

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore » at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global

  2. Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.

    We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore » at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global

  3. Multi-GPU hybrid programming accelerated three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changsheng; Liu, Jieqiong; Zhu, Mingfang; Feng, Li

    2018-03-01

    In the process of dendritic growth simulation, the computational efficiency and the problem scales have extremely important influence on simulation efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field model. Thus, seeking for high performance calculation method to improve the computational efficiency and to expand the problem scales has a great significance to the research of microstructure of the material. A high performance calculation method based on MPI+CUDA hybrid programming model is introduced. Multi-GPU is used to implement quantitative numerical simulations of three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy under the condition of multi-physical processes coupling. The acceleration effect of different GPU nodes on different calculation scales is explored. On the foundation of multi-GPU calculation model that has been introduced, two optimization schemes, Non-blocking communication optimization and overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization, are proposed. The results of two optimization schemes and basic multi-GPU model are compared. The calculation results show that the use of multi-GPU calculation model can improve the computational efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field obviously, which is 13 times to single GPU, and the problem scales have been expanded to 8193. The feasibility of two optimization schemes is shown, and the overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization has better performance, which is 1.7 times to basic multi-GPU model, when 21 GPUs are used.

  4. Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.

  5. [Analysis of a three-dimensional finite element model of atlas and axis complex fracture].

    PubMed

    Tang, X M; Liu, C; Huang, K; Zhu, G T; Sun, H L; Dai, J; Tian, J W

    2018-05-22

    Objective: To explored the clinical application of the three-dimensional finite element model of atlantoaxial complex fracture. Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model of cervical spine (FEM/intact) was established by software of Abaqus6.12.On the basis of this model, a three-dimensional finite element model of four types of atlantoaxial complex fracture was established: C(1) fracture (Jefferson)+ C(2) fracture (type Ⅱfracture), Jefferson+ C(2) fracture(type Ⅲfracture), Jefferson+ C(2) fracture(Hangman), Jefferson+ stable C(2) fracture (FEM/fracture). The range of motion under flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation were measured and compared with the model of cervical spine. Results: The three-dimensional finite element model of four types of atlantoaxial complex fracture had the same similarity and profile.The range of motion (ROM) of different segments had different changes.Compared with those in the normal model, the ROM of C(0/1) and C(1/2) in C(1) combined Ⅱ odontoid fracture model in flexion/extension, lateral bending and rotation increased by 57.45%, 29.34%, 48.09% and 95.49%, 88.52%, 36.71%, respectively.The ROM of C(0/1) and C(1/2) in C(1) combined Ⅲodontoid fracture model in flexion/extension, lateral bending and rotation increased by 47.01%, 27.30%, 45.31% and 90.38%, 27.30%, 30.0%.The ROM of C(0/1) and C(1/2) in C(1) combined Hangman fracture model in flexion/extension, lateral bending and rotation increased by 32.68%, 79.34%, 77.62% and 60.53%, 81.20%, 21.48%, respectively.The ROM of C(0/1) and C(1/2) in C(1) combined axis fracture model in flexion/extension, lateral bending and rotation increased by 15.00%, 29.30%, 8.47% and 37.87%, 75.57%, 8.30%, respectively. Conclusions: The three-dimensional finite element model can be used to simulate the biomechanics of atlantoaxial complex fracture.The ROM of atlantoaxial complex fracture is larger than nomal model, which indicates that surgical treatment should be performed.

  6. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  7. Three-Dimensional Transgenic Cell Models to Quantify Space Genotoxic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, S.; Wu, H.; Pingerelli, P.; Glickman, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a three-dimensional, multicellular tissue-equivalent model, produced in NASA-designed, rotating wall bioreactors using mammalian cells engineered for genomic containment of mUltiple copies of defined target genes for genotoxic assessment. The Rat 2(lambda) fibroblasts (Stratagene, Inc.) were genetically engineered to contain high-density target genes for mutagenesis. Stable three-dimensional, multicellular spheroids were formed when human mammary epithelial cells and Rat 2(lambda) fibroblasts were cocultured on Cytodex 3 Beads in a rotating wall bioreactor. The utility of this spheroidal model for genotoxic assessment was indicated by a linear dose response curve and by results of gene sequence analysis of mutant clones from 400micron diameter spheroids following low-dose, high-energy, neon radiation exposure

  8. One-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated with interferometric techniques on ultrafine-grain silver halide emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulibarrena, Manuel; Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Madrigal, Roque; Blaya, Salvador; Fimia, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Holographic techniques have been used for manufacturing multiple band one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional photonic crystals with different configurations, by multiplexing reflection and transmission setups on a single layer of holographic material. The recording material used for storage is an ultra fine grain silver halide emulsion, with an average grain size around 20 nm. The results are a set of photonic crystals with the one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional index modulation structure consisting of silver halide particles embedded in the gelatin layer of the emulsion. The characterisation of the fabricated photonic crystals by measuring their transmission band structures has been done and compared with theoretical calculations.

  9. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  10. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Bone Histomorphometry

    PubMed Central

    Slyfield, C.R.; Tkachenko, E.V.; Wilson, D.L.; Hernandez, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic bone histomorphometry is the standard method for measuring bone remodeling at the level of individual events. While dynamic bone histomorphometry is an invaluable tool for understanding osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases, the technique’s two-dimensional nature requires the use of stereology and prevents measures of individual remodeling event number and size. Here, we use a novel three-dimensional fluorescence imaging technique to achieve measures of individual resorption cavities and formation events. We perform this three-dimensional histomorphometry approach using a common model of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the ovariectomized rat. The three-dimensional images demonstrate the spatial relationship between resorption cavities and formation events consistent with the hemi-osteonal model of cancellous bone remodeling. Established ovariectomy was associated with significant increases in the number of resorption cavities per unit bone surface (2.38 ± 0.24 mm−2 SHAM v. 3.86 ± 0.35 mm−2 OVX, mean ± SD, p < 0.05) and total volume occupied by cavities per unit bone volume (0.38 ± 0.06% SHAM v. 1.12 ± 0.18% OVX, p < 0.001), but no difference in surface area per resorption cavity, maximum cavity depth, or cavity volume. Additionally, we find that established ovariectomy is associated with increased size of bone formation events due to merging of formation events (23,700 ± 6,890 μm2 SHAM v. 33,300 ± 7,950 μm2 OVX). No differences in mineral apposition rate (determined in 3D) were associated with established ovariectomy. That established estrogen depletion is associated with increased number of remodeling events with only subtle changes in remodeling event size suggests that circulating estrogens may have their primary effect on the origination of new basic multicellular units with relatively little effect on the progression and termination of active remodeling events. PMID:22028195

  11. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of healthy foot shape: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Kristina; Booth, Brian G; Danckaers, Femke; Burg, Fien; Vermaelen, Philippe; Duerinck, Saartje; Sijbers, Jan; Huysmans, Toon

    2018-01-01

    Foot morphology has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researches and footwear manufacturers. Usually, the morphology of the foot is quantified by 2D footprints. However, footprint quantification ignores the foot's vertical dimension and hence, does not allow accurate quantification of complex 3D foot shape. The shape variation of healthy 3D feet in a population of 31 adult women and 31 adult men who live in Belgium was studied using geometric morphometric methods. The effect of different factors such as sex, age, shoe size, frequency of sport activity, Body Mass Index (BMI), foot asymmetry, and foot loading on foot shape was investigated. Correlation between these factors and foot shape was examined using multivariate linear regression. The complex nature of a foot's 3D shape leads to high variability in healthy populations. After normalizing for scale, the major axes of variation in foot morphology are (in order of decreasing variance): arch height, combined ball width and inter-toe distance, global foot width, hallux bone orientation (valgus-varus), foot type (e.g. Egyptian, Greek), and midfoot width. These first six modes of variation capture 92.59% of the total shape variation. Higher BMI results in increased ankle width, Achilles tendon width, heel width and a thicker forefoot along the dorsoplantar axis. Age was found to be associated with heel width, Achilles tendon width, toe height and hallux orientation. A bigger shoe size was found to be associated with a narrow Achilles tendon, a hallux varus, a narrow heel, heel expansion along the posterior direction, and a lower arch compared to smaller shoe size. Sex was found to be associated with differences in ankle width, Achilles tendon width, and heel width. Frequency of sport activity was associated with Achilles tendon width and toe height. A detailed analysis of the 3D foot shape, allowed by geometric morphometrics, provides insights in foot variations in three dimensions that can not be

  12. LED-based interference-reflection microscopy combined with optical tweezers for quantitative three-dimensional microtubule imaging.

    PubMed

    Simmert, Steve; Abdosamadi, Mohammad Kazem; Hermsdorf, Gero; Schäffer, Erik

    2018-05-28

    Optical tweezers combined with various microscopy techniques are a versatile tool for single-molecule force spectroscopy. However, some combinations may compromise measurements. Here, we combined optical tweezers with total-internal-reflection-fluorescence (TIRF) and interference-reflection microscopy (IRM). Using a light-emitting diode (LED) for IRM illumination, we show that single microtubules can be imaged with high contrast. Furthermore, we converted the IRM interference pattern of an upward bent microtubule to its three-dimensional (3D) profile calibrated against the optical tweezers and evanescent TIRF field. In general, LED-based IRM is a powerful method for high-contrast 3D microscopy.

  13. A versatile pipeline for the multi-scale digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis of 3D tissue architecture

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Navarrete, Hernán; Segovia-Miranda, Fabián; Klukowski, Piotr; Meyer, Kirstin; Nonaka, Hidenori; Marsico, Giovanni; Chernykh, Mikhail; Kalaidzidis, Alexander; Zerial, Marino; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for the systems biology analysis of tissues is an accurate digital three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structure based on images of markers covering multiple scales. Here, we designed a flexible pipeline for the multi-scale reconstruction and quantitative morphological analysis of tissue architecture from microscopy images. Our pipeline includes newly developed algorithms that address specific challenges of thick dense tissue reconstruction. Our implementation allows for a flexible workflow, scalable to high-throughput analysis and applicable to various mammalian tissues. We applied it to the analysis of liver tissue and extracted quantitative parameters of sinusoids, bile canaliculi and cell shapes, recognizing different liver cell types with high accuracy. Using our platform, we uncovered an unexpected zonation pattern of hepatocytes with different size, nuclei and DNA content, thus revealing new features of liver tissue organization. The pipeline also proved effective to analyse lung and kidney tissue, demonstrating its generality and robustness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11214.001 PMID:26673893

  14. Three-dimensional ophthalmic optical coherence tomography with a refraction correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Leisser, Christoph; Leitgeb, Rainer; Pircher, Michael; Fercher, Adolf F.

    2003-10-01

    We built an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a rapid scanning optical delay (RSOD) line, which allows probing full axial eye length. The system produces Three-dimensional (3D) data sets that are used to generate 3D tomograms of the model eye. The raw tomographic data were processed by an algorithm, which is based on Snell"s law to correct the interface positions. The Zernike polynomials representation of the interfaces allows quantitative wave aberration measurements. 3D images of our results are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system and the algorithm performance. The system allows us to measure intra-ocular distances.

  15. A Simple and Computationally Efficient Approach to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions for Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Jiang; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Andrews, Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension of the two-class multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) algorithm that enables detection and characterization of epistatic SNP-SNP interactions in the context of a quantitative trait. The proposed Quantitative MDR (QMDR) method handles continuous data by modifying MDR’s constructive induction algorithm to use a T-test. QMDR replaces the balanced accuracy metric with a T-test statistic as the score to determine the best interaction model. We used a simulation to identify the empirical distribution of QMDR’s testing score. We then applied QMDR to genetic data from the ongoing prospective Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. PMID:23805232

  16. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Ear Morphology.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Ali; Galster, Helmut; Peters, Florian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Kniha, Kristian; Knobe, Matthias; Hölzle, Frank; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2018-06-01

    For surgical treatment of the face, detailed surgical planning is necessary to avoid later unaesthetic results. Most of the studies in the literature concentrate on the ears' anatomy during childhood and adolescence. Nearly no study evaluates the anatomy of ears of people aged 50 or older. It was our aim to measure and evaluate the ear's anatomy in Caucasians between the ages of 21 and 65. Three-dimensional scans of 240 volunteers were taken. The subjects were divided into groups of males and females and each of them into three groups by age (21-35, 36-50, 51-65). Landmarks were placed in these scans. Distances, relations and angles between them were recorded. The distance between the subaurale and superaurale significantly increases (p < 0.001) during the aging process in males and females. Also, the width of the ear, measured between the preaurale and postaurale, significantly increased (p = 0.007) with advancing age. When the length of the ear is divided into four parts by anatomical landmarks, it extended the most in the lower quadrant with increasing subject age. The ear of Caucasians does not stop changing its shape during adulthood. Even after the body has stopped growing, the ear still does. With the measured values in this study, it should be possible for the surgeon to plan the operation in advance and achieve satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Transparency-enhancing technology allows three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa: A porcine model.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Hiroya; Ono, Satoshi; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kudo, Yotaro; Ikemura, Masako; Kageyama, Natsuko; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Someya, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Onodera, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Although high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of endoscopically resected gastrointestinal specimens can help elucidating morphological features of gastrointestinal mucosa or tumor, there are no established methods to achieve this without breaking specimens apart. We evaluated the utility of transparency-enhancing technology for three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa in porcine models. Esophagus, stomach, and colon mucosa samples obtained from a sacrificed swine were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and subsequently deparaffinized for analysis. The samples were fluorescently stained, optically cleared using transparency-enhancing technology: ilLUmination of Cleared organs to IDentify target molecules method (LUCID), and visualized using laser scanning microscopy. After observation, all specimens were paraffin-embedded again and evaluated by conventional histopathological assessment to measure the impact of transparency-enhancing procedures. As a result, microscopic observation revealed horizontal section views of mucosa at deeper levels and enabled the three-dimensional image reconstruction of glandular and vascular structures. Besides, paraffin-embedded specimens after transparency-enhancing procedures were all assessed appropriately by conventional histopathological staining. These results suggest that transparency-enhancing technology may be feasible for clinical application and enable the three-dimensional structural analysis of endoscopic resected specimen non-destructively. Although there remain many limitations or problems to be solved, this promising technology might represent a novel histopathological method for evaluating gastrointestinal cancers. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Pathogen propagation in cultured three-dimensional tissue mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for propagating a pathogen in a three-dimensional tissue mass cultured at microgravity conditions in a culture vessel containing culture media and a culture matrix is provided. The three-dimensional tissue mass is inoculated with a pathogen and pathogen replication in the cells of the tissue mass achieved.

  19. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffery C.; Jiang, Bin; Zhong, Zhong; Anastasio, Mark A.; Brey, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript, we investigate the use of XPC for imaging a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted in a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. There were no differences between invading tissue measurements from XPC and the gold-standard histology. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response. PMID:26487123

  20. Visualization of Two Dimensional to Three Dimensional Transformations--Exploration through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, G. B.; Gorak, M.; Melendez, B. S.

    2006-01-01

    A small class of functions is described that easily lend themselves to two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualizations at the basic calculus level. The intended audience is those educators involved in the instruction of elementary calculus. This note is an educational piece that begins with the question: "What happens if a function defined on…

  1. Quantitative 3D reconstruction of airway and pulmonary vascular trees using HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Susan A.; Hoford, John D.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Zerhouni, Elias A.; Mitzner, Wayne A.

    1993-07-01

    Accurate quantitative measurements of airway and vascular dimensions are essential to evaluate function in the normal and diseased lung. In this report, a novel method is described for three-dimensional extraction and analysis of pulmonary tree structures using data from High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Serially scanned two-dimensional slices of the lower left lobe of isolated dog lungs were stacked to create a volume of data. Airway and vascular trees were three-dimensionally extracted using a three dimensional seeded region growing algorithm based on difference in CT number between wall and lumen. To obtain quantitative data, we reduced each tree to its central axis. From the central axis, branch length is measured as the distance between two successive branch points, branch angle is measured as the angle produced by two daughter branches, and cross sectional area is measured from a plane perpendicular to the central axis point. Data derived from these methods can be used to localize and quantify structural differences both during changing physiologic conditions and in pathologic lungs.

  2. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the sports mouthguard.

    PubMed

    Gialain, Ivan Onone; Coto, Neide Pena; Driemeier, Larissa; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Dias, Reinaldo Brito E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive and tensile stresses on dentin and enamel in five different situations: no mouthguard and mouthguards from 1 mm thickness up to 4 mm thickness, using finite element analysis. A three-dimensional geometry of an upper right central incisor was obtained from a computed tomography and transformed into a mesh separating enamel from dentin. A mouthguard was created covering the buccal surface of the enamel in different thicknesses, and a rubber ball with a velocity of 5 m s(-1) was made as the impact object. The maximum principal stress and the minimal principal stress were evaluated in all situations on dentin and enamel. Both maximum and minimal stress on enamel had the greatest value on the control situation (no mouthguard), and their value decreased as the mouthguard thickness increased. The reduction ranged from 66.62% to 85.5% for compressive stress and from 9.76% to 33.37% for tensile stress on enamel. The results for dentin were similar among the situations with or without mouthguards. The mouthguard had beneficial effect considering the stresses on enamel, and between the mouthguard thickness of 3 and 4 mm, there was minimum difference. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Black Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Clyde O., Jr.; Balgopal, Pallassana R.

    This book presents an analysis of black leadership from three perspectives: theoretical, historical, and empirical. After deducing the situational-interactional approach as a useful framework, the authors analyze black leadership from 1841 to the present. This period is divided into six time periods, and black leadership and the strategies used by…

  4. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  5. Subjective figure reversal in two- and three-dimensional perceptual space.

    PubMed

    Radilová, J; Radil-Weiss, T

    1984-08-01

    A permanently illuminated pattern of Mach's truncated pyramid can be perceived according to the experimental instruction given, either as a three-dimensional reversible figure with spontaneously changing convex and concave interpretation (in one experiment), or as a two-dimensional reversible figure-ground pattern (in another experiment). The reversal rate was about twice as slow, without the subjects being aware of it, if it was perceived as a three-dimensional figure compared to the situation when it was perceived as two-dimensional. It may be hypothetized that in the three-dimensional case, the process of perception requires more sequential steps than in the two-dimensional one.

  6. Full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Monteiro, J; Sarmento, M

    2016-12-08

    Knowledge regarding the likelihood of propagation of supraspinatus tears is important to allow an early identification of patients for whom a conservative treatment is more likely to fail, and consequently, to improve their clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for propagation of posterior, central, and anterior full-thickness tears of different sizes using the finite element method. A three-dimensional finite element model of the supraspinatus tendon was generated from the Visible Human Project data. The mechanical behaviour of the tendon was fitted from experimental data using a transversely isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The full-thickness tears were simulated at the supraspinatus tendon insertion by decreasing the interface area. Tear sizes from 10% to 90%, in 10% increments, of the anteroposterior length of the supraspinatus footprint were considered in the posterior, central, and anterior regions of the tendon. For each tear, three finite element analyses were performed for a supraspinatus force of 100N, 200N, and 400N. Considering a correlation between tendon strain and the risk of tear propagation, the simulated tears were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating the volume of tendon for which a maximum strain criterion was not satisfied. The finite element analyses showed a significant impact of tear size and location not only on the magnitude, but also on the patterns of the maximum principal strains. The mechanical outcome of the anterior full-thickness tears was consistently, and significantly, more severe than that of the central or posterior full-thickness tears, which suggests that the anterior tears are at greater risk of propagating than the central or posterior tears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  8. Optimizing random searches on three-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Benhao; Yang, Shunkun; Zhang, Jiaquan; Li, Daqing

    2018-07-01

    Search is a universal behavior related to many types of intelligent individuals. While most studies have focused on search in two or infinite-dimensional space, it is still missing how search can be optimized in three-dimensional space. Here we study random searches on three-dimensional (3d) square lattices with periodic boundary conditions, and explore the optimal search strategy with a power-law step length distribution, p(l) ∼l-μ, known as Lévy flights. We find that compared to random searches on two-dimensional (2d) lattices, the optimal exponent μopt on 3d lattices is relatively smaller in non-destructive case and remains similar in destructive case. We also find μopt decreases as the lattice length in z direction increases under high target density. Our findings may help us to understand the role of spatial dimension in search behaviors.

  9. The load separation technique in the elastic-plastic fracture analysis of two- and three-dimensional geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharobeam, Monir H.

    1994-01-01

    Load separation is the representation of the load in the test records of geometries containing cracks as a multiplication of two separate functions: a crack geometry function and a material deformation function. Load separation is demonstrated in the test records of several two-dimensional geometries such as compact tension geometry, single edge notched bend geometry, and center cracked tension geometry and three-dimensional geometries such as semi-elliptical surface crack. The role of load separation in the evaluation of the fracture parameter J-integral and the associated factor eta for two-dimensional geometries is discussed. The paper also discusses the theoretical basis and the procedure for using load separation as a simplified yet accurate approach for plastic J evaluation in semi-elliptical surface crack which is a three-dimensional geometry. The experimental evaluation of J, and particularly J(sub pl), for three-dimensional geometries is very challenging. A few approaches have been developed in this regard and they are either complex or very approximate. The paper also presents the load separation as a mean to identify the blunting and crack growth regions in the experimental test records of precracked specimens. Finally, load separation as a methodology in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics is presented.

  10. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Solar Energy Potential Estimation of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Li, M.; Cheng, L.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the construction of low-carbon cities, green cities and eco-cities, the ability of the airborne and mobile LiDAR should be explored in urban renewable energy research. As the main landscape in urban environment, buildings have large regular envelopes could receive a huge amount of solar radiation. In this study, a relatively complete calculation scheme about building roof and façade solar utilization potential is proposed, using building three-dimensional geometric feature information. For measuring the city-level building solar irradiance, the precise three-dimensional building roof and façade models should be first reconstructed from the airborne and mobile LiDAR, respectively. In order to obtaining the precise geometric structure of building facades from the mobile LiDAR data, a new method for structure detection and the three-dimensional reconstruction of building façades from mobile LiDAR data is proposed. The method consists of three steps: the preprocessing of façade points, the detection of façade structure, the restoration and reconstruction of building façade. As a result, the reconstruction method can effectively deal with missing areas caused by occlusion, viewpoint limitation, and uneven point density, as well as realizing the highly complete 3D reconstruction of a building façade. Furthermore, the window areas can be excluded for more accurate estimation of solar utilization potential. After then, the solar energy utilization potential of global building roofs and facades is estimate by using the solar irradiance model, which combine the analysis of the building shade and sky diffuse, based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of buildings.

  11. Integration of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation for three-dimensional displacements measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Siegmann, Philip; Díaz, Francisco A.

    2016-12-01

    A low-cost approach for three-dimensional (3-D) full-field displacement measurement is applied for the analysis of large displacements involved in two different mechanical events. The method is based on a combination of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. The two techniques have been employed simultaneously using an RGB camera and a color encoding method; therefore, it is possible to measure in-plane and out-of-plane displacements at the same time with only one camera even at high speed rates. The potential of the proposed methodology has been employed for the analysis of large displacements during contact experiments in a soft material block. Displacement results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a 3D-DIC commercial system. Moreover, the analysis of displacements during an impact test on a metal plate was performed to emphasize the application of the methodology for dynamics events. Results show a good level of agreement, highlighting the potential of FP + 2D DIC as low-cost alternative for the analysis of large deformations problems.

  12. Geometric actions for three-dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, G.; González, H. A.; Salgado-Rebolledo, P.

    2018-01-01

    The solution space of three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter or flat Einstein gravity is given by the coadjoint representation of two copies of the Virasoro group in the former and the centrally extended BMS3 group in the latter case. Dynamical actions that control these solution spaces are usually constructed by starting from the Chern–Simons formulation and imposing all boundary conditions. In this note, an alternative route is followed. We study in detail how to derive these actions from a group-theoretical viewpoint by constructing geometric actions for each of the coadjoint orbits, including the appropriate Hamiltonians. We briefly sketch relevant generalizations and potential applications beyond three-dimensional gravity.

  13. Three-dimensional displays and stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for three-dimensional image reconstruction that are based on the optical and neural apparatus of human stereoscopic vision have to be designed to work in conjunction with it. The principal methods of implementing stereo displays are described. Properties of the human visual system are outlined as they relate to depth discrimination capabilities and achieving optimal performance in stereo tasks. The concept of depth rendition is introduced to define the change in the parameters of three-dimensional configurations for cases in which the physical disposition of the stereo camera with respect to the viewed object differs from that of the observer's eyes. PMID:21490023

  14. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  15. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printers in Libraries: Perspective and Preliminary Safety Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharti, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging technology, three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained much attention as a rapid prototyping and small-scale manufacturing technology around the world. In the changing scenario of library inclusion, Makerspaces are becoming a part of most public and academic libraries, and 3D printing is one of the technologies included in…

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Dendritic Cell Haptotaxis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jan; Sixt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are the main guidance cues directing leukocyte migration. Opposed to early assumptions, chemokines do not necessarily act as soluble cues but are often immobilized within tissues, e.g., dendritic cell migration toward lymphatic vessels is guided by a haptotactic gradient of the chemokine CCL21. Controlled assay systems to quantitatively study haptotaxis in vitro are still missing. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro haptotaxis assay optimized for the unique properties of dendritic cells. The chemokine CCL21 is immobilized in a bioactive state, using laser-assisted protein adsorption by photobleaching. The cells follow this immobilized CCL21 gradient in a haptotaxis chamber, which provides three dimensionally confined migration conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A three-dimensional polyhedral unit model for grain boundary structure in fcc metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banadaki, Arash Dehghan; Patala, Srikanth

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in developing truly bottom-up models for the performance of polycrystalline materials is the lack of robust quantitative structure-property relationships for interfaces. As a first step in analyzing such relationships, we present a polyhedral unit model to classify the geometrical nature of atomic packing along grain boundaries. While the atomic structure in disordered systems has been a topic of interest for many decades, geometrical analyses of grain boundaries has proven to be particularly challenging because of the wide range of structures that are possible depending on the underlying macroscopic crystallographic character. In this article, we propose an algorithm that can partition the atomic structure into a connected array of three-dimensional polyhedra, and thus, present a three-dimensional polyhedral unit model for grain boundaries. A point-pattern matching algorithm is also provided for quantifying the distortions of the observed grain boundary polyhedral units. The polyhedral unit model is robust enough to capture the structure of high-Σ, mixed character interfaces and, hence, provides a geometric tool for comparing grain boundary structures across the five-parameter crystallographic phase-space. Since the obtained polyhedral units circumscribe the voids present in the structure, such a description provides valuable information concerning segregation sites within the grain boundary. We anticipate that this technique will serve as a powerful tool in the analysis of grain boundary structure. The polyhedral unit model is also applicable to a wide array of material systems as the proposed algorithm is not limited by the underlying lattice structure.

  18. Calculation of three-dimensional compressible laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Calculation of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers on arbitrary wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Kaups, K.; Ramsey, J.; Moser, A.

    1975-01-01

    A very general method for calculating compressible three-dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers on arbitrary wings is described. The method utilizes a nonorthogonal coordinate system for the boundary-layer calculations and includes a geometry package that represents the wing analytically. In the calculations all the geometric parameters of the coordinate system are accounted for. The Reynolds shear-stress terms are modeled by an eddy-viscosity formulation developed by Cebeci. The governing equations are solved by a very efficient two-point finite-difference method used earlier by Keller and Cebeci for two-dimensional flows and later by Cebeci for three-dimensional flows.

  19. Three-dimensionally patterned energy absorptive material and method of fabrication

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duoss, Eric; Frank, James M.; Kuntz, Joshua

    A three-dimensionally patterned energy absorptive material and fabrication method having multiple layers of patterned filaments extrusion-formed from a curable pre-cursor material and stacked and cured in a three-dimensionally patterned architecture so that the energy absorptive material produced thereby has an engineered bulk property associated with the three-dimensionally patterned architecture.

  20. Fast determination of three-dimensional fibril orientation of type-I collagen via macroscopic chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Mei-Yu; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Guo, Chin-Lin; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is appealing for studying structural proteins and well-organized biophotonic nanostructures, due to its highly sensitized structural specificity. In recent years, it has been used to investigate the chiroptical effect, particularly SHG circular dichroism (SHG-CD) in biological tissues. Although SHG-CD attributed to macromolecular structures has been demonstrated, the corresponding quantitative analysis and interpretation on how SHG correlates with second-order susceptibility χ(2) under circularly polarized excitations remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate a method based on macroscopic chirality to elucidate the correlation between SHG-CD and the orientation angle of the molecular structure. By exploiting this approach, three-dimensional (3D) molecular orientation of type-I collagen is revealed with only two cross polarized SHG images (i.e., interactions of left and right circular polarizations) without acquiring an image stack of varying polarization.

  1. Investigation of Three-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Characteristics in Transonic Diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proshchanka, Dzianis; Yonezawa, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu

    Three-dimensional characteristics of unsteady flow in supercritical transonic diffuser are investigated. For various pressure ratios three-dimensional flow containing a normal shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction regions with shockwave and pseudo-shockwaves fluctuating in longitudinal and spanwise directions is observed. Experimental and numerical investigations show details of the flowfield in the vicinity of terminal shock, interaction regions and downstream turbulent unsteady flow. Spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations reveals existence of two characteristic frequencies attributed to the shockwave fluctuation in longitudinal direction for the lower frequency case and acoustic resonance in spanwise direction for the higher one. Vortices appear at each corner in transversal sections modifying the core flow. As a result, size and depth of longitudinal and vertical penetration of separation regions impelled by the terminal shock is either increased or decreased.

  2. Three-dimensional Echocardiography of Right Ventricular Function Correlates with Severity of Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jone, Pei-Ni; Patel, Sonali S; Cassidy, Courtney; Ivy, David Dunbar

    2016-12-01

    Right ventricular function and biomarkers of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-Terminal pro-BNP (NT pro-BNP) are used to determine the severity of right ventricular failure and outcomes from pulmonary hypertension. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a novel quantitative measure of the right ventricle and decreases the geometric assumptions from conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). We correlated right ventricular functional measures using 2DE and single-beat 3DE with biomarkers and hemodynamics to determine the severity of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients (mean age 12.67 ± 5.78 years) with established pulmonary hypertension who had echocardiograms and biomarkers on the same day. Ten out of 35 patients had hemodynamic evaluation within 3 days. 2DE evaluation included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular myocardial performance index from tissue Doppler imaging (RV TDI MPI), and right ventricular fractional area change (FAC). Three-dimensional echocardiography evaluation included right ventricular ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic volume, and end-diastolic volume. The quality of the 3DE was graded as good, fair, or poor. Pearson correlation coefficients were utilized to evaluate between biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters and between hemodynamics and echocardiography. Three-dimensional echocardiography and FAC correlated significantly with BNP and NT pro-BNP. TAPSE and RV TDI MPI did not correlate significantly with biomarkers. 3D right ventricular EF correlated significantly with hemodynamics. Two-dimensional echocardiography did not correlate with hemodynamics. Single-beat 3DE is a noninvasive, feasible tool in the quantification of right ventricular function and maybe more accurate than conventional 2DE in evaluating severity of pulmonary hypertension. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quality Assessments of Long-Term Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Xenograft Tissues

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Bai

    The identification of protein biomarkers requires large-scale analysis of human specimens to achieve statistical significance. In this study, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) based quantitative proteomics strategy using one channel for universal normalization across all samples. A total of 307 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analyses were completed, generating 107 one-dimensional (1D) LC-MS/MS datasets and 8 offline two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS/MS datasets (25 fractions for each set) for human-in-mouse breast cancer xenograft tissues representative of basal and luminal subtypes. Such large-scale studies require the implementation of robust metrics to assessmore » the contributions of technical and biological variability in the qualitative and quantitative data. Accordingly, we developed a quantification confidence score based on the quality of each peptide-spectrum match (PSM) to remove quantification outliers from each analysis. After combining confidence score filtering and statistical analysis, reproducible protein identification and quantitative results were achieved from LC-MS/MS datasets collected over a 16 month period.« less

  4. Three-dimensional computational aerodynamics in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, H.

    1978-01-01

    The future requirements for constructing codes that can be used to compute three-dimensional flows about aerodynamic shapes should be assessed in light of the constraints imposed by future computer architectures and the reality of usable algorithms that can provide practical three-dimensional simulations. On the hardware side, vector processing is inevitable in order to meet the CPU speeds required. To cope with three-dimensional geometries, massive data bases with fetch/store conflicts and transposition problems are inevitable. On the software side, codes must be prepared that: (1) can be adapted to complex geometries, (2) can (at the very least) predict the location of laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation, and (3) will converge rapidly to sufficiently accurate solutions.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of electron quasiviscous dissipation in guide-field magnetic reconnection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Schindler, Karl

    2005-10-01

    A numerical study of guide-field magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional model is presented. Starting from an initial, perturbed, force-free current sheet, it is shown that reconnection develops to an almost translationally invariant state, where magnetic perturbations are aligned primarily along the main current flow direction. An analysis of guide-field and electron flow signatures indicates behavior that is very similar to earlier, albeit not three-dimensional, simulations. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of electron pressure nongyrotropies in the central diffusion region confirms the major role the associated dissipation process plays in establishing the reconnection electric field.

  6. A panning DLT procedure for three-dimensional videography.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Koh, T J; Hay, J G

    1993-06-01

    The direct linear transformation (DLT) method [Abdel-Aziz and Karara, APS Symposium on Photogrammetry. American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA (1971)] is widely used in biomechanics to obtain three-dimensional space coordinates from film and video records. This method has some major shortcomings when used to analyze events which take place over large areas. To overcome these shortcomings, a three-dimensional data collection method based on the DLT method, and making use of panning cameras, was developed. Several small single control volumes were combined to construct a large total control volume. For each single control volume, a regression equation (calibration equation) is developed to express each of the 11 DLT parameters as a function of camera orientation, so that the DLT parameters can then be estimated from arbitrary camera orientations. Once the DLT parameters are known for at least two cameras, and the associated two-dimensional film or video coordinates of the event are obtained, the desired three-dimensional space coordinates can be computed. In a laboratory test, five single control volumes (in a total control volume of 24.40 x 2.44 x 2.44 m3) were used to test the effect of the position of the single control volume on the accuracy of the computed three dimensional space coordinates. Linear and quadratic calibration equations were used to test the effect of the order of the equation on the accuracy of the computed three dimensional space coordinates. For four of the five single control volumes tested, the mean resultant errors associated with the use of the linear calibration equation were significantly larger than those associated with the use of the quadratic calibration equation. The position of the single control volume had no significant effect on the mean resultant errors in computed three dimensional coordinates when the quadratic calibration equation was used. Under the same data collection conditions, the mean resultant errors in

  7. COSAL: A black-box compressible stability analysis code for transition prediction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A fast computer code COSAL for transition prediction in three dimensional boundary layers using compressible stability analysis is described. The compressible stability eigenvalue problem is solved using a finite difference method, and the code is a black box in the sense that no guess of the eigenvalue is required from the user. Several optimization procedures were incorporated into COSAL to calculate integrated growth rates (N factor) for transition correlation for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings using the well known e to the Nth power method. A user's guide to the program is provided.

  8. Cochlear implant-related three-dimensional characteristics determined by micro-computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yusu; Dai, Peidong; Dai, Chunfu; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the structural characteristics of the cochlea in three-dimensional (3D) detail using 3D micro-computed tomography (mCT) image reconstruction of the osseous labyrinth, with the aim of improving the structural design of electrodes, the selection of stimulation sites, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Three temporal bones were selected from among adult donors' temporal bone specimens. A micro-CT apparatus (GE eXplore) was used to scan three specimens with a voxel resolution of 45 μm. We obtained about 460 slices/specimen, which produced abundant data. The osseous labyrinth images of three specimens were reconstructed from mCT. The cochlea and its spiral characteristics were measured precisely using Able Software 3D-DOCTOR. The 3D images of the osseous labyrinth, including the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals, were reconstructed. The 3D models of the cochlea showed the spatial relationships and surface structural characteristics. Quantitative data concerning the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics were analyzed with regard to cochlear implantation. The 3D reconstruction of mCT images clearly displayed the detailed spiral structural characteristics of the osseous labyrinth. Quantitative data regarding the cochlea and its spiral structural characteristics could help to improve electrode structural design, signal processing, and the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Clin. Anat. 30:39-43, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A three-dimensional laser vibration measurement technology realized on five laser beam and its calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu-Ke; Zhang, Shen-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Put forward a kind of three-dimensional vibration information technology of vibrating object by the mean of five laser beam of He-Ne laser, and with the help of three-way sensor, measure the three-dimensional laser vibration developed by above mentioned technology. The technology based on the Doppler principle of interference and signal demodulation technology, get the vibration information of the object, through the algorithm processing, extract the three-dimensional vibration information of space objects, and can achieve the function of angle calibration of five beam in the space, which avoid the effects of the mechanical installation error, greatly improve the accuracy of measurement. With the help of a & B K4527 contact three axis sensor, measure and calibrate three-dimensional laser vibrometer, which ensure the accuracy of the measurement data. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of contact and non-contact sensor, and analysis the future development trends of the sensor industry.

  10. High-dimensional Controlled-phase Gate Between a 2 N -dimensional Photon and N Three-level Artificial Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yun-Ming; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Higher-dimensional quantum system is of great interest owing to the outstanding features exhibited in the implementation of novel fundamental tests of nature and application in various quantum information tasks. High-dimensional quantum logic gate is a key element in scalable quantum computation and quantum communication. In this paper, we propose a scheme to implement a controlled-phase gate between a 2 N -dimensional photon and N three-level artificial atoms. This high-dimensional controlled-phase gate can serve as crucial components of the high-capacity, long-distance quantum communication. We use the high-dimensional Bell state analysis as an example to show the application of this device. Estimates on the system requirements indicate that our protocol is realizable with existing or near-further technologies. This scheme is ideally suited to solid-state integrated optical approaches to quantum information processing, and it can be applied to various system, such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator or nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a photonic-band-gap structures.

  11. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the shear bond test.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, P H; Anusavice, K J; Wang, Z

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use finite element analyses to model the planar shear bond test and to evaluate the effects of modulus values, bonding agent thickness, and loading conditions on the stress distribution in the dentin adjacent to the bonding agent-dentin interface. All calculations were performed with the ANSYS finite element program. The planar shear bond test was modeled as a cylinder of resin-based composite bonded to a cylindrical dentin substrate. The effects of material, geometry and loading variables were determined primarily by use of a three-dimensional structural element. Several runs were also made using an axisymmetric element with harmonic loading and a plane strain element to determine whether two-dimensional analyses yield valid results. Stress calculations using three-dimensional finite element analyses confirmed the presence of large stress concentration effects for all stress components at the bonding agent-dentin interface near the application of the load. The maximum vertical shear stress generally occurs approximately 0.3 mm below the loading site and then decreases sharply in all directions. The stresses reach relatively uniform conditions within about 0.5 mm of the loading site and then increase again as the lower region of the interface is approached. Calculations using various loading conditions indicated that a wire-loop method of loading leads to smaller stress concentration effects, but a shear bond strength determined by dividing a failure load by the cross-sectional area grossly underestimates the true interfacial bond strength. Most dental researchers are using tensile and shear bond tests to predict the effects of process and material variables on the clinical performance of bonding systems but no evidence has yet shown that bond strength is relevant to clinical performance. A critical factor in assessing the usefulness of bond tests is a thorough understanding of the stress states that cause failure in the bond test

  12. Resonance fluorescence based two- and three-dimensional atom localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Abdul; Rahmatullah; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Two- and three-dimensional atom localization in a two-level atom-field system via resonance fluorescence is suggested. For the two-dimensional localization, the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields, whereas for the three-dimensional atom localization, the atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave fields. The effect of the detuning and phase shifts associated with the corresponding standing-wave fields is investigated. A precision enhancement in position measurement of the single atom can be noticed via the control of the detuning and phase shifts.

  13. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding orthodontic molar tubes.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Szatkiewicz, Tomasz; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-09-10

    Presenting a new method for direct, quantitative analysis of enamel surface. Measurement of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding molar tubes. Buccal surfaces of fifteen extracted human molars were directly scanned with an optic blue-light 3D scanner to the nearest 2 μm. After 20 s etching molar tubes were bonded and after 24 h storing in 0.9% saline - debonded. Then 3D scanning was repeated. Superimposition and comparison were proceeded and shape alterations of the entire objects were analyzed using specialized computer software. Residual adhesive heights as well as enamel loss depths have been obtained for the entire buccal surfaces. Residual adhesive volume and enamel loss volume have been calculated for every tooth. The maximum height of adhesive remaining on enamel surface was 0.76 mm and the volume on particular teeth ranged from 0.047 mm3 to 4.16 mm3. The median adhesive remnant volume was 0.988 mm3. Mean depths of enamel loss for particular teeth ranged from 0.0076 mm to 0.0416 mm. Highest maximum depth of enamel loss was 0.207 mm. Median volume of enamel loss was 0.104 mm3 and maximum volume was 1.484 mm3. Blue-light 3D scanning is able to provide direct precise scans of the enamel surface, which can be superimposed in order to calculate shape alterations. Debonding molar tubes leaves a certain amount of adhesive remnants on the enamel, however the interface fracture pattern varies for particular teeth and areas of enamel loss are present as well.

  14. In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J Stuart; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-12-01

    Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation of the dermis. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the characterization of blood vessels in PWS skin has been demonstrated by several groups. In the past few years, advances in OCT technology have greatly increased imaging speed. Sophisticated numerical algorithms have improved the sensitivity of Doppler OCT dramatically. These improvements have enabled the noninvasive, high-resolution, three-dimensional functional imaging of PWS skin. Here, we demonstrate high-resolution, three-dimensional, microvasculature imaging of PWS and normal skin using Doppler OCT technique. The OCT system uses a swept source laser which has a central wavelength of 1,310 nm, an A-line rate of 50 kHz and a total average power of 16 mW. The system uses a handheld imaging probe and has an axial resolution of 9.3 µm in air and a lateral resolution of approximately 15 µm. Images were acquired from PWS subjects at the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic. Microvasculature of the PWS skin and normal skin were obtained from the PWS subject. High-resolution, three-dimensional microvasculature of PWS and normal skin were obtained. Many enlarged PWS vessels are detected in the dermis down to 1.0 mm below the PWS skin surface. In one subject, the blood vessel diameters range from 40 to 90 µm at the epidermal-dermal junction and increase up to 300-500 µm at deeper regions 700-1,000 µm below skin surface. The blood vessels close to the epidermal-dermal junction are more uniform, in terms of diameter. The more tortuous and dilated PWS blood vessels are located at deeper regions 600-1,000 µm below the skin surface. In another subject example, the PWS skin blood vessels are dilated at very superficial layers at a depth less than 500 µm below the skin surface. The PWS skin vessel diameters range from 60 to 650 µm, with most vessels having a diameter of around 200 µm. OCT can be

  15. The dimension split element-free Galerkin method for three-dimensional potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Z. J.; Cheng, H.; Ma, L. D.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the dimension split element-free Galerkin (DSEFG) method for three-dimensional potential problems, and the corresponding formulae are obtained. The main idea of the DSEFG method is that a three-dimensional potential problem can be transformed into a series of two-dimensional problems. For these two-dimensional problems, the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation is applied to construct the shape function, which uses an orthogonal function system with a weight function as the basis functions. The Galerkin weak form is applied to obtain a discretized system equation, and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary condition. The finite difference method is selected in the splitting direction. For the purposes of demonstration, some selected numerical examples are solved using the DSEFG method. The convergence study and error analysis of the DSEFG method are presented. The numerical examples show that the DSEFG method has greater computational precision and computational efficiency than the IEFG method.

  16. Three-dimensional drift kinetic response of high- β plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhirui R.; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Liu, Y. Q.; ...

    2015-04-07

    A quantitative interpretation of the experimentally measured high pressure plasma response to externally applied three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations, across the no-wall Troyon limit, is achieved. The key to success is the self-consistent inclusion of the drift kinetic resonance effects in numerical modeling using the MARS-K code. This resolves an outstanding issue of ideal magneto-hydrodynamic model, which signi cantly over-predicts the plasma induced field ampli fication near the no-wall limit, as compared to experiments. The self-consistent drift kinetic model leads to quantitative agreement not only for the measured 3D field amplitude and toroidal phase, but also for the measured internalmore » 3D displacement of the plasma.« less

  17. Vibrational response analysis of tires using a three-dimensional flexible ring-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Masami; Tajiri, Daiki; Ise, Tomohiko; Kawamura, Shozo

    2017-11-01

    Tire vibration characteristics influence noise, vibration, and harshness. Hence, there have been many investigations of the dynamic responses of tires. In this paper, we present new formulations for the prediction of tire tread vibrations below 150 Hz using a three-dimensional flexible ring-based model. The ring represents the tread including the belt, and the springs represent the tire sidewall stiffness. The equations of motion for lateral, longitudinal, and radial vibration on the tread are derived based on the assumption of inextensional deformation. Many of the associated numerical parameters are identified from experimental tests. Unlike most studies of flexible ring models, which mainly discussed radial and circumferential vibration, this study presents steady response functions concerning not only radial and circumferential but also lateral vibration using the three-dimensional flexible ring-based model. The results of impact tests described confirm the theoretical findings. The results show reasonable agreement with the predictions.

  18. Three-dimensional optical-transfer-function analysis of fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Bird, Damian

    2003-05-01

    The three-dimensional optical transfer function is derived for analyzing the imaging performance in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Two types of fiber-optical geometry are considered: The first involves a single-mode fiber for delivering a laser beam for illumination, and the second is based on the use of a single-mode fiber coupler for both illumination delivery and signal collection. It is found that in the former case the transverse and axial cutoff spatial frequencies of the three-dimensional optical transfer function are the same as those in conventional two-photon fluorescence microscopy without the use of a pinhole.However, the transverse and axial cutoff spatial frequencies in the latter case are 1.7 times as large as those in the former case. Accordingly, this feature leads to an enhanced optical sectioning effect when a fiber coupler is used, which is consistent with our recent experimental observation.

  19. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Voids in AM60B Magnesium Tensile Bars Using Computed Tomography Imagery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Waters, A M

    2001-05-01

    In an effort to increase automobile fuel efficiency as well as decrease the output of harmful greenhouse gases, the automotive industry has recently shown increased interest in cast light metals such as magnesium alloys in an effort to increase weight savings. Currently several magnesium alloys such as AZ91 and AM60B are being used in structural applications for automobiles. However, these magnesium alloys are not as well characterized as other commonly used structural metals such as aluminum. This dissertation presents a methodology to nondestructively quantify damage accumulation due to void behavior in three dimensions in die-cast magnesium AM60B tensile bars asmore » a function of mechanical load. Computed tomography data was acquired after tensile bars were loaded up to and including failure, and analyzed to characterize void behavior as it relates to damage accumulation. Signal and image processing techniques were used along with a cluster labeling routine to nondestructively quantify damage parameters in three dimensions. Void analyses were performed including void volume distribution characterization, nearest neighbor distance calculations, shape parameters, and volumetric renderings of voids in the alloy. The processed CT data was used to generate input files for use in finite element simulations, both two- and three-dimensional. The void analyses revealed that the overwhelming source of failure in each tensile bar was a ring of porosity within each bar, possibly due to a solidification front inherent to the casting process. The measured damage parameters related to void nucleation, growth, and coalescence were shown to contribute significantly to total damage accumulation. Void volume distributions were characterized using a Weibull function, and the spatial distributions of voids were shown to be clustered. Two-dimensional finite element analyses of the tensile bars were used to fine-tune material damage models and a three-dimensional mesh of an

  20. Characterization of three-dimensional anisotropic heart valve tissue mechanical properties using inverse finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Barakat, Mohammed S; Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Azadani, Ali N

    2016-09-01

    Computational modeling has an important role in design and assessment of medical devices. In computational simulations, considering accurate constitutive models is of the utmost importance to capture mechanical response of soft tissue and biomedical materials under physiological loading conditions. Lack of comprehensive three-dimensional constitutive models for soft tissue limits the effectiveness of computational modeling in research and development of medical devices. The aim of this study was to use inverse finite element (FE) analysis to determine three-dimensional mechanical properties of bovine pericardial leaflets of a surgical bioprosthesis under dynamic loading condition. Using inverse parameter estimation, 3D anisotropic Fung model parameters were estimated for the leaflets. The FE simulations were validated using experimental in-vitro measurements, and the impact of different constitutive material models was investigated on leaflet stress distribution. The results of this study showed that the anisotropic Fung model accurately simulated the leaflet deformation and coaptation during valve opening and closing. During systole, the peak stress reached to 3.17MPa at the leaflet boundary while during diastole high stress regions were primarily observed in the commissures with the peak stress of 1.17MPa. In addition, the Rayleigh damping coefficient that was introduced to FE simulations to simulate viscous damping effects of surrounding fluid was determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional friction measurement during hip simulation.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Robert; Braun, Steffen; Al-Salehi, Loay; Reinders, Joern; Mueller, Ulrike; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Wear of total hip replacements has been the focus of many studies. However, frictional effects, such as high loading on intramodular connections or the interface to the bone, as well as friction associated squeaking have recently increased interest about the amount of friction that is generated during daily activities. The aim of this study was thus to establish and validate a three-dimensional friction setup under standardized conditions. A standard hip simulator was modified to allow for high precision measurements of small frictional effects in the hip during three-dimensional hip articulation. The setup was verified by an ideal hydrostatic bearing and validated with a static-load physical pendulum and an extension-flexion rotation with a dynamic load profile. Additionally, a pendulum model was proposed for screening measurement of frictional effects based on the damping behavior of the angular oscillation without the need for any force/moment transducer. Finally, three-dimensional friction measurements have been realized for ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings of three different sizes (28, 36 and 40 mm). A precision of less than 0.2 Nm during three-dimensional friction measurements was reported, while increased frictional torque (resultant as well as taper torque) was measured for larger head diameters. These effects have been confirmed by simple pendulum tests and the theoretical model. A comparison with current literature about friction measurements is presented. This investigation of friction is able to provide more information about a field that has been dominated by the reduction of wear. It should be considered in future pre-clinical testing protocols given by international organizations of standardization.

  3. Photoelastic Analysis of Three-dimensional Stress Systems Using Scattered Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R; Bussey, J K

    1939-01-01

    A method has been developed for making photoelastic analyses of three-dimensional stress systems by utilizing the polarization phenomena associated with the scattering of light. By this method, the maximum shear and the directions of the three principal stresses at any point within a model can be determined, and the two principal stresses at a free-bounding surface can be separately evaluated. Polarized light is projected into the model through a slit so that it illuminates a plane section. The light is continuously analyzed along its path by scattering and the state of stress in the illuminated section is obtained. By means of a series of such sections, the entire stress field may be explored. The method was used to analyze the stress system of a simple beam in bending. The results were found to be in good agreement with those expected from elementary theory.

  4. Platform switching: biomechanical evaluation using three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Lucas Fernando; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Assunção, Wirley Goncalves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA), the stress distribution in peri-implant bone tissue, implants, and prosthetic components of implant-supported single crowns with the use of the platform-switching concept. Three 3D finite element models were created to replicate an external-hexagonal implant system with peri-implant bone tissue in which three different implant-abutment configurations were represented. In the regular platform (RP) group, a regular 4.1-mm-diameter abutment (UCLA) was connected to regular 4.1-mm-diameter implant. The platform-switching (PS) group was simulated by the connection of a wide implant (5.0 mm diameter) to a regular 4.1-mm-diameter UCLA abutment. In the wide-platform (WP) group, a 5.0-mm-diameter UCLA abutment was connected to a 5.0-mm-diameter implant. An occlusal load of 100 N was applied either axially or obliquely on the models using ANSYS software. Both the increase in implant diameter and the use of platform switching played roles in stress reduction. The PS group presented lower stress values than the RP and WP groups for bone and implant. In the peri-implant area, cortical bone exhibited a higher stress concentration than the trabecular bone in all models and both loading situations. Under oblique loading, higher intensity and greater distribution of stress were observed than under axial loading. Platform switching reduced von Mises (17.5% and 9.3% for axial and oblique loads, respectively), minimum (compressive) (19.4% for axial load and 21.9% for oblique load), and maximum (tensile) principal stress values (46.6% for axial load and 26.7% for oblique load) in the peri-implant bone tissue. Platform switching led to improved biomechanical stress distribution in peri-implant bone tissue. Oblique loads resulted in higher stress concentrations than axial loads for all models. Wide-diameter implants had a large influence in reducing stress values in the implant system.

  5. Three-dimensional cell to tissue development process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved three-dimensional cell to tissue development process using a specific time varying electromagnetic force, pulsed, square wave, with minimum fluid shear stress, freedom for 3-dimensional spatial orientation of the suspended particles and localization of particles with differing or similar sedimentation properties in a similar spatial region.

  6. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of the craniofacial complex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Can X.; Nissanov, Jonathan; Öztürk, Cengizhan; Nuveen, Michiel J.; Tuncay, Orhan C.

    2000-02-01

    Orthodontic treatment requires the rearrangement of craniofacial complex elements in three planes of space, but oddly the diagnosis is done with two-dimensional images. Here we report on a three-dimensional (3D) imaging system that employs the stereoimaging method of structured light to capture the facial image. The images can be subsequently integrated with 3D cephalometric tracings derived from lateral and PA films (www.clinorthodres.com/cor-c-070). The accuracy of the reconstruction obtained with this inexpensive system is about 400 µ.

  8. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  9. Analysis of dispersion relation in three-dimensional single gyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jheng, Pei-Lun; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2016-03-01

    Gyroid is a type of three-dimensional chiral structures and has been found in many insect species. Besides the photonic crystal properties exhibited by gyroid structures, the chirality and gyroid network morphology also provide unique opportunities for manipulating propagation of light. In this work, we present studies based on finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method for analyzing the dispersion relation characteristics of dielectric single gyroid (SG) metamaterials. The band structures, transmission spectrum, dispersion surfaces, equifrequency contours (EFCs) of SG metamaterials are examined. Some interesting wave guiding characteristics, such as negative refraction and collimation, are presented and discussed. We also show how these optical properties are predicted by analyzing the EFCs at different frequencies. These results are crucial for the design of functional devices at optical frequencies based on dielectric single gyroid metamaterials.

  10. New Display-type Analyzer for Three-dimensional Fermi Surface Mapping and Atomic Orbital Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shigenai, Shin

    2007-01-19

    We have developed and installed a new Display-type ANAlyzer (DIANA) at Ritsumeikan SR center BL-7. We measured the angle-integrated energy distribution curve of poly-crystal go