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Sample records for quantum auctions facts

  1. Quantum auctions: Facts and myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Quantum game theory, whatever opinions may be held due to its abstract physical formalism, have already found various applications even outside the orthodox physics domain. In this paper we introduce the concept of a quantum auction, its advantages and drawbacks. Then we describe the models that have already been put forward. A general model involves Wigner formalism and infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces - we envisage that the implementation might not be an easy task. But a restricted model advocated by the Hewlett-Packard group (Hogg et al.) seems to be much easier to implement. We focus on problems related to combinatorial auctions and technical assumptions that are made. Powerful quantum algorithms for finding solutions would extend the range of possible applications. Quantum strategies, being qubits, can be teleported but are immune from cloning - therefore extreme privacy of the agent’s activity could in principle be guaranteed. Then we point out some key problems that have to be solved before commercial use would be possible. With present technology, optical networks, single photon sources and detectors seems to be sufficient for an experimental realization in the near future.

  2. Multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction using single photons as message carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Gong-Lin; Xu, Yong; Chen, Zhen-Yu; An, Xing-Xing; Ji, Fu-Gao; Gnitou, Gnim Tchalim

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a novel multiparty quantum sealed-bid auction protocol using the single photons as the message carrier of bids is proposed, followed by an example of three-party auction. Compared with those protocols based on the entangled states (GHZ state, EPR pairs, etc.), the present protocol is more economic and feasible within present technology. In order to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction, the decoy photon checking technique and an improved post-confirmation mechanism with EPR pairs are introduced, respectively.

  3. Three essays on auction markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunda, Nicholas James

    This dissertation contains a series of theoretical investigations of auction markets. The essays it contains cover wholesale electricity markets, a popular selling mechanism on eBay, and supplier entry into multi-unit procurement auctions. The study in Chapter 1 compares the procurement cost-minimizing and productive efficiency performance of the auction mechanism used by independent system operators in wholesale electricity auction markets in the U.S. with that of a proposed alternative. The current practice allocates energy contracts as if the auction featured a discriminatory final payment method when, in fact, the markets are uniform price auctions. The proposed alternative explicitly accounts for the market-clearing price during the allocation phase. We find that the proposed alternative largely outperforms the current practice on the basis of procurement costs in the context of simple auction markets featuring both day-ahead and real-time auctions and that the procurement cost advantage of the alternative is complete when we simulate the effects of increased competition. We also find that a tradeoff between the objectives of procurement cost minimization and productive efficiency emerges in our simple auction markets and persists in the face of increased competition. The study in Chapter 2 considers a possible rationale for an auction with a buy price. In an auction with a buy price, the seller provides bidders with an option to end the auction early by accepting a transaction at a posted price. The "Buy-It-Now" option on eBay is a leading example of an auction with a buy price. The study develops a model of an auction with a buy price in which bidders use the auction's reserve price and buy price to formulate a reference price. The model both explains why a revenue-maximizing seller would want to augment her auction with a buy price and demonstrates that the seller sets a higher reserve price when she can affect the bidders' reference price through the

  4. Multiunit auctions with complementarities: Issues of efficiency in electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaghraby, Wedad Jasmine

    Many governments are beginning to believe that it is in their and their constituents' best interest to deregulate their electricity supply industries (ESI). Electricity supply industries in the United Kingdom, Australia, Chile, Norway and the United States have been, or are currently being, restructured. Amongst the many challenges facing the deregulated ESI is to create an auction that induces an efficient use of generation resources, i.e., the efficient dispatch. The design of an electricity auction that induces an efficient use of generation resources is complicated by the fact that electricity demand, which fluctuates from hour to hour, must be satisfied by different generation technologies with nonconvex costs, and that, with the exception of hydro resources, the generators lack the ability to store electricity in inventory. In this dissertation, I analyze the performance of different auction structures in minimizing generation costs. In particular, I am interested in identifying which, if any, rules in an auction structure are necessary and sufficient to guarantee productive minimization of generation costs, in equilibrium. I conduct my analysis assuming two informational frameworks their own costs and all of their opponents' costs with certainty (Chapter 2), and each generator knows its own costs but is uncertain as to what its opponents' costs may be (Chapter 3). The results of chapters 2 and 3 support each other and indicate that the current auction structures operating in California, the UK and Australia are not able to guarantee productive efficiency. Instead, an auction design that takes into account the structure of generation costs has superior (theoretical) efficiency properties. By auctioning daily electricity demand according to its duration, while limiting the size of the demand bundle to be no greater than the capacity of a generation plant, generators are able to bid so as to reflect their cost advantages. This auction format, labeled an alpha

  5. China’s Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J. Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003—2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a “two stage auction”. The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are “cold”, which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities. PMID:25506125

  6. Theoretically Founded Optimization of Auctioneer's Revenues in Expanding Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Jonathan; Shehory, Onn

    The expanding auction is a multi-unit auction which provides the auctioneer with control over the outcome of the auction by means of dynamically adding items for sale. Previous research on the expanding auction has provided a numeric method to calculate a strategy that optimizes the auctioneer's revenue. In this paper, we analyze various theoretical properties of the expanding auction, and compare it to VCG, a multi-unit auction protocol known in the art. We examine the effects of errors in the auctioneer's estimation of the buyers' maximal bidding values and prove a theoretical bound on the ratio between the revenue yielded by the Informed Decision Strategy (IDS) and the post-optimal strategy. We also analyze the relationship between the auction step and the optimal revenue and introduce a method of computing this optimizing step. We further compare the revenues yielded by the use of IDS with an expanding auction to those of the VCG mechanism and determine the conditions under which the former outperforms the latter. Our work provides new insight into the properties of the expanding auction. It further provides theoretically founded means for optimizing the revenue of auctioneer.

  7. Better Solar Cells and Manufacturing Processes Using NREL's Ultrafast Quantum Efficiency Method (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.

  8. Auctioning Airport Slots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Lenoir, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    The current allocation of slots on congested European airports constitutes an obstacle to the effective liberalisation of air transportation undertaken in Europe. With a view to favouring effluent slot utilisation and competition, as is the goal of the Euopean commission, we propose to use a market mechanism, based on temporary" utilisation licences. In order to allocate those licences, we propose and describe an iterated combinatorial auction mechanism where a percentage of licences would be reallocated each season. A secondary market would also be set up in order to reallocate slots during a season. Since a combinatorial auction involve a complex optimisation procedure, we describe how it can be made to work in the case of auctions.

  9. NREL Researchers Demonstrate External Quantum Efficiency Surpassing 100% in a Quantum Dot Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  10. Internet Auction Sellers: Does Size Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Diane; Becherer, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the Internet auction phenomenon as it relates to the marketing mix of online auction sellers. The data indicate that, while there is great diversity among businesses that utilize online auctions, distinct cost leadership and differentiation marketing strategies are both evident. These two approaches are further distinguished in terms of…

  11. Exploring Online Auction Behaviors and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Sua; Crutsinger, Christy; Kim, Haejung

    2008-01-01

    The availability and convenience of the Internet, combined with the variety of products available at any given time, have contributed to the success of online auctions.This exploratory study examined online auction behaviors among college students in an attempt to identify underlying dimensions of auction motivations. Questionnaires completed by…

  12. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  13. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  17. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  18. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  19. Bid distribution derived from consistent mixed strategy in lowest unique bid auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinan; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2014-12-01

    The Lowest Unique Bid Auction (LUBA) booms recently through the Internet. A typical distribution pattern of bid price in this reverse auction has been found and needs to be interpreted. The distribution curve is a decreasing one whose slope has a close relationship with the number of agents participating in the auction. To explain this stylized fact, we develop a model assuming that agents prefer to bid on the price at which the probability of winning is higher. The bid distributions of actual auctions with the number of agents less than 200 can be fitted very well using the parameters for the value of items and the number of bids. When this number becomes larger, however, a deviation occurs between prediction and empirical data, which can be adjusted by introducing cognitive illusion of the bid number.

  20. Statistical Properties of Online Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Alireza; Schadschneider, Andreas

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of online auctions run on eBay. Both stationary and dynamic properties, like distributions of prices, number of bids etc., as well as relations between these quantities are studied. The analysis of the data reveals surprisingly simple distributions and relations, typically of power-law form. Based on these findings we introduce a simple method to identify suspicious auctions that could be influenced by a form of fraud known as shill bidding. Furthermore the influence of bidding strategies is discussed. The results indicate that the observed behavior is related to a mixture of agents using a variety of strategies.

  1. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  2. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards.

  3. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  4. 76 FR 81932 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits; Revised Construction Permit Number in Auction 93

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits; Revised Construction Permit Number in Auction 93... the construction permit number for one of the FM broadcast construction permits for Auction 93. FOR...'s Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS) Web page at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/ecfs/ . ] 1....

  5. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales,...

  6. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales,...

  7. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales,...

  8. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales,...

  9. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales,...

  10. Quantum Dots Promise to Significantly Boost Solar Cell Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    In the search for a third generation of solar-cell technologies, a leading candidate is the use of 'quantum dots' -- tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots have the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into energy -- perhaps even doubling it in some devices -- because of their ability to generate more than one bound electron-hole pair, or exciton, per incoming photon. NREL has produced quantum dots using colloidal suspensions; then, using molecular self-assembly, they have been fabricated into the first-ever quantum-dot solar cells. While these devices operate with only 4.4% efficiency, they demonstrate the capability for low-cost manufacturing.

  11. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by...

  12. 7 CFR 29.36 - Auction market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auction market. 29.36 Section 29.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.36 Auction market. A place to which tobacco is delivered by...

  13. Alternative implementations of electric power auctions

    SciTech Connect

    Dekrajangpetch, S.; Sheble, G.B.

    1998-12-31

    Auctions are considered pricing mechanism of choice for the competitive electric power market. This paper outlines alternative structures for auction implementation. The issue of choosing between single-sided and double-sided auctions is discussed in this paper. To ensure the reliability of the power system, some ancillary services must be provided. this paper addresses various issues of ancillary services; for example, which ancillary services should be bundled and which should be unbundled (i.e., traded under separate contracts). Previous research has indicated that auctions can be formulated as a linear program and this linear program can be solved efficiently. However, when mixed integer solutions are required, it may be impossible to formulate the problem as a linear program. The authors discuss factors concerning this problem and attempt to identify whether auctions are required to implement as a mixed integer program.

  14. Collusion in Auctions for Emission Permits: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtraw, Dallas; Goeree, Jacob; Holt, Charles A.; Myers, Erica; Palmer, Karen; Shobe, William

    2009-01-01

    Environmental markets have several institutional features that provide a new context for the use of auctions and that have not been studied previously. This paper reports on laboratory experiments testing three auction forms--uniform and discriminatory price sealed-bid auctions and an ascending clock auction. We test the ability of subjects to…

  15. 78 FR 61350 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction (Auction 902); Short-Form Application Filing Window...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    .... In the list of bidding areas released with the Auction 902 Procedures Public Notice, 78 FR 56875... COMMISSION Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction (Auction 902); Short-Form Application Filing Window... Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: For Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I questions:...

  16. Sequential Auctions in Uncertain Information Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Shaheen; Wooldridge, Michael; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    This paper analyzes sequential auctions for private value objects using second-price sealed-bid rules. Now, the equilibrium bids for such auctions depend on the information uncertainty of the bidders. Specifically, there are three key auction parameters that the bidders could be uncertain about: the valuations of the objects for sale, the number of objects for sale, and the number of participating bidders. We analyse the bidding behaviour for each of these three sources of uncertainty. For each setting, we first find the equilibrium bidding strategies for the individual auctions that comprise a series. Then we analyze the effect of these uncertainties on the computational and economic properties of the equilibrium solution. The former analysis is essential if we want to use software agents to bid on our behalf. The latter is essential because both the auctioneer and the bidders want to know how these uncertainties affect their profits. Thus we compare the outcomes for these settings from the perspective of the bidders (i.e., in terms of their profits), from the perspective of the auctioneer (i.e., in terms of his revenue), and from a global perspective (i.e., in terms of auction efficiency).

  17. Bayesian Auctions with Friends and Foes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-An; Kempe, David

    We study auctions whose bidders are embedded in a social or economic network. As a result, even bidders who do not win the auction themselves might derive utility from the auction, namely, when a friend wins. On the other hand, when an enemy or competitor wins, a bidder might derive negative utility. Such spite and altruism will alter the bidding strategies. A simple and natural model for bidders’ utilities in these settings posits that the utility of a losing bidder i as a result of bidder j winning is a constant (positive or negative) fraction of bidder j’s utility.

  18. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  19. 77 FR 38803 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Updated Data For Auction 901

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Public Notice, 77 FR 32092, May 31, 2012, the Bureaus described how they identified census blocks... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Updated Data For Auction 901 AGENCY: Federal Communications... Competition Bureaus (Bureaus) announce updated data files of census blocks eligible for the Mobility...

  20. Competitive Financing Mechanisms: Auctions Used by Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Carlotta C.

    This report reviews auctions used by various federal agencies to examine the feasibility of using similar auctions to determine interest rates for student borrowing through the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. The review identified 31 different auctions, divided into two major…

  1. 41 CFR 102-38.95 - What is an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an auction? 102... Sales Process Competitive Sales § 102-38.95 What is an auction? An auction is a sale where the bid... sale. Normally, the bidder with the highest bid at the close of each bidding process is awarded...

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.95 - What is an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an auction? 102... Sales Process Competitive Sales § 102-38.95 What is an auction? An auction is a sale where the bid... sale. Normally, the bidder with the highest bid at the close of each bidding process is awarded...

  3. 41 CFR 102-38.95 - What is an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an auction? 102... Sales Process Competitive Sales § 102-38.95 What is an auction? An auction is a sale where the bid... sale. Normally, the bidder with the highest bid at the close of each bidding process is awarded...

  4. 41 CFR 102-38.95 - What is an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an auction? 102... Sales Process Competitive Sales § 102-38.95 What is an auction? An auction is a sale where the bid... sale. Normally, the bidder with the highest bid at the close of each bidding process is awarded...

  5. Bidding Agents That Perpetrate Auction Fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; McCabe, Alan; Read, Wayne

    This paper presents a software bidding agent that inserts fake bids on the seller's behalf to inflate an auction's price. This behaviour is referred to as shill bidding. Shill bidding is strictly prohibited by online auctioneers, as it defrauds unsuspecting buyers by forcing them to pay more for the item. The malicious bidding agent was constructed to aid in developing shill detection techniques. We have previously documented a simple shill bidding agent that incrementally increases the auction price until it reaches the desired profit target, or it becomes too risky to continue bidding. This paper presents an adaptive shill bidding agent which when used over a series of auctions with substitutable items, can revise its strategy based on bidding behaviour in past auctions. The adaptive agent applies a novel prediction technique referred to as the Extremum Consistency (EC) algorithm, to determine the optimal price to aspire for. The EC algorithm has successfully been used in handwritten signature verification for determining the maximum and minimum values in an input stream. The agent's ability to inflate the price has been tested in a simulated marketplace and experimental results are presented.

  6. 77 FR 57085 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction; Release of Files with Recalculated Road Miles for Auction 901...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    .../ecfs/ . 1. In the Auction 901 Procedures Public Notice, 77 FR 32092, May 31, 2012, the Bureaus... Notice, 77 FR 7152, February 10, 2012, in calculating the number of road miles associated with each... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction; Release of Files with Recalculated Road Miles for Auction 901;...

  7. 47 CFR 1.2208 - Public notice of auction completion and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Competitive Bidding Proceedings Broadcast Television Spectrum Reverse... broadcast television spectrum incentive auction conducted under section 6403 of the Spectrum Act, public... indicate that the reassignments of television channels and reallocations of broadcast television...

  8. Modeling and simulation of a double auction artificial financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raberto, Marco; Cincotti, Silvano

    2005-09-01

    We present a double-auction artificial financial market populated by heterogeneous agents who trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents issue random orders subject to budget constraints. The limit prices of orders may depend on past market volatility. Limit orders are stored in the book whereas market orders give immediate birth to transactions. We show that fat tails and volatility clustering are recovered by means of very simple assumptions. We also investigate two important stylized facts of the limit order book, i.e., the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive transactions and the instantaneous price impact function. We show both theoretically and through simulations that if the order waiting times are exponentially distributed, even trading waiting times are also exponentially distributed.

  9. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  10. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  11. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  12. 43 CFR 2546.4 - Public auctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public auctions. 2546.4 Section 2546.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake...

  13. Books at Auction: The Art of Deaccessioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Lack of space and budget cuts force many libraries to weed out books and to be selective in accepting collection bequests. The approach for deciding which books to weed out and whether to dispose of these books through dealers or auctions are decisions private clubs and many libraries must make. (RBF)

  14. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... companies which publish catalogs of offerings will be responsible for furnishing the auction company for... for sale by an owner, his name shall be shown in the catalog listing as owner. When a joint account... catalog a shipment without disclosing true ownership, if known, or the name of an agent's principal,...

  15. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... companies which publish catalogs of offerings will be responsible for furnishing the auction company for... for sale by an owner, his name shall be shown in the catalog listing as owner. When a joint account... catalog a shipment without disclosing true ownership, if known, or the name of an agent's principal,...

  16. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... companies which publish catalogs of offerings will be responsible for furnishing the auction company for... for sale by an owner, his name shall be shown in the catalog listing as owner. When a joint account... catalog a shipment without disclosing true ownership, if known, or the name of an agent's principal,...

  17. Lessons from the Electricity Auctions in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dutra, Joisa; Menezes, Flavio

    2005-12-01

    The first lesson to emerge from the recent auctions falls within a category that might be described as 'higher costs of reforms in developing economies.' These range from bidders' fears of future government-imposed price caps to technical issues, such as the potential loss of efficiency resulting from bidders' lack of knowledge about ceiling prices, reference supply, and the demand reduction mechanism.

  18. 19 CFR 127.34 - Auctioneer's commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auctioneer's commissions. 127.34 Section 127.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Proceeds of Sale § 127.34...

  19. Experiments in Deaccessioning: Archives and Online Auctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doylen, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for archives to remove duplicate or unneeded materials from their collection focuses on the legal and ethical issues raised for archives by the use of online auction venues in deaccessioning unwanted materials, based on experiences at the University of Wisconsin. (Author/LRW)

  20. Auction-based bandwidth allocation in the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Chi

    2002-07-01

    It has been widely accepted that auctioning which is the pricing approach with minimal information requirement is a proper tool to manage scare network resources. Previous works focus on Vickrey auction which is incentive compatible in classic auction theory. In the beginning of this paper, the faults of the most representative auction-based mechanisms are discussed. And then a new method called uniform-price auction (UPA), which has the simplest auction rule is proposed and it's incentive compatibility in the network environment is also proved. Finally, the basic mode is extended to support applications which require minimum bandwidth guarantees for a given time period by introducing derivative market, and a market mechanism for network resource allocation which is predictable, riskless, and simple for end-users is completed.

  1. Auction-based Security Game for Multiuser Cooperative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Wendong; Cheng, Yunpeng

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an auction-based algorithm to allocate the relay power efficiently to improve the system secrecy rate in a cooperative network, where several source-destination pairs and one cooperative relay are involved. On the one hand, the cooperative relay assists these pairs to transmit under a peak power constraint. On the other hand, the relay is untrusty and is also a passive eavesdropper. The whole auction process is completely distributed and no instantaneous channel state information exchange is needed. We also prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) for the proposed power auction game. Moreover, the Pareto optimality is also validated. Simulation results show that our proposed auction-based algorithm can effectively improve the system secrecy rate. Besides, the proposed auction-based algorithm can converge to the unique NE point within a finite number of iterations. More interestingly, we also find that the proposed power auction mechanism is cheat-proof.

  2. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  3. The role of the EPA auctions in the SO{sub 2} allowance market: What the first two auctions revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market-based trading program to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from electric power plants. In order to stimulate and support this new market, the Act provided for the annual auction of a small portion of the total emission allowances allocated to utilities each year. This paper discusses how the first EPA auctions in 1993 played a large role in creating market value for allowances while the second more accurately reflected market demand. Also addressed is how the market has responded to the design of the auctions and the government rules associated with these auctions. In addition, the paper mentions the role of the Chicago Board of Trade in administering and establishing a market for the EPA auctions and what the future of the EPA auctions may be.

  4. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  5. Auctions vs negotiations: a study of price differentials.

    PubMed

    Kjerstad, Egil

    2005-12-01

    Recent contributions in auction and bargaining theory suggest that a procurer should place more faith in the power of competition among alternative suppliers than in his or her own negotiating skill. Based on data from 216 contracts between procurers and suppliers of medical and surgical articles, we test whether auctions and bargaining result in significantly different prices. The main results are that auctions give 'thicker' markets compared with negotiations, as expected, but that auctions do not result in significantly lower prices compared with negotiations. PMID:15945037

  6. Health Auctions: a Valuation Experiment (HAVE) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Petrie, Dennis; Scuffham, Paul A; Byrnes, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality-adjusted life years are derived using health state utility weights which adjust for the relative value of living in each health state compared with living in perfect health. Various techniques are used to estimate health state utility weights including time-trade-off and standard gamble. These methods have exhibited limitations in terms of complexity, validity and reliability. A new composite approach using experimental auctions to value health states is introduced in this protocol. Methods and analysis A pilot study will test the feasibility and validity of using experimental auctions to value health states in monetary terms. A convenient sample (n=150) from a population of university staff and students will be invited to participate in 30 auction sets with a group of 5 people in each set. The 9 health states auctioned in each auction set will come from the commonly used EQ-5D-3L instrument. At most participants purchase 2 health states, and the participant who acquires the 2 ‘best’ health states on average will keep the amount of money they do not spend in acquiring those health states. The value (highest bid and average bid) of each of the 24 health states will be compared across auctions to test for reliability across auction groups and across auctioneers. A test retest will be conducted for 10% of the sample to assess reliability of responses for health states auctions. Feasibility of conducting experimental auctions to value health states will also be examined. The validity of estimated health states values will be compared with published utility estimates from other methods. This pilot study will explore the feasibility, reliability and validity in using experimental auction for valuing health states. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance was obtained from Griffith University ethics committee. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and major international conferences. PMID:27056589

  7. A Classroom Auction with Externalities: Applied to Mergers and Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, J. Patrick; Anderson, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an in-class exercise in which students participate in an auction to buy US Airways. The exercise is based on events of late 1995, in which neither United nor American Airlines decided to bid for US Airways. Two teams of students participate in an English auction. Students learn that the equilibrium of the sequential game is…

  8. A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

    2001-01-01

    Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

  9. A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo

    Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

  10. 75 FR 8070 - Closed Auction of Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for July 20, 2010; Auction 88...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... announces the auction of certain broadcast FM, AM, and FM Translator construction permits scheduled to... certain broadcast FM, AM, and FM Translator construction permits and sought comment on the procedures to... resolve mutual exclusivity between applications for new AM stations on 640 kHz and 1230 kHz in the...

  11. Detecting Fraud in Internet Auction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanlin; Zhang, Linfeng; Guan, Yong

    Fraud compromises the thriving Internet auction market. Studies have shown that fraudsters often manipulate their reputations through sophisticated collusions with accomplices, enabling them to defeat the reputation-based feedback systems that are used to combat fraud. This paper presents an algorithm that can identify colluding fraudsters in real time. Experiments with eBay transaction data show that the algorithm has low false negative and false positive rates. Furthermore, the algorithm can identify fraudsters who are innocent at the time of the data collection, but engage in fraudulent transactions soon after they accumulate good feedback ratings.

  12. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  13. Auction Mechanism to Allocate Air Traffic Control Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffarin, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with an auction mechanism for airspace slots, as a means of solving the European airspace congestion problem. A disequilibrium, between Air Traffic Control (ATC) services supply and ATC services demand are at the origin of almost one fourth of delays in the air transport industry in Europe. In order to tackle this congestion problem, we suggest modifying both pricing and allocation of ATC services, by setting up an auction mechanism. Objects of the auction will be the right for airlines to cross a part of the airspace, and then to benefit from ATC services over a period corresponding to the necessary time for the crossing. Allocation and payment rules have to be defined according to the objectives of this auction. The auctioneer is the public authority in charge of ATC services, whose aim is to obtain an efficient allocation. Therefore, the social value will be maximized. Another objective is to internalize congestion costs. To that end, we apply the principle of Clarke-Groves mechanism auction: each winner has to pay the externalities imposed on other bidders. The complex context of ATC leads to a specific design for this auction.

  14. Smarter than Others? Conjectures in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Chen, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning various types of auctions, such as English auctions, Dutch auctions, highest-price sealed-bid auctions, and second-price sealed-bid auctions, is always a topic of considerable interest in interdisciplinary fields. The type of auction, known as a lowest unique bid auction (LUBA), has also attracted significant attention. Various models have been proposed, but they often fail to explain satisfactorily the real bid-distribution characteristics. This paper discusses LUBA bid-distribution characteristics, including the inverted-J shape and the exponential decrease in the upper region. The authors note that this type of distribution, which initially increases and later decreases, cannot be derived from the symmetric Nash equilibrium framework based on perfect information that has previously been used. A novel optimization model based on non-perfect information is presented. The kernel of this model is the premise that agents make decisions to achieve maximum profit based on imaginary information or assumptions regarding the behavior of others. PMID:25849631

  15. Statistical theory of the continuous double auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric; Doyne Farmer, J.; Gillemot, László; Krishnamurthy, Supriya

    2003-12-01

    Most modern financial markets use a continuous double auction mechanism to store and match orders and facilitate trading. In this paper we develop a microscopic dynamical statistical model for the continuous double auction under the assumption of IID random order flow, and analyse it using simulation, dimensional analysis, and theoretical tools based on mean field approximations. The model makes testable predictions for basic properties of markets, such as price volatility, the depth of stored supply and demand versus price, the bid-ask spread, the price impact function, and the time and probability of filling orders. These predictions are based on properties of order flow and the limit order book, such as share volume of market and limit orders, cancellations, typical order size, and tick size. Because these quantities can all be measured directly there are no free parameters. We show that the order size, which can be cast as a non-dimensional granularity parameter, is in most cases a more significant determinant of market behaviour than tick size. We also provide an explanation for the observed highly concave nature of the price impact function. On a broader level, this work suggests how stochastic models based on zero intelligence agents may be useful to probe the structure of market institutions. Like the model of perfect rationality, a stochastic zero intelligence model can be used to make strong predictions based on a compact set of assumptions, even if these assumptions are not fully believable.

  16. The communications spectrum: Frequency allocations and auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    Demands on the communications spectrum have increased sharply because of the growth in radio communication services, the large bandwidths now required, and the rapid increases in world population. The problem will be exacerbated by the requirements of high definition television and the enormous amounts of information that will be transmitted by radio. The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite natural resource of great value used for emergency communications and military operations as well as for commercial purposes. Both government and the marketplace have proper roles in the allocation of its resources. There are no viable alternatives to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union or to agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission for the regulation of radio communication and the assignment of spectrum to essential public services. Although government auctions of spectrum are justifiable where there is no way to distinguish among commercial entities seeking to use the same bands for similar services, the practice is inherently inequitable and discourages development of new uses for the spectrum by removing investment protection. Recommended alternatives to auctions are: (1) lotteries, which keep assets and proceeds in the economy; and (2) ongoing charges for current as well as new users of the spectrum.

  17. Truthful Auction for CPU Time Slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Minming

    We consider the task of designing a truthful auction mechanism for CPU time scheduling problem. There are m commodities (time slots) T = {t 1, t 2, ...,t m } for n buyers I = {1,2,...,n}. Each buyer requires a number of time slots s i for its task. The valuation function of buyer i for a bundle of time slots T i is v i (T i ) = w i (m - t), where t is the last time slot in T i and |T i | = s i . The utility u i of buyer i is v i (T i ) - p(T i ). It is well-known that Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism gives the incentive to bid truthfully. Although optimal social welfare is computationally feasible in CPU time scheduling problem, VCG mechanism may produce low revenue. We design an auction which also maintains the incentives for bidders to bid truthfully. In addition, we perform simulations and observe that our truthful mechanism produces more revenue than VCG on average.

  18. 78 FR 68839 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Rescheduled for February 25, 2014; Notice of Changes to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... requirements as set out in the Auction 902 Procedures Public Notice, 78 FR 56875, September 16, 2013, remain... to Auction 902: (1) A revised auction tutorial incorporating the revised dates and deadlines will...

  19. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  20. Auction fever: exploring informational social influences on bidder choices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigations of herd behavior have identified the importance of informational social influences in consumer decision making. This research presents three studies examining herd behavior in online auctions. The three studies addressed the influence on bidder online choices of herd cues frequently found in online auctions, including bid number, feedback ratings, and number of questions and answers. This research also investigated the effect of different levels of herd cues on bidder online choices under high and low brand awareness in online auctions. The experimental results demonstrated that bidders use online herd cues when making decisions in online auctions. Additionally, different levels of herd cues influence bidder online choices in both high and low brand awareness product situations.

  1. Auction fever: exploring informational social influences on bidder choices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigations of herd behavior have identified the importance of informational social influences in consumer decision making. This research presents three studies examining herd behavior in online auctions. The three studies addressed the influence on bidder online choices of herd cues frequently found in online auctions, including bid number, feedback ratings, and number of questions and answers. This research also investigated the effect of different levels of herd cues on bidder online choices under high and low brand awareness in online auctions. The experimental results demonstrated that bidders use online herd cues when making decisions in online auctions. Additionally, different levels of herd cues influence bidder online choices in both high and low brand awareness product situations. PMID:21192763

  2. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  3. Document of the Month: Photograph of a Land Auction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Photograph of a land auction in Imperial, California, 1904, accompanied by a history of the federal government's policy on the distribution and development of publicly owned land. Suggestions for using the photograph as historical evidence are included. (KC)

  4. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  5. Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.

    2009-07-01

    Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.

  6. Organ Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Facts Here you can find valuable information about organs ...

  7. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  8. Kidney Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Kidney Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish-brown ...

  9. Joint bidding, information pooling, and the performance of petroleum lease auctions

    SciTech Connect

    DeBrock, L.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic bidding model to examine the effect of joint bidding in offshore petroleum lease auctions. It shows that joint bidding increases the total social value of the lease offering and, in most cases, does not significantly decrease the percentage of social value captured by the government. These results follow from the fact that pooling of information concerning a prior unknown tract values allows for more accurate estimates. The anticompetitive effect of a reduced number of bidders tends to be offset by the well-known fact that better informed participants bid more aggressively. The findings are striking in that the model abstracts entirely from the effects of increased entry and greater risk diversification, the two common arguments in support of joint bidding. 12 references, 13 footnotes, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information...

  11. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information...

  12. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) After the conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will...

  13. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information...

  14. 31 CFR 356.23 - How are the auction results announced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conclusion of the auction, we will announce the auction results through a press release that is available on our Web site at http://www.treasurydirect.gov. (b) The press release will include such information...

  15. 75 FR 57947 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011; Comment Sought on Competitive Bidding Procedures for Auction 90 AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  16. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  17. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ODOMETER DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS § 580.9 Odometer record retention for auction companies. Each auction company shall establish and... following records: (a) The name of the most recent owner (other than the auction company); (b) The name...

  18. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  19. 75 FR 21627 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Rescheduled for June 15, 2010; Status of Short...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... and upper paging bands spectrum. This auction, which is designated as Auction 87, was initially... COMMISSION Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Rescheduled for June 15, 2010; Status of Short...,603 licenses for lower and upper paging bands designated Auction 87. DATES: Upfront payments are...

  20. Essays on applied auction problems in electric generation and in neighboring jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman-Perl, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work consists of three essays. The first essay, [open quotes]Contract Selection and Performance in Competitive Bidding for Electric Generation,[close quotes], studies the new practice of competitive bidding among third parties to supply utilities with electric generating capacity. The other two essays, entitled [open quotes]First Price Auctions in Neighboring Jurisdictions,[close quotes] and [open quotes]Second Price Auctions in Neighboring Jurisdictions,[close quotes] study the general problem of auctions when there are several auctioneers that can observe each other and can use information from these observations strategically. The first essay notes that competitive bidding programs for electric generation are really auctions of long-term contracts between utility and third parties. Bids and contracts from Maine were studied. Since Maine has a wealth of alternative fuels, such as wood and hydroelectric, the applicability of this study is limited to states with significant alternative fuel resources. The second and third essays consider auctions in neighboring jurisdictions. One concerns first-price auctions (low bid, wins, and is paid its bid), and the other concerns second-price auctions (low bid wins, and is paid the second lowest bid). One town initially holds an auction, the results of which are public information. Another town can use this public information to negotiate with the winner of the initial auction. Firms always bid higher in an initial first-price auction than they would if a neighboring town were not present. In equilibrium, firms are no worse off than they would be if both towns acted independently, and the negotiating town benefits at the expense of the town initially auctioning. In second-price auctions, the incentive compatibility property is preserved if relatively lower cost firms bid in the initial auction. The town initially conducting the auction is unaffected, and the negotiating town benefits at the firm's expense.

  1. Multi-unit auctions with budget-constrained bidders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Gagan Pratap

    In my dissertation, I investigate the effects of budget-constraints in multi-unit auctions. This is done in three parts. First, I analyze a case where all bidders have a common budget constraint. Precisely, I analyze an auction where two units of an object are sold at two simultaneous, sealed bid, first-price auctions, to bidders who have demand for both units. Bidders differ with respect to their valuations for the units. All bidders have an identical budget constraint which binds their ability to spend in the auction. I show that if valuation distribution is atom-less, then their does not exist any symmetric equilibrium in this auction game. In the second and third parts of my thesis, I analyze the sale of licenses for the right to drill for oil and natural gas in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the United States. These sales are conducted using simultaneous sealed-bid first-price auctions for multiple licenses, each representing a specific area (called a tract). Using aspects of observed bidding-behavior, I first make a prima facie case that bidders are budget-constrained in these auctions. In order to formalize this argument, I develop a simple extension of the standard model (where bidders differ in their valuations for the objects) by incorporating (random) budgets for the bidders. The auction-game then has a two-dimensional set of types for each player. I study the theoretical properties of this auction, assuming for simplicity that two units are being sold. I show that this game has an equilibrium in pure strategies that is symmetric with respect to the players and with respect to the units. The strategies are essentially pure in the sense that each bidder-type has a unique split (up to a permutation) of his budget between the two auctions. I then characterize the equilibrium in terms of the bid-distribution and iso-bid curves in the value-budget space. I derive various qualitative features of this equilibrium, among which are: (1) under mild

  2. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements... referred to in section 13(b)(13) are those engaged in by the farmer “as an adjunct” to the raising of... claim exemption under section 13(b)(13). To qualify under the exemption provision, the...

  3. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements... referred to in section 13(b)(13) are those engaged in by the farmer “as an adjunct” to the raising of... claim exemption under section 13(b)(13). To qualify under the exemption provision, the...

  4. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  5. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  6. Double-Auction Market Simulation Software for Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironside, Brian; Joerding, Wayne; Kuzyk, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The authors provide a version of a double-auction market simulation designed for classes too large for most computer labs to accommodate in one sitting. Instead, students play the game from remote computers, wherever they may be and at any time during a given time period specified by the instructor. When the window of time expires, students can…

  7. Empirical regularities of opening call auction in Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Ren, Fei; Ni, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical regularities of an opening call auction using the ultra-high-frequency data of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. The distribution of the relative price, defined as the relative difference between the order price in the opening call auction and the closing price on the last trading day, is asymmetric and that the distribution displays a sharp peak at the zero relative price and a relatively wide peak at the negative relative price. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method is adopted to investigate the long-term memory of relative order prices. We further study the statistical regularities of order sizes in the opening call auction, and observe a phenomenon of number preference, known as order size clustering. The probability density function (PDF) of order sizes could be well fitted by a q-Gamma function, and the long-term memory also exists in order sizes. In addition, both the average volume and the average number of orders decrease exponentially with the price level away from the best bid or ask price level in the limit-order book (LOB) established immediately after the opening call auction, and a price clustering phenomenon is observed.

  8. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  9. 15. Detail view of the original auction podium in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of the original auction podium in the 1937 arena (main section), with the west bleachers at the left, the north bleachers at the right, and the monitor roof structure, supported by posts, above; looking northwest - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  10. 41 CFR 102-38.95 - What is an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an auction? 102-38.95 Section 102-38.95 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL...

  11. Snack, Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  12. Reptile Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  13. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  14. Facts First

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-02-01

    I enjoy reading online news and opinions not only because of convenience, but also because of the responses from the readers. I know that these responses tend to be biased towards the extremes of opinions, but it is always interesting to see the diverse reactions from even seemingly non-controversial subjects. A recent example was the response to an editorial by Richard Gallaghar (October, 2008) that proffered the seemingly obvious opinion that science students need a strong understanding of scientific history and philosophy to help them face future challenges. This provoked a response from a reader, a college professor, that a major reason for the lack of good university science education was the laziness of his colleagues. They were taking the “easy way out” by concentrating on teaching facts rather than scientific concepts. In the respondent’s viewpoint, it was far better to teach students how to think. Facts could always be looked up in textbooks. If you did not understand how to think critically and create knowledge, you could not be considered educated. Although I am very sympathetic to this point of view, I don’t believe that laziness is the reason why students are flooded with facts rather than concepts in biology class.

  15. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  16. Auctions with Dynamic Populations: Efficiency and Revenue Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Maher

    We study a stochastic sequential allocation problem with a dynamic population of privately-informed buyers. We characterize the set of efficient allocation rules and show that a dynamic VCG mechanism is both efficient and periodic ex post incentive compatible; we also show that the revenue-maximizing direct mechanism is a pivot mechanism with a reserve price. We then consider sequential ascending auctions in this setting, both with and without a reserve price. We construct equilibrium bidding strategies in this indirect mechanism where bidders reveal their private information in every period, yielding the same outcomes as the direct mechanisms. Thus, the sequential ascending auction is a natural institution for achieving either efficient or optimal outcomes.

  17. Red facts: Dibromodicyanobutane. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 2780, dibromodicyanobutane. Dibromodicyanobutane (1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane) is a microbiocide/microbiostat used to control slime-forming bacteria and fungi in commercial/industrial water cooling systems (recirculating), oil recovery drilling muds/packer fluids, pulp/paper mill water systems, secondary oil recovery rejection water, industrial adhesives and coatings, resin/latex/polymer emulsions, metalworking cutting fluids, paints, specialty industrial products (including fiber processing fluids, waxes, polishes, and inks), and wet-end additives/industrial processing chemicals.

  18. Auction-based distributed efficient economic operations of microgrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing; Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the economic operations of the microgrid in a distributed way such that the operational schedule of each of the units, like generators, load units, storage units, etc., in a microgrid system, is implemented by autonomous agents. We apply and generalise the progressive second price (PSP) auction mechanism which was proposed by Lazar and Semret to efficiently allocate the divisible network resources. Considering the economic operation for the microgrid systems, the generators play as sellers to supply energy and the load units play as the buyers to consume energy, while a storage unit, like battery, super capacitor, etc., may transit between buyer and seller, such that it is a buyer when it charges and becomes a seller when it discharges. Furthermore in a connected mode, each individual unit competes against not only the other individual units in the microgrid but also the exogenous main grid possessing fixed electricity price and infinite trade capacity; that is to say, the auctioneer assigns the electricity among all individual units and the main grid with respect to the submitted bid strategies of all individual units in the microgrid in an economic way. Due to these distinct characteristics, the underlying auction games are distinct from those studied in the literature. We show that under mild conditions, the efficient economic operation strategy is a Nash equilibrium (NE) for the PSP auction games, and propose a distributed algorithm under which the system can converge to an NE. We also show that the performance of worst NE can be bounded with respect to the system parameters, say the energy trading price with the main grid, and based upon that, the implemented NE is unique and efficient under some conditions.

  19. Auction-based resource allocation game under a hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yingying; Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a class of auction-based resource allocation games under a hierarchical structure, such that each supplier is assigned a certain amount of resource from a single provider and allocates it to its buyers with auction mechanisms. To implement the efficient allocations for the underlying hierarchical system, we first design an auction mechanism, for each local system composed of a supplier and its buyers, which inherits the advantages of the progressive second price mechanism. By employing a dynamic algorithm, each local system converges to its own efficient Nash equilibrium, at which the efficient resource allocation is achieved and the bidding prices of all the buyers in this local system are identical with each other. After the local systems reach their own equilibria respectively, the resources assigned to suppliers are readjusted via a dynamic hierarchical algorithm with respect to the bidding prices associated with the implemented equilibria of local systems. By applying the proposed hierarchical process, the formulated hierarchical system can converge to the efficient allocation under certain mild conditions. The developed results in this work are demonstrated with simulations.

  20. Auctions and alternative procedures for allocating pollution rights

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.M.

    1982-02-01

    This paper considers two different types of auctions which the government could use to sell discharge rights: (1) an auction where rights are sold for a single clearing price, and (2) a special type of discriminating auction that discourages strategic manipulation of bids by individual dischargers. Based on both theoretical and practical considerations, there appears to be a fundamental trade-off between reducing the financial burden of rights purchases and eliminating the incentives for strategic behavior. Very few discharges in either case study would have lower expenses under government sales of rights than under uniform treatment. The simulations also suggest that there may be opportunities for strategic behavior under nonincentive-compatible procedures because of small numbers of dischargers, despite its problems with respect to incentive compatibility, the right allocation approach of free distribution followed by exchange may offer the most desirable package of features. This approach can yield dischargers savings over the expenses of present uniform regulations as well as provide incentives for efficient allocation of treatment efforts. 25 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  1. 78 FR 11179 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Scheduled for July 16, 2013; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Scheduled for July 16, 2013; Comment Sought on Competitive Bidding Procedures for Auction 95 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  2. 76 FR 1158 - Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Scheduled for July 19, 2011; Comment Sought on Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Auction of 700 MHz Band Licenses Scheduled for July 19, 2011; Comment Sought on Competitive Bidding Procedures for Auction 92 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. ]...

  3. 78 FR 72081 - Closed Auction of AM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for May 6, 2014; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... be a ``closed'' auction; only those entities listed in Attachment A to the Auction 84 Comment Public..., 2013. The complete text of the Auction 84 Comment Public Notice, including all attachments and related... Notice and its attachments, as well as related Commission documents, also may be purchased from...

  4. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.308 How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The auction...

  5. 77 FR 60690 - Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 26, 2013; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Auction of FM Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for March 26, 2013; Comment Sought on.... SUMMARY: This document announces the auction of certain FM broadcast construction permits scheduled to... auction of certain FM broadcast construction permits and seek comment on the procedures to be used...

  6. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  7. 30 CFR 285.220 - What auction format may MMS use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.220 What auction format may MMS use... renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined through the...

  8. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  9. 30 CFR 285.220 - What auction format may MMS use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285... competitive auctions to award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats,...

  10. 30 CFR 585.220 - What auction format may BOEM use in a lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 585.220 What auction format may... award renewable energy leases and will use one of the following auction formats, as determined...

  11. 31 CFR 356.22 - Does the Treasury have any limitations on auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the Treasury have any limitations on auction awards? 356.22 Section 356.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money..., PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.22 Does the Treasury...

  12. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  13. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  14. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  16. 29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption...

  17. Sold! The Elementary Classroom Auction as Learning Tool of Communication and Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Boyd, Gina

    2014-01-01

    An auction, though an economic tool, is essentially a performance dependent on communication (Smith, 1989). The auctioneer dictates the pace, asks for bids, and acknowledges responses; the enterprise is controlled by a voice (Boyce, 2001). Bidders must listen and respond strategically to the communication of the people around them. An auction…

  18. Are Structural Estimates of Auction Models Reasonable? Evidence from Experimental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Hortacsu, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Recently, economists have developed methods for structural estimation of auction models. Many researchers object to these methods because they find the strict rationality assumptions to be implausible. Using bid data from first-price auction experiments, we estimate four alternative structural models: (1) risk-neutral Bayes-Nash, (2) risk-averse…

  19. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales...

  20. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales...

  1. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales...

  2. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales...

  3. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. 2.76 Section 2.76 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales...

  4. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions. PMID:19817564

  5. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  6. Painkiller (Oxy, Vike) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... these pills just like they sell heroin or cocaine. Some people borrow or steal these pills from ...

  7. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.

  8. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  9. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  10. Ergodic transition in a simple model of the continuous double auction.

    PubMed

    Radivojević, Tijana; Anselmi, Jonatha; Scalas, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We study a phenomenological model for the continuous double auction, whose aggregate order process is equivalent to two independent M/M/1 queues. The continuous double auction defines a continuous-time random walk for trade prices. The conditions for ergodicity of the auction are derived and, as a consequence, three possible regimes in the behavior of prices and logarithmic returns are observed. In the ergodic regime, prices are unstable and one can observe a heteroskedastic behavior in the logarithmic returns. On the contrary, non-ergodicity triggers stability of prices, even if two different regimes can be seen.

  11. Ergodic Transition in a Simple Model of the Continuous Double Auction

    PubMed Central

    Radivojević, Tijana; Anselmi, Jonatha; Scalas, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We study a phenomenological model for the continuous double auction, whose aggregate order process is equivalent to two independent queues. The continuous double auction defines a continuous-time random walk for trade prices. The conditions for ergodicity of the auction are derived and, as a consequence, three possible regimes in the behavior of prices and logarithmic returns are observed. In the ergodic regime, prices are unstable and one can observe a heteroskedastic behavior in the logarithmic returns. On the contrary, non-ergodicity triggers stability of prices, even if two different regimes can be seen. PMID:24558377

  12. Improving PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cell Power Conversion Efficiency to an NREL-Certified 4.4% (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive metals. A research team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that inserting a transition metal oxide (TMO) between the lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) layer and the metal electrode eliminates the Schottky barrier that impedes efficient hole extraction and thereby improves the overall conversion efficiency. This allows for inexpensive metals such as Al to be employed without loss of performance. n-type TMOs consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) and vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub x}) were used as an efficient hole extraction layer (HEL) in heterojunction ZnO/PbS QD solar cells. A 4.4% NREL-certified device was reported based on the MoO{sub x} HEL with Al as the back contact material, representing a more than 65% efficiency improvement compared with the case of Au contacting the PbS QD layer directly. The team finds the acting mechanism of the HEL to be a dipole formed at the MoO{sub x} and PbS interface, which enhances band bending to allow efficient hole extraction from the valence band of the PbS layer by MoO{sub x}. The carrier transport to the metal anode is likely enhanced through shallow gap states in the MoO{sub x} layer.

  13. 31 CFR 356.33 - Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provide a public notice if we change any auction provision, term, or condition. (c) We reserve the...

  14. 31 CFR 356.33 - Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provide a public notice if we change any auction provision, term, or condition. (c) We reserve the...

  15. 49 CFR 580.9 - Odometer record retention for auction companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... retain at its primary place of business in an order that is appropriate to business requirements and that... following records: (a) The name of the most recent owner (other than the auction company); (b) The name...

  16. Accommodating individual preferences in nurse scheduling via auctions and optimization.

    PubMed

    De Grano, Melanie L; Medeiros, D J; Eitel, David

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a two-stage approach to nurse scheduling that considers both nurse preferences and hospital constraints. In the auction stage, nurses bid for their preferred working shifts and rest days using "points". An optimization model awards shifts to the highest bidders insofar as possible while maintaining hospital requirements. In the schedule completion stage, an optimization model allocates the unfilled shifts to nurses who have not yet met their minimum required hours. The approach is demonstrated via a case study in the emergency department at York Hospital. A schedule with a high percentage of awarded bids was generated in a few minutes of computer time. Further experimentation suggests that the approach works well under a variety of conditions.

  17. Accommodating individual preferences in nurse scheduling via auctions and optimization.

    PubMed

    De Grano, Melanie L; Medeiros, D J; Eitel, David

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a two-stage approach to nurse scheduling that considers both nurse preferences and hospital constraints. In the auction stage, nurses bid for their preferred working shifts and rest days using "points". An optimization model awards shifts to the highest bidders insofar as possible while maintaining hospital requirements. In the schedule completion stage, an optimization model allocates the unfilled shifts to nurses who have not yet met their minimum required hours. The approach is demonstrated via a case study in the emergency department at York Hospital. A schedule with a high percentage of awarded bids was generated in a few minutes of computer time. Further experimentation suggests that the approach works well under a variety of conditions. PMID:19739357

  18. A Combinatorial Auction Based Algorithm for Flexible Seat Reservation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otomura, Kazutoshi; Tomii, Norio

    We present algorithms for flexible seat distribution problems, which is defined as a problem to give an appropriate travel plan to each passenger after receiving their requests concerning their travel demands. Seat distribution problems occur when a flexible seat reservation system is implemented in which passengers are allowed to reserve seats by submitting their demands instead of specifying trains. To solve the seat distribution problem, we have formalized it as a winner determination problem of the combinatorial auction mechanism. It should be noted that difficulty of the seat distribution problem varies depending on instances of the problem, because the number of demands often varies and users' requests sometimes converge on particular trains. This suggests that in order to get solutions with high quality, algorithms that appropriately control the search space are indispensable. In this paper, we present three kinds of such algorithms for the seat distribution problem together with the results of several experiments.

  19. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  20. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  1. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries.

  2. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. PMID:24665907

  3. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  4. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  5. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  6. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  7. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions. PMID:15152854

  8. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance.

  9. Superfund fact sheet: Benzene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes benzene, a chemical that can be found in a variety of products, including petroleum products (e.g. gasoline), some household cleaners, and some glues and adhesives. Explanations of how people are exposed to benzene and how benzene can enter the body and may affect human health are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training.

  10. 75 FR 56533 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Postpones Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Postpones Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz... document announces the postponement of Auction 89. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless... related documents are also available on the Internet at the Commission's Web site:...

  11. Electronic Reverse Auctions: Integrating an E-Sourcing Tool into a Sales and Purchasing Cross-Course Negotiation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline A.; Dobie, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Electronic reverse auctions are increasingly being used by firms to improve firm financial and operational performance. The described teaching innovation serves as a model for introducing electronic reverse auctions as a central element in a comprehensive negotiation exercise involving sales management and purchasing management students. Results…

  12. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  13. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  14. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  15. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  16. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  17. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each...

  18. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  19. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each...

  20. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each...

  1. 78 FR 21355 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Scheduled for October 24, 2013; Comment Sought on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Mobility Fund Phase I, 77 FR 14012. Petitions for designation as an ETC should be filed in WC Docket No. 09..., 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 81562, December 28, 2011. Auction 902 will award one-time... COMMISSION Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Scheduled for October 24, 2013; Comment Sought on...

  2. 77 FR 7152 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Scheduled for September 27, 2012; Comment Sought on Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... the Commission in the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 81562... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Scheduled for September 27, 2012; Comment Sought on Competitive... Wireline Competition Bureaus announce a reverse auction to award $300 million in one-time Mobility...

  3. 77 FR 11115 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Limited Extension of Deadlines for Comments and Reply Comments on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... released the Auction 901 Comment Public Notice, 77 FR 7152, February 10, 2012, which seeks comment on... Commission in the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 81562, December 28... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Limited Extension of Deadlines for Comments and Reply Comments...

  4. 75 FR 8703 - Auction of Lower and Upper Paging Bands Licenses Scheduled for May 25, 2010; Notice and Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... referred to as the red light rule, that implement the Commission's ] obligations under the Debt Collection... Public Notice, 74 FR 67221, December 18, 2009. i. Licenses to be Offered in Auction 87 2. Auction 87 will... disclosures that may violate 47 CFR 1.2105(c), particularly in light of the limited information procedures...

  5. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions

    PubMed Central

    Newman, George E.; Bloom, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person’s immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people’s expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions. PMID:24567388

  6. Physical contact influences how much people pay at celebrity auctions.

    PubMed

    Newman, George E; Bloom, Paul

    2014-03-11

    Contagion is a form of magical thinking in which people believe that a person's immaterial qualities or essence can be transferred to an object through physical contact. Here we investigate how a belief in contagion influences the sale of celebrity memorabilia. Using data from three high-profile estate auctions, we find that people's expectations about the amount of physical contact between the object and the celebrity positively predicts the final bids for items that belonged to well-liked individuals (e.g., John F. Kennedy) and negatively predicts final bids for items that belonged to disliked individuals (e.g., Bernard Madoff). A follow-up experiment further suggests that these effects are driven by contagion beliefs: when asked to bid on a sweater owned by a well-liked celebrity, participants report that they would pay substantially less if it was sterilized before they received it. However, sterilization increases the amount they would pay for a sweater owned by a disliked celebrity. These studies suggest that magical thinking may still have effects in contemporary Western societies and they provide some unique demonstrations of contagion effects on real-world purchase decisions. PMID:24567388

  7. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  8. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  9. Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Listen Heroin is a white ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  10. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Pancreas Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Pancreas Facts The pancreas is a five to six inch ...

  11. Spiral of Hatred: Social Effects in Buyer-Seller Cross-Comments Left on Internet Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielek, Radoslaw; Wawer, Aleksander; Wierzbicki, Adam

    An auction platform is a dynamic environment where a rich variety of social effects can be observed. Most of those effects remain unnoticed or even hidden to ordinary users. The in-depth studies of such effects should allow us to identify and understand the key factors influencing users’ behaviour. The material collected from the biggest Polish auction house has been analyzed. NLP algorithms were applied to extract sentiment-related content from collected comments. Emotional distance between negative, neutral and positive comments has been calculated. The obtained results confirm the existence of the spiral-of-hatred effect but also indicate that much more complex patterns of mutual relations between sellers and buyers exist. The last section contains a several suggestions which can prove useful to improve trustworthiness of users’ reports and security of an auction platform in general.

  12. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy: Rate equation approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, I; Kahng, B

    2006-06-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid k times up to the tth bidding progresses, called the k-frequent bidder, seems to scale as n(k)(t) approximately tk(-2.4). The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the k-frequent bidder is likely to scale as q(k)(t) approximately k(-1.4), independent of t for large t. This theoretical prediction is close to empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction. PMID:16907028

  13. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy: Rate equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.; Kahng, B.

    2006-06-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid k times up to the t th bidding progresses, called the k -frequent bidder, seems to scale as nk(t)˜tk-2.4 . The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the k -frequent bidder is likely to scale as qk(t)˜k-1.4 , independent of t for large t . This theoretical prediction is close to empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  14. Mechanism Design for Multi-slot Ads Auction in Sponsored Search Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Sun, Yang; Yin, Ming; Zhou, Yunhong

    In this paper, we study pricing models for multi-slot advertisements, where advertisers can bid to place links to their sales webpages at one or multiple slots on a webpage, called the multi-slot AD auction problem. We develop and analyze several important mechanisms, including the VCG mechanism for multi-slot ads auction, the optimal social welfare solution, as well as two weighted GSP-like protocols (mixed and hybrid). Furthermore, we consider that forward-looking Nash equilibrium and prove its existence in the weighted GSP-like pricing protocols.

  15. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  16. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted...

  17. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted...

  18. 31 CFR 356.20 - How does the Treasury determine auction awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hundredth of a whole percentage point, for example, 17.13%. (b) Determining the interest rate for new note and bond issues. We set the interest rate at a 1/8 of one percent increment. If a Treasury inflation-protected securities auction results in a negative or zero yield, the interest rate will be set at zero,...

  19. A False-name-Proof Double Auction Protocol for Arbitrary Evaluation Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yuko; Yokoo, Makoto

    We develop a new false-name-proof double auction protocol called the Generalized Threshold Price Double auction (GTPD) protocol. False-name-proofness generalizes strategy-proofness by incorporating the possibility of false-name bids, e.g., bids submitted using multiple e-mail addresses. An existing protocol called TPD protocol is false-name-proof but can handle only the cases where marginal utilities of each agent always decrease, while our new GTPD protocol can handle arbitrary evaluation values. When marginal utilities can increase, some bids cannot be divided into a single unit (e.g., an all-or-nothing bid). Due to the existence of such indivisible bids, meeting supply/demand becomes difficult. Furthermore, a seller/buyer can submit a false-name-bid by pretending to be a potential buyer/seller to manipulate allocations and payments. In the GTPD protocol, the auctioneer is required to absorb the supply-demand imbalance up to a given upper-bound. Also, the GTPD incorporate a new false-name-proof one-sided auction protocol that is guaranteed to sell/buy a certain number of units. Simulation results show that when the threshold price is set appropriately, this protocol can obtain a good social surplus, and the number of absorbed units is much smaller than the given upper-bound.

  20. Reciprocity in Online Markets: Empirical Studies of Auction and Barter Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Shun

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation seeks to understand how reciprocity affects transaction outcomes and mechanism design in online markets. The first essay examines negative reciprocity illustrated as feedback-revoking behavior in the eBay auction market, focusing on its impact and implications for reputation system design. I utilize the biggest policy change of…

  1. 77 FR 9655 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Updated List of Potentially Eligible Census Blocks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ..., 77 FR 7152, February 10, 2012, comments are due on or before February 24, 2012. Reply comments are... Public Notice, 77 FR 7152, February 10, 2012, all filings in response to the notice must refer to AU... program requirements in the Auction 901 (Mobility Fund Phase I) Comment Public Notice, 77 FR...

  2. 31 CFR 356.33 - Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the Treasury have any discretion... CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) Miscellaneous Provisions § 356.33 Does the Treasury have any discretion in the auction process? (a) We have the discretion to: (1) Accept, reject, or refuse to...

  3. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted...

  4. 77 FR 69933 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may... less complex software than a multiple round auction and thus be easier for the Commission to implement... optimization software to try to find the most efficient way of clearing a specified amount of...

  5. 47 CFR 27.604 - Limitation on licenses won at auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitation on licenses won at auction. 27.604 Section 27.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Guard Band A and B Blocks (757-758/787-788 MHz and...

  6. 47 CFR 27.604 - Limitation on licenses won at auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitation on licenses won at auction. 27.604 Section 27.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Guard Band A and B Blocks (757-758/787-788 MHz and...

  7. 27 CFR 31.63 - Agents, auctioneers, brokers, etc., acting on behalf of others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.63 Agents, auctioneers, brokers... account of those activities. Those persons, who have no property rights in the liquors sold, may make... beer who merely receive and transmit to a wholesale dealer orders for liquors or beer to be...

  8. 40 CFR 97.421 - Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.421 Recordation of TR NOX Annual allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR NOX...

  9. 77 FR 38061 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Notice, 77 FR 32092, May 31, 2012, the Bureaus provided general instructions for completing FCC Form 180... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information AGENCY... Telecommunications and Wireline ] Competition Bureaus provide supplemental filing instructions for the Mobility...

  10. 25 CFR 215.4 - Leases to be sold at public auction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases to be sold at public auction. 215.4 Section 215.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING... provided in the regulations in this part, no lead and zinc mining lease under this part of restricted...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  14. Teaching Undergraduate Money and Banking: T-Bill Auctions and Stock Market Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saros, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The author offers innovative approaches to 3 topics that are typically only briefly mentioned (if at all) in money and banking courses. The first topic is a Treasury bill auction experiment in which students have an opportunity to participate directly. The results from a class of 14 money and banking students are used to explain how an instructor…

  15. See Art History in a New Light: Have an Art Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benter, Doris J.

    2008-01-01

    At Portledge School in Locust Valley, New York, ninth graders in their upper school study art history for one semester. The visual arts department has created a vigorous new syllabus culminating in an hour-long mock art auction. The department selects several art movements (e.g., Post-Impressionism, Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, Social Realism,…

  16. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Certification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salvage Auction Certification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 599 - Salvage Auction Cerification Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salvage Auction Cerification Form F Appendix F to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. F Appendix F to Part 599—Salvage...

  18. Design Implications of Real-Time Feedback in Continuous Combinatorial Auctions: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Pallab

    2009-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) has spawned the growth of novel and innovative market mechanisms (such as online auctions) and associated businesses (such as eBay and Priceline) that were not feasible without the capabilities and reach of these modern information technologies. Previous studies on designing trading mechanisms for online markets…

  19. Counterfactual quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tae-Gon

    2009-12-01

    Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.

  20. Counterfactual quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tae-Gon

    2009-12-01

    Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle. PMID:20366133

  1. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  2. Developing Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an assignment that allows preservice health educators to learn how to develop fact sheets for communicating health information. The process of developing fact sheets involves selecting a topic, selecting a target audience, researching the topic, writing the message, constructing the draft, and pretesting the product. Strategies for…

  3. Facts for Feeding Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document compiles several fact sheets, in multiple languages, for mothers and parent educators providing information and answering questions concerning breastfeeding infants. The fact sheets are published in English, French, and Spanish, and cover the following topics: (1) "Recommended Practices To Improve Infant Nutrition during the First…

  4. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  5. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  6. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  7. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction.

    PubMed

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider.

  8. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. PMID:21332721

  9. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided.

  10. CPR Facts and Stats

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR About CPR & First Aid CPR Facts & Stats History of CPR Cardiac Arrest vs. Heart Attack International ... Training Kits RQI AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR In Schools Hands-Only CPR ...

  11. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  12. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  13. Facts about Botulism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Materials Q fever Info & Guidance for Clinicians Salmonella Shigella Smallpox Smallpox Basics Vaccine Basics Clinicians Vaccination ... Metals Nerve Agents Pulmonary Agents Riot Control Agents Toxic Alcohols Vesicants Chemical-Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs ...

  14. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  15. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  16. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  17. Equilibrium Strategy and Population-Size Effects in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Juul, Jeppe; Galster, Gorm; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2012-02-01

    In lowest unique bid auctions, N players bid for an item. The winner is whoever places the lowest bid, provided that it is also unique. We use a grand canonical approach to derive an analytical expression for the equilibrium distribution of strategies. We then study the properties of the solution as a function of the mean number of players, and compare them with a large data set of internet auctions. The theory agrees with the data with striking accuracy for small population-size N, while for larger N a qualitatively different distribution is observed. We interpret this result as the emergence of two different regimes, one in which adaptation is feasible and one in which it is not. Our results question the actual possibility of a large population to adapt and find the optimal strategy when participating in a collective game.

  18. Collective induction without cooperation? Learning and knowledge transfer in cooperative groups and competitive auctions.

    PubMed

    Maciejovsky, Boris; Budescu, David V

    2007-05-01

    There is strong evidence that groups perform better than individuals do on intellective tasks with demonstrably correct solutions. Typically, these studies assume that group members share common goals. The authors extend this line of research by replacing standard face-to-face group interactions with competitive auctions, allowing for conflicting individual incentives. In a series of studies involving the well-known Wason selection task, they demonstrate that competitive auctions induce learning effects equally impressive as those of standard group interactions, and they uncover specific and general knowledge transfers from these institutions to new reasoning problems. The authors identify payoff feedback and information pooling as the driving factors underlying these findings, and they explain these factors within the theoretical framework of collective induction.

  19. A Q-Learning-Based Supplier Bidding Strategy in Electricity Auction Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as one kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power and all suppliers winning the market are paid based on their own bid prices. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impact of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price is analyzed. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  20. A Supplier Bidding Strategy Through Q-Learning Algorithm in Electricity Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as a kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impacts of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price are analyzed under uniform pricing rule and discriminatory pricing rule. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  1. Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithms for the Winner Determination Problem in Combinatorial Auctions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carlos Eduardo; Toso, Rodrigo Franco; Resende, Mauricio G C; Miyazawa, Flávio Keidi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of picking a subset of bids in a general combinatorial auction so as to maximize the overall profit using the first-price model. This winner determination problem assumes that a single bidding round is held to determine both the winners and prices to be paid. We introduce six variants of biased random-key genetic algorithms for this problem. Three of them use a novel initialization technique that makes use of solutions of intermediate linear programming relaxations of an exact mixed integer linear programming model as initial chromosomes of the population. An experimental evaluation compares the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with the standard mixed linear integer programming formulation, a specialized exact algorithm, and the best-performing heuristics proposed for this problem. The proposed algorithms are competitive and offer strong results, mainly for large-scale auctions.

  2. A status report:. FACT - a fact!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz, T.; Anderhub, H.; Backes, M.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Dorner, D.; Farnier, C.; Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; von Gunten, H. P.; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Huber, B.; Kim, K.-S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krumm, B.; Lee, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W.; Lyard, E.; Mannheim, K.; Meharga, M.; Neise, D.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Overkemping, A.-K.; Pauss, F.; Renker, D.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rohlfs, R.; Röser, U.; Stucki, J.-P.; Schneider, J.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Viertel, G.; Vogler, P.; Walter, R.; Warda, K.; Weitzel, Q.

    2012-08-01

    In the past years, the second generation of imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes has proven its power detecting weak sources with high sensitivity and low energy threshold. The goal to further improve the sensitivity and lower the energy threshold requires a robust and hlghly efficient sensor technology. A promising detector technology are silicon based photon detectors, namely Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diodes (G-APDs). They promise robustness and easy manage-ability compared photo-multiplier tubes so far in use. To prove the applicability of this technology for Cherenkov telescopes, one of the former HEGRA telescopes was revived and equipped with a camera using G-APDs all photo sensors. Since G-APDs are comparably small, solid light guides are used to significantly increase the light collection area of each sensor. With this technologies, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescopes (FACT) promises an increase in sensitivity and decrease in energy threshold, compared with a classical photo-multiplier based camera.

  3. Energy Facts, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Energy Facts, organized by energy source, is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a broad range of domestic and international energy data, for the general public as well as the technical community. This report is designed especially for the business person, government worker, or student who needs a quick reference to major facts about energy. Each table of statistics appears on the opposite page from a corresponding graphic. The graphic has a point of interest rather than a title across the top.

  4. Facts in artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Bindhu, PR; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Thomas, Priya; Jayanthi, P

    2013-01-01

    Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology. PMID:24574659

  5. Facts in artifacts.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Pr; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Thomas, Priya; Jayanthi, P

    2013-09-01

    Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  6. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction

    PubMed Central

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, GH

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer’s utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  7. Research at the auction block: Problems for the fair benefits approach to international research.

    PubMed

    London, Alex John; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2010-01-01

    The "fair benefits" approach to international research is designed to produce results that all can agree are fair without taking a stand on divisive questions of justice. But its appealing veneer of collaboration masks ambiguities at both a conceptual and an operational level. An attempt to put it into practice would look a lot like an auction, leaving little reason to think the outcomes will satisfy even minimal conditions of fairness.

  8. A Centralized Auction Mechanism for the Disability and Survivors Insurance in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes H., Gonzalo

    As part of the pension reform recently approved in Chile, the government introduced a centralized auction mechanism to provide the Disability and Survivors (D&S) Insurance that covers recent contributors among the more than 8 million participants in the mandatory private pension system. This paper is intended as a case study presenting the main distortions found in the decentralized operation of the system that led to this reform and the challenges faced when designing a competitive auction mechanism to be implemented jointly by the Pension Fund Managers (AFP). In a typical bilateral contract the AFP retained much of the risk and the Insurance Company acted in practice as a reinsurer. The process to hire this contract was not competitive and colligated companies ended up providing the service. Several distortions affected competition in the market through incentives to cream-skim members by AFPs (since they bear most of the risk) or efforts to block disability claims. Since the price of this insurance is hidden in the fees charged by AFPs for the administration of individual accounts and pension funds there was lack of price transparency. Since new AFPs have no history of members’ disability and mortality profile the insurance contract acted as a barrier to entry in the market of AFP services, especially when D&S insurance costs reached 50% of total costs. Cross-subsidies between members of the same AFP, inefficient risk pooling (due to pooling occurring at the AFP rather than at the system level) and regulatory arbitrage, since AFPs provided insurance not being regulated as an insurance company, were also present. A centralized auction mechanism solves these market failures, but also gives raise to new challenges, such as how to design a competitive auction that attracts participation and deters collusion. Design features that were incorporated in the regulation to tackle these issues, such as dividing coverage into predefined percentage blocks, are presented

  9. Improving the secrecy rate by turning foes to allies: An auction scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ya-Yan; Wang, Bao-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Security against eavesdroppers is a critical issue in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a scenario consisting of one primary pair and multiple secondary pairs is considered. The secondary transmitters (STs) work in half-duplex mode and they are potential eavesdroppers on the primary transmission unless they are allowed to simultaneously transmit with the primary transmitter (PT). A modified second-price sealed-bid auction scheme is employed to model the interaction between the PT and STs. With the proposed auction scheme, the hostile relationship between the PT and STs is transformed into a cooperative relationship. An iterative algorithm based on the max-min criteria is proposed to find the optimal bidding power of the STs for an access chance in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. Numerical results show that the proposed auction scheme not only improves the PT’s security but also increases the access opportunities of the STs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271232 and 61372126) and the University Postgraduate Research and Innovation Project in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. CXZZ12-0472).

  10. Clean air, clear market. Making emissions trading work: The role of a computer-assisted auction

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, C.W.; Marron, D.B.; Lipsky, M.I.

    1993-06-15

    Creating a new commodity presents the chance to develop new markets in which to trade it. In many cases, existing markets can be adapted easily; in other cases it proves worthwhile to develop new forms that reflect special characteristics of the commodity and those who trade it. In the case of the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emission allowances created by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of standard market forms already have been adopted. While these will prove useful for handling some transactions, a new Market Clearing Auction (MCA) offers buyers and sellers a centralized marketplace for trading SO[sub 2] emission allowances. The MCA, which was developed by the brokerage firm Cantor Fitzgerald, is a computer-assisted [open quotes]smart[close quotes] auction designed to replicate the outcome of an efficient market in emission allowances, and accepts bids and offers for any possible combination of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances covering more than one year. The auction then determines the combination of bids and offers that maximizes the gains from trades in the market, and establishes uniform market clearing prices for each allowance issue (1995, 1996, and so on). Once executed, trades are settled on a cash-forward basis; that is, allowances are delivered and payments are made at future dates.

  11. Disease Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and to provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book on…

  12. Sexuality. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book on…

  13. 2012 BC Education Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents facts and figures on British Columbia's education for 2012. It is divided into the following seven sections: (1) Schools, which covers: (a) Number of public schools; (b) Number of independent (private) schools; (c) School closures; (d) Rural schools and students; (e) School-district amalgamation; and (f) School safety: Seismic…

  14. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  15. Nutrition. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement to health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book provide…

  16. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  17. NASA Facts, The Countdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes the preparations for launching a giant Atlas, Gemini (Titan 11), or Saturn launch vehicle. The material is intended for use in elementary general science. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  18. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  19. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  20. Energy Facts 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Information Administration (DOE), Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a much broader range of domestic and international energy data. It is designed especially as a quick reference to major facts about energy. The data includes information for 1976 through 1988, except for international energy data, which is for 1977 through 1987. Graphs, charts,…

  1. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  2. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  3. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Top Facts about the blood donation process Donating blood is a safe process. A sterile needle is used only once for ... discarded. Blood donation is a simple four-step process: registration, medical history and mini-physical, donation and ...

  4. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Facts about Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  6. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  7. HIV Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book provide…

  8. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Cost Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children is of particular concern ...

  9. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  10. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  11. Trauma Facts for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  12. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  13. STD Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book provide…

  14. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  15. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  18. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  19. Insulation fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  20. Superconductivity fact vs. fancy

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, K.

    1988-05-01

    The author says great advances have been made in superconductivity. However, the rush to secure recognition combined with public confusion over superconductivity has tainted the field with misconceptions. Some people are saying little progress towards practical use of the ceramics has been made over the last year and many researchers have left what they were doing to study superconductivity. All the hype surrounding the new found ceramic superconductors could give way to a period of disillusionment and frustration. This article discusses recent work in the field of superconductivity. IEEE Spectrum has adopted an attitude of ''just the facts'' in reporting superconductivity news.

  1. The impact of product information and trials on demand for smokeless tobacco and cigarettes: Evidence from experimental auctions

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; O'Connor, Richard; Thrasher, James F; June, Kristie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests lower risk of smokeless tobacco (ST) products compared to cigarettes. Less is known, however, about consumer perceptions and use of novel forms of ST, including snus and dissolvable tobacco. Methods In this study, we conducted in-person experimental auctions in Buffalo, NY, Columbia, SC, and Selinsgrove, PA with 571 smokers to test the impact of information and product trials on smokers’ preferences. Auctions were conducted between November 2010-November 2011. Results We found no evidence of an impact of product trials on demand in our auctions. Anti-ST information increased demand for cigarettes when presented alone, but when presented with Pro-ST information it decreased demand for cigarettes. It did not decrease demand for ST products. Anti-smoking information increased demand for ST products, but did not affect cigarette demand. Conclusions These findings suggest that credible and effective communications about tobacco harm reduction should reinforce the negative effects of smoking. PMID:24321456

  2. A Winner Determination Algorithm for Combinatorial Auctions Based on Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Genrang; Lin, ZhengChun

    The problem of winner determination in combinatorial auctions is a hotspot electronic business, and a NP hard problem. A Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(HAFSA), which is combined with First Suite Heuristic Algorithm (FSHA) and Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA), is proposed to solve the problem after probing it base on the theories of AFSA. Experiment results show that the HAFSA is a rapidly and efficient algorithm for The problem of winner determining. Compared with Ant colony Optimization Algorithm, it has a good performance with broad and prosperous application.

  3. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  4. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain and Depression Preventing Travel Aches and Strains Back Pain Facts and Statistics Although doctors of chiropractic (DCs) ... time. 1 A few interesting facts about back pain: Low back pain is the single leading cause of disability ...

  5. Quantum wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M. )

    1991-01-15

    This paper presents an application of quantum-mechanical principles to a microscopic variant of the traversable wormholes recently introduced by Morris and Thorne. The analysis, based on the surgical grafting of two Reissner-Nordstroem spacetimes, proceeds by using a minisuperspace model to approximate the geometry of these wormholes. The thin shell'' formalism is applied to this minisuperspace model to extract the effective Lagrangian appropriate to this one-degree-of-freedom system. This effective Lagrangian is then quantized and the wave function for the wormhole is explicitly exhibited. A slightly more general class of wormholes---corresponding to the addition of some dust'' to the wormhole throat---is analyzed by recourse to WKB techniques. In all cases discussed in this paper, the expectation value of the wormhole radius is calculated to be of the order of the Planck length. Accordingly, though these quantum wormholes are of considerable theoretical interest they do not appear to be useful as a means for interstellar travel. The results of this paper may also have a bearing on the question of topological fluctuations in quantum gravity. These calculations serve to suggest that topology-changing effects might in fact be {ital suppressed} by quantum-gravity effects.

  6. Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2009-11-01

    The continuing search for quantum gravity and never ending attempts to unify gravity with other forces of nature represent tremendous waste of public and private funds directing students' energy towards non-creative manipulative work instead of learning from the scientific creativity in Einstein's 1919 paper that unifies gravity with nuclear force. It reflects Einstein's 1919 jump beyond his own 1915 theory of gravity, including that of Newton as implicitly demanded by Newton in 1686. Einstein corrected and retracted his 1917 introduction of cosmological constant in 1919. Dislike of the fact that Einstein did not use quantum mechanics to prove his point has no real value now, because we will use key ingredients (Planck scale and probabilistic aspect) of quantum mechanics and show that they reach the same conclusion. Newton explained the solar system known after Kepler. Likewise, our quantum mechanical approach explains the strong coupling as well the solar system and shows new horizons, otherwise unexplained. Explanation of unexplained observations need no prediction per Hawking, and obviously otherwise.

  7. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks--an auction-based approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Li, Zheng; Xu, Pengchao; Xu, Youyun; Gao, Xinbo; Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive radio is emerging as a promising technique to improve the utilization of the radio frequency spectrum. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing among primary (or "licensed") users (PUs) and secondary (or "unlicensed") users (SUs). We formulate the problem based on bandwidth auction, in which each SU makes a bid for the amount of spectrum and each PU may assign the spectrum among the SUs by itself according to the information from the SUs without degrading its own performance. We show that the auction is a noncooperative game and that Nash equilibrium (NE) can be its solution. We first consider a single-PU network to investigate the existence and uniqueness of the NE and further discuss the fairness among the SUs under given conditions. Then, we present a dynamic updating algorithm in which each SU achieves NE in a distributed manner. The stability condition of the dynamic behavior for this spectrum-sharing scheme is studied. The discussion is generalized to the case in which there are multiple PUs in the network, where the properties of the NE are shown under appropriate conditions. Simulations were used to evaluate the system performance and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blencowe, Miles

    The emergence of the macroscopic classical world from the microscopic quantum world is commonly understood to be a consequence of the fact that any given quantum system is open, unavoidably interacting with unobserved environmental degrees of freedom that will cause initial quantum superposition states of the system to decohere, resulting in classical mixtures of either-or alternatives. A fundamental question concerns how large a macroscopic object can be placed in a manifest quantum state, such as a center of mass quantum superposition state, under conditions where the effects of the interacting environmental degrees of freedom are reduced (i.e. in ultrahigh vacuum and at ultralow temperatures). Recent experiments have in fact demonstrated manifest quantum behavior in nano-to-micron-scale mechanical systems. Gravity has been invoked in various ways as playing a possible fundamental role in enforcing classicality of matter systems beyond a certain scale. Adopting the viewpoint that the standard perturbative quantization of general relativity provides an effective description of quantum gravity that is valid at ordinary energies, we show that it is possible to describe quantitatively how gravity as an environment can induce the decoherence of matter superposition states. The justification for such an approach follows from the fact that we are considering laboratory scale systems, where the matter is localized to regions of small curvature. As with other low energy effects, such as the quantum gravity correction to the Newtonian potential between two ordinary masses, it should be possible to quantitatively evaluate gravitationally induced decoherence rates by employing standard perturbative quantum gravity as an effective field theory; whatever the final form the eventual correct quantum theory of gravity takes, it must converge in its predictions with the effective field theory description at low energies. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF

  9. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR 1... entity will have both de facto and de jure control of the entity. See 47 CFR 1.2110(i). (g) Records... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR 1... entity will have both de facto and de jure control of the entity. See 47 CFR 1.2110(i). (g) Records... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS...

  11. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... applicant to submit a right-of-way (ROW) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on... solicitations of interest and ROW applications within two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes...

  12. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.721 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  13. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.721 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  14. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.621 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  15. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.621 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR 1... entity will have both de facto and de jure control of the entity. See 47 CFR 1.2110(i). (g)...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR 1... entity will have both de facto and de jure control of the entity. See 47 CFR 1.2110(i). (g)...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1213 - Designated entity provisions for BRS in Commission auctions commencing prior to January 1, 2004.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES..., 2004 for BTA service areas are eligible for special incentives in the auction process. See 47 CFR 1... entity will have both de facto and de jure control of the entity. See 47 CFR 1.2110(i). (g)...

  19. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.308 How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants? (a) If MMS determines that there is competitive interest, we will:...

  20. Reputation mechanism: From resolution for truthful online auctions to the model of optimal one-gambler problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.

  1. 31 CFR 356.17 - How and when do I pay for securities awarded in an auction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How and when do I pay for securities awarded in an auction? 356.17 Section 356.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY...

  2. 78 FR 56875 - Tribal Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Rescheduled for December 19, 2013; Notice and Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... service support through reverse competitive bidding. The USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 81562, December 28, 2011, established the Mobility Fund as a universal service... program details. On March 29, 2013, the Bureaus released the Auction 902 Comment Public Notice, 78...

  3. Superactivation of quantum nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    In this Letter we show that quantum nonlocality can be superactivated. That is, one can obtain violations of Bell inequalities by tensorizing a local state with itself. In the second part of this work we study how large these violations can be. In particular, we show the existence of quantum states with very low Bell violation but such that five copies of them give very large violations. In fact, this gap can be made arbitrarily large by increasing the dimension of the states.

  4. Space-time quantum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Tunick, Arnold

    2013-09-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of quantum imaging where the images are stored in both space and time. Quantum images of remote objects are produced with rotating ground glass induced chaotic laser light and two sensors measuring at different space-time points. Quantum images are observed to move depending on the time delay between the sensor measurements. The experiments provide a new testbed for exploring the time and space scale fundamental physics of quantum imaging and suggest new pathways for quantum information storage and processing. The moved quantum images are in fact new images that are stored in a space-time virtual memory process. The images are stored within the same quantum imaging data sets and thus quantum imaging can produce more information per photon measured than was previously realized.

  5. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  6. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasury securities in an auction, securities awarded as a result of those bids are generally held in the... government and international agencies and foreign central banks. In their accounts, depository...

  7. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasury securities in an auction, securities awarded as a result of those bids are generally held in the... government and international agencies and foreign central banks. In their accounts, depository...

  8. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasury securities in an auction, securities awarded as a result of those bids are generally held in the... government and international agencies and foreign central banks. In their accounts, depository...

  9. A novel method for strategy acquisition and its application to a double-auction market game.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Steve; McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a method for strategy acquisition in nonzero-sum n -player games and empirically validate it by applying it to a well-known benchmark problem in this domain, namely, the double-auction market. Many existing approaches to strategy acquisition focus on attempting to find strategies that are robust in the sense that they are good all-round performers against all-comers. We argue that, in many economic and multiagent scenarios, the robustness criterion is inappropriate; in contrast, our method focuses on searching for strategies that are likely to be adopted by participating agents, which is formalized as the size of a strategy's basins of attraction under the replicator dynamics. PMID:19906587

  10. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  11. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

  12. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668

  13. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology.

  14. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  15. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

  16. Essays on empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions: Impacts of financial transmission rights on the restructured electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hailing

    This dissertation uses recently developed empirical methodologies for the study of multi-unit auctions to test the impacts of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) on the competitiveness of restructured electricity markets. FTRs are a special type of financial option that hedge against volatility in the cost of transporting electricity over the grid. Policy makers seek to use the prices of FTRs as market signals to incentivize efficient investment and utilization of transmission capacity. However, prices will not send the correct signals if market participants strategically use FTRs. This dissertation uses data from the Texas electricity market to test whether the prices of FTRs are efficient to achieve such goals. The auctions studied are multi-unit, uniform-price, sealed-bid auctions. The first part of the dissertation studies the auctions on the spot market of the wholesale electricity industry. I derive structural empirical models to test theoretical predictions as to whether bidders fully internalize the effect of FTRs on profits into their bidding decisions. I find that bidders are learning as to how to optimally bid above marginal cost for their inframarginal capacities. The bidders also learn to bid to include FTRs into their profit maximization problem during the course of the first year. But starting from the second year, they deviated from optimal bidding that includes FTRs in the profit maximization problems. Counterfactual analysis show that the primary effect of FTRs on market outcomes is changing the level of prices rather than production efficiency. Finally, I find that in most months, the current allocations of FTRs are statistically equivalent to the optimal allocations. The second part of the dissertation studies the bidding behavior in the FTR auctions. I find that FTRs' strategic impact on the FTR purchasing behavior is significant for large bidders---firms exercising market power in the FTR auctions. Second, trader forecasts future FTR credit

  17. Superfund fact sheet: The removal program. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes the Superfund Emergency Response Program, a program specifically designed to respond to multi-media hazardous materials accidents (e.g. illegal disposal or improper handling of materials, transportation accidents, chemical fires) that endanger people and/or the environment. Explanations of how the removal program works and how the affected communities are involved are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no scientific training.

  18. Right of way in the sky: two problems in aircraft self-separation and the auction-based solution.

    PubMed

    Erev, Ido; Barron, Greg; Remington, Roger

    2004-01-01

    There has been a growing movement to give commercial airliners more freedom in choosing their routes and responsibility for detecting and avoiding conflicts. These "free flight" concepts must contain new rules for assigning right of way in potential conflict situations. To evaluate the effect of prospective rules, the current paper derives the expected response of agents who exhibit different levels of sophistication. Traditional game theoretic analysis is used to derive the behavior of rational agents. Computer simulations are used to predict the behavior of boundedly rational reinforcement learners. The results reveal that several seemingly reasonable, straightforward right-of-way rules might lead to undesirable outcomes. These problematic results are robust to the assumed level of rationality. It is shown that these problems can be alleviated by using auctions to resolve competition for right of way. Actual or potential applications of this research include the usage of second price auctions to address right-of-way and similar conflicts.

  19. Quantum computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization. PMID:11562459

  20. Evolution as Fact and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1981-01-01

    This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)

  1. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts & Figures 2014 This annual report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in ... and treatment. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and ...

  2. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  6. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  7. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  8. Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Fortunato, Mauro; Parisi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction; Part I. Basic Features of Quantum Mechanics: 1. From classical mechanics to quantum mechanics; 2. Quantum observable and states; 3. Quantum dynamics; 4. Examples of quantum dynamics; 5. Density matrix; Part II. More Advanced Topics: 6. Angular momentum and spin; 7. Identical particles; 8. Symmetries and conservation laws; 9. The measurement problem; Part III. Matter and Light: 10. Perturbations and approximation methods; 11. Hydrogen and helium atoms; 12. Hydrogen molecular ion; 13. Quantum optics; Part IV. Quantum Information: State and Correlations: 14. Quantum theory of open systems; 15. State measurement in quantum mechanics; 16. Entanglement: non-separability; 17. Entanglement: quantum information; References; Index.

  9. Fact Sheet: Summary of Self-Determination. NRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael; Lewin, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an explanation of what self determination is, provides the four principles of self determination, describes the values supported by self determination. The authors contend that if self-determination is going to be successful, it requires that those who supply services and fund them make certain changes in both the way they…

  10. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  11. Experimental signatures of quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boixo, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    Quantum annealing is a general strategy for solving optimization problems with the aid of quantum adiabatic evolution. How effective is rapid decoherence in precluding quantum effects in a quantum annealing experiment, and will engineered quantum annealing devices effectively perform classical thermalization when coupled to a decohering thermal environment? Using the D-Wave machine, we report experimental results for a simple problem which takes advantage of the fact that for quantum annealing the measurement statistics are determined by the energy spectrum along the quantum evolution, while in classical thermalization they are determined by the spectrum of the final Hamiltonian only. We establish an experimental signature which is consistent with quantum annealing, and at the same time inconsistent with classical thermalization, in spite of a decoherence timescale which is orders of magnitude shorter than the adiabatic evolution time. For larger and more difficult problems, we compare the measurements statistics of the D-Wave machine to large-scale numerical simulations of simulated annealing and simulated quantum annealing, implemented through classical and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. For our test cases the statistics of the machine are - within calibration uncertainties - indistinguishable from a simulated quantum annealer with suitably chosen parameters, but significantly different from a classical annealer. Work in collaboration with T. Albash, N. Chancellor, S. Isakov, D. Lidar, T. Roennow, F. Spedalieri, M. Troyer and Z. Wang.

  12. Copenhagen quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2016-07-01

    In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen interpretation is a later 1950s development and some of the earlier pioneers like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device. Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrödinger cat states are the norm rather than curiosities generated in physicists' laboratories. We then describe how the conditioned state of a quantum system depends crucially on how the system is monitored illustrating this with the example of a decaying atom monitored with a time of arrival photon detector, leading to Bohr's quantum jumps. On the other hand, other kinds of detection lead to much smoother behaviour, providing yet another example of complementarity. Finally we explain how classical behaviour emerges, including classical mechanics but also thermodynamics.

  13. A controlled auction market is a practical solution to the shortage of transplantable organs.

    PubMed

    Kevorkian, J

    1992-01-01

    All attempts relying on pure altruism to meet the demand for transplantable donor organs have failed and continue to fail. The incentive of commercialization of an organ market would seem to be the only practical solution at this time. It is almost impossible to set fixed prices for such priceless items as human organs. The only fair, honest, and feasible approach is the establishment of a free and voluntary national or international auction system under the strict supervision and control of an exclusive, specially created administrative entity free of governmental or other partisan interference. The resultant flow of funds could be enormous and would enhance the welfare of all strata of society. Wealthy buyers would be removed from current waiting lists; the donor pool greatly expanded to perhaps surplus; the resultant money used to relieve the financial burdens on families involved, hospitals, insurance companies--and also used to buy organs for the indigent on waiting lists, pay for surgeries and hospitalization, and thereby increase the income and surgical experience of more surgeons. This proposed new system should include all live as well as brain-dead donors, cadavers and consenting individuals facing purposeful and pointless destruction by judicial execution.

  14. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated. PMID:26911226

  15. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. PMID:17630221

  16. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  17. Reverse Auction: A Potential Strategy for Reduction of Pharmacological Therapy Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Sara Michelly Gonçalves; Issa, Victor Sarli; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Storer, Samantha; Gonçalves, Bianca Gigliotti; Santos, Valter Garcia; Carvas Junior, Nelson; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. Objective We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. Methods We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. Results The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. Conclusion RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment. PMID:26200898

  18. Emergence of Cooperative Long-Term Market Loyalty in Double Auction Markets.

    PubMed

    Alorić, Aleksandra; Sollich, Peter; McBurney, Peter; Galla, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Loyal buyer-seller relationships can arise by design, e.g. when a seller tailors a product to a specific market niche to accomplish the best possible returns, and buyers respond to the dedicated efforts the seller makes to meet their needs. We ask whether it is possible, instead, for loyalty to arise spontaneously, and in particular as a consequence of repeated interaction and co-adaptation among the agents in a market. We devise a stylized model of double auction markets and adaptive traders that incorporates these features. Traders choose where to trade (which market) and how to trade (to buy or to sell) based on their previous experience. We find that when the typical scale of market returns (or, at fixed scale of returns, the intensity of choice) become higher than some threshold, the preferred state of the system is segregated: both buyers and sellers are segmented into subgroups that are persistently loyal to one market over another. We characterize the segregated state analytically in the limit of large markets: it is stabilized by some agents acting cooperatively to enable trade, and provides higher rewards than its unsegregated counterpart both for individual traders and the population as a whole. PMID:27120473

  19. Emergence of Cooperative Long-Term Market Loyalty in Double Auction Markets

    PubMed Central

    Alorić, Aleksandra; Sollich, Peter; McBurney, Peter; Galla, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Loyal buyer-seller relationships can arise by design, e.g. when a seller tailors a product to a specific market niche to accomplish the best possible returns, and buyers respond to the dedicated efforts the seller makes to meet their needs. We ask whether it is possible, instead, for loyalty to arise spontaneously, and in particular as a consequence of repeated interaction and co-adaptation among the agents in a market. We devise a stylized model of double auction markets and adaptive traders that incorporates these features. Traders choose where to trade (which market) and how to trade (to buy or to sell) based on their previous experience. We find that when the typical scale of market returns (or, at fixed scale of returns, the intensity of choice) become higher than some threshold, the preferred state of the system is segregated: both buyers and sellers are segmented into subgroups that are persistently loyal to one market over another. We characterize the segregated state analytically in the limit of large markets: it is stabilized by some agents acting cooperatively to enable trade, and provides higher rewards than its unsegregated counterpart both for individual traders and the population as a whole. PMID:27120473

  20. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated. PMID:26911226

  1. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  2. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  3. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  4. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  5. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  6. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  7. Fast Facts 26-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    The document is a compilation of Fast Facts on a wide range of issues affecting the Florida Community College System (FCCS) and higher education in general. It uses data extracted from a federal publication entitled "Answers in the Tool Box." Some of the topics that are addressed are as follows: important variables for student baccalaureate…

  8. Facing Facts. Annual Report, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report highlights the work of some grantees who are finding innovative ways to respond to today's new challenges based on a rigorous commitment by their leadership to gathering pertinent facts. These include cities that are planning wide-scale, lasting improvements in arts learning or out-of-school opportunities, basing their choices…

  9. Higher Education Act. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the challenges for students with disabilities in the nation's university system and recommends solutions that would result in better support systems for postsecondary students with disabilities. This document discusses several interrelated issues that impact student preparation and access to postsecondary education. The…

  10. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  11. Facts and Fantasies of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The relevance of research to educational ideas is discussed in this paper. General ways of organizing education in matters of theory, policy, or practice, and methodology are the "fantasies" analyzed; the need for research to produce the evidence that will convert these fantasies to fact is emphasized. A research example from elementary…

  12. Fact Book, 1985-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarino de Medina, Ivonne

    Designed as a reference tool for faculty, staff, researchers, and proposal writers, this fact book compiles 1985-86 institutional statistical data on academic, student, and administrative affairs at Ponce Technological University College (PTUC). The first section focuses on academic areas, presenting information on enrollment by program, degree…

  13. Fact Book, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarino de Medina, Ivonne

    Designed as a reference tool for faculty, staff, researchers, and proposal writers, this fact book compiles 1986-87 institutional statistical data (in 49 tables) on academic, student, and administrative affairs at Ponce Technological University College (PTUC). The first section focuses on academic areas, presenting information on enrollment by…

  14. Drug Use Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book on drug…

  15. Guns in Schools. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Common reasons that young people choose to carry firearms outside of school--protection, intimidation of others, or to be like their peers--are the same reasons they carry guns into the school. This fact sheet presents statistics regarding the prevalence of firearms amongst students in American schools, including: shooting fatalities and woundings…

  16. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  17. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2008. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2007; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2007; (3) 2007 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2007-08 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  18. Noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, J.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.

    2001-09-01

    A general noncommutative quantum mechanical system in a central potential V=V(r) in two dimensions is considered. The spectrum is bounded from below and, for large values of the anticommutative parameter θ, we find an explicit expression for the eigenvalues. In fact, any quantum mechanical system with these characteristics is equivalent to a commutative one in such a way that the interaction V(r) is replaced by V=V(HHO,Lz), where HHO is the Hamiltonian of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator and Lz is the z component of the angular momentum. For other finite values of θ the model can be solved by using perturbation theory.

  19. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  1. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  2. Entanglement and Quantum Computation: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.B.

    2000-06-27

    This report presents a selective compilation of basic facts from the fields of particle entanglement and quantum information processing prepared for those non-experts in these fields that may have interest in an area of physics showing counterintuitive, ''spooky'' (Einstein's words) behavior. In fact, quantum information processing could, in the near future, provide a new technology to sustain the benefits to the U.S. economy due to advanced computer technology.

  3. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of the new field of quantum communication and computation. For a long time, entanglement was seen just as one of those fancy features which make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive. But recently, quantum information theory has shown the tremendous importance of quantum correlations for the formulation of new methods of information transfer and for algorithms exploiting the capabilities of quantum computers.This chapter describes the first experimental realizations of quantum communication schemes using entangled photon pairs. We show how to make communication secure against eavesdropping using entanglement-based quantum cryptography, how to increase the information capacity of a quantum channel by quantum dense coding and, finally, how to communicate quantum information itself in the process of quantum teleportation.

  4. Quantum Adder of Classical Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkas, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    In this article we show the precise algorithm of functioning of quantum adder on the example of addition of two 2-bit numbers. It consists of the quantum Fourier transformer and conditional rotation gates that let us use the minimum number of qubits to get the addition realization of the sum. Despite the fact that the algorithm uses the minimum amount of operations this accelerates the process of the adder.

  5. Are there photons in fact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskiy, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    There are two opposing points of view on the nature of light: the first one manifests the wave-particle duality as a fundamental property of the nature; the second one claims that photons do not exist and the light is a continuous classical wave, while the so-called "quantum" properties of this field appear only as a result of its interaction with matter. In this paper we show that many quantum phenomena which are traditionally described by quantum electrodynamics can be described if light is considered within the limits of classical electrodynamics without quantization of radiation. These phenomena include the double-slit experiment, the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, the so-called multiphoton ionisation of atoms, etc. We show that this point of view allows also explaining the "wave-particle duality" of light in Wiener experiments with standing waves. We show that the Born rule for light can easily be derived from Fermi's golden rule as an approximation for low-intense light or for short exposure time. We show that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for "photons" has a simple classical sense and cannot be considered as a fundamental limitation of accuracy of simultaneous measurements of position and momentum or time and energy. We conclude that the concept of a "photon" is superfluous in explanation of light-matter interactions.

  6. Transplantation: fantasy, fiction and fact.

    PubMed

    Magee, Reginald

    2004-03-01

    Today organ transplantation is considered a routine surgical procedure. The idea of transferring tissues from one person to another has been inspiring to the minds of artists depicting the Saints Cosmos and Damian and also writers such as Mary Shelley. Early attempts at tissue transplantation were unsuccessful but in the last 50 years medical research has brought it into reality. The present paper looks at the subject from the realms of fantasy through the works of fiction and finally into everyday fact.

  7. International waste management fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  8. Evolution of a continuously collapsed quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damnjanović, Milan

    1990-10-01

    The process in which quantum evolution is continuously disturbed by a collapse is considered. It is shown that such process can be treated as an evolution generated by the changed-collapsed-Hamiltonian. The observable to which the collapse is related to, becomes an integral of motion. Exactly this fact is the source of the well known quantum Zeno paradox.

  9. Quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, I. M.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins, and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.

  10. Applications of quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarico, E.; Sanguinetti, B.; Sekatski, P.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Cloning Machines (QCMs) allow for the copying of information, within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. These devices are particularly interesting in the high-gain regime, i.e., when one input qubit generates a state of many output qubits. In this regime, they allow for the study of certain aspects of the quantum to classical transition. The understanding of these aspects is the root of the two recent applications that we will review in this paper: the first one is the Quantum Cloning Radiometer, a device which is able to produce an absolute measure of spectral radiance. This device exploits the fact that in the quantum regime information can be copied with only finite fidelity, whereas when a state becomes macroscopic, this fidelity gradually increases to 1. Measuring the fidelity of the cloning operation then allows to precisely determine the absolute spectral radiance of the input optical source. We will then discuss whether a Quantum Cloning Machine could be used to produce a state visible by the naked human eye, and the possibility of a Bell Experiment with humans playing the role of detectors.

  11. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  12. Hamiltonian learning and certification using quantum resources.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D G

    2014-05-16

    In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable.

  13. Hamiltonian learning and certification using quantum resources.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D G

    2014-05-16

    In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable. PMID:24877920

  14. Simulation of quantum dynamics with integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, quantum walks have been proposed as promising resources for the simulation of physical quantum systems. In fact it is widely adopted to simulate quantum dynamics. Up to now single particle quantum walks have been experimentally demonstrated by different approaches, while only few experiments involving many-particle quantum walks have been realized. Here we simulate the 2-particle dynamics on a discrete time quantum walk, built on an array of integrated waveguide beam splitters. The polarization independence of the quantum walk circuit allowed us to exploit the polarization entanglement to encode the symmetry of the two-photon wavefunction, thus the bunching-antibunching behavior of non interacting bosons and fermions has been simulated. We have also characterized the possible distinguishability and decoherence effects arising in such a structure. This study is necessary in view of the realization of a quantum simulator based on an integrated optical array built on a large number of beam splitters.

  15. Fisher-Shannon product and quantum revivals in wavepacket dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, T.; de los Santos, F.; Romera, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the usefulness of the Fisher-Shannon information product in the study of the sequence of collapses and revivals that take place along the time evolution of quantum wavepackets. This fact is illustrated in two models, a quantum bouncer and a graphene quantum ring.

  16. Quantum simulation of quantum field theory using continuous variables

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Kevin; Pooser, Raphael C.; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2015-12-14

    Much progress has been made in the field of quantum computing using continuous variables over the last couple of years. This includes the generation of extremely large entangled cluster states (10,000 modes, in fact) as well as a fault tolerant architecture. This has lead to the point that continuous-variable quantum computing can indeed be thought of as a viable alternative for universal quantum computing. With that in mind, we present a new algorithm for continuous-variable quantum computers which gives an exponential speedup over the best known classical methods. Specifically, this relates to efficiently calculating the scattering amplitudes in scalar bosonicmore » quantum field theory, a problem that is known to be hard using a classical computer. Thus, we give an experimental implementation based on cluster states that is feasible with today's technology.« less

  17. Quantum simulation of quantum field theory using continuous variables

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Kevin; Pooser, Raphael C.; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2015-12-14

    Much progress has been made in the field of quantum computing using continuous variables over the last couple of years. This includes the generation of extremely large entangled cluster states (10,000 modes, in fact) as well as a fault tolerant architecture. This has lead to the point that continuous-variable quantum computing can indeed be thought of as a viable alternative for universal quantum computing. With that in mind, we present a new algorithm for continuous-variable quantum computers which gives an exponential speedup over the best known classical methods. Specifically, this relates to efficiently calculating the scattering amplitudes in scalar bosonic quantum field theory, a problem that is known to be hard using a classical computer. Thus, we give an experimental implementation based on cluster states that is feasible with today's technology.

  18. Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2007-12-03

    All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics.

  19. Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Antipin, K. V.; Mnatsakanova, M. N.; Vernov, Yu. S.

    2013-08-15

    Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.

  20. Taming catalysts in quantum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Auxiliary quantum systems which can be borrowed to help facilitate thermodynamic processes but must be returned almost undisturbed—i.e. catalysts—are very powerful objects in quantum thermodynamics. In fact, they appear almost too powerful, since they allow for any state transformation to be carried out while being disturbed by an arbitrarily small amount. In their recent paper Ng et al (2015 New J. Phys. 17 085004) show how to tame catalysts in quantum thermodynamics by placing additional physical constraints on them, in terms of dimension and energy.

  1. Quantum Feedback Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Quantum amplification is essential for various quantum technologies such as communication and weak-signal detection. However, its practical use is still limited due to inevitable device fragility that brings about distortion in the output signal or state. This paper presents a general theory that solves this critical issue. The key idea is simple and easy to implement: just a passive feedback of the amplifier's auxiliary mode, which is usually thrown away. In fact, this scheme makes the controlled amplifier significantly robust, and furthermore it realizes the minimum-noise amplification even under realistic imperfections. Hence, the presented theory enables the quantum amplification to be implemented at a practical level. Also, a nondegenerate parametric amplifier subjected to a special detuning is proposed to show that, additionally, it has a broadband nature.

  2. Static quantum multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-10-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. . By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static—in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, including the fact that we observe that time flows in a definite direction. Selecting the multiverse state ultimately boils down to finding normalizable solutions to certain zero-eigenvalue equations, analogous to the case of the hydrogen atom. Unambiguous physical predictions would then follow, according to the rules of quantum mechanics.

  3. Entanglement-Based Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-03-01

    Quantum entanglement, to Erwin Schroedinger the essential feature of quantum mechanics, has become a central resource in various quantum communication protocols including quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. From a fundamental point of view what is exploited in these experiments is the very fact which led Schroedinger to his statement namely that in entangled states joint properties of the entangled systems may be well defined while the individual subsystems may carry no information at all. In entanglement-based quantum cryptography it leads to the most elegant possible solution of the classic key distribution problem. It implies that the key comes into existence at spatially distant location at the same time and does not need to be transported. A number recent developments include for example highly efficient, robust and stable sources of entangled photons with a broad bandwidth of desired features. Also, entanglement-based quantum cryptography is successfully joining other methods in the work towards demonstrating quantum key distribution networks. Along that line recently decoy-state quantum cryptography over a distance of 144 km between two Canary Islands was demonstrated successfully. Such experiments also open up the possibility of quantum communication on a really large scale using LEO satellites. Another important possible future branch of quantum communication involves quantum repeaters in order to cover larger distances with entangled states. Recently the connection of two fully independent lasers in an entanglement swapping experiment did demonstrate that the timing control of such systems on a femtosecond time scale is possible. A related development includes recent demonstrations of all-optical one-way quantum computation schemes with the extremely short cycle time of only 100 nanoseconds.

  4. Marine & Hydrokinetic Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. The program supports the development of advanced water power devices that capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients. The program works to promote the development and deployment of these new technologies, known as marine and hydrokinetic technologies, to assess the potential extractable energy from rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters, and to help industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.

  5. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  6. Relativistic Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2006-06-27

    I present a relativistic covariant version of the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics and discuss the corresponding measurable predictions. The covariance is incoded in the fact that the nonlocal quantum potential transforms as a scalar, which is a consequence of the fact that the nonlocal wave function transforms as a scalar. The measurable predictions that can be obtained with the deterministic Bohmian interpretation cannot be obtained with the conventional interpretation simply because the conventional probabilistic interpretation does not work in the case of relativistic quantum mechanics.

  7. Quantum ontologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs.

  8. A Virtual Field Trip to the Real World of Cap and Trade: Environmental Economics and the EPA SO[subscript 2] Allowance Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lynne Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, Bates College Environmental Economics classes bought their first sulfur dioxide emissions allowance at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual auction, then conducted by the Chicago Board of Trade. In the spring of 2010, they bought their 22nd through 34th allowances. This article describes a three-part method for…

  9. 31 CFR 356.4 - What are the book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the book-entry systems in... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS... book-entry systems in which auctioned Treasury securities may be issued or maintained? There are...

  10. Do I hear... anyone here? Tax-exempt healthcare facilities have taken a hit on auction-rate securities as the mortgage meltdown has investors skittish.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-02-25

    The crisis in auction-rate securities is coming down hard on tax-exempt providers. Buyers are disappearing, sending interest rates soaring. Some hospitals and other healthcare borrowers are being forced to pay maximum interest. "Basically, the investor pool has all but vanished," says Melissa Williams, left, of Christus Health. PMID:18491765

  11. A revealed preference approach to estimating supply curves for ecosystem services: use of auctions to set payments for soil erosion control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jack, B Kelsey; Leimona, Beria; Ferraro, Paul J

    2009-04-01

    To supply ecosystem services, private landholders incur costs. Knowledge of these costs is critical for the design of conservation-payment programs. Estimating these costs accurately is difficult because the minimum acceptable payment to a potential supplier is private information. We describe how an auction of payment contracts can be designed to elicit this information during the design phase of a conservation-payment program. With an estimate of the ecosystem-service supply curve from a pilot auction, conservation planners can explore the financial, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences of alternative scaled-up programs. We demonstrate the potential of our approach in Indonesia, where soil erosion on coffee farms generates downstream ecological and economic costs. Bid data from a small-scale, uniform-price auction for soil-conservation contracts allowed estimates of the costs of a scaled-up program, the gain from integrating biophysical and economic data to target contracts, and the trade-offs between poverty alleviation and supply of ecosystem services. Our study illustrates an auction-based approach to revealing private information about the costs of supplying ecosystem services. Such information can improve the design of programs devised to protect and enhance ecosystem services.

  12. 78 FR 65982 - Auction of H Block Licenses in the 1915-1920 MHz and 1995-2000 MHz Bands Rescheduled for January...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Comment Public Notice, 78 FR 45524, July 29, 2013. B. Description of Licenses To Be Offered in Auction 96 4. In the H Block Report and Order, 78 FR 50213, August 16, 2013, the Commission concluded that... violate 47 CFR 1.2105(c), particularly in light of the limited information procedures in effect...

  13. Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-01-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

  14. Quantum Cloning for Absolute Radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Pomarico, Enrico; Sekatski, Pavel; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas

    2010-08-20

    In the quantum regime information can be copied with only a finite fidelity. This fidelity gradually increases to 1 as the system becomes classical. In this Letter we show how this fact can be used to directly measure the amount of radiated power. We demonstrate how these principles can be used to build a practical primary standard.

  15. Quantum memristors

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511

  16. Quantum memristors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511

  17. Quantum memristors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2016-07-06

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.

  18. Quantum memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.

  19. Nutritional supplements: fact vs. fiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Landry, G L

    1998-10-01

    An athlete may think that if a small amount of a chemical helps his or her performance, more will work better. The most appealing supplements are those that claim to help build muscle, improve endurance, and reduce body fat. Widespread acceptance of herbal of "natural" alternatives to mainstream medicine (especially nutritional supplements) is increasing, and the market is largely unregulated. The authors summarize the facts and fiction surrounding the use of popular products that may be found at the pharmacy and health food store that are being used in the locker rooms of high schools, colleges, and gyms in the U.S. They urge clinicians to stress the value of a well balanced diet to their active adolescent patients and not to encourage supplement use. PMID:9928464

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  1. Quantum Teardrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeziński, Tomasz; Fairfax, Simon A.

    2012-11-01

    Algebras of functions on quantum weighted projective spaces are introduced, and the structure of quantum weighted projective lines or quantum teardrops is described in detail. In particular the presentation of the coordinate algebra of the quantum teardrop in terms of generators and relations and classification of irreducible *-representations are derived. The algebras are then analysed from the point of view of Hopf-Galois theory or the theory of quantum principal bundles. Fredholm modules and associated traces are constructed. C*-algebras of continuous functions on quantum weighted projective lines are described and their K-groups computed.

  2. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  3. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W.; Moore, Sheila A.; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  6. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACA Marketplaces Prescription Drugs menu KFF.org Twitter Facebook Email Disparities Policy Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... in the U.S.: Key Facts Jun 01, 2012 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print This fact sheet provides ...

  7. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  8. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  9. Electronic Fact Book: A Reality of Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaneja, Gurvinder K.; Kaur, Amarjit

    This paper on electronic fact books begins with a section that presents background on fact books, dating back to the publication of "Statistics of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities" by the U.S. Office of Education in 1867. The second section considers advantages of fact books as data resources and for decision making, planning, self study, and…

  10. Fact-Finding Prolongs Labor Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    1979-01-01

    Fact finders should be called on the scene only when an impasse results in a disagreement over facts. Nevertheless, mediators typically recommend fact-finding regardless of the nature of the impasse. Such a move typically exacerbates the controversy instead of settling it. (Author/IRT)

  11. Clinical Facts, Turning Points and Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lush, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I explore how we might link ideas about clinical facts to current issues in child psychotherapy research. I consider what our understanding of clinical facts might contribute to our research methods and how our research methods might better represent the clinical facts. The paper introduces a selection of psychoanalytic writers'…

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  13. Recoverability in quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark

    The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information theory, which have to do with providing physically meaningful improvements to many known entropy inequalities. This is based on arXiv:1505.04661, now accepted for publication in Proceedings of the Royal Society A. I acknowledge support from startup funds from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at LSU, the NSF under Award No. CCF-1350397, and the DARPA Quiness Program through US Army Research Office award W31P4Q-12-1-0019.

  14. Quantum Darwinism

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

  15. Quantum memristors

    DOE PAGES

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-06

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantummore » regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. As a result, the proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.« less

  16. All entangled quantum states are nonlocal.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2012-05-18

    Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided.

  17. Coherence susceptibility as a probe of quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Jun; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a coherence susceptibility method, based on the fact that it signals quantum fluctuations, for identifying quantum phase transitions, which are induced by quantum fluctuations. This method requires no prior knowledge of order parameter, and there is no need for careful considerations concerning the choice of a bipartition of the system. It can identify different types of quantum phase transition points exactly. At finite temperatures, where quantum criticality is influenced by thermal fluctuations, our method can pinpoint the temperature frame of quantum criticality, which perfectly coincides with recent experiments.

  18. Inhibin--fact or artifact.

    PubMed

    de Jong, F H

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in male as well as in female animals appear to be partly regulated by inhibin, a protein which is secreted by the gonads. The molecular structure of this substance is still unknown, and the mechanism(s) of its action on the pituitary or hypothalamic level is not clear. Much of the confusion about inhibin stems from the fact that no generally accepted definition of inhibin exists and that fundamentally different biological assay systems have been used by different groups. Therefore this short review starts with a discussion of the definition of inhibin and the assay principles. From the available information on the site of origin of the hormone it appears likely that inhibin is produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis and the granulosa cells of the ovary. The available data on the chemical nature of inhibin suggest that different principles, acting on different sites of the hypothalamic--pituitary axis, might be present in preparations with inhibin-like activity. Finally, with respect to the biological significance of inhibin, it seems that inhibin could play a more important role in the feedback regulation of FSH in the adult female than in the adult male animal.

  19. Wind Energy Ordinance Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    F. Oteri

    2010-09-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  20. Wind Energy Ordinances (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  1. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  2. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  3. Quantum criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary - that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.

  4. IKT for quantum hydrodynamic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Ellero, Marco; Nicolini, Piero

    2007-11-01

    A striking feature of standard quantum mechanics (SQM) is its analogy with classical fluid dynamics. In fact, it is well-known that the Schr"odinger equation is equivalent to a closed set of partial differential equations for suitable real-valued functions of position and time (denoted as quantum fluid fields) [Madelung, 1928]. In particular, the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations (QHE) can be viewed as the equations of a classical compressible and non-viscous fluid, endowed with potential velocity and quantized velocity circulation. In this reference, an interesting theoretical problem, in its own right, is the construction of an inverse kinetic theory (IKT) for such a type of fluids. In this note we intend to investigate consequences of the IKT recently formulated for QHE [M.Tessarotto et al., Phys. Rev. A 75, 012105 (2007)]. In particular a basic issue is related to the definition of the quantum fluid fields.

  5. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  6. Quantum cheques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-06-01

    We propose the idea of a quantum cheque scheme, a cryptographic protocol in which any legitimate client of a trusted bank can issue a cheque, that cannot be counterfeited or altered in anyway, and can be verified by a bank or any of its branches. We formally define a quantum cheque and present the first unconditionally secure quantum cheque scheme and show it to be secure against any no-signalling adversary. The proposed quantum cheque scheme can been perceived as the quantum analog of Electronic Data Interchange, as an alternate for current e-Payment Gateways.

  7. Quantum Darwinism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.

  8. Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Quantum cryptography makes use of the quantum-mechanical behavior of nature for the design and analysis of cryptographic schemes. Optimally (but not always), quantum cryptography allows for the design of cryptographic schemes whose security is guaranteed solely by the laws of nature. This is in sharp contrast to standard cryptographic schemes, which can be broken in principle, i.e., when given sufficient computing power. From a theory point of view, quantum cryptography offers a beautiful interplay between the mathematics of adversarial behavior and quantum information theory. In this review article, we discuss the traditional application of quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution (QKD), from a modern perspective, and we discuss some recent developments in the context of quantum two-party cooperation (2PC). QKD allows two distant parties to communicate in a provably-secure way in the presence of an outside eavesdropper, whereas 2PC is concerned with protecting information against possibly malicious insiders. We show the basic idea of constructing quantum cryptographic schemes, but we also show some connections to quantum information theory as needed for the rigorous security analyses, and we discuss some of the relevant quantum-information-theoretic results.

  9. Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvil Scully, Marlan; Zubairy, Muhammad Suhail

    1997-09-01

    Quantum optics has witnessed significant theoretical and experimental developments in recent years. This book provides an in-depth and wide-ranging introduction to the subject, emphasizing throughout the basic principles and their applications. The book begins by developing the basic tools of quantum optics, and goes on to show the application of these tools in a variety of quantum optical systems, including lasing without inversion, squeezed states, and atom optics. The final four chapters discuss quantum optical tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and particular aspects of measurement theory. Assuming only a background of standard quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory, and containing many problems and references, this book will be invaluable to graduate students of quantum optics, as well as to researchers in this field.

  10. Quantum reading capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  11. Quantumness and the role of locality on quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, G.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum correlations in a physical system are usually studied with respect to a unique and fixed decomposition of the system into subsystems, without fully exploiting the rich structure of the state space. Here, we show several examples in which the consideration of different ways to decompose a physical system enhances the quantum resources and accounts for a more flexible definition of quantumness measures. Furthermore, we give a different perspective regarding how to reassess the fact that local operations play a key role in general quantumness measures that go beyond entanglement—as discordlike ones. We propose a family of measures to quantify the maximum quantumness of a given state. For the discord-based case, we present some analytical results for 2 ×d -dimensional states. Applying our definition to low-dimensional bipartite states, we show that different behaviors can be reported for separable and entangled states vis-à-vis those corresponding to the usual measures of quantum correlations. We show that there is a close link between our proposal and the criterion to witness quantum correlations based on the rank of the correlation matrix, proposed by Dakić, Vedral, and Brukner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 190502 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.190502].

  12. Ultracold Quantum Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The field of many-body quantum physics has a long history of fundamental discoveries, many of which have gone far beyond our wildest imagination. These include the study of novel states of matter, the observation of previously unseen phase transitions, and the discovery of new macroscopic quantum effects which arise when the intriguing rules of quantum mechanics are no longer restricted to the subatomic world, but rather determine the collective behavior of systems that are observable with the naked eye. In the past, it has often been proven difficult to obtain the underlying theory that yields an accurate description of the collective quantum phenomenon on the microscopic level. A good example is the discovery of superfluidity in liquid 4He by Pyotr Kapitsa, John Allen and Don Misener in 1938 [1, 2], where superfluidity refers to the fact that the liquid can flow without experiencing resistance, which leads for example to the spectacular fountain effect [3]. Since the atoms interact very strongly, the precise internal state of liquid helium is notoriously difficult to determine.

  13. Quantum entanglement, quantum communication and the limits of quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambainis, Andris

    Quantum entanglement is a term describing the quantum correlations between different parts of a quantum system. Quantum information theory has developed sophisticated techniques to quantify and study quantum entanglement. In this thesis, we show how to apply those techniques to problems in quantum algorithms, complexity theory, communication and cryptography. The main results are: (1) quantum communication protocols that are exponentially more efficient that conventional (classical) communication protocols, (2) unconditionally secure quantum protocols for cryptographic problems, (3) a new "quantum adversary" method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms, (4) a study of "one clean qubit computation", a model related to the experimental implementation of quantum computers using NMR (nucleo-magnetic resonance) technology.

  14. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  15. Responses to the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking EPA published on June 6, 1996 regarding changes to the EPA allowance auctions and elimination of the direct sale

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    On June 6, 1996, EPA`s Acid Rain Program published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register seeking comment on: (1) whether to change the design of the annual sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance auctions; (2) whether to change the timing of the allowance auctions; (3) whether to change the requirement that the minimum price of offered allowances must be in whole dollars, and (4) whether EPA should propose the ability to submit allowance transfers electronically. EPA also published on that day a proposed and direct final rule on whether to eliminate the direct sale. This paper documents the issues addressed in the ANPRM, the comments EPA received, and EPA`s responses to those comments. EPA received comments from 14 separate commenters.

  16. Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P (w ). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P (w ). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  17. Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia, Augusto J; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-19

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  18. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  19. Estimating the impact of various menu labeling formats on parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children: An experimental auction.

    PubMed

    Hobin, Erin; Lillico, Heather; Zuo, Fei; Sacco, Jocelyn; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2016-10-01

    This study experimentally tested whether parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children is influenced by various menu labeling formats disclosing calorie and sodium information. The study also examined the effect of various menu labeling formats on parents' ability to identify fast-food kids' meals with higher calorie and sodium content. Online surveys were conducted among parents of children aged 3-12. Parents were randomized to view 1 of 5 menu conditions: 1) No Nutrition Information; 2) Calories-Only; 3) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); 4) Calories, Sodium, + CS; and, 5) Calorie and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Using an established experimental auction study design, parents viewed replicated McDonald's menus according to their assigned condition and were asked to bid on 4 Happy Meals. A randomly selected price was chosen; bids equal to or above this price "won" the auction, and bids less than this price "lost" the auction. After the auction, participants were asked to identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories and sodium content. Adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates, the Calories, Sodium, + CS menu had a mean attributed value across all 4 Happy Meals which was 8% lower (-$0.31) than the Calories + CS menu (p < 0.05). Significantly more parents in the 4 menu conditions providing calories were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories (p < 0.0001) and significantly more parents in the 2 conditions providing sodium information were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest sodium content (p < 0.0001). Menus disclosing both calories and sodium information may reduce demand for fast-food kids' meals and better support parents in making more informed and healthier food choices for their children. PMID:27317971

  20. Estimating the impact of various menu labeling formats on parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children: An experimental auction.

    PubMed

    Hobin, Erin; Lillico, Heather; Zuo, Fei; Sacco, Jocelyn; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2016-10-01

    This study experimentally tested whether parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children is influenced by various menu labeling formats disclosing calorie and sodium information. The study also examined the effect of various menu labeling formats on parents' ability to identify fast-food kids' meals with higher calorie and sodium content. Online surveys were conducted among parents of children aged 3-12. Parents were randomized to view 1 of 5 menu conditions: 1) No Nutrition Information; 2) Calories-Only; 3) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); 4) Calories, Sodium, + CS; and, 5) Calorie and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Using an established experimental auction study design, parents viewed replicated McDonald's menus according to their assigned condition and were asked to bid on 4 Happy Meals. A randomly selected price was chosen; bids equal to or above this price "won" the auction, and bids less than this price "lost" the auction. After the auction, participants were asked to identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories and sodium content. Adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates, the Calories, Sodium, + CS menu had a mean attributed value across all 4 Happy Meals which was 8% lower (-$0.31) than the Calories + CS menu (p < 0.05). Significantly more parents in the 4 menu conditions providing calories were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories (p < 0.0001) and significantly more parents in the 2 conditions providing sodium information were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest sodium content (p < 0.0001). Menus disclosing both calories and sodium information may reduce demand for fast-food kids' meals and better support parents in making more informed and healthier food choices for their children.

  1. [Current status of illegal trade in pharmaceutical products on Internet auction sites in Japan and responses of site administrators to such transactions].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Hisakazu; Imaoka, Ayuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, it is illegal to sell pharmaceuticals on Internet auction sites, although a considerable number of pharmaceuticals are listed on such sites. We investigated the current situation regarding the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on Japanese Internet auction sites and the responses of site administrators to such transactions. We searched for pharmaceuticals and "gray" items that were suspected of being pharmaceuticals on Yahoo-oku! (Yahoo! Auctions, Japan) over a 37-day period and then submitted violation reports indicating that selling pharmaceuticals is illegal or that the description of an item was insufficient. The reports were directed to the site administrators and forwarded to the sellers. One hundred and six pharmaceutical products and 34 gray items were identified during the study period. After the submission of the violation reports, only 28 of the pharmaceutical products and one of the gray items were deleted by the administrator, while 18 of the pharmaceutical products and 7 of the gray items were withdrawn by their sellers. However, 41 pharmaceuticals and 20 gray items were sold. Most of the gray items were listed using characteristic terms or abbreviations without photographic images. More than 70% of the identified pharmaceuticals had a contraindication(s) other than hypersensitivity. In conclusion, the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on Internet auction sites remains a serious problem in Japan, and the responses of site administrators to such transactions are inadequate. The government and pharmaceutical industry may have to take measures such as providing public and administrative guidance to stop the illegal trade in pharmaceuticals on the Internet.

  2. Quantum flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Amikam; Diósi, Lajos; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the concept of a quantum flywheel coupled to a quantum heat engine. The flywheel stores useful work in its energy levels, while additional power is extracted continuously from the device. Generally, the energy exchange between a quantum engine and a quantized work repository is accompanied by heat, which degrades the charging efficiency. Specifically when the quantum harmonic oscillator acts as a work repository, quantum and thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics. Quantum monitoring and feedback control are applied to the flywheel in order to reach steady state and regulate its operation. To maximize the charging efficiency one needs a balance between the information gained by measuring the system and the information fed back to the system. The dynamics of the flywheel are described by a stochastic master equation that accounts for the engine, the external driving, the measurement, and the feedback operations.

  3. Examining the relationship between psychosocial and behavioral proxies for future consumption behavior: self-reported impact and bidding behavior in an experimental auction study on cigarette labeling

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; Thrasher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and observational research often involves asking consumers to self-report the impact of some proposed option. Because self-reported responses involve no consequence to the respondent for falsely revealing how he or she feels about an issue, self-reports may be subject to social desirability and other influences that bias responses in important ways. In this article, we analyzed data from an experiment on the impact of cigarette packaging and pack warnings, comparing smokers’ self-reported impact (four-item scale) and the bids they placed in experimental auctions to estimate differences in demand. The results were consistent across methods; however, the estimated effect size associated with different warning labels was two times greater for the four-item self-reported response scale when compared to the change in demand as indicated by auction bids. Our study provides evidence that self-reported psychosocial responses provide a valid proxy for behavioral change as reflected by experimental auction bidding behavior. More research is needed to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economic methods and traditional self-report approaches to evaluating health behavior change interventions. PMID:24399267

  4. Examining the relationship between psychosocial and behavioral proxies for future consumption behavior: self-reported impact and bidding behavior in an experimental auction study on cigarette labeling.

    PubMed

    Rousu, Matthew C; Thrasher, James F

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and observational research often involves asking consumers to self-report the impact of some proposed option. Because self-reported responses involve no consequence to the respondent for falsely revealing how he or she feels about an issue, self-reports may be subject to social desirability and other influences that bias responses in important ways. In this article, we analyzed data from an experiment on the impact of cigarette packaging and pack warnings, comparing smokers' self-reported impact (four-item scale) and the bids they placed in experimental auctions to estimate differences in demand. The results were consistent across methods; however, the estimated effect size associated with different warning labels was two times greater for the four-item self-reported response scale when compared to the change in demand as indicated by auction bids. Our study provides evidence that self-reported psychosocial responses provide a valid proxy for behavioral change as reflected by experimental auction bidding behavior. More research is needed to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economic methods and traditional self-report approaches to evaluating health behavior change interventions. PMID:24399267

  5. Quantum criticality.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J

    2005-01-20

    As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures. PMID:15662409

  6. Quantum seismography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    A major scientific thrust from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to increase the performance of a wide variety of information processing devices. In particular, quantum radar has emerged as an intriguing theoretical concept that could revolutionize electromagnetic standoff sensing. In this paper we will discuss how the techniques developed for quantum radar could also be used towards the design of novel seismographs able to detect small ground vibrations., We use a hypothetical earthquake warning system in order to compare quantum seismography with traditional seismographic techniques.

  7. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  8. A Math Fact Fluency Intervention with Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols; Leach, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a flash card intervention for fluency in basic math facts. The rate of recall of addition facts was assessed for an, 8-year-old third grader who had ADHD. The tutoring program involved a structured flashcard drill with systematic reinforcement. A scaffold was built in to the intervention…

  9. American Association of Community Colleges FACTS 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Community College Facts" includes American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) mission statement, information about AACC as an organization, AACC departments, contacts, annual revenues and expenditures. Also included is "Community College Facts at a Glance," which provides statistics on the number and type of colleges, enrollment,…

  10. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  11. Early Care and Education (ECE) Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents several facts about the early care and education in Minnesota. These facts are organized according to the following topics: (1) Children age 5 and younger in Minnesota; (2) Number of early care and education programs and providers; (3) Children ages 0-2 and 3-5 enrolled in quality early childhood programs; (4) Number of…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

  13. Snapple[R] Real Facts Watercolors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that a hummingbird weighs less than a penny? Or that an elephant swims twenty miles a day? These are just two of the many facts that Snapple prints on the lids of their drink bottles. When Snapple first introduced the Snapple Real Facts the author was excited to see that something so trivial was also educational. She asked herself if…

  14. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  15. Reasoning with Contrary-to-Fact Propositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Vachon, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicated that: (1) 10- and 13-year-olds had difficulty accepting contrary-to-fact premises as a basis for reasoning; (2) 15- and 18-year-olds found reasoning correctly more difficult with contrary-to-fact premises; and (3) among 5- and 7-year-olds, a fantasy context decreased the extent to which empirical knowledge interfered with…

  16. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  17. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  18. 40 CFR 124.56 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plan under 40 CFR 501.15(a)(2)(ix), a brief description of how each of the required elements of the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fact sheets. 124.56 Section 124.56... DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits § 124.56 Fact sheets. (Applicable to...

  19. Quick Facts for 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Education presents "Quick Facts," an annual snapshot of general state statistics, facts about public schools, the State Board of Education, and general financial data. The data presented in this report covers the school year 2013-2014.

  20. 40 CFR 124.56 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan under 40 CFR 501.15(a)(2)(ix), a brief description of how each of the required elements of the... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fact sheets. 124.56 Section 124.56... DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits § 124.56 Fact sheets. (Applicable to...

  1. Three Steps to Mastering Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    "That was the day I decided I was bad at math." Countless times, preservice and in-service teachers make statements such as this after sharing vivid memories of learning multiplication facts. Timed tests; public competitive games, such as Around the World; and visible displays of who has and has not mastered groups of facts still…

  2. Quantum hall effect at low magnetic fields

    PubMed

    Huckestein

    2000-04-01

    The temperature and scale dependence of resistivities in the standard scaling theory of the integer quantum Hall effect is discussed. It is shown that recent experiments, claiming to observe a discrepancy with the global phase diagram of the quantum Hall effect, are in fact in agreement with the standard theory. The apparent low-field transition observed in the experiments is identified as a crossover due to weak localization and a strong reduction of the conductivity when Landau quantization becomes dominant.

  3. Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-12-04

    An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.

  4. New treatment of quantum tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defendi, Antonio; Roncadelli, Marco

    1994-04-01

    We explore the implications of the recently proposed Langevin quantization for quantum tunneling, working within the semiclassical approximation. As far as we can see, the present treatment is simpler and more straightforward than the path integral approach. In fact, no extra trick is needed and the correct result follows at once - as a consequence of general principles - from the representation of the propagator supplied by the Langevin quantization. Further applications of the strategy discussed in this Letter are pointed out.

  5. Quantum metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Kok, P.; Dowling, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and a specific quantum logical gate. Based on this equivalence we introduce the quantum Rosetta Stone, and we describe a projective measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity.

  6. Quantum microbiology.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T; Masson, L

    2011-01-01

    During his famous 1943 lecture series at Trinity College Dublin, the reknown physicist Erwin Schrodinger discussed the failure and challenges of interpreting life by classical physics alone and that a new approach, rooted in Quantum principles, must be involved. Quantum events are simply a level of organization below the molecular level. This includes the atomic and subatomic makeup of matter in microbial metabolism and structures, as well as the organic, genetic information code of DNA and RNA. Quantum events at this time do not elucidate, for example, how specific genetic instructions were first encoded in an organic genetic code in microbial cells capable of growth and division, and its subsequent evolution over 3.6 to 4 billion years. However, due to recent technological advances, biologists and physicists are starting to demonstrate linkages between various quantum principles like quantum tunneling, entanglement and coherence in biological processes illustrating that nature has exerted some level quantum control to optimize various processes in living organisms. In this article we explore the role of quantum events in microbial processes and endeavor to show that after nearly 67 years, Schrödinger was prophetic and visionary in his view of quantum theory and its connection with some of the fundamental mechanisms of life. PMID:21368338

  7. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  8. Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato

    2009-01-16

    We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem.

  9. Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato

    2009-01-16

    We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem. PMID:19257257

  10. Quantum picturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Why did it take us 50 years since the birth of the quantum mechanical formalism to discover that unknown quantum states cannot be cloned? Yet, the proof of the 'no-cloning theorem' is easy, and its consequences and potential for applications are immense. Similarly, why did it take us 60 years to discover the conceptually intriguing and easily derivable physical phenomenon of 'quantum teleportation'? We claim that the quantum mechanical formalism doesn't support our intuition, nor does it elucidate the key concepts that govern the behaviour of the entities that are subject to the laws of quantum physics. The arrays of complex numbers are kin to the arrays of 0s and 1s of the early days of computer programming practice. Using a technical term from computer science, the quantum mechanical formalism is 'low-level'. In this review we present steps towards a diagrammatic 'high-level' alternative for the Hilbert space formalism, one which appeals to our intuition. The diagrammatic language as it currently stands allows for intuitive reasoning about interacting quantum systems, and trivialises many otherwise involved and tedious computations. It clearly exposes limitations such as the no-cloning theorem, and phenomena such as quantum teleportation. As a logic, it supports 'automation': it enables a (classical) computer to reason about interacting quantum systems, prove theorems, and design protocols. It allows for a wider variety of underlying theories, and can be easily modified, having the potential to provide the required step-stone towards a deeper conceptual understanding of quantum theory, as well as its unification with other physical theories. Specific applications discussed here are purely diagrammatic proofs of several quantum computational schemes, as well as an analysis of the structural origin of quantum non-locality. The underlying mathematical foundation of this high-level diagrammatic formalism relies on so-called monoidal categories, a product of a fairly

  11. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-04-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are opportunities to expand beyond traditional presentations—and, in some cases, to achieve a deeper and broader understanding of those principles. I believe, moreover, that some of the facts presented here may inspire physics teachers to produce some challenge problems for students.

  12. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    2006-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  13. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    1995-04-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  14. Reconstruction and Reinvention in Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    I consider the fact that there are a number of interesting ways to `reconstruct' quantum theory, and suggest that, very broadly speaking, a form of `instrumentalism' makes good sense of the situation. This view runs against some common wisdom, which dismisses instrumentalism as `cheap'. In contrast, I consider how an instrumentalist might think about the reconstruction theorems, and, having made a distinction between `reconstructing' quantum theory and `reinventing' quantum theory, I suggest that there is an adequate (not `cheap') instrumentalist approach to the theory (and to these theorems) that invokes both.

  15. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  16. Quantum strategies of quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-03-01

    In the classical Monty Hall problem, one player can always win with probability 2/3. We generalize the problem to the quantum domain and show that a fair two-party zero-sum game can be carried out if the other player is permitted to adopt quantum measurement strategy.

  17. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  18. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  19. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  20. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  1. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks.

    PubMed

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Shiralkar, Prashant; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation. PMID:26083336

  2. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  3. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  4. Renewable Energy Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Fact sheet describing how the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides Federal agencies with information, guidance, and assistance in using renewable energy.

  5. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  6. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  7. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  8. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label ( ...

  10. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Shiralkar, Prashant; Rocha, Luis M.; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation. PMID:26083336

  11. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Myths and Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myth: "Only certain ethnic groups are predisposed to Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome." Fact:: There is no known ethnic, racial, geographic ... precise anatomical localization of the pain. Individuals with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome may experience pain - to greater or lesser degree. ...

  12. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  13. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks.

    PubMed

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Shiralkar, Prashant; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation.

  14. Quantum physics without quantum philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zanghì, Nino

    Quantum philosophy, a peculiar twentieth-century malady, is responsible for most of the conceptual muddle plaguing the foundations of quantum physics. When this philosophy is eschewed, one naturally arrives at Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schrödinger's equation for a nonrelativistic system of particles when we merely insist that 'particles' means particles. While distinctly non-Newtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. The quantum formalism emerges when measurement situations are analyzed according to this theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the paradoxes and perplexities so often associated with quantum theory simply evaporate.

  15. Poisson-process generalization for the trading waiting-time distribution in a double-auction mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, Silvano; Ponta, Linda; Raberto, Marco; Scalas, Enrico

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, empirical analyses and computational experiments are presented on high-frequency data for a double-auction (book) market. Main objective of the paper is to generalize the order waiting time process in order to properly model such empirical evidences. The empirical study is performed on the best bid and best ask data of 7 U.S. financial markets, for 30-stock time series. In particular, statistical properties of trading waiting times have been analyzed and quality of fits is evaluated by suitable statistical tests, i.e., comparing empirical distributions with theoretical models. Starting from the statistical studies on real data, attention has been focused on the reproducibility of such results in an artificial market. The computational experiments have been performed within the Genoa Artificial Stock Market. In the market model, heterogeneous agents trade one risky asset in exchange for cash. Agents have zero intelligence and issue random limit or market orders depending on their budget constraints. The price is cleared by means of a limit order book. The order generation is modelled with a renewal process. Based on empirical trading estimation, the distribution of waiting times between two consecutive orders is modelled by a mixture of exponential processes. Results show that the empirical waiting-time distribution can be considered as a generalization of a Poisson process. Moreover, the renewal process can approximate real data and implementation on the artificial stocks market can reproduce the trading activity in a realistic way.

  16. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  17. Uncertainty in quantum mechanics: faith or fantasy?

    PubMed

    Penrose, Roger

    2011-12-13

    The word 'uncertainty', in the context of quantum mechanics, usually evokes an impression of an essential unknowability of what might actually be going on at the quantum level of activity, as is made explicit in Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and in the fact that the theory normally provides only probabilities for the results of quantum measurement. These issues limit our ultimate understanding of the behaviour of things, if we take quantum mechanics to represent an absolute truth. But they do not cause us to put that very 'truth' into question. This article addresses the issue of quantum 'uncertainty' from a different perspective, raising the question of whether this term might be applied to the theory itself, despite its unrefuted huge success over an enormously diverse range of observed phenomena. There are, indeed, seeming internal contradictions in the theory that lead us to infer that a total faith in it at all levels of scale leads us to almost fantastical implications.

  18. Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2012-01-01

    The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur.

  19. PT quantum mechanics - Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    2012-09-01

    Most quantum physicists believe that a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian must be Dirac Hermitian (invariant under matrix transposition and complex conjugation) to be sure that the energy eigenvalues are real and that time evolution is unitary. However, the non-Dirac-hermitian Hamiltonian H = p2+ix3 has a real positive discrete spectrum and generates unitary time evolution and defines a fully consistent and physical quantum theory. Evidently, Dirac Hermiticity is too restrictive. While H = p2+ix3 is not Dirac Hermitian, it is PT symmetric (invariant under combined space reflection P and time reversal T). Another PT-symmetric Hamiltonian whose energy levels are real, positive and discrete is H = p2-x4, which contains an upside-down potential. The quantum mechanics defined by a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is a complex generalization of ordinary quantum mechanics. When quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are extended into the complex domain, new kinds of theories having strange and remarkable properties emerge. In the past two years some of these properties have been verified in laboratory experiments. Here, we first discuss PT-symmetric Hamiltonians at a simple intuitive level and explain why the energy levels of such Hamiltonians may be real, positive, and discrete. Second, we describe a recent experiment in which the PT phase transition was observed. Third, we briefly mention that PT-symmetric theories can be useful at a fundamental level. While the double-scaling limit of an O(N)-symmetric gφ4 quantum field theory appears to be inconsistent because the critical value of g is negative, this limit is in fact not inconsistent because the critical theory is PT symmetric.

  20. A Guess about light quantum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-03-01

    Photon is a ring, the diameter of the ring is the quantum fluctuated wave length. The linear movement of the ring, namely, the transmission of light, is reflected in the particle of light. A plurality of light quantum interactions or through a very narrow gap, the shape of quantum would temporarily be changed. The motion of photons to interference and diffraction phenomena occurs is determined by the structure of light quantum, the quantum ring radius and light quantum mass squared product is a constant. The smaller the light quantum ring radius is, the bigger the quality is, just consistent as the modern scientific experimental results, the energy of the purple is bigger than the red. This conclusion can be extrapolated to all of the electromagnetic wave. The shorter the photon wavelength is, the bigger the quality and density is , when the wavelength is less than 10-15 meters, it will convergence to atomic or subatomic composition material entity due to the gravity. In fact, the divergence and convergence of quantum is reversible, that is, the phenomenon of radiate ``light'' quantum occurs due to the energy exchange or other external energy. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790.