Quantum corrections for a cosmological string solution
Behrndt, K.
1994-08-01
The author investigates quantum corrections for a cosmological solution of the string effective action. Starting point is a classical solution containing an antisymmetric tensor field, a dilaton and a modulus field which has singularities in the scalar fields. As a first step he quantizes the scalar fields near the singularity with the result that the singularities disappear and that in general non-perturbative quantum corrections form a potential in the scalar fields.
Loop Quantum Cosmology: holonomy corrections to inflationary models
Artymowski, Michal; Lalak, Zygmunt; Szulc, Lukasz
2009-01-15
In the recent years the quantization methods of Loop Quantum Gravity have been successfully applied to the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times. The resulting theory, called Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), resolves the Big Bang singularity by replacing it with the Big Bounce. We argue that the LQC holonomy corrections generate also certain corrections to field theoretical inflationary scenarios. These corrections imply that in the LQC the effective sonic horizon becomes infinite at some point after the bounce and that the scale of the inflationary potential implied by the COBE normalisation increases. The evolution of scalar fields immediately after the Bounce becomes modified in an interesting way. We point out that one can use COBE normalisation to establish an upper bound on the quantum of length of LQG. LQC corrections other than the holonomy one are assumed to be subdominant.
On the correctness of cosmology from quantum potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashin, E. I.
2016-02-01
We examine in detail the cosmology based on quantal (Bohmian) trajectories as suggested in a recent study [A. F. Ali and S. Das, Phys. Lett. B 741, 276 (2014)]. We disagree with the conclusions regarding predicting the value of the cosmological constant Λ and evading the Big Bang singularity. Furthermore, we show that the approach of using a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE), as suggested in A. F. Ali and S. Das, Phys. Lett. B 741, 276 (2014), is unsatisfactory, because, essentially, it uses the Raychaudhuri equation (RE), which is a kinematical equation, in order to predict dynamics. In addition, even within this inconsistent framework, the authors have adopted unjustified assumptions and carried out incorrect steps leading to doubtful conclusions.
Non-Gaussian features from the inverse volume corrections in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li-Fang; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Hu, Bin
2012-08-01
In this paper we study the non-Gaussian features of the primordial fluctuations in loop quantum cosmology with the inverse volume corrections. The detailed analysis is performed in the single field slow-roll inflationary models. However, our results reflect the universal characteristics of bispectrum in loop quantum cosmology. The main corrections to the scalar bispectrum come from two aspects: one is the modifications to the standard Bunch-Davies vacuum, and the other is the corrections to the background dependent variables, such as slow-roll parameters. Our calculations show that the loop quantum corrections make fNL of the inflationary models increase 0.1%. Moreover, we find that two new shapes of non-Gaussian signal arise, which we name F1 and F2. The former gives a unique loop quantum feature, which is less correlated with the local, equilateral, and single types, while the latter is highly correlated with the local one.
Quantum corrections to the cosmological evolution of conformally coupled fields
Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu E-mail: uzan@iap.fr
2009-07-01
Because the source term for the equations of motion of a conformally coupled scalar field, such as the dilaton, is given by the trace of the matter energy momentum tensor, it is commonly assumed to vanish during the radiation dominated epoch in the early universe. As a consequence, such fields are generally frozen in the early universe. Here we compute the finite temperature radiative correction to the source term and discuss its consequences on the evolution of such fields in the early universe. We discuss in particular, the case of scalar tensor theories of gravity which have general relativity as an attractor solution. We show that, in some cases, the universe can experience an early phase of contraction, followed by a non-singular bounce, and standard expansion. This can have interesting consequences for the abundance of thermal relics; for instance, it can provide a solution to the gravitino problem. We conclude by discussing the possible consequences of the quantum corrections to the evolution of the dilaton.
Chiou, D.-W.; Li Lifang
2009-03-15
A well-motivated extension of higher order holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) for the k=0 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is investigated at the level of heuristic effective dynamics. It reveals that the quantum bounce is generic, regardless of the order of corrections, and the matter density remains finite, bounded from above by an upper bound in the regime of the Planckian density, even if all orders of corrections are included. This observation provides further evidence that the quantum bounce is essentially a consequence of the loopy nature (i.e. intrinsic discreteness) of LQC and LQC is fundamentally different from the Wheeler-DeWitt theory; it also encourages one to construct the quantum theory of LQC with the higher order holonomy corrections, which might be understood as related to the higher j representations in the Hamiltonian operator of loop quantum gravity.
Scalar and tensor perturbations in loop quantum cosmology: high-order corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin; Wu, Qiang
2015-10-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides promising resolutions to the trans-Planckian issue and initial singularity arising in the inflationary models of general relativity. In general, due to different quantization approaches, LQC involves two types of quantum corrections, the holonomy and inverse-volume, to both of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations. In this paper, using the third-order uniform asymptotic approximations, we derive explicitly the observational quantities of the slow-roll inflation in the framework of LQC with these quantum corrections. We calculate the power spectra, spectral indices, and running of the spectral indices for both scalar and tensor perturbations, whereby the tensor-to-scalar ratio is obtained. We expand all the observables at the time when the inflationary mode crosses the Hubble horizon. As the upper error bounds for the uniform asymptotic approximation at the third-order are lesssim 0.15%, these results represent the most accurate results obtained so far in the literature. It is also shown that with the inverse-volume corrections, both scalar and tensor spectra exhibit a deviation from the usual shape at large scales. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain new constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be within the detection of the forthcoming experiments.
Scalar and tensor perturbations in loop quantum cosmology: high-order corrections
Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu E-mail: klaus_kirsten@baylor.edu E-mail: wuq@zjut.edu.cn
2015-10-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) provides promising resolutions to the trans-Planckian issue and initial singularity arising in the inflationary models of general relativity. In general, due to different quantization approaches, LQC involves two types of quantum corrections, the holonomy and inverse-volume, to both of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations. In this paper, using the third-order uniform asymptotic approximations, we derive explicitly the observational quantities of the slow-roll inflation in the framework of LQC with these quantum corrections. We calculate the power spectra, spectral indices, and running of the spectral indices for both scalar and tensor perturbations, whereby the tensor-to-scalar ratio is obtained. We expand all the observables at the time when the inflationary mode crosses the Hubble horizon. As the upper error bounds for the uniform asymptotic approximation at the third-order are ∼< 0.15%, these results represent the most accurate results obtained so far in the literature. It is also shown that with the inverse-volume corrections, both scalar and tensor spectra exhibit a deviation from the usual shape at large scales. Then, using the Planck, BAO and SN data we obtain new constraints on quantum gravitational effects from LQC corrections, and find that such effects could be within the detection of the forthcoming experiments.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh
2016-06-01
We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin
The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge.
Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin; Cleaver, Gerald E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu E-mail: gerald_cleaver@baylor.edu E-mail: wuq@zjut.edu.cn
2016-03-01
We first derive the primordial power spectra, spectral indices and runnings of both scalar and tensor perturbations of a flat inflationary universe to the second-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with the inverse-volume quantum corrections. This represents an extension of our previous work in which the parameter σ was assumed to be an integer, where σ characterizes the quantum corrections and in general can take any of values from the range σ element of (0, 6]. Restricting to the first-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, we find corrections to the results obtained previously in the literature, and point out the causes for such errors. To our best knowledge, these represent the most accurate calculations of scalar and tensor perturbations given so far in the literature. Then, fitting the perturbations to the recently released data by Planck (2015), we obtain the most severe constraints for various values of σ. Using these constraints as our referring point, we discuss whether these quantum gravitational corrections can lead to measurable signatures in the future cosmological observations. We show that, depending on the value of σ, the scale-dependent contributions to the relativistic inflationary spectra due to the inverse-volume corrections could be well within the range of the detectability of the forthcoming generations of experiments, such as the Stage IV experiments.
The Cosmological Constant in Quantum Cosmology
Wu Zhongchao
2008-10-10
Hawking proposed that the cosmological constant is probably zero in quantum cosmology in 1984. By using the right configuration for the wave function of the universe, a complete proof is found very recently.
Newtonian cosmology with a quantum bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bargueño, P.; Bravo Medina, S.; Nowakowski, M.; Batic, D.
2016-10-01
It has been known for some time that the cosmological Friedmann equation deduced from general relativity can also be obtained within the Newtonian framework under certain assumptions. We use this result together with quantum corrections to the Newtonian potentials to derive a set a of quantum corrected Friedmann equations. We examine the behavior of the solutions of these modified cosmological equations paying special attention to the sign of the quantum corrections. We find different quantum effects crucially depending on this sign. One such a solution displays a qualitative resemblance to other quantum models like Loop quantum gravity or non-commutative geometry.
Cosmological footprints of loop quantum gravity.
Grain, J; Barrau, A
2009-02-27
The primordial spectrum of cosmological tensor perturbations is considered as a possible probe of quantum gravity effects. Together with string theory, loop quantum gravity is one of the most promising frameworks to study quantum effects in the early universe. We show that the associated corrections should modify the potential seen by gravitational waves during the inflationary amplification. The resulting power spectrum should exhibit a characteristic tilt. This opens a new window for cosmological tests of quantum gravity.
Will Quantum Cosmology Resurrect Chaotic Inflation Model?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Won
2016-07-01
The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.
Bojowald, Martin
2008-01-01
Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.
Bojowald, Martin
2015-02-01
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Midisuperspace supersymmetric quantum cosmology
Macias, Alfredo; Camacho, Abel; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2008-03-15
We investigate the canonical quantization in the framework of N=1 simple supergravity for the case of a very simple gravitational midisuperspace described by Gowdy T{sup 3} cosmological models. We consider supersymmetric quantum cosmology in the mentioned midisuperspace, where a matrix representation for the gravitino covector-spinor is used. The full Lorentz constraint and its implications for the wave function of the Universe are analyzed in detail. We found that there are indeed physical states in the midisuperspace sector of the theory in contrast to the case of minisuperspace where there exist no physical states.
Bojowald, Martin
2005-01-01
Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.
Ekpyrotic loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2013-08-01
We consider the ekpyrotic paradigm in the context of loop quantum cosmology. In loop quantum cosmology the classical big-bang singularity is resolved due to quantum gravity effects, and so the contracting ekpyrotic branch of the universe and its later expanding phase are connected by a smooth bounce. Thus, it is possible to explicitly determine the evolution of scalar perturbations, from the contracting ekpyrotic phase through the bounce and to the post-bounce expanding epoch. The possibilities of having either one or two scalar fields have been suggested for the ekpyrotic universe, and both cases will be considered here. In the case of a single scalar field, the constant mode of the curvature perturbations after the bounce is found to have a blue spectrum. On the other hand, for the two scalar field ekpyrotic model where scale-invariant entropy perturbations source additional terms in the curvature perturbations, the power spectrum in the post-bounce expanding cosmology is shown to be nearly scale-invariant and so agrees with observations.
Observational constraints on loop quantum cosmology.
Bojowald, Martin; Calcagni, Gianluca; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2011-11-18
In the inflationary scenario of loop quantum cosmology in the presence of inverse-volume corrections, we give analytic formulas for the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations convenient to compare with observations. Since inverse-volume corrections can provide strong contributions to the running spectral indices, inclusion of terms higher than the second-order runnings in the power spectra is crucially important. Using the recent data of cosmic microwave background and other cosmological experiments, we place bounds on the quantum corrections.
Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-07-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.
Effective scenario of loop quantum cosmology.
Ding, You; Ma, Yongge; Yang, Jinsong
2009-02-06
Semiclassical states in isotropic loop quantum cosmology are employed to show that the improved dynamics has the correct classical limit. The effective Hamiltonian for the quantum cosmological model with a massless scalar field is thus obtained, which incorporates also the next to leading order quantum corrections. The possibility that the higher order correction terms may lead to significant departure from the leading order effective scenario is revealed. If the semiclassicality of the model is maintained in the large scale limit, there are great possibilities for a k=0 Friedmann expanding universe to undergo a collapse in the future due to the quantum gravity effect. Thus the quantum bounce and collapse may contribute a cyclic universe in the new scenario.
Bouncing loop quantum cosmology in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haro, J.; Makarenko, A. N.; Myagky, A. N.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2015-12-01
We develop an effective Gauss-Bonnet extension of loop quantum cosmology, by introducing holonomy corrections in modified F (G ) theories of gravity. Within the context of our formalism, we provide a perturbative expansion in the critical density, a parameter characteristic of loop quantum gravity theories, and we result in having leading order corrections to the classical F (G ) theories of gravity. After extensively discussing the formalism, we present a reconstruction method that makes it possible to find the loop quantum cosmology corrected F (G ) theory that can realize various cosmological scenarios. We exemplify our theoretical constructions by using bouncing cosmologies, and we investigate which loop quantum cosmology corrected Gauss-Bonnet modified gravities can successfully realize such cosmologies.
Inflation from supersymmetric quantum cosmology
Socorro, J.; D'Oleire, Marco
2010-08-15
We derive a special scalar field potential using the anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model from canonical quantum cosmology under determined conditions in the evolution to anisotropic variables {beta}{sub {+-}}. In the process, we obtain a family of potentials that has been introduced by hand in the literature to explain cosmological data. Considering supersymmetric quantum cosmology, this family is scanned, fixing the exponential potential as more viable in the inflation scenario V({phi})=V{sub 0}e{sup -{radical}(3){phi}}.
Initial conditions and quantum cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartle, James B.
1987-01-01
A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.
Ψ-epistemic quantum cosmology?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Peter W.; Gryb, Sean; Thébault, Karim P. Y.
2016-11-01
This paper provides a prospectus for a new way of thinking about the wavefunction of the universe: a Ψ-epistemic quantum cosmology. We present a proposal that, if successfully implemented, would resolve the cosmological measurement problem and simultaneously allow us to think sensibly about probability and evolution in quantum cosmology. Our analysis draws upon recent work on the problem of time in quantum gravity and causally symmetric local hidden variable theories. Our conclusion weighs the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and points towards paths for future development.
Unstable anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2009-09-15
We study stability conditions of the full Hamiltonian constraint equation describing the quantum dynamics of the diagonal Bianchi I model in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Our analysis has shown robust evidence of an instability in the explicit implementation of the difference equation, implying important consequences for the correspondence between the full loop quantum gravity theory and loop quantum cosmology. As a result, one may question the choice of the quantization approach, the model of lattice refinement, and/or the role of the ambiguity parameters; all these should, in principle, be dictated by the full loop quantum gravity theory.
Evolution in bouncing quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2012-03-01
We present the method of describing an evolution in quantum cosmology in the framework of the reduced phase space quantization of loop cosmology. We apply our method to the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model coupled to a massless scalar field. We identify the physical quantum Hamiltonian that is positive-definite and generates globally a unitary evolution of the considered quantum system. We examine the properties of expectation values of physical observables in the process of the quantum big bounce transition. The dispersion of evolved observables is studied for the Gaussian state. Calculated relative fluctuations enable an examination of the semi-classicality conditions and possible occurrence of the cosmic forgetfulness. Preliminary estimations based on the cosmological data suggest that there was no cosmic amnesia. Presented results are analytical, and numerical computations are only used for the visualization purposes. Our method may be generalized to sophisticated cosmological models including the Bianchi-type universes.
Loop quantum cosmology gravitational baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-11-01
Loop quantum cosmology is an appealing quantum completion of classical cosmology, which brings along various theoretical features which in many cases offer a remedy for or modify various classical cosmology aspects. In this paper we address the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism in the context of loop quantum cosmology. As we demonstrate, when loop quantum cosmology effects are taken into account in the resulting Friedmann equations for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, then even for a radiation-dominated Universe, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio from the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism is non-zero, in contrast to the Einstein-Hilbert case, in which case the baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We also discuss various other cases apart from the radiation domination case, and we discuss how the baryon-to-entropy ratio is affected from the parameters of the quantum theory. In addition, we use illustrative exact solutions of loop quantum cosmology and we investigate under which circumstances the baryon-to-entropy ratio can be compatible with the observational constraints.
Bouncing cosmologies from quantum gravity condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2017-02-01
We show how the large-scale cosmological dynamics can be obtained from the hydrodynamics of isotropic group field theory condensate states in the Gross–Pitaevskii approximation. The correct Friedmann equations are recovered in the classical limit for some choices of the parameters in the action for the group field theory, and quantum gravity corrections arise in the high-curvature regime causing a bounce which generically resolves the big-bang and big-crunch singularities.
Noncommutative Quantum Scalar Field Cosmology
Diaz Barron, L. R.; Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Sabido, M.; Yee, C.
2010-07-12
In this work we study noncommutative Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology coupled to a scalar field endowed with an exponential potential. The quantum scenario is analyzed in the Bohmian formalism of quantum trajectories to investigate the effects of noncommutativity in the evolution of the universe.
Quantum cosmology with nontrivial topologies
Vargas, T.
2008-10-10
Quantum creation of a universe with a nontrivial spatial topology is considered. Using the Euclidean functional integral prescription, we calculate the wave function of such a universe with cosmological constant and without matter. The minisuperspace path integral is calculated in the semiclassical approximation, and it is shown that in order to include the nontrivial topologies in the path integral approach to quantum cosmology, it is necessary to generalize the sum over compact and smooth 4-manifolds to sum over finite-volume compact 4-orbifolds.
Cosmological constant from quantum spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majid, Shahn; Tao, Wen-Qing
2015-06-01
We show that a hypothesis that spacetime is quantum with coordinate algebra [xi,t ]=λPxi , and spherical symmetry under rotations of the xi, essentially requires in the classical limit that the spacetime metric is the Bertotti-Robinson metric, i.e., a solution of Einstein's equations with a cosmological constant and a non-null electromagnetic field. Our arguments do not give the value of the cosmological constant or the Maxwell field strength, but they cannot both be zero. We also describe the quantum geometry and the full moduli space of metrics that can emerge as classical limits from this algebra.
Loop quantum cosmology: a status report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Singh, Parampreet
2011-11-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity (LQG) to cosmological settings. The distinguishing feature of LQC is the prominent role played by the quantum geometry effects of LQG. In particular, quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction. In cosmological models, while Einstein's equations hold to an excellent degree of approximation at low curvature, they undergo major modifications in the Planck regime: for matter satisfying the usual energy conditions, any time a curvature invariant grows to the Planck scale, quantum geometry effects dilute it, thereby resolving singularities of general relativity. Quantum geometry corrections become more sophisticated as the models become richer. In particular, in anisotropic models, there are significant changes in the dynamics of shear potentials which tame their singular behavior in striking contrast to older results on anisotropies in bouncing models. Once singularities are resolved, the conceptual paradigm of cosmology changes and one has to revisit many of the standard issues—e.g. the 'horizon problem'—from a new perspective. Such conceptual issues as well as potential observational consequences of the new Planck scale physics are being explored, especially within the inflationary paradigm. These considerations have given rise to a burst of activity in LQC in recent years, with contributions from quantum gravity experts, mathematical physicists and cosmologists. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of the art in LQC for three sets of audiences: young researchers interested in entering this area; the quantum gravity community in general and cosmologists who wish to apply LQC to probe modifications in the standard paradigm of the early universe. In this review, effort has been made to
Fluctuation energies in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin
2014-06-01
Quantum fluctuations or other moments of a state contribute to energy expectation values and can imply interesting physical effects. In quantum cosmology, they turn out to be important for a discussion of density bounds and instabilities of initial-value problems in the presence of signature change in loop-quantized models. This paper provides an effective description of these issues, accompanied by a comparison with existing numerical results and an extension to squeezed states. The comparison confirms that canonical effective methods are well suited for computations of properties of physical states. As a side product, an example is found for a simple state in which quantum fluctuations can cancel holonomy modifications of loop quantum cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.
2013-09-01
Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and
Inflationary nonsingular quantum cosmological model
Falciano, Felipe T.; Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Santini, E. Sergio
2007-10-15
A stiff matter-dominated universe modeled by a free massless scalar field minimally coupled to gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry is quantized. Generalized complex-width Gaussian superpositions of the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation are constructed and the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum cosmology is applied. A planar dynamical system is found in which a diversity of quantum Bohmian trajectories are obtained and discussed. One class of solutions represents nonsingular inflationary models starting at infinity past from flat space-time with Planckian size spacelike hypersurfaces, which inflates without inflaton but due to a quantum cosmological effect, until it makes an analytical graceful exit from this inflationary epoch to a decelerated classical stiff matter expansion phase.
Decoherence in quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartle, James B.
1992-01-01
A sketch of the quantum mechanics for closed systems adequate for cosmology is presented. This framework is an extension and clarification of that of Everett and builds on several aspects of the post-Everett development. It especially builds on the work of Zeh, Zurek, Joos and Zeh, and others on the interactions of quantum systems with the larger universe and on the ideas of Griffiths, Omnes, and others on the requirements for consistent probabilities of histories.
Singularities in loop quantum cosmology.
Cailleteau, Thomas; Cardoso, Antonio; Vandersloot, Kevin; Wands, David
2008-12-19
We show that simple scalar field models can give rise to curvature singularities in the effective Friedmann dynamics of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find singular solutions for spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies with a canonical scalar field and a negative exponential potential, or with a phantom scalar field and a positive potential. While LQC avoids big bang or big rip type singularities, we find sudden singularities where the Hubble rate is bounded, but the Ricci curvature scalar diverges. We conclude that the effective equations of LQC are not in themselves sufficient to avoid the occurrence of curvature singularities.
Supersymmetric quantum cosmology
Macias, Alfredo; Camacho, Abel
2009-05-01
We address the canonical quantization in the framework of N = 1 simple supergravity for the case of Gowdy T{sup 3} cosmological models. It will be proved that there exist physical states in the minisuperspace sector of the theory. Our result will be confronted against the so-called no-physical states conjecture and in this way it will be proved that this conjecture is based upon an assumption involving the constraint equations and initial-value hypersurface which, in general, is not valid.
Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saharian, A. A.
2016-09-01
We investigate the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a charged scalar field on a slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with toroidally compact dimensions. Along the compact dimensions periodicity conditions are imposed on the field operator with general phases and the presence of a constant gauge field is assumed. The latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effects on the vacuum currents. The current density along compact dimensions is a periodic function of the gauge field flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. It vanishes on the AdS boundary and, near the horizon, to the leading order, it is conformally related to the corresponding quantity in Minkowski bulk for a massless field. For large values of the length of the compact dimension compared with the AdS curvature radius, the vacuum current decays as power-law for both massless and massive fields. This behavior is essentially different from the corresponding one in Minkowski background, where the currents for a massive field are suppressed exponentially.
Quantum inflationary minisuperspace cosmological models
Kim Sangpyo.
1991-01-01
The Wheeler-DeWitt equations for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology conformally and minimally coupled to scalar fields with power-lay potential are expanded in the eigenstates of the scalar field parts. The gravitational parts become a diagonal matrix-valued differential equation for a conformal scalar field, and a coupled matrix-valued differential equation for a minimally coupled scalar field. The Cauchy initial value problem is defined with respect to the intrinsic timelike coordinate, and the wavefunctions incorporating initial data are constructed using the product integral formulation. The packetlike wavefunctions around classical turning points are shown possible in the product integral formulation, and the returning wavepackets near the returning point of the classical Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are constructed. The wavefunctions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation minimally coupled to the scaler field are constructed by two differential methods, the master equation and the enlarged matrix equation. The spectrum for the wavefunctions regular at the infinite size of universe is found, and these are interpreted as the Hawking-Page spectrum of wormholes connecting two asymptotically Euclidean regions. The quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology is extended to the minimal scalar field with the inflationary potential having a first order phase transition. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is expanded in the eigenstates of the scalar field, and the gravitational part becomes a coupled matrix-valued differential equation.
Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology
Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC
2011-12-05
Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2010-08-01
The loop quantum cosmology “improved dynamics” of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2010-08-15
The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.
Symplectic method in quantum cosmology
Silva, E. V. Correa; Monerat, G. A.; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Neves, C.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.
2009-08-15
In the present work, we study the quantum cosmology description of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a generic perfect fluid and a cosmological constant, which may be positive or negative. We work in Schutz's variational formalism and the three-dimensional spatial sections may have positive, negative, or zero constant curvature. If one uses the scale factor and its canonically conjugated momentum as the phase space variables that describe the geometrical sector of these models, one obtains Wheeler-DeWitt equations with operator ordering ambiguities. In order to avoid those ambiguities and simplify the quantum treatment of the models, we follow references [Edesio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 38, 1609 (2006).][Edesio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Phys. Rev. D 78, 023504 (2008).] and introduce new phase space variables. We explicitly demonstrate, using the symplectic method, that the transformation leading from the old set of variables to the new one is canonical.
Diffractive corrections to the cosmological redshift formula
Hochberg, D.; Kephart, T.W. )
1991-05-20
We calculate the exact frequency redshift for fields coupled to gravity in Robertson-Walker backgrounds. The exact redshift factorizes and is proportional to the naive Doppler shift times a term representing diffractive effects. These diffractive corrections can be large for field modes with wavelengths on the order of the horizon size. Implications for cosmological density perturbations are discussed.
Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe
2014-11-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle
Supersymmetry and Nonperturbative Aspects in Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donets, Evgueni E.; Tsulaia, Mirian M.
The important question of the modern superstring and M - theories is the problem of the spontaneous breakdown of the supersymmetry. We consider the dynamical (nonperturbative) breaking of supersymmetry, caused by gravitational and Yang-Mills (YM) instantons in quantum cosmology.
Onset of inflation in loop quantum cosmology
Germani, Cristiano; Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2007-08-15
Using a Liouville measure, similar to the one proposed recently by Gibbons and Turok, we investigate the probability that single-field inflation with a polynomial potential can last long enough to solve the shortcomings of the standard hot big bang model, within the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology. We conclude that, for such a class of inflationary models and for natural values of the loop quantum cosmology parameters, a successful inflationary scenario is highly improbable.
Anomaly-free cosmological perturbations in effective canonical quantum gravity
Barrau, Aurelien; Calcagni, Gianluca; Grain, Julien E-mail: bojowald@gravity.psu.edu E-mail: julien.grain@ias.u-psud.fr
2015-05-01
This article lays out a complete framework for an effective theory of cosmological perturbations with corrections from canonical quantum gravity. Since several examples exist for quantum-gravity effects that change the structure of space-time, the classical perturbative treatment must be rethought carefully. The present discussion provides a unified picture of several previous works, together with new treatments of higher-order perturbations and the specification of initial states.
Loop quantum cosmology: confronting the hybrid quantization approach with observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier; Martin de Blas, Daniel
2017-01-01
In loop quantum cosmology there are several approaches for the confrontation of the theory with observations. Here, we focus on the hybrid quantization approach. We provide an exhaustive analysis including scalar and tensor perturbations on effective (quantum-mechanically corrected) homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies coupled to a massive scalar field. We compute the primordial power spectrum of the perturbations at the end of inflation for a set of initial vacuum states defined at the deep quantum regime of the cosmological model. We then analyze the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the consistency relation between this quantity and the spectral index of the tensor power spectrum. Eventually, we compute the temperature-temperature, electric-electric, temperature-electric and magnetic-magnetic correlation functions predicted by this approach and compare them with present observations.
Absence of a singularity in loop quantum cosmology.
Bojowald, M
2001-06-04
It is shown that the cosmological singularity in isotropic minisuperspaces is naturally removed by quantum geometry. Already at the kinematical level, this is indicated by the fact that the inverse scale factor is represented by a bounded operator even though the classical quantity diverges at the initial singularity. The full demonstration comes from an analysis of quantum dynamics. Because of quantum geometry, the quantum evolution occurs in discrete time steps and does not break down when the volume becomes zero. Instead, space-time can be extended to a branch preceding the classical singularity independently of the matter coupled to the model. For large volume the correct semiclassical behavior is obtained.
Recent Advances in Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet
2007-04-01
Einstein's theory of classical general relativity explains the dynamics of our universe at low energies to an excellent precision. However, it breaks down at the Planck scale before the big bang singularity is reached. Relativity thus fails to tell us about the origin of our cosmos and leaves open various questions which are expected to be answered by a quantum theory of gravity. We will review recent developments in loop quantum cosmology which is a quantization of cosmological spacetimes based on loop quantum gravity -- a non-perturbative background independent quantization of gravity. Because, of fundamental discreteness of quantum geometry underlying loop quantum gravity, novel features arise. In particular, for quantum states representing a large classical universe at late times there is an upper bound on the gravitational curvature, of the order of 1/(Planck length)^2. Thus, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects forbid the cosmological dynamics from entering a regime where curvature or energy density blow up. Evolution in loop quantum cosmology is non-singular. In models studied so far, the backward evolution of our expanding universe does not lead to a big bang but a big bounce to a contracting branch when the gravitational curvature reaches Planck scale. These results which have now been established for various homogeneous spacetimes provide a new paradigm of the genesis of our universe and lead to useful insights on the generic resolution of space-like singularities through quantum gravity effects.
Quantum hyperbolic geometry in loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maïté; Girelli, Florian
2013-06-01
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is an attempt to describe the quantum gravity regime. Introducing a nonzero cosmological constant Λ in this context has been a standing problem. Other approaches, such as Chern-Simons gravity, suggest that quantum groups can be used to introduce Λ into the game. Not much is known when defining LQG with a quantum group. Tensor operators can be used to construct observables in any type of discrete quantum gauge theory with a classical/quantum gauge group. We illustrate this by constructing explicitly geometric observables for LQG defined with a quantum group and show for the first time that they encode a quantized hyperbolic geometry. This is a novel argument pointing out the usefulness of quantum groups as encoding a nonzero cosmological constant. We conclude by discussing how tensor operators provide the right formalism to unlock the LQG formulation with a nonzero cosmological constant.
A quantum mechanics glimpse to standard cosmology
Barbosa-Cendejas, N.; Reyes, M.
2010-07-12
In this work we present a connection between a standard cosmology model for inflation and quantum mechanics. We consider a time independent Schroedinger type equation derived from the equations of motion for a single scalar field in a flat space time with a FRW metric and a cosmological constant; the fact that the equation of motion is precisely a Schroedinger equation allows us to investigate on the algebraic relations between the two models and probe the consequences derived from this point of view.
Some Recent Advances in Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
2012-05-01
In my talk I discussed three recent advances in loop quantum cosmology: 1) Path integral formulation and its WKB approximation; 2) Cosmological spin foams and lessons they provide; and 3) Probability of a slow roll inflationary phase compatible with the 7 year WMAP data. In addition to presenting an overview, this discussion also provides the necessary background for a number of talks in the parallel sessions.
Cosmological study in loop quantum cosmology through dark energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Salako, Ines G.; Gulshan, Faiza
The interacting generalized ghost version of pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) is discussed in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We analyze the behavior of cosmological parameters (Hubble, equation of state (EoS), deceleration) and cosmological planes (ωD ‑ ωD‧ and r-s) in the present scenario (ωD represents the EoS parameter and ωD‧ indicates the evolution of the EoS parameter, r,s are statefinder parameters). It is observed that the deceleration parameter corresponds to the accelerated expansion of the universe. The EoS parameter lies in vacuum and phantom regions for all cases of u (pilgrim dark energy (PDE) parameter). The ωD ‑ ωD‧ plane lies in thawing region for all cases of u. The r ‑ s plane corresponds to Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and Chaplygin gas model. We have also mentioned the constraints on calculated cosmological parameters and found that all the trajectories of cosmological parameters and planes show the consistence behavior with the observational schemes.
Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea
2017-03-01
In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.
Gaussian state for the bouncing quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2012-10-01
We present results concerning propagation of the Gaussian state across the cosmological quantum bounce. The reduced phase space quantization of loop quantum cosmology is applied to the Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a free massless scalar field. Evolution of quantum moments of the canonical variables is investigated. The covariance turns out to be a monotonic function so it may be used as an evolution parameter having quantum origin. We show that for the Gaussian state the Universe is least quantum at the bounce. We propose explanation of this counter-intuitive feature using the entropy of squeezing. The obtained time dependence of entropy is in agreement with qualitative predictions based on von Neumann entropy for mixed states. We show that, for the considered Gaussian state, semiclassicality is preserved across the bounce, so there is no cosmic forgetfulness.
Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.
The JWKB approximation in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David; Singh, Parampreet
2017-01-01
We explore the JWKB approximation in loop quantum cosmology in a flat universe with a scalar matter source. Exact solutions of the quantum constraint are studied at small volume in the JWKB approximation in order to assess the probability of tunneling to small or zero volume. Novel features of the approximation are discussed which appear due to the fact that the model is effectively a two-dimensional dynamical system. Based on collaborative work with Parampreet Singh.
Loop quantum cosmology: Anisotropies and inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
In this dissertation we extend the improved dynamics of loop quantum cosmology from the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times to cosmological models which allow anisotropies and inhomogeneities. Specifically, we consider the cases of the homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type I, II and IX models with a massless scalar field as well as the vacuum, inhomogeneous, linearly polarized Gowdy T3 model. For each case, we derive the Hamiltonian constraint operator and study its properties. In particular, we show how in all of these models the classical big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved due to quantum gravity effects. Since the Bianchi models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz conjecture regarding the nature of generic space-like singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of the Bianchi cosmologies are likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of such singularities in quantum gravity. In addition, the results obtained here provide an important step toward the full loop quantization of cosmological space-times that allow generic inhomogeneities; this would provide falsifiable predictions that could be compared to observations.
Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology
Herrera, Ramon
2010-06-15
A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.
Dynamical initial conditions in quantum cosmology.
Bojowald, M
2001-09-17
Loop quantum cosmology is shown to provide both the dynamical law and initial conditions for the wave function of a universe by one discrete evolution equation. Accompanied by the condition that semiclassical behavior is obtained at large volume, a unique wave function is predicted.
Consistent quantum prediction in spin-foam quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David
2015-04-01
A complete ``consistent histories'' framework is given for a covariant ``spin-foam'' quantum cosmological model, a highly symmetry-reduced (FLRW) model of covariant loop quantum gravity. A decoherence functional is constructed through which probabilities may be consistently extracted from quantum amplitudes. Branch wave functions corresponding to different possible quantum histories of the universe are described, such as whether the universe ``bounces'' at small volume or becomes singular. We discuss the construction and calculation of such branch wave functions, with an emphasis on the crucial role played by the decoherence of histories in arriving at self-consistent quantum predictions for these closed quantum systems. [Based on joint work with Parampreet Singh].
Towards Noncommutative Supersymmetric Quantum Cosmology
Sabido, M.; Socorro, J.; Guzman, W.
2010-12-07
In this work a construction of supersymmetric noncommutative cosmology is presented. We start with a ''noncommutative'' deformation of the minisuperspace variables, and by using the time reparametrization invariance of the noncommutative bosonic model we proceed to construct a super field description of the model.
Quantum error correction for beginners.
Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae
2013-07-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future.
Quantum Coherence Arguments for Cosmological Scale
Lindesay, James; /SLAC
2005-05-27
Homogeneity and correlations in the observed CMB are indicative of some form of cosmological coherence in early times. Quantum coherence in the early universe would be expected to give space-like phase coherence to any effects sourced to those times. If dark energy de-coherence is assumed to occur when the rate of expansion of the relevant cosmological scale parameter in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations is no longer supra-luminal, a critical energy density is immediately defined. It is shown that the general class of dynamical models so defined necessarily requires a spatially flat cosmology in order to be consistent with observed structure formation. The basic assumption is that the dark energy density which is fixed during de-coherence is to be identified with the cosmological constant. It is shown for the entire class of models that the expected amplitude of fluctuations driven by the dark energy de-coherence process is of the order needed to evolve into the fluctuations observed in cosmic microwave background radiation and galactic clustering. The densities involved during de-coherence which correspond to the measured dark energy density turn out to be of the electroweak symmetry restoration scale. In an inflationary cosmology, this choice of the scale parameter in the FL equations directly relates the scale of dark energy decoherence to the De Sitter scales (associated with the positive cosmological constants) at both early and late times.
Uniqueness of measures in loop quantum cosmology
Hanusch, Maximilian
2015-09-15
In Ashtekar and Campiglia [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 242001 (2012)], residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations with respect to the extended ℝ-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space ℝ{sub Bohr} as well as on the Fleischhack one (ℝ⊔ℝ{sub Bohr}). Thus, in both situations, the same condition singles out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC.
Loop quantum cosmology and the fate of cosmological singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet
2014-09-01
Singularities in general relativity such as the big bang and big crunch, and exotic singularities such as the big rip are the boundaries of the classical spacetimes. These events are marked by a divergence in the curvature invariants and the breakdown of the geodesic evolution. Recent progress on implementing techniques of loop quantum gravity to cosmological models reveals that such singularities may be generically resolved because of the quantum gravitational effects. Due to the quantum geometry, which replaces the classical differential geometry at the Planck scale, the big bang is replaced by a big bounce without any assumptions on the matter content or any fine tuning. In this manuscript, we discuss some of the main features of this approach and the results on the generic resolution of singularities for the isotropic as well as anisotropic models. Using effective spacetime description of the quantum theory, we show the way quantum gravitational effects lead to the universal bounds on the energy density, the Hubble rate and the anisotropic shear. We discuss the geodesic completeness in the effective spacetime and the resolution of all of the strong singularities. It turns out that despite the bounds on energy density and the Hubble rate, there can be divergences in the curvature invariants. However such events are geodesically extendible, with tidal forces not strong enough to cause inevitable destruction of the in-falling objects.
Quantum Steganography and Quantum Error-Correction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Bilal A.
2010-01-01
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be…
2005-07-06
many families of quantum MDS codes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Information Science , Quantum Algorithms, Quantum Cryptography 16. SECURITY...separable codes over alphabets of arbitrary size,” a preprint, 2005; to be presented at ERATO conference on quantum information science , Tokyo, Japan...β, γ〉〉 = 1. Due to the Chinese remainder theorem, we have one more equivalent ∗ERATO Conference on Quantum Information Science , 2005 †jkim
The simplest possible bouncing quantum cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peter, Patrick; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.
2016-06-01
We present and expand the simplest possible quantum cosmological bouncing model already discussed in previous works: the trajectory formulation of quantum mechanics applied to cosmology (through the Wheeler-De Witt equation) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) minisuperspace without spatial curvature. The initial conditions that were previously assumed were such that the wave function would not change its functional form but instead provide a dynamics to its parameters. Here, we consider a more general situation, in practice consisting of modified Gaussian wave functions, aiming at obtaining a nonsingular bounce from a contracting phase. Whereas previous works consistently obtain very symmetric bounces, we find that it is possible to produce highly non-symmetric solutions, and even cases for which multiple bounces naturally occur. We also introduce a means of treating the shear in this category of models by quantizing in the Bianchi I minisuperspace.
Quantum Cosmology of f( R, T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Min-Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
Modified gravity theories have the potential of explaining the recent acceleration of the Universe without resorting to the mysterious concept of dark energy. In particular, it has been pointed out that matter-geometry coupling may be responsible for the recent cosmological dynamics of the Universe, and matter itself may play a more fundamental role in the description of the gravitational processes that usually assumed. In the present paper we study the quantum cosmology of the f( R, T) theory of gravity, in which the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, and the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, respectively. For the background geometry we adopt the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, and we assume that matter content of the Universe consists of a perfect fluid. In this framework we obtain the general form of the gravitational Hamiltonian, of the quantum potential, and of the canonical momenta, respectively. This allows us to formulate the full Wheeler-de Witt equation describing the quantum properties of this modified gravity model. As a specific application we consider in detail the quantum cosmology of the f(R,T)=F^0(R)+θ RT model, in which F^0(R) is an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, and θ is a function of the scale factor only. The Hamiltonian form of the equations of motion, and the Wheeler-de Witt equations are obtained, and a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system is identified, which allows one to formulate the Schrödinger-Wheeler-de Witt equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration. A perturbative approach for the study of this equation is developed, and the energy levels of the Universe are obtained by using a twofold degenerate perturbation approach. A second quantization approach for the description of quantum time is also proposed and briefly discussed.
Further corrections to the theory of cosmological recombination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krolik, Julian H.
1990-01-01
Krolik (1989) pointed out that frequency redistribution due to scattering is more important than cosmological expansion in determining the Ly-alpha frequency profile during cosmological recombination, and that its effects substantially modify the rate of recombination. Although the first statement is true, the second statement is not: a basic symmetry of photon scattering leads to identical cancellations which almost completely erase the effects of both coherent and incoherent scattering. Only a small correction due to atomic recoil alters the line profile from the prediction of pure cosmological expansion, so that the pace of cosmological recombination can be well approximated by ignoring Ly-alpha scattering.
Singularities in a scalar field quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, Nivaldo A.
1996-04-01
The quantum theory of a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a massless scalar field as the source is further investigated. The classical model is singular and in the framework of a genuine canonical quantization (Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism) a discussion is made of the cosmic evolution, particularly of the quantum gravitational collapse problem. It is shown that in a matter-time gauge such that time is identified with the scalar field the classical model is singular either at t=-∞ or at t=+∞, but the quantum model is nonsingular. The latter behavior disproves a conjecture according to which quantum cosmological singularities are predetermined on the classical level by the choice of time.
Cosmological inflation and the quantum measurement problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent; Peter, Patrick
2012-11-01
According to cosmological inflation, the inhomogeneities in our Universe are of quantum-mechanical origin. This scenario is phenomenologically very appealing as it solves the puzzles of the standard hot big bang model and naturally explains why the spectrum of cosmological perturbations is almost scale invariant. It is also an ideal playground to discuss deep questions among which is the quantum measurement problem in a cosmological context. Although the large squeezing of the quantum state of the perturbations and the phenomenon of decoherence explain many aspects of the quantum-to-classical transition, it remains to understand how a specific outcome can be produced in the early Universe, in the absence of any observer. The continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) approach to quantum mechanics attempts to solve the quantum measurement question in a general context. In this framework, the wave function collapse is caused by adding new nonlinear and stochastic terms to the Schrödinger equation. In this paper, we apply this theory to inflation, which amounts to solving the CSL parametric oscillator case. We choose the wave function collapse to occur on an eigenstate of the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable and discuss the corresponding modified Schrödinger equation. Then, we compute the power spectrum of the perturbations and show that it acquires a universal shape with two branches, one which remains scale invariant and one with nS=4, a spectral index in obvious contradiction with the cosmic microwave background anisotropy observations. The requirement that the non-scale-invariant part be outside the observational window puts stringent constraints on the parameter controlling the deviations from ordinary quantum mechanics. Due to the absence of a CSL amplification mechanism in field theory, this also has the consequence that the collapse mechanism of the inflationary fluctuations is not efficient. Then, we determine the collapse time. On small scales the collapse is
Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.
Davies, P. C. W.
2001-09-01
The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
On the physical Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology
Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro; Vandersloot, Kevin
2005-02-15
In this paper we present a model of Riemannian loop quantum cosmology with a self-adjoint quantum scalar constraint. The physical Hilbert space is constructed using refined algebraic quantization. When matter is included in the form of a cosmological constant, the model is exactly solvable and we show explicitly that the physical Hilbert space is separable, consisting of a single physical state. We extend the model to the Lorentzian sector and discuss important implications for standard loop quantum cosmology.
Large classical universes emerging from quantum cosmology
Pinto-Neto, Nelson
2009-04-15
It is generally believed that one cannot obtain a large universe from quantum cosmological models without an inflationary phase in the classical expanding era because the typical size of the universe after leaving the quantum regime should be around the Planck length, and the standard decelerated classical expansion after that is not sufficient to enlarge the universe in the time available. For instance, in many quantum minisuperspace bouncing models studied in the literature, solutions where the universe leaves the quantum regime in the expanding phase with appropriate size have negligible probability amplitude with respect to solutions leaving this regime around the Planck length. In this paper, I present a general class of moving Gaussian solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation where the velocity of the wave in minisuperspace along the scale factor axis, which is the new large parameter introduced in order to circumvent the above-mentioned problem, induces a large acceleration around the quantum bounce, forcing the universe to leave the quantum regime sufficiently big to increase afterwards to the present size, without needing any classical inflationary phase in between, and with reasonable relative probability amplitudes with respect to models leaving the quantum regime around the Planck scale. Furthermore, linear perturbations around this background model are free of any trans-Planckian problem.
Quantum cosmology and the evolution of inflationary spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, Alexander Y.; Tronconi, Alessandro; Venturi, Giovanni
2016-12-01
We illustrate how it is possible to calculate the quantum gravitational effects on the spectra of primordial scalar/tensor perturbations starting from the canonical, Wheeler-De Witt, approach to quantum cosmology. The composite matter-gravity system is analyzed through a Born-Oppenheimer approach in which gravitation is associated with the heavy degrees of freedom and matter (here represented by a scalar field) with the light ones. Once the independent degrees of freedom are identified, the system is canonically quantized and a semiclassical approximation is used for the scale factor. The differential equation governing the dynamics of the primordial spectra with their quantum-gravitational corrections is then obtained and is applied to diverse inflationary evolutions. Finally, the analytical results are compared to observations through a Monte Carlo Markov chain technique and an estimate of the free parameters of our approach is finally presented and the results obtained are compared with previous ones.
Quantum effects in homogeneous multidimensional cosmologies
Szydlowski, M.; Szczesny, J.
1988-12-15
In the present paper we determine quantum distribution functions for a wide class of multidimensional cosmological models. The exact formulas for quantum distribution functions are given and their universal character at high and low temperatures shown. The obtained formulas provide us with the possibility to investigate the metric back reaction and to discuss the dimensional reduction problem. The assumption of the low-temperature approximation gives us the possibility to discuss the dynamics by using the methods of dynamical systems. Stable solutions, within the class FRW x S/sup 3/ x S/sup 3/ models, where FRW denotes Friedmann, Robertson and Walker, are discussed, and it is shown that only a zero-measure set of trajectories in the phase space leads to a solution with a static microspace. This analysis shows that, insofar as quantum effects lead to solutions with a static microspace, these solutions are unstable.
Universality of quantum gravity corrections.
Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C
2008-11-28
We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.
Coherent semiclassical states for loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2011-08-01
The spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology admits a description in terms of a completely solvable model. This has been used to prove that: (i) the quantum bounce that replaces the big bang singularity is generic; (ii) there is an upper bound on the energy density for all states, and (iii) semiclassical states at late times had to be semiclassical before the bounce. Here we consider a family of exact solutions to the theory, corresponding to generalized coherent Gaussian and squeezed states. We analyze the behavior of basic physical observables and impose restrictions on the states based on physical considerations. These turn out to be enough to select, from all the generalized coherent states, those that behave semiclassical at late times. We study then the properties of such states near the bounce where the most “quantum behavior” is expected. As it turns out, the states remain sharply peaked and semiclassical at the bounce and the dynamics is very well approximated by the “effective theory” throughout the time evolution. We compare the semiclassicality properties of squeezed states to those of the Gaussian semiclassical states and conclude that the Gaussians are better behaved. In particular, the asymmetry in the relative fluctuations before and after the bounce are negligible, thus ruling out claims of so-called “cosmic forgetfulness.”
Quantum steganography and quantum error-correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Bilal A.
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be stripped away from the operations of a quantum computer, the natural way forward was to think about importing classical coding theory into the quantum arena to give birth to quantum error-correcting codes which could help in mitigating the debilitating effects of decoherence on quantum data. We first talk about the six-qubit quantum error-correcting code and show its connections to entanglement-assisted error-correcting coding theory and then to subsystem codes. This code bridges the gap between the five-qubit (perfect) and Steane codes. We discuss two methods to encode one qubit into six physical qubits. Each of the two examples corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The first example is a degenerate six-qubit quantum error-correcting code. We explicitly provide the stabilizer generators, encoding circuits, codewords, logical Pauli operators, and logical CNOT operator for this code. We also show how to convert this code into a non-trivial subsystem code that saturates the subsystem Singleton bound. We then prove that a six-qubit code without entanglement assistance cannot simultaneously possess a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer and correct an arbitrary single-qubit error. A corollary of this result is that the Steane seven-qubit code is the smallest single-error correcting CSS code. Our second example is the construction of a non-degenerate six-qubit CSS entanglement-assisted code. This code uses one bit of entanglement (an ebit) shared between the sender (Alice) and the receiver (Bob) and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The code we obtain is globally equivalent to the Steane seven-qubit code and thus
Coarse-graining approach to quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Castagnino, Mario; Scoccimarro, Román
1992-04-01
We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with both classical radiation and a massive (conformally coupled) quantum scalar field in the framework of quantum cosmology. We define a density matrix and introduce a notion of ``relevance'' which splits this density matrix into a ``relevant'' and an ``irrelevant'' part. A ``generalized coarse-graining method'' is used to obtain the evolution (in Robertson-Walker a ``time'') of the relevant density matrix, taking into account the back reaction of the irrelevant variables. We discuss the physical basis for the choice of a concept of relevance, and the features of cosmic evolution brought forward by the effective dynamics. In the limit of ``small universes,'' the relevant subdynamics is dissipative.
Novel Numerical Approaches to Loop Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Peter
2015-04-01
Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is an (as yet incomplete) approach to the quantization of gravity. When applied to symmetry reduced cosmological spacetimes (Loop Quantum Cosmology or LQC) one of the predictions of the theory is that the Big Bang is replaced by a Big Bounce, i.e. a previously existing contracting universe underwent a bounce at finite volume before becoming our expanding universe. The evolution equations of LQC take the form of difference equations (with the discretization given by the theory) that in the large volume limit can be approximated by partial differential equations (PDEs). In this talk I will first discuss some of the unique challenges encountered when trying to numerically solve these difference equations. I will then present some of the novel approaches that have been employed to overcome the challenges. I will here focus primarily on the Chimera scheme that takes advantage of the fact that the LQC difference equations can be approximated by PDEs in the large volume limit. I will finally also briefly discuss some of the results that have been obtained using these numerical techniques by performing simulations in regions of parameter space that were previously unreachable. This work is supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation and by NSF grant PHYS1068743.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2017-03-01
We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N = V and N = 1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k = 0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.
Quantum cosmology, polymer matter, and modified collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreienbuehl, Andreas
In this dissertation I address the following three questions: 1) how do different clocks compare in regard of the avoidance of the big bang singularity, 2) what is the high energy behavior of polymer quantized matter, and 3) how do quantum gravity effects modify the formation and the properties of black holes? To discuss 1), I consider an isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology sourced by a non-negative cosmological constant and a massless scalar field. I choose the scale factor as clock and, using a trick by Dirac, Schrodinger quantize the reduced square root Hamiltonian. From the resulting spinor equation I show that no semiclassical wave packet avoids the big bang. I compare this work with that in loop quantum cosmology, where the scalar field is chosen as time variable and the big bang is avoided. As for 2), I explain the details of a project with Professor Husain in which we study a scalar field on a curved background and perform a polymer Fock quantization of the matter degrees of freedom. The quantization is based on the assumption that the underlying field space is discrete and it therefore comes with a fundamental scale. This renders the usual operators on the Fock space scale dependent and causes a transition from a bosonic to a fermionic behavior in the ultraviolet regime. Finally for 3), I present work with Professor Husain and Professor Seahra on a modification of the Hamiltonian formulation of a massless scalar field minimally coupled to a spherically symmetric spacetime. The modification is designed to mimic polymer quantum effects in the region where the scalar field collapses and it is implemented in such a way that the symmetry group of general relativity is preserved. This causes a drastic change in the way black holes form and, thus, in their properties. Namely, the scalar field has to overcome a repulsion and black holes form with a finite mass. Furthermore, the modification gives rise to oscillations in the relation between the black
Observational test of inflation in loop quantum cosmology
Bojowald, Martin; Calcagni, Gianluca; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: calcagni@aei.mpg.de
2011-11-01
We study in detail the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations generated during inflation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). After clarifying in a novel quantitative way how inverse-volume corrections arise in inhomogeneous settings, we show that they can generate large running spectral indices, which generally lead to an enhancement of power at large scales. We provide explicit formulæ for the scalar/tensor power spectra under the slow-roll approximation, by taking into account corrections of order higher than the runnings. Via a standard analysis, we place observational bounds on the inverse-volume quantum correction δ∝a{sup −σ} (σ > 0, a is the scale factor) and the slow-roll parameter ε{sub V} for power-law potentials as well as exponential potentials by using the data of WMAP 7yr combined with other observations. We derive the constraints on δ for two pivot wavenumbers k{sub 0} for several values of δ. The quadratic potential can be compatible with the data even in the presence of the LQC corrections, but the quartic potential is in tension with observations. We also find that the upper bounds on δ(k{sub 0}) for given σ and k{sub 0} are insensitive to the choice of the inflaton potentials.
Embedding loop quantum cosmology without piecewise linearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Jonathan
2013-04-01
An important goal is to understand better the relation between full loop quantum gravity (LQG) and the simplified, reduced theory known as loop quantum cosmology (LQC), directly at the quantum level. Such a firmer understanding would increase confidence in the reduced theory as a tool for formulating predictions of the full theory, as well as permitting lessons from the reduced theory to guide further development in the full theory. This paper constructs an embedding of the usual state space of LQC into that of standard LQG, that is, LQG based on piecewise analytic paths. The embedding is well defined even prior to solving the diffeomorphism constraint, at no point is a graph fixed and at no point is the piecewise linear category used. This motivates for the first time a definition of operators in LQC corresponding to holonomies along non-piecewise linear paths, without changing the usual kinematics of LQC in any way. The new embedding intertwines all operators corresponding to such holonomies, and all elements in its image satisfy an operator equation which classically implies homogeneity and isotropy. The construction is made possible by a recent result proven by Fleischhack. Communicated by P Singh
Probability of boundary conditions in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suenobu, Hiroshi; Nambu, Yasusada
2017-02-01
One of the main interest in quantum cosmology is to determine boundary conditions for the wave function of the universe which can predict observational data of our universe. For this purpose, we solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a closed universe with a scalar field numerically and evaluate probabilities for boundary conditions of the wave function of the universe. To impose boundary conditions of the wave function, we use exact solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation with a constant scalar field potential. These exact solutions include wave functions with well known boundary condition proposals, the no-boundary proposal and the tunneling proposal. We specify the exact solutions by introducing two real parameters to discriminate boundary conditions, and obtain the probability for these parameters under the requirement of sufficient e-foldings of the inflation. The probability distribution of boundary conditions prefers the tunneling boundary condition to the no-boundary boundary condition. Furthermore, for large values of a model parameter related to the inflaton mass and the cosmological constant, the probability of boundary conditions selects an unique boundary condition different from the tunneling type.
Phenomenology with fluctuating quantum geometries in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agullo, Ivan; Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh
2017-04-01
The goal of this paper is to probe phenomenological implications of large fluctuations of quantum geometry in the Planck era, using cosmology of the early universe. For the background (Friedmann, Lemaître, Robertson, Walker) quantum geometry, we allow ‘widely spread’ states in which the relative dispersions are as large as 168 % in the Planck regime. By introducing suitable methods to overcome the ensuing conceptual and computational issues, we calculate the power spectrum {{P}R}(k) and the spectral index n s (k) of primordial curvature perturbations. These results generalize the previous work in loop quantum cosmology which focused on those states which were known to remain sharply peaked throughout the Planck regime. Surprisingly, even though the fluctuations we now consider are large, their presence does not add new features to the final {{P}R}(k) and n s (k): within observational error bars, their effect is degenerate with a different freedom in the theory, namely the number of pre-inflationary e-folds {{N}\\text{B\\star}} between the bounce and the onset of inflation. Therefore, with regard to observational consequences, one can simulate the freedom in the choice of states with large fluctuations in the Planck era using the simpler, sharply peaked states, simply by allowing for different values of {{N}\\text{B \\star}} .
Quantum corrections to the Mukhanov-Sasaki equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelló Gomar, Laura; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Martín-Benito, Mercedes
2016-05-01
Recently, a lot of attention has been paid to the modifications of the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations caused by quantum cosmology effects. The origin of these modifications is corrections to the Mukhanov-Sasaki equations that govern the propagation of the primeval cosmological perturbations. The specific form of these corrections depends on a series of details of the quantization approach and of the prescription followed to implement it. Generally, the complexity of the theoretical quantum formulation is simplified in practice appealing to a semiclassical or effective approximation in order to perform concrete numerical computations. In this work, we introduce technical tools and design a procedure to deal with these quantum corrections beyond the most direct approximations employed so far in the literature. In particular, by introducing an interaction picture, we extract the quantum dynamics of the homogeneous geometry in absence of scalar field potential and inhomogeneities, dynamics that has been intensively studied and that can be integrated. The rest of our analysis focuses on the interaction evolution, putting forward methods to cope with it. The ultimate aim is to develop treatments that increase our ability to discriminate between the predictions of different quantization proposals for cosmological perturbations.
Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca
2009-01-15
In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.
Thermoelectric Corrections to Quantum Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergfield, Justin; Ratner, Mark; Stafford, Charles; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The voltage and temperature measured by a floating probe of a nonequilibrium quantum system is shown to exhibit nontrivial thermoelectric corrections at finite temperature. Using a realistic model of a scanning thermal microscope to calculate the voltage and temperature distributions, we predict quantum temperature variations along graphene nanoribbons subject to a thermal bias which are not simply related to the local density of states. Experimentally, the wavelength of the oscillations can be tuned over several orders of magnitude by gating/doping, bringing quantum temperature oscillations within reach of the spatial resolution of existing measurement techniques. We also find that the Peltier cooling/heating which causes the temperature oscillations can lead to significant errors in voltage measurements for a wide range of system.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.
2016-10-01
In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Emergence of a classical Universe from quantum gravity and cosmology.
Kiefer, Claus
2012-09-28
I describe how we can understand the classical appearance of our world from a universal quantum theory. The essential ingredient is the process of decoherence. I start with a general discussion in ordinary quantum theory and then turn to quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. There is a whole hierarchy of classicality from the global gravitational field to the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background, which serve as the seeds for the structure in the Universe.
Quantum cosmology: Solutions to the modified Friedmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubio, James Anthony
In this work, a detailed analysis of Standard Cosmological Inflation is presented, which is then contrasted by Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), an application to cosmology from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Specifically, the modified Friedmann equation of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) is solved, in order to obtain expressions used to assess an Inflationary era in the early Universe. The expressions for the scale factor are derived when considering two regions associated with the behavior of the modified Friedmann equation, as well as the energy density and scalar field. The scale factor expression will then be used to provide a solution to the horizon problem that is related to the Big Bang model of the Universe, in contrast to what has been presented in the literature.
Quantum cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peter, Patrick; Pinto-Neto, N.; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.
2016-01-01
The formalism to treat quantization and evolution of cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids is described. We first construct the Lagrangian for both the gravitational and matter parts, providing the necessary relevant variables and momenta leading to the quadratic Hamiltonian describing linear perturbations. The final Hamiltonian is obtained without assuming any equations of motions for the background variables. This general formalism is applied to the special case of two fluids, having in mind the usual radiation and matter mix which made most of our current Universe history. Quantization is achieved using an adiabatic expansion of the basis functions. This allows for an unambiguous definition of a vacuum state up to the given adiabatic order. Using this basis, we show that particle creation is well defined for a suitable choice of vacuum and canonical variables, so that the time evolution of the corresponding quantum fields is unitary. This provides constraints for setting initial conditions for an arbitrary number of fluids and background time evolution. We also show that the common choice of variables for quantization can lead to an ill-defined vacuum definition. Our formalism is not restricted to the case where the coupling between fields is small, but is only required to vary adiabatically with respect to the ultraviolet modes, thus paving the way to consistent descriptions of general models not restricted to single-field (or fluid).
Cosmology and the pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
1984-07-01
Bell has recently revived the pilot wave interpretation of de Broglie and Bohm as a possible scheme for interpreting wave functions in quantum cosmology. I argue that the pilot wave interpretation cannot be applied consistently to systems whose wave functions split into macroscopically distinguishable states. At some stage the pilot wave interpretation must either tacitly invoke wave function reduction in the same manner as the Copenhagen interpretation, or else abandon locality by requiring physical particles to move faster than light. Consequently, the many-worlds interpretation is the only known realist interpretation of the quantum mechanical formalism which can be extended to quantum cosmology.
Path integrals and the WKB approximation in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Campiglia, Miguel; Henderson, Adam
2010-12-01
We follow the Feynman procedure to obtain a path integral formulation of loop quantum cosmology starting from the Hilbert space framework. Quantum geometry effects modify the weight associated with each path so that the effective measure on the space of paths is different from that used in the Wheeler-DeWitt theory. These differences introduce some conceptual subtleties in arriving at the WKB approximation. But the approximation is well defined and provides intuition for the differences between loop quantum cosmology and the Wheeler-DeWitt theory from a path integral perspective.
Cosmological model with decaying vacuum energy from quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szydłowski, Marek
2015-06-01
We construct the cosmological model to explain the cosmological constant problem. We built the extension of the standard cosmological model Λ CDM by consideration of decaying vacuum energy represented by the running cosmological term. From the principles of quantum mechanics one can find that in the long-term behavior survival probability of unstable states is a decreasing function of the cosmological time and has the inverse powerlike form. This implies that cosmological constant ρvac=Λ (t )=Λbare+α/t2 where Λbare and α are constants. We investigate the dynamics of this model using dynamical system methods due to a link to the Λ (H ) cosmologies. We have found the exact solution for the scale factor as well as the indicators of its variability like the deceleration parameter and the jerk. From the calculation of the jerk we obtain a simple test of the decaying vacuum in the Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe. Using astronomical data [SNIa, H (z ), CMB, BAO] we have estimated the model parameters and compared this model with the Λ CDM model. Our statistical results indicate that the decaying vacuum model is a little worse than the Λ CDM model. But the decaying vacuum cosmological model explains the small value of the cosmological constant today.
Quantum Mechanics in the Light of Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
We sketch a quantum-mechanical framework for the universe as a whole. Within that framework we propose a program for describing the ultimate origin in quantum cosmology of the "quasiclassical domain" of familiar experience and for characterizing the process of measurement. Predictions in quantum mechanics are made from probabilities for sets of alternative histories. Probabilities (approximately obeying the rules of probability theory) can be assigned only to sets of histories that approximately decohere. Decoherence is defined and the mechanism of decoherence is reviewed. Decoherence requires a sufficiently coarse-grained description of alternative histories of the universe. A quasiclassical domain consists of a branching set of alternative decohering histories, described by a coarse graining that is, in an appropriate sense, maximally refined consistent with decoherence, with individual branches that exhibit a high level of classical correlation in time. We pose the problem of making these notions precise and quantitative. A quasiclassical domain is emergent in the universe as a consequence of the initial condition and the action function of the elementary particles. It is an important question whether all the quasiclassical domains are roughly equivalent or whether there are various essentially inequivalent ones. A measurement is a correlation with variables in a quasiclassical domain. An "observer" (or information gathering and utilizing system) is a complex adaptive system that has evolved to exploit the relative predictability of a quasiclassical domain, or rather a set of such domains among which it cannot discriminate because of its own very coarse graining. We suggest that resolution of many of the problems of interpretation presented by quantum mechanics is to be accomplished, not by further scrutiny of the subject as it applies to reproducible laboratory situations, but rather by an examination of alternative histories of the universe, stemming from its
Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelló Gomar, Laura; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2015-06-01
We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.
Cosmological dynamics in spin-foam loop quantum cosmology: challenges and prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David A.; Singh, Parampreet
2017-04-01
We explore the structure of the spin foam-like vertex expansion in loop quantum cosmology and discuss properties of the corresponding amplitudes, with the aim of elucidating some of the expansion’s useful properties and features. We find that the expansion is best suited for consideration of conceptual questions and for investigating short-time, highly quantum behavior. In order to study dynamics at cosmological scales, the expansion must be carried to very high order, limiting its direct utility as a calculational tool for such questions. Conversely, it is unclear that the expansion can be truncated at finite order in a controlled manner.
On the Convergence in Effective Loop Quantum Cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio
2010-07-12
In Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) there is a discreteness parameter {lambda}, that has been heuristically associated to a fundamental granularity of quantum geometry. It is also possible to consider {lambda} as a regulator in the same spirit as that used in lattice field theory, where it specifies a regular lattice in the real line. A particular quantization of the k = 0 FLRW loop cosmological model yields a completely solvable model, known as solvable loop quantum cosmology(sLQC). In this contribution, we consider effective classical theories motivated by sLQC and study their {lambda}-dependence, with a special interest on the limit {lambda}{yields}0 and the role of the evolution parameter in the convergence of such limit.
Cosmology from group field theory formalism for quantum gravity.
Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2013-07-19
We identify a class of condensate states in the group field theory (GFT) formulation of quantum gravity that can be interpreted as macroscopic homogeneous spatial geometries. We then extract the dynamics of such condensate states directly from the fundamental quantum GFT dynamics, following the procedure used in ordinary quantum fluids. The effective dynamics is a nonlinear and nonlocal extension of quantum cosmology. We also show that any GFT model with a kinetic term of Laplacian type gives rise, in a semiclassical (WKB) approximation and in the isotropic case, to a modified Friedmann equation. This is the first concrete, general procedure for extracting an effective cosmological dynamics directly from a fundamental theory of quantum geometry.
Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan
2013-01-01
The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ℏ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that since the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ℏ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.
Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan
2013-12-01
The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ħ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that as the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ħ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCabe, Gordon
The purpose of the paper, of which this is part II, is to review, clarify, and critically analyse modern mathematical cosmology. The emphasis is upon mathematical objects and structures, rather than numerical computations. Part II provides a critical analysis of inflationary cosmology and quantum cosmology, with particular attention to the claims made that these theories can explain the creation of the universe.
The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David A.
2016-06-01
We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on “measurements” to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories — as determined by the system’s decoherence functional — that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with scalar matter. We show how the theory may be used to make definite physical predictions in the absence of “observers”. As an application, we demonstrate how the theory predicts that loop quantum models “bounce” from large volume to large volume, while conventional “Wheeler-DeWitt”-quantized universes are invariably singular. We also briefly indicate the relation to other work.
Energy spectrum of gravitational waves in a loop quantum cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morais, João; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2014-01-01
We explore the consequences of loop quantum cosmology (inverse-volume corrections) in the spectrum of the gravitational waves using the method of the Bogoliubov coefficients. These corrections are taken into account at the background level of the theory as well as at the first order in the perturbations theory framework. We show that these corrections lead to an intense graviton production during the loop superinflationary phase prior to the standard slow-roll era, which leave their imprints through new features on the energy spectrum of the gravitational waves as would be measured today, including a new maximum on the low frequency end of the spectrum.
Towards generic resolution of strong singularities in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet
2010-10-01
Singularities are the boundaries of classical spacetime in General Relativity. It has been always hoped that quantum gravitational effects may resolve these singularities. In recent years, progress in loop quantum cosmology has provided insights on the resolution of big bang, big crunch and other spacelike singularities. In this talk we will give an update on the recent status of the generic resolution of strong spacelike singularities in loop quantum cosmology. We will show that for flat and curved Roberston-Walker backgrounds and also for Bianchi-I models, loop quantum gravity effects resolve all strong curvature singularities. However, weak curvature singularities, that is those beyond which geodesics can be continued, may not be resolved.
Evolution of perturbations in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijayakumar, Sreenath; Agullo, Ivan; Olmedo, Javier
2017-01-01
In loop quantum cosmology the big bang singularity is replaced by a quantum bounce. The evolution of primordial perturbations through such a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe has been studied in great detail. However, it is well known that any tiny anisotropy will grow (up to an upper bound) as the universe contracts and undergoes a bounce. Anisotropies will then decrease and eventually dilute in the expanding branch, but quantum perturbations may retain memory of the anisotropic bounce. In this talk, we present our efforts in understanding the effect of anisotropies (of Bianchi-I type) on the evolution of primordial perturbations in loop quantum cosmology, and in exploring its phenomenological implications. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY-1403943.
Reconstructing the evolution of the Universe from loop quantum cosmology scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-08-01
We extend the scalar-tensor reconstruction techniques for classical cosmology frameworks, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. After presenting in some detail how the equations are generalized in the loop quantum cosmology case, we discuss which new features and limitations the quantum framework introduces, and we use various illustrative examples in order to demonstrate how the method works. As we show, the energy density has two different classes of solutions, and one of these yields the correct classical limit, while the second captures the quantum phenomena. We study in detail the scalar tensor reconstruction method for both of these solutions. We also discuss some scenarios for which the Hubble rate becomes unbounded at finite time, which corresponds for example to the case in which the big rip occurs. As we show, this issue is nontrivial and we discuss how this case should be treated in a consistent way. Finally, we investigate how the classical stability conditions for the scalar-tensor solutions are generalized in the loop quantum framework.
Quantum error correction via robust probe modes
Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.
2006-06-15
We propose a scheme for quantum error correction using robust continuous variable probe modes, rather than fragile ancilla qubits, to detect errors without destroying data qubits. The use of such probe modes reduces the required number of expensive qubits in error correction and allows efficient encoding, error detection, and error correction. Moreover, the elimination of the need for direct qubit interactions significantly simplifies the construction of quantum circuits. We will illustrate how the approach implements three existing quantum error correcting codes: the three-qubit bit-flip (phase-flip) code, the Shor code, and an erasure code.
Optimized entanglement-assisted quantum error correction
Taghavi, Soraya; Brun, Todd A.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-10-15
Using convex optimization, we propose entanglement-assisted quantum error-correction procedures that are optimized for given noise channels. We demonstrate through numerical examples that such an optimized error-correction method achieves higher channel fidelities than existing methods. This improved performance, which leads to perfect error correction for a larger class of error channels, is interpreted in at least some cases by quantum teleportation, but for general channels this interpretation does not hold.
Tensor Networks and Quantum Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferris, Andrew J.; Poulin, David
2014-07-01
We establish several relations between quantum error correction (QEC) and tensor network (TN) methods of quantum many-body physics. We exhibit correspondences between well-known families of QEC codes and TNs, and demonstrate a formal equivalence between decoding a QEC code and contracting a TN. We build on this equivalence to propose a new family of quantum codes and decoding algorithms that generalize and improve upon quantum polar codes and successive cancellation decoding in a natural way.
Covariance and Quantum Cosmology: A Comparison of Two Matter Clocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halnon, Theodore; Bojowald, Martin
2017-01-01
In relativity, time is relative between reference frames. However, quantum mechanics requires a specific time coordinate in order to write an evolution equation for wave functions. This difference between the two theories leads to the problem of time in quantum gravity. One method to study quantum relativity is to interpret the dynamics of a matter field as a clock. In order to test the relationship between different reference frames, an isotropic cosmological model with two matter ingredients is introduced. One is given by a scalar field and one by vacuum energy or a cosmological constant. There are two matter fields, and thus two different Hamiltonians are derived from the respective clock rates. Semi-classical solutions are found for these equations and a comparison is made of the physical predictions that they imply. Partial funding from the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.
Measure problem in slow roll inflation and loop quantum cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh
2011-05-15
We consider the measure problem in standard slow-roll inflationary models from the perspective of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Following recent results by Ashtekar and Sloan, we study the probability of having enough e-foldings and focus on its dependence on the quantum gravity scale, including the transition of the theory to the limit where general relativity (GR) is recovered. Contrary to the standard expectation, the probability of having enough inflation, that is close to 1 in LQC, grows and tends to 1 as one approaches the GR limit. We study the origin of the tension between these results with those by Gibbons and Turok, and offer an explanation that brings these apparent contradictory results into a coherent picture. As we show, the conflicting results stem from different choices of initial conditions for the computation of probability. The singularity-free scenario of loop quantum cosmology offers a natural choice of initial conditions, and suggests that enough inflation is generic.
Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardehali, Hossein; Pedram, Pouria
2016-02-01
In this paper, we study the Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology. Using Schutz formalism and Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition, we obtain the corresponding Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain exact classical and quantum mechanical solutions and construct wave packets to study the time evolution of the expectation value of the scale factor for two cases. We show that unlike classical solutions and upon choosing appropriate initial conditions, the expectation value of the scale factor never tends to the singular point which exhibits the singularity-free behavior of the solutions in the quantum domain.
Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.
2007-07-01
We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.
The matter bounce scenario in loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2013-03-01
In the matter bounce scenario, a dust-dominated contracting space-time generates scale-invariant perturbations that, assuming a nonsingular bouncing cosmology, propagate to the expanding branch and set appropriate initial conditions for the radiation-dominated era. Since this scenario depends on the presence of a bounce, it seems appropriate to consider it in the context of loop quantum cosmology where a bouncing universe naturally arises. For a pressureless collapsing universe in loop quantum cosmology, the predicted power spectrum of the scalar perturbations after the bounce is scale-invariant and the tensor to scalar ratio is negligibly small. A slight red tilt can be given to the scale-invariance of the scalar perturbations by a scalar field whose equation of state is P = −ερ, where ε is a small positive number. Then, the power spectrum for tensor perturbations is also almost scale-invariant with the same red tilt as the scalar perturbations, and the tensor to scalar ratio is expected to be r ≈ 9 × 10{sup −4}. Finally, for the predicted amplitude of the scalar perturbations to agree with observations, the critical density in loop quantum cosmology must be of the order ρ{sub c} ∼ 10{sup −9}ρ{sub Pl}.
Tanaka, Tomo; Amemiya, Fumitoshi; Shimano, Masahiro; Harada, Tomohiro; Tamaki, Takashi
2011-05-15
In loop quantum cosmology, the Hamiltonian reduces to a finite difference operator and quantum dynamics are controlled by the difference equation. In this framework, Bojowald [M. Bojowald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5227 (2001).] showed that the initial singularity is absent in the twofold sense: (i) the spectrum of the inverse scale factor operator is bounded from above; (ii) the wave function of the Universe can be uniquely extended beyond the point which was the initial singularity in classical theory. In this paper, we study the initial singularity in this sense and the large-volume limit against the ambiguities in the discretization and the operator ordering within a homogeneous, isotropic and spatially flat model with the cosmological constant. We find that the absence of the singularity strongly depends on the choice of the operator ordering and the requirement for the absence singles out a very small class of orderings. Moreover we find a general ordering rule required for the absence of the singularity. We also find that the large-volume limit naturally recovers a smooth wave function in the discretization where each step corresponds to a fixed volume increment but not in the one where each step corresponds to a fixed area increment. If loop quantum cosmology is to be a phenomenological realization of full loop quantum gravity, these results are important to fix the theoretical ambiguities.
Foliated Quantum Error-Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolt, A.; Duclos-Cianci, G.; Poulin, D.; Stace, T. M.
2016-08-01
We show how to construct a large class of quantum error-correcting codes, known as Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes, from highly entangled cluster states. This becomes a primitive in a protocol that foliates a series of such cluster states into a much larger cluster state, implementing foliated quantum error correction. We exemplify this construction with several familiar quantum error-correction codes and propose a generic method for decoding foliated codes. We numerically evaluate the error-correction performance of a family of finite-rate Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes known as turbo codes, finding that they perform well over moderate depth foliations. Foliated codes have applications for quantum repeaters and fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation.
Foliated Quantum Error-Correcting Codes.
Bolt, A; Duclos-Cianci, G; Poulin, D; Stace, T M
2016-08-12
We show how to construct a large class of quantum error-correcting codes, known as Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes, from highly entangled cluster states. This becomes a primitive in a protocol that foliates a series of such cluster states into a much larger cluster state, implementing foliated quantum error correction. We exemplify this construction with several familiar quantum error-correction codes and propose a generic method for decoding foliated codes. We numerically evaluate the error-correction performance of a family of finite-rate Calderbank-Steane-Shor codes known as turbo codes, finding that they perform well over moderate depth foliations. Foliated codes have applications for quantum repeaters and fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation.
Quantum error correction via less noisy qubits.
Fujiwara, Yuichiro
2013-04-26
Known quantum error correction schemes are typically able to take advantage of only a limited class of classical error-correcting codes. Entanglement-assisted quantum error correction is a partial solution which made it possible to exploit any classical linear codes over the binary or quaternary finite field. However, the known entanglement-assisted scheme requires noiseless qubits that help correct quantum errors on noisy qubits, which can be too severe an assumption. We prove that a more relaxed and realistic assumption is sufficient by presenting encoding and decoding operations assisted by qubits on which quantum errors of one particular kind may occur. As in entanglement assistance, our scheme can import any binary or quaternary linear codes. If the auxiliary qubits are noiseless, our codes become entanglement-assisted codes, and saturate the quantum Singleton bound when the underlying classical codes are maximum distance separable.
Classical and quantum aspects of brane-world cosmology
Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain
2011-10-14
We give a brief overview of several models in brane-world cosmology. In particular, we focus on the asymmetric DGP and Regge-Teiltelboim models. We present the associated equations of motion governing the dynamics of the brane and their corresponding Friedmann-like equations. In order to develop the quantum Regge-Teiltelboim type cosmology we construct its Ostrogradski Hamiltonian formalism which naturally leads to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equation. In addition, we comment on possible generalizations for these models including second order derivative geometrical terms.
Long distance quantum communication using quantum error correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gingrich, R. M.; Lee, H.; Dowling, J. P.
2004-01-01
We describe a quantum error correction scheme that can increase the effective absorption length of the communication channel. This device can play the role of a quantum transponder when placed in series, or a cyclic quantum memory when inserted in an optical loop.
Quantum Gravity corrections and entropy at the Planck time
Basilakos, Spyros; Vagenas, Elias C.; Das, Saurya E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca
2010-09-01
We investigate the effects of Quantum Gravity on the Planck era of the universe. In particular, using different versions of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle and under specific conditions we find that the main Planck quantities such as the Planck time, length, mass and energy become larger by a factor of order 10−10{sup 4} compared to those quantities which result from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. However, we prove that the dimensionless entropy enclosed in the cosmological horizon at the Planck time remains unchanged. These results, though preliminary, indicate that we should anticipate modifications in the set-up of cosmology since changes in the Planck era will be inherited even to the late universe through the framework of Quantum Gravity (or Quantum Field Theory) which utilizes the Planck scale as a fundamental one. More importantly, these corrections will not affect the entropic content of the universe at the Planck time which is a crucial element for one of the basic principles of Quantum Gravity named Holographic Principle.
Does loop quantum cosmology replace the big rip singularity by a non-singular bounce?
Haro, Jaume de
2012-11-01
It is stated that holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology introduce a modification in Friedmann's equation which prevent the big rip singularity. Recently in [1] it has been proved that this modified Friedmann equation is obtained in an inconsistent way, what means that the results deduced from it, in particular the big rip singularity avoidance, are not justified. The problem is that holonomy corrections modify the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian of the system leading, after Legendre's transformation, to a non covariant Lagrangian which is in contradiction with one of the main principles of General Relativity. A more consistent way to deal with the big rip singularity avoidance is to disregard modification in the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian, and only consider inverse volume effects [2]. In this case we will see that, not like the big bang singularity, the big rip singularity survives in loop quantum cosmology. Another way to deal with the big rip avoidance is to take into account geometric quantum effects given by the the Wheeler-De Witt equation. In that case, even though the wave packets spread, the expectation values satisfy the same equations as their classical analogues. Then, following the viewpoint adopted in loop quantum cosmology, one can conclude that the big rip singularity survives when one takes into account these quantum effects. However, the spreading of the wave packets prevents the recover of the semiclassical time, and thus, one might conclude that the classical evolution of the universe come to and end before the big rip is reached. This is not conclusive because. as we will see, it always exists other external times that allows us to define the classical and quantum evolution of the universe up to the big rip singularity.
Phenomenological dynamics of loop quantum cosmology in Kantowski-Sachs spacetime
Chiou, D.-W.
2008-08-15
The fundamental theory and the semiclassical description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) have been studied in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I models. As an extension to include both anisotropy and intrinsic curvature, this paper investigates the cosmological model of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime with a free massless scalar field at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the LQC discreteness corrections. The LQC corrections are implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In both schemes, the big bang and big crunch singularities of the classical solution are resolved and replaced by the big bounces when the area or volume scale factor approaches the critical values in the Planck regime measured by the reference of the scalar field momentum. Symmetries of scaling are also noted and suggest that the fundamental spatial scale (area gap) may give rise to a temporal scale. The bouncing scenarios are in an analogous fashion of the Bianchi I model, naturally extending the observations obtained previously.
Loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2015-12-01
Using the complex-valued self-dual connection variables, the loop quantum cosmology of a closed Friedmann space-time coupled to a massless scalar field is studied. It is shown how the reality conditions can be imposed in the quantum theory by choosing a particular inner product for the kinematical Hilbert space. While holonomies of the self-dual Ashtekar connection are not well defined in the kinematical Hilbert space, it is possible to introduce a family of generalized holonomylike operators of which some are well defined; these operators in turn are used in the definition of the Hamiltonian constraint operator where the scalar field can be used as a relational clock. The resulting quantum theory is closely related, although not identical, to standard loop quantum cosmology constructed from the Ashtekar-Barbero variables with a real Immirzi parameter. Effective Friedmann equations are derived which provide a good approximation to the full quantum dynamics for sharply peaked states whose volume remains much larger than the Planck volume, and they show that for these states quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang and big-crunch singularities and replace them by a nonsingular bounce. Finally, the loop quantization in self-dual variables of a flat Friedmann space-time is recovered in the limit of zero spatial curvature and is identical to the standard loop quantization in terms of the real-valued Ashtekar-Barbero variables.
Quantum Corrections to the 'Atomistic' MOSFET Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Kaya, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.
2000-01-01
We have introduced in a simple and efficient manner quantum mechanical corrections in our 3D 'atomistic' MOSFET simulator using the density gradient formalism. We have studied in comparison with classical simulations the effect of the quantum mechanical corrections on the simulation of random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations, the effect of the single charge trapping on interface states and the effect of the oxide thickness fluctuations in decanano MOSFETs with ultrathin gate oxides. The introduction of quantum corrections enhances the threshold voltage fluctuations but does not affect significantly the amplitude of the random telegraph noise associated with single carrier trapping. The importance of the quantum corrections for proper simulation of oxide thickness fluctuation effects has also been demonstrated.
Phenomenology of loop quantum cosmology and observational consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupt, Brajesh
2016-03-01
An important feature of singularity resolution in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the occurrence of the quantum bounce when the spacetime curvature becomes Planckian leading the pre-inflationary evolution of the universe to be greatly modified. Due to the modified dynamics in the pre-inflationary era the initial conditions for both the background and cosmological perturbations are different from those in the standard inflationary scenario. We find that such modifications can lead to observational signatures on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy spectrum, and provide a new window to explore the CMB anomalies. In this talk we describe these initial conditions, discuss their consequences on the inflationary power spectrum, and compare our results with data from recent CMB experiments. NSF.
Slow-roll approximation in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luc, Joanna; Mielczarek, Jakub
2017-01-01
The slow-roll approximation is an analytical approach to study dynamical properties of the inflationary universe. In this article, systematic construction of the slow-roll expansion for effective loop quantum cosmology is presented. The analysis is performed up to the fourth order in both slow-roll parameters and the parameter controlling the strength of deviation from the classical case. The expansion is performed for three types of the slow-roll parameters: Hubble slow-roll parameters, Hubble flow parameters and potential slow-roll parameters. An accuracy of the approximation is verified by comparison with the numerical phase space trajectories for the case with a massive potential term. The results obtained in this article may be helpful in the search for the subtle quantum gravitational effects with use of the cosmological data.
Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration.
Zhu, Jun; Ji, Peiyong
2010-03-01
The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.
Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration
Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong
2010-03-15
The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.
Quantum Error Correction Protects Quantum Search Algorithms Against Decoherence.
Botsinis, Panagiotis; Babar, Zunaira; Alanis, Dimitrios; Chandra, Daryus; Nguyen, Hung; Ng, Soon Xin; Hanzo, Lajos
2016-12-07
When quantum computing becomes a wide-spread commercial reality, Quantum Search Algorithms (QSA) and especially Grover's QSA will inevitably be one of their main applications, constituting their cornerstone. Most of the literature assumes that the quantum circuits are free from decoherence. Practically, decoherence will remain unavoidable as is the Gaussian noise of classic circuits imposed by the Brownian motion of electrons, hence it may have to be mitigated. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of quantum noise on the performance of QSAs, in terms of their success probability as a function of the database size to be searched, when decoherence is modelled by depolarizing channels' deleterious effects imposed on the quantum gates. Moreover, we employ quantum error correction codes for limiting the effects of quantum noise and for correcting quantum flips. More specifically, we demonstrate that, when we search for a single solution in a database having 4096 entries using Grover's QSA at an aggressive depolarizing probability of 10(-3), the success probability of the search is 0.22 when no quantum coding is used, which is improved to 0.96 when Steane's quantum error correction code is employed. Finally, apart from Steane's code, the employment of Quantum Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (QBCH) codes is also considered.
Quantum Error Correction Protects Quantum Search Algorithms Against Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botsinis, Panagiotis; Babar, Zunaira; Alanis, Dimitrios; Chandra, Daryus; Nguyen, Hung; Ng, Soon Xin; Hanzo, Lajos
2016-12-01
When quantum computing becomes a wide-spread commercial reality, Quantum Search Algorithms (QSA) and especially Grover’s QSA will inevitably be one of their main applications, constituting their cornerstone. Most of the literature assumes that the quantum circuits are free from decoherence. Practically, decoherence will remain unavoidable as is the Gaussian noise of classic circuits imposed by the Brownian motion of electrons, hence it may have to be mitigated. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of quantum noise on the performance of QSAs, in terms of their success probability as a function of the database size to be searched, when decoherence is modelled by depolarizing channels’ deleterious effects imposed on the quantum gates. Moreover, we employ quantum error correction codes for limiting the effects of quantum noise and for correcting quantum flips. More specifically, we demonstrate that, when we search for a single solution in a database having 4096 entries using Grover’s QSA at an aggressive depolarizing probability of 10‑3, the success probability of the search is 0.22 when no quantum coding is used, which is improved to 0.96 when Steane’s quantum error correction code is employed. Finally, apart from Steane’s code, the employment of Quantum Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (QBCH) codes is also considered.
Quantum Error Correction Protects Quantum Search Algorithms Against Decoherence
Botsinis, Panagiotis; Babar, Zunaira; Alanis, Dimitrios; Chandra, Daryus; Nguyen, Hung; Ng, Soon Xin; Hanzo, Lajos
2016-01-01
When quantum computing becomes a wide-spread commercial reality, Quantum Search Algorithms (QSA) and especially Grover’s QSA will inevitably be one of their main applications, constituting their cornerstone. Most of the literature assumes that the quantum circuits are free from decoherence. Practically, decoherence will remain unavoidable as is the Gaussian noise of classic circuits imposed by the Brownian motion of electrons, hence it may have to be mitigated. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of quantum noise on the performance of QSAs, in terms of their success probability as a function of the database size to be searched, when decoherence is modelled by depolarizing channels’ deleterious effects imposed on the quantum gates. Moreover, we employ quantum error correction codes for limiting the effects of quantum noise and for correcting quantum flips. More specifically, we demonstrate that, when we search for a single solution in a database having 4096 entries using Grover’s QSA at an aggressive depolarizing probability of 10−3, the success probability of the search is 0.22 when no quantum coding is used, which is improved to 0.96 when Steane’s quantum error correction code is employed. Finally, apart from Steane’s code, the employment of Quantum Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (QBCH) codes is also considered. PMID:27924865
Tachyon field in loop quantum cosmology: Inflation and evolution picture
Xiong Huaui; Zhu Jianyang
2007-04-15
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) predicts a nonsingular evolution of the universne through a bounce in the high energy region. We show that this is always true in tachyon matter LQC. Differing from the classical Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology, the super inflation can appear in the tachyon matter LQC; furthermore, the inflation can be extended to the region where classical inflation stops. Using the numerical method, we give an evolution picture of the tachyon field with an exponential potential in the context of LQC. It indicates that the quantum dynamical solutions have the same attractive behavior as the classical solutions do. The whole evolution of the tachyon field is that in the distant past, the tachyon field--being in the contracting cosmology--accelerates to climb up the potential hill with a negative velocity; then at the boundary the tachyon field is bounced into an expanding universe with positive velocity rolling down to the bottom of the potential. In the slow roll limit, we compare the quantum inflation with the classical case in both an analytic and a numerical way.
Non-Schroedinger forces and pilot waves in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
1987-09-01
The version of the pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics using a nonlocal non-Schroedinger force is found to be inconsistent when applied to distributions with small numbers of particles. Any version of the pilot wave interpretation is shown to require the universe to move along a single trajectory. It is suggested that no version of the pilot wave interpretation can be applied to the wavefunction of quantum cosmology, because in any version of this interpretation there is only one particle, the universe.
Cosmological implications of quantum entanglement in the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi
2015-12-01
We explore the cosmological implications of quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected universes in the multiverse. We first consider two causally separated de Sitter spaces with a state which is initially entangled. We derive the reduced density matrix of our universe and compute the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We then consider the same system with an initially non-entangled state. We find that due to quantum interference scale dependent modulations may enter the spectrum for the case of initially non-entangled state. This gives rise to the possibility that the existence of causally disconnected universes may be experimentally tested by analyzing correlators in detail.
Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2015-12-01
We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction also lends itself easily to application to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.
Thermoelectric corrections to quantum voltage measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergfield, Justin P.; Stafford, Charles A.
2014-12-01
A generalization of Büttiker's voltage probe concept for nonzero temperatures is an open third terminal of a quantum thermoelectric circuit. An explicit analytic expression for the thermoelectric correction to an ideal quantum voltage measurement in linear response is derived and interpreted in terms of local Peltier cooling/heating within the nonequilibrium system. The thermoelectric correction is found to be large (up to ±24 % of the peak voltage) in a prototypical ballistic quantum conductor (graphene nanoribbon). The effects of measurement nonideality are also investigated. Our findings have important implications for precision local electrical measurements.
Higher derivatives and renormalization in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzitelli, Francisco D.
1992-04-01
In the framework of the canonical quantization of general relativity, quantum field theory on a fixed background formally arises in an expansion in powers of the Planck length. In order to renormalize the theory, quadratic terms in the curvature must be included in the gravitational action from the beginning. These terms contain higher derivatives which change completely the Hamiltonian structure of the theory, not making clear the relation between the renormalized theory and the original one. We show that it is possible to avoid this problem. We replace the higher-derivative theory by a second-order one. The classical solutions of the latter are also solutions of the former. We quantize the theory, renormalize the infinities, and show that there is a smooth limit between the classical and the renormalized theories. We work in a Robertson-Walker minisuperspace with a quantum scalar field.
Supersymmetric Quantum Cosmology Shaken, not Stirred
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniz, P. V.
The canonical quantization of N=1 and N=2 supergravity theories is reviewed in this report. Special emphasis is given to the topic of supersymmetric Bianchi class A and FRW minisuperspaces, namely in the presence of supermatter fields. The quantization of the general theory (including supermatter) is also contemplated. The issue of quantum physical states is subsequently analyzed. A discussion on further research problems still waiting to be addressed is included. An extensive and updated bibliography concludes this review.
Quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet
2016-11-01
Recently, Ali and Khalil (Nucl Phys B, 909, 173-185, 2016), based on Bohmian quantum mechanics, derived a quantum corrected version of the Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we construct a quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole (QSTSW) and investigate the stability of this wormhole. First we compute the surface stress at the wormhole throat by applying the Darmois-Israel formalism to the modified Schwarzschild metric and show that exotic matter is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. We then study the stability analysis of the wormhole by considering phantom-energy for the exotic matter, generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), and the linearized stability analysis. It is argued that quantum corrections can affect the stability domain of the wormhole.
Loop quantum cosmology of k=1 FRW models
Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet; Vandersloot, Kevin
2007-01-15
The closed, k=1, FRW model coupled to a massless scalar field is investigated in the framework of loop quantum cosmology using analytical and numerical methods. As in the k=0 case, the scalar field can be again used as emergent time to construct the physical Hilbert space and introduce Dirac observables. The resulting framework is then used to address a major challenge of quantum cosmology: resolving the big-bang singularity while retaining agreement with general relativity at large scales. It is shown that the framework fulfills this task. In particular, for states which are semiclassical at some late time, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce and a recollapse occurs at the value of the scale factor predicted by classical general relativity. Thus, the 'difficulties' pointed out by Green and Unruh in the k=1 case do not arise in a more systematic treatment. As in k=0 models, quantum dynamics is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, because it also retains the classical recollapse, in contrast to the k=0 case one is now led to a cyclic model. Finally, we clarify some issues raised by Laguna's recent work addressed to computational physicists.
Chimera: A hybrid numerical approach for isotropic loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Peter; Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet
2013-04-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is one approach to the resolution of the problem of singularities in classical cosmologies. The evolution of a cosmological model in LQC is governed by a set difference equations. In the isotropic cosmology (1+1 dimensions) the discretization is uniform in the spatial dimension. The stable simulation of a widely spread semi-classical state requires a very large computational domain and would therefore be computationally very expensive. In this talk we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme based on the fact that the difference equations can be approximated by a set of partial differential equations (PDE's) in the limit of large spatial volume. We therefore introduce a hybrid scheme where we solve the LQC difference equations in the small volume and the PDE's in the large volume regime. By a simple change of coordinates in the large volume regime, we can significantly reduce the computational cost and explore regions of parameter space previously unachievable. We will describe the numerical implementation, present selected results and discuss the extension of the scheme to other models.
Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths
Chew, Geoffrey F.
2002-10-10
Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.
Quantum Metrology Enhanced by Repetitive Quantum Error Correction.
Unden, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Priya; Louzon, Daniel; Vinkler, Yuval; Plenio, Martin B; Markham, Matthew; Twitchen, Daniel; Stacey, Alastair; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alexander O; Lukin, Mikhail D; Retzker, Alex; Naydenov, Boris; McGuinness, Liam P; Jelezko, Fedor
2016-06-10
We experimentally demonstrate the protection of a room-temperature hybrid spin register against environmental decoherence by performing repeated quantum error correction whilst maintaining sensitivity to signal fields. We use a long-lived nuclear spin to correct multiple phase errors on a sensitive electron spin in diamond and realize magnetic field sensing beyond the time scales set by natural decoherence. The universal extension of sensing time, robust to noise at any frequency, demonstrates the definitive advantage entangled multiqubit systems provide for quantum sensing and offers an important complement to quantum control techniques.
Loop quantum cosmology: from pre-inflationary dynamics to observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Barrau, Aurélien
2015-12-01
The Planck collaboration has provided us rich information about the early Universe, and a host of new observational missions will soon shed further light on the ‘anomalies’ that appear to exist on the largest angular scales. From a quantum gravity perspective, it is natural to inquire if one can trace back the origin of such puzzling features to Planck scale physics. Loop quantum cosmology provides a promising avenue to explore this issue because of its natural resolution of the big bang singularity. Thanks to advances over the last decade, the theory has matured sufficiently to allow concrete calculations of the phenomenological consequences of its pre-inflationary dynamics. In this article we summarize the current status of the ensuing two-way dialog between quantum gravity and observations.
Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology
Lamon, Raphael; Woehr, Andreas J.
2010-01-15
The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.
Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies
Balcerzak, Adam
2015-04-01
We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability of transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase.
Inflation in loop quantum cosmology: Dynamics and spectrum of gravitational waves
Mielczarek, Jakub; Cailleteau, Thomas; Grain, Julien; Barrau, Aurelien
2010-05-15
Loop quantum cosmology provides an efficient framework to study the evolution of the Universe beyond the classical Big Bang paradigm. Because of holonomy corrections, the singularity is replaced by a 'bounce'. The dynamics of the background is investigated into the details, as a function of the parameters of the model. In particular, the conditions required for inflation to occur are carefully considered and are shown to be generically met. The propagation of gravitational waves is then investigated in this framework. By both numerical and analytical approaches, the primordial tensor power spectrum is computed for a wide range of parameters. Several interesting features could be observationally probed.
Towards self-correcting quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michnicki, Kamil
This thesis presents a model of self-correcting quantum memories where quantum states are encoded using topological stabilizer codes and error correction is done using local measurements and local dynamics. Quantum noise poses a practical barrier to developing quantum memories. This thesis explores two types of models for suppressing noise. One model suppresses thermalizing noise energetically by engineering a Hamiltonian with a high energy barrier between code states. Thermalizing dynamics are modeled phenomenologically as a Markovian quantum master equation with only local generators. The second model suppresses stochastic noise with a cellular automaton that performs error correction using syndrome measurements and a local update rule. Several ways of visualizing and thinking about stabilizer codes are presented in order to design ones that have a high energy barrier: the non-local Ising model, the quasi-particle graph and the theory of welded stabilizer codes. I develop the theory of welded stabilizer codes and use it to construct a code with the highest known energy barrier in 3-d for spin Hamiltonians: the welded solid code. Although the welded solid code is not fully self correcting, it has some self correcting properties. It has an increased memory lifetime for an increased system size up to a temperature dependent maximum. One strategy for increasing the energy barrier is by mediating an interaction with an external system. I prove a no-go theorem for a class of Hamiltonians where the interaction terms are local, of bounded strength and commute with the stabilizer group. Under these conditions the energy barrier can only be increased by a multiplicative constant. I develop cellular automaton to do error correction on a state encoded using the toric code. The numerical evidence indicates that while there is no threshold, the model can extend the memory lifetime significantly. While of less theoretical importance, this could be practical for real
Quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Ching-Yi
Quantum computers need to be protected by quantum error-correcting codes against decoherence. One of the most interesting and useful classes of quantum codes is the class of quantum stabilizer codes. Entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum codes are a class of stabilizer codes that make use of preshared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. We provide several code constructions for entanglement-assisted quantum codes. The MacWilliams identity for quantum codes leads to linear programming bounds on the minimum distance. We find new constraints on the simplified stabilizer group and the logical group, which help improve the linear programming bounds on entanglement-assisted quantum codes. The results also can be applied to standard stabilizer codes. In the real world, quantum gates are faulty. To implement quantum computation fault-tolerantly, quantum codes with certain properties are needed. We first analyze Knill's postselection scheme in a two-dimensional architecture. The error performance of this scheme is better than other known concatenated codes. Then we propose several methods to protect syndrome extraction against measurement errors.
Quantum corrections to inflaton and curvaton dynamics
Markkanen, Tommi; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@nbi.dk
2012-11-01
We compute the fully renormalized one-loop effective action for two interacting and self-interacting scalar fields in FRW space-time. We then derive and solve the quantum corrected equations of motion both for fields that dominate the energy density (such as an inflaton) and fields that do not (such as a subdominant curvaton). In particular, we introduce quantum corrected Friedmann equations that determine the evolution of the scale factor. We find that in general, gravitational corrections are negligible for the field dynamics. For the curvaton-type fields this leaves only the effect of the flat-space Coleman-Weinberg-type effective potential, and we find that these can be significant. For the inflaton case, both the corrections to the potential and the Friedmann equations can lead to behaviour very different from the classical evolution. Even to the point that inflation, although present at tree level, can be absent at one-loop order.
Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albarran, Imanol; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Kiefer, Claus; Marto, João; Vargas Moniz, Paulo
2016-09-01
We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the Universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structures in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.
Mean Field Analysis of Quantum Annealing Correction.
Matsuura, Shunji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A
2016-06-03
Quantum annealing correction (QAC) is a method that combines encoding with energy penalties and decoding to suppress and correct errors that degrade the performance of quantum annealers in solving optimization problems. While QAC has been experimentally demonstrated to successfully error correct a range of optimization problems, a clear understanding of its operating mechanism has been lacking. Here we bridge this gap using tools from quantum statistical mechanics. We study analytically tractable models using a mean-field analysis, specifically the p-body ferromagnetic infinite-range transverse-field Ising model as well as the quantum Hopfield model. We demonstrate that for p=2, where the phase transition is of second order, QAC pushes the transition to increasingly larger transverse field strengths. For p≥3, where the phase transition is of first order, QAC softens the closing of the gap for small energy penalty values and prevents its closure for sufficiently large energy penalty values. Thus QAC provides protection from excitations that occur near the quantum critical point. We find similar results for the Hopfield model, thus demonstrating that our conclusions hold in the presence of disorder.
Reduced density matrices and decoherence in quantum cosmology
Laflamme, R. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge CB39EW, United Kingdom ); Louko, J. )
1991-05-15
We investigate a quantum cosmological model consisting of inhomogeneous massless minimally coupled scalar field perturbations on a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker minisuperspace model with a spatially homogeneous massless minimally coupled scalar field. We discuss how to define a reduced density matrix by summing over the perturbations in the full density matrix, using the approximate Hilbert-space structure that exists for the perturbation wave function when the minisuperspace part of the wave function is of the WKB form. We then concentrate on two particular candidates for a reduced density matrix and discuss their relation to particle creation effects in quantum field theory on curved spacetime. Our results do not suggest that decoherence in the reduced density matrices could be directly identified as a lack of interference between the classical trajectories that correspond to a WKB minisuperspace part of the total wave function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared
2016-05-01
We use results on Virasoro conformal blocks to study chaotic dynamics in CFT2 at large central charge c. The Lyapunov exponent λ L , which is a diagnostic for the early onset of chaos, receives 1 /c corrections that may be interpreted as {λ}_L=2π /β(1+12/c) . However, out of time order correlators receive other equally important 1 /c suppressed contributions that do not have such a simple interpretation. We revisit the proof of a bound on λ L that emerges at large c, focusing on CFT2 and explaining why our results do not conflict with the analysis leading to the bound. We also comment on relationships between chaos, scattering, causality, and bulk locality.
Quantum chaos on hyperbolic manifolds: A new approach to cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaschitz, Roman
1992-04-01
We consider classical and quantum motion on multiply connected hyperbolic spaces, which appear as space-like slices in Robertson-Walker cosmologies. The topological structure of these manifolds creates on the one hand bounded chaotic trajectories, and on the other hand quantal bound states whose wave functions can be reconstructed from the chaotic geodesics. We obtain an exact relation between a probabilistic quantum mechanical wave field and the corresponding classical system, which is likewise probabilistic because of the instabilities of the trajectories with respect to the initial conditions. The central part in this reconstruction is played by the fractal limit set of the covering group of the manifold. This limit set determines the bounded chaotic trajectories on the manifold. Its Hausdorff measure and dimension determine the wave function of the quantum mechanical bound state for geodesic motion. We investigate relativistic scalar wave fields in de Sitter cosmologies, coupled to the curvature scalar of the manifold. We study the influence of the topological structure of space-time on their time evolution. Likewise we calculate the time asymptotics of their energies in the early and late stages of the cosmic expansion. While in the late stages both bounded and unbounded states approach the same rest energy, they show significantly different behavior at the beginning of the expansion. While the stable bound states have simple power law behavior, extended states show oscillations in their energy, with a frequency and an amplitude both diverging to infinity, indicating the instability of the quantum field at the beginning of the cosmic expansion.
Quantum annealing correction with minor embedding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinci, Walter; Albash, Tameem; Paz-Silva, Gerardo; Hen, Itay; Lidar, Daniel A.
2015-10-01
Quantum annealing provides a promising route for the development of quantum optimization devices, but the usefulness of such devices will be limited in part by the range of implementable problems as dictated by hardware constraints. To overcome constraints imposed by restricted connectivity between qubits, a larger set of interactions can be approximated using minor embedding techniques whereby several physical qubits are used to represent a single logical qubit. However, minor embedding introduces new types of errors due to its approximate nature. We introduce and study quantum annealing correction schemes designed to improve the performance of quantum annealers in conjunction with minor embedding, thus leading to a hybrid scheme defined over an encoded graph. We argue that this scheme can be efficiently decoded using an energy minimization technique provided the density of errors does not exceed the per-site percolation threshold of the encoded graph. We test the hybrid scheme using a D-Wave Two processor on problems for which the encoded graph is a two-level grid and the Ising model is known to be NP-hard. The problems we consider are frustrated Ising model problem instances with "planted" (a priori known) solutions. Applied in conjunction with optimized energy penalties and decoding techniques, we find that this approach enables the quantum annealer to solve minor embedded instances with significantly higher success probability than it would without error correction. Our work demonstrates that quantum annealing correction can and should be used to improve the robustness of quantum annealing not only for natively embeddable problems but also when minor embedding is used to extend the connectivity of physical devices.
Quantum cosmology: From hidden symmetries towards a new (supersymmetric) perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T.; Moniz, P. V.
2016-02-01
We review pedagogically some of the basic essentials regarding recent results intertwining boundary conditions, the algebra of constraints and hidden symmetries in quantum cosmology. They were extensively published in Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014), S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439 and T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212], where complete discussions and full details can be found. More concretely, in Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014) and S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439] it has been shown that specific boundary conditions can be related to the algebra of Dirac observables. Moreover, a process afterwards associated to the algebra of existent hidden symmetries, from which the boundary conditions can be selected, was introduced. On the other hand, in Ref. [T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212] it was subsequently argued that some factor ordering choices can be extracted from the hidden symmetries structure of the minisuperspace model. In Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014), S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439 and T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212], we proceeded gradually towards less simple models, ranging from a FLRW model with a perfect fluid [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541] up to a conformal scalar field content [T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and
Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled
Averaged null energy condition in loop quantum cosmology
Li Lifang; Zhu Jianyang
2009-02-15
Wormholes and time machines are objects of great interest in general relativity. However, to support them it needs exotic matters which are impossible at the classical level. Semiclassical gravity introduces the quantum effects into the stress-energy tensor and constructs many self-consistent wormholes. But they are not traversable due to the averaged null energy condition. Loop quantum gravity (LQG) significantly modifies the Einstein equation in the deep quantum region. If we write the modified Einstein equation in the form of the standard one but with an effective stress-energy tensor, it is convenient to analyze the geometry in LQG through the energy condition. Loop quantum cosmology (LQC), an application of LQG, has an effective stress-energy tensor which violates some kinds of local energy conditions. So it is natural that the inflation emerges in LQC. In this paper, we investigate the averaged null energy condition in LQC in the framework of the effective Hamiltonian, and we find that the effective stress-energy tensor in LQC violates the averaged null energy condition in the massless scalar field coupled model.
Astrophysical Applications of Quantum Corrections to the Equation of State of a Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, Andrew F.
1994-01-01
The quantum electrodynamic correction to the equation of state of a plasma at finite temperature is applied to the areas of solar physics and cosmology. A previously neglected, purely quantum term in the correction is found to change the equation of state in the solar core by -0.37%, which is roughly estimated to decrease the calculated high energy neutrino flux by about 2.2%. We also show that a previous calculation of the effect of this correction on big bang nucleosynthesis is incomplete, and we estimate the correction to the primordial helium abundance Y to be Delta A= 1.4 x 10(exp -4). A physical explanation for the correction is found in terms of corrections to the dispersion relation of the electron, positron, and photon.
Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhicheng
In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel
Slow-roll inflation in loop quantum cosmology of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yu
2015-07-01
The slow-roll inflation of scalar-tensor theories (STTs) of gravity in the context of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is investigated in this paper. After deriving the effective Hamiltonian, we obtain the semiclassical equations of motion for the background variables in both Jordan frame and Einstein frame of STTs. Then we apply these equations in the slow-roll limit and derive the LQC corrections to the scalar spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in the two frames of STTs. Finally, we take two special sectors of STTs as specific examples, namely the Starobinsky model and the non-minimally coupled scalar field model (with the coupling function ξϕ2R and the potential λ 4 ϕ4). We derive the detailed expressions of the LQC corrections to ns and r in terms of the e-folding number for these two models in both frames.
Relating loop quantum cosmology to loop quantum gravity: symmetric sectors and embeddings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, J.
2007-12-01
In this paper we address the meaning of states in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), in the context of loop quantum gravity. First, we introduce a rigorous formulation of an embedding proposed by Bojowald and Kastrup, of LQC states into loop quantum gravity. Then, using certain holomorphic representations, a new class of embeddings, called b-embeddings, are constructed, following the ideas of Engle (2006 Quantum field theory and its symmetry reduction Class. Quantum Gravity 23 2861 94). We exhibit a class of operators preserving each of these embeddings, and show their consistency with the LQC quantization. In the b-embedding case, the classical analogues of these operators separate points in phase space. Embedding at the gauge and diffeomorphism invariant level is discussed briefly in the conclusions.
Uncertainty relations and approximate quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renes, Joseph M.
2016-09-01
The uncertainty principle can be understood as constraining the probability of winning a game in which Alice measures one of two conjugate observables, such as position or momentum, on a system provided by Bob, and he is to guess the outcome. Two variants are possible: either Alice tells Bob which observable she measured, or he has to furnish guesses for both cases. Here I derive uncertainty relations for both, formulated directly in terms of Bob's guessing probabilities. For the former these relate to the entanglement that can be recovered by action on Bob's system alone. This gives an explicit quantum circuit for approximate quantum error correction using the guessing measurements for "amplitude" and "phase" information, implicitly used in the recent construction of efficient quantum polar codes. I also find a relation on the guessing probabilities for the latter game, which has application to wave-particle duality relations.
Chimera: a hybrid approach to numerical loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Peter; Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet
2014-01-01
The existence of a quantum bounce in isotropic spacetimes is a key result in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), which has been demonstrated to arise in all the models studied so far. In most of the models, the bounce has been studied using numerical simulations involving states which are sharply peaked and which bounce at volumes much larger than the Planck volume. An important issue is to confirm the existence of the bounce for states which have a wide spread, or which bounce closer to the Planck volume. Numerical simulations with such states demand large computational domains, making them very expensive and practically infeasible with the techniques which have been implemented so far. To overcome these difficulties, we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme using the property that at the small spacetime curvature, the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in LQC, which is a difference equation with uniform discretization in volume, can be approximated by a Wheeler-DeWitt differential equation. By carefully choosing a hybrid spatial grid allowing the use of partial differential equations at large volumes, and with a simple change of geometrical coordinate, we obtain a surprising reduction in the computational cost. This scheme enables us to explore regimes which were so far unachievable for the isotropic model in LQC. Our approach also promises to significantly reduce the computational cost for numerical simulations in anisotropic LQC using high performance computing.
Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kiefer, Claus; Kwidzinski, Nick
2016-04-01
We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse squared potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.
Vertex amplitudes in spin foam loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, David
2016-03-01
We discuss properties of the vertex expansion for homogeneous, isotropic loop quantum cosmological models sourced by a massless, minimally coupled scalar field, which in this model plays the role of an internal matter ``clock''. We show that the vertex expansion, first written down by Ashtekar, Campiglia and Henderson, must be thought of as a short-time expansion in the sense that the amplitude for volume transitions is constrained both by the order of the expansion and by the elapsed scalar field. To calculate the amplitude for significant volume changes or between large differences in the value of the scalar field requires the expansion be evaluated to very high order. This contribution describes work in collaboration with P. Singh.
Corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant due to local inhomogeneities
Romano, Antonio Enea; Chen, Pisin E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw
2011-10-01
Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inhomogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant. Neglecting the presence of the inhomogeneity can in fact introduce a systematic misinterpretation of cosmological data, leading to the distinction between an apparent and true value of the cosmological constant. We establish the theoretical framework to calculate the corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant by modeling the local inhomogeneity with a ΛLTB solution. Our assumption to be at the center of a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous matter distribution correspond to effectively calculate the monopole contribution of the large scale inhomogeneities surrounding us, which we expect to be the dominant one, because of other observations supporting a high level of isotropy of the Universe around us. By performing a local Taylor expansion we analyze the number of independent degrees of freedom which determine the local shape of the inhomogeneity, and consider the issue of central smoothness, showing how the same correction can correspond to different inhomogeneity profiles. Contrary to previous attempts to fit data using large void models our approach is quite general. The correction to the apparent value of the cosmological constant is in fact present for local inhomogeneities of any size, and should always be taken appropriately into account both theoretically and observationally.
Error-corrected quantum annealing with hundreds of qubits.
Pudenz, Kristen L; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A
2014-01-01
Quantum information processing offers dramatic speedups, yet is susceptible to decoherence, whereby quantum superpositions decay into mutually exclusive classical alternatives, thus robbing quantum computers of their power. This makes the development of quantum error correction an essential aspect of quantum computing. So far, little is known about protection against decoherence for quantum annealing, a computational paradigm aiming to exploit ground-state quantum dynamics to solve optimization problems more rapidly than is possible classically. Here we develop error correction for quantum annealing and experimentally demonstrate it using antiferromagnetic chains with up to 344 superconducting flux qubits in processors that have recently been shown to physically implement programmable quantum annealing. We demonstrate a substantial improvement over the performance of the processors in the absence of error correction. These results pave the way towards large-scale noise-protected adiabatic quantum optimization devices, although a threshold theorem such as has been established in the circuit model of quantum computing remains elusive.
An embedding of loop quantum cosmology in (b,v) variables into a full theory context
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.
2016-06-01
Loop quantum cosmology in (b, v) variables, which is governed by a unit step size difference equation, is embedded into a full theory context based on similar variables. A full theory context here means a theory of quantum gravity arrived at using the quantisation techniques used in loop quantum gravity, however based on a different choice of elementary variables and classical gauge fixing suggested by loop quantum cosmology. From the full theory perspective, the symmetry reduction is characterised by the vanishing of certain phase space functions which are implemented as operator equations in the quantum theory. The loop quantum cosmology dynamics arise as the action of the full theory Hamiltonian on maximally coarse states in the kernel of the reduction constraints. An application of this reduction procedure to spherical symmetry is also sketched, with similar results, but only one canonical pair in (b, v) form.
Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Manti, S.
2013-02-01
We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.
Classical and quantum big brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, Alexander Y.; Manti, Serena
2012-06-01
We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the big brake singularity—the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field. It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the big brake type while it is present for the big bang and big crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical-quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong big bang and big crunch singularities are not traversable.
Classical and Quantum Big Brake Cosmology for Scalar Field and Tachyonic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamenshchik, Alexander; Manti, Serena
2015-01-01
We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field. It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.
Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models
Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Manti, S.
2013-02-21
We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.
Russell, R J
2001-12-01
The sciences and the humanities, including theology, form an epistemic hierarchy that ensures both constraint and irreducibility. At the same time, theological methodology is analogous to scientific methodology, though with several important differences. This model of interaction between science and theology can be seen illustrated in a consideration of the relation between contemporary cosmology (Big Bang cosmology, cosmic inflation, and quantum cosmology) and Christian systematic and natural theology. In light of developments in cosmology, the question of origins has become theologically less interesting than that of the cosmic evolution of a contingent universe.
Quantum corrected spherical collapse: A phenomenological framework
Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor
2010-08-15
A phenomenological framework is presented for incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections into the dynamics of spherically symmetric collapse. The effective equations are derived from a variational principle that guarantees energy conservation and the existence of a Birkhoff theorem. The gravitational potential can be chosen as a function of the areal radius to yield specific nonsingular static spherically symmetric solutions that generically have two horizons. For a specific choice of potential, the effective stress energy tensor violates only the dominant energy condition. The violations are maximum near the inner horizon and die off rapidly. A numerical study of the quantum corrected collapse of a spherically symmetric scalar field in this case reveals that the modified gravitational potential prevents the formation of a central singularity and ultimately yields a static, mostly vacuum, spacetime with two horizons. The matter 'piles up' on the inner horizon giving rise to mass inflation at late times. The Cauchy horizon is transformed into a null, weak singularity, but in contrast to Einstein gravity, the absence of a central singularity renders this null singularity stable.
Black hole entanglement and quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman
2013-10-01
It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic perspective in which all black hole degrees of freedom live on the stretched horizon. We model the horizon as a unitary quantum system with finite entropy, and do not postulate that the horizon geometry is smooth. We then show that, with mild assumptions, one can reconstruct local effective field theory observables that probe the black hole interior, and relative to which the state near the horizon looks like a local Minkowski vacuum. The reconstruction makes use of the formalism of quantum error correcting codes, and works for black hole states whose entanglement entropy does not yet saturate the Bekenstein-Hawking bound. Our general framework clarifies the black hole final state proposal, and allows a quantitative study of the transition into the "firewall" regime of maximally mixed black hole states.
Universal Scaling Laws in Quantum Theory and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauscher, Elizabeth A.; Hurtak, James J.; Hurtak, D. E.
2013-09-01
We have developed a hyperdimensional geometry, Dn or Descartes space of dimensionality of n > 4, for our consideration n = 10. This model introduces a formation in terms of the conditions of constants as the space that allows us to calculate a unique set of scaling laws from the lower end scale of the quantum vacuum foam to the current universe. A group theoretical matrix formalism is made for the ten and eleven dimensional model of this space. For the eleven dimensional expressions of this geometry, a fundamental frequency is introduced and utilized as an additional condition on the topology. The constraints on the Dn space are imposed by the relationship of the universal constraints of nature expressed in terms of physical variables. The quantum foam picture can be related to the Fermi-Dirac vacuum model. Consideration is made for the lower limit of a universal size scaling from the Planck length, l = 10-33 cm, temporal component, t = 10-44 sec, density, 1093 gm/cm3 and additional Planck units of quantized variables. The upper limit of rotational frequency in the Dn space is given as 1043 Hz, as conditions or constraints that apply to the early universe which are expressed uniquely in terms of the universal constants, h, Planck's constant, the G, the gravitational constant and c, the velocity of light. We have developed a scaling law for cosmogenesis from the early universe to our present day universe. We plot the physical variables of the ten and eleven dimensional space versus a temporal evolution of these parameters. From this formalism, in order to maintain the compatibility of Einstein's General Relativity with the current model of cosmology, we replace Guth's inflationary model with a matter creation term. Also we have developed a fundamental scaling relationship between the "size scale" of organized matter with their associated fundamental frequency.
Condensates in quantum chromodynamics and the cosmological constant
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Shrock, Robert
2011-01-01
Casher and Susskind [Casher A, Susskind L (1974) Phys Rev 9:436–460] have noted that in the light-front description, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a property of hadronic wavefunctions and not of the vacuum. Here we show from several physical perspectives that, because of color confinement, quark and gluon condensates in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are associated with the internal dynamics of hadrons. We discuss condensates using condensed matter analogues, the Anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, and the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger approach for bound states. Our analysis is in agreement with the Casher and Susskind model and the explicit demonstration of “in-hadron” condensates by Roberts and coworkers [Maris P, Roberts CD, Tandy PC (1998) Phys Lett B 420:267–273], using the Bethe–Salpeter–Dyson–Schwinger formalism for QCD-bound states. These results imply that QCD condensates give zero contribution to the cosmological constant, because all of the gravitational effects of the in-hadron condensates are already included in the normal contribution from hadron masses.
Multiple-Particle Interference and Quantum Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew
1996-11-01
The concept of multiple-particle interference is discussed, using insights provided by the classical theory of error correcting codes. This leads to a discussion of error correction in a quantum communication channel or a quantum computer. Methods of error correction in the quantum regime are presented, and their limitations assessed. A quantum channel can recover from arbitrary decoherence of x qubits if K bits of quantum information are encoded using n quantum bits, where K/n can be greater than 1 - 2H (2x/n), but must be less than 1 - 2H (x/n). This implies exponential reduction of decoherence with only a polynomial increase in the computing resources required. Therefore quantum computation can be made free of errors in the presence of physically realistic levels of decoherence. The methods also allow isolation of quantum communication from noise and evesdropping (quantum privacy amplification).
Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods
C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf
1999-04-01
In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuy, John L.; Singh, Parampreet
2017-01-01
The spatially closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model in loop quantum cosmology admits two inequivalent consistent quantizations: one based on expressing the field strength in terms of the holonomies over closed loops and another using a connection operator and open holonomies. Using the effective dynamics, we investigate the phenomenological differences between the two quantizations for the single-fluid and the two-fluid scenarios with various equations of state, including the phantom matter. We show that a striking difference between the two quantizations is the existence of two distinct quantum turnarounds, either bounces or recollapses, in the connection quantization, in contrast to a single distinct quantum bounce or a recollapse in the holonomy quantization. These results generalize an earlier result on the existence of two distinct quantum bounces for stiff matter by Corichi and Karami. However, we find that in certain situations two distinct quantum turnarounds can become virtually indistinguishable. And depending on the initial conditions, a pure quantum cyclic universe can also exist undergoing a quantum bounce and a quantum recollapse. We show that for various equations of states, connection-based quantization leads to super-Planckian values of the energy density and the expansion scalar at quantum turnarounds. Interestingly, we find that very extreme energy densities can also occur for the holonomy quantization, breaching the maximum allowed density in the spatially flat loop quantized model. However, the expansion scalar in all these cases is bounded by a universal value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, Edward
2000-03-01
Cosmology: The Science of the Universe is a broad introduction to the science of modern cosmology, with emphasis on its historical origins. The first edition of this best-selling book received worldwide acclaim for its lucid style and wide-ranging exploration of the universe. This eagerly awaited second edition updates and greatly extends the first with seven new chapters that explore early scientific cosmology, Cartesian and Newtonian world systems, cosmology after Newton and before Einstein, special relativity, observational cosmology, inflation and creation of the universe. All chapters conclude with a section entitled Reflections containing provocative topics that will foster lively debate. The new Projects section, also at the end of each chapter, raises questions and issues to challenge the reader.
Quantum-electrodynamics corrections in pionic hydrogen
Schlesser, S.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Indelicato, P.; Pachucki, K.
2011-07-15
We investigate all pure quantum-electrodynamics corrections to the np{yields}1s, n=2-4 transition energies of pionic hydrogen larger than 1 meV, which requires an accurate evaluation of all relevant contributions up to order {alpha}{sup 5}. These values are needed to extract an accurate strong interaction shift from experiment. Many small effects, such as second-order and double vacuum polarization contribution, proton and pion self-energies, finite size and recoil effects are included with exact mass dependence. Our final value differs from previous calculations by up to {approx_equal}11 ppm for the 1s state, while a recent experiment aims at a 4 ppm accuracy.
Breeding quantum error-correcting codes
Dong Ying; Hu Dan; Yu Sixia
2010-02-15
The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.
Teleparallel loop quantum cosmology in a system of intersecting branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Beesham, Aroonkumar; de Haro, Jaume
2016-09-01
Recently, some authors have removed the big bang singularity in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and have shown that the universe may undergo a number of oscillations. We investigate the origin of this type of teleparallel theory in a system of intersecting branes in M-theory in which the angle between them changes with time. This system is constructed by two intersecting anti-D8-branes, one compacted D4-brane and a D3-brane. These branes are built by joining M0-branes which develop in decaying fundamental strings. The compacted D4-brane is located between two intersecting anti-D8 branes and glues to one of them. Our universe is located on the D3 brane which wraps around the D4 brane from one end and sticks to one of the anti-D8 branes from the other one. In this system, there are three types of fields, corresponding to compacted D4 branes, intersecting branes and D3-branes. These fields interact with each other and make the angle between branes oscillate. By decreasing this angle, the intersecting anti-D8 branes approach each other, the D4 brane rolls, the D3 brane wraps around the D4 brane, and the universe contracts. By separating the intersecting branes and increasing the angle, the D4 brane rolls in the opposite direction, the D3 brane separates from it and the expansion branch begins. Also, the interaction between branes in this system gives us the exact form of the relevant Lagrangian for teleparallel LQC.
Cosmology with a decaying vacuum energy parametrization derived from quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szydłowski, M.; Stachowski, A.; Urbanowski, K.
2015-07-01
Within the quantum mechanical treatment of the decay problem one finds that at late times tthe survival probability of an unstable state cannot have the form of an exponentially decreasing function of time t but it has an inverse power-like form. This is a general property of unstable states following from basic principles of quantum theory. The consequence of this property is that in the case of false vacuum states the cosmological constant becomes dependent on time: Λ — Λbare ≡ Λ(t) — Λbare ∼ 1/t2. We construct the cosmological model with decaying vacuum energy density and matter for solving the cosmological constant problem and the coincidence problem. We show the equivalence of the proposed decaying false vacuum cosmology with the Λ(t) cosmologies (the Λ(t)CDM models). The cosmological implications of the model of decaying vacuum energy (dark energy) are discussed. We constrain the parameters of the model with decaying vacuum using astronomical data. For this aim we use the observation of distant supernovae of type Ia, measurements of H(z), BAO, CMB and others. The model analyzed is in good agreement with observation data and explain a small value of the cosmological constant today.
Effective dynamics, big bounces, and scaling symmetry in Bianchi type I loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiou, Dah-Wei
2007-12-01
The detailed formulation for loop quantum cosmology (LQC) in the Bianchi I model with a scalar massless field has been constructed. In this paper, its effective dynamics is studied in two improved strategies for implementing the LQC discreteness corrections. Both schemes show that the big bang is replaced by the big bounces, which take place up to 3 times, once in each diagonal direction, when the area or volume scale factor approaches the critical values in the Planck regime measured by the reference of the scalar field momentum. These two strategies give different evolutions: In one scheme, the effective dynamics is independent of the choice of the finite sized cell prescribed to make Hamiltonian finite; in the other, the effective dynamics reacts to the macroscopic scales introduced by the boundary conditions. Both schemes reveal interesting symmetries of scaling, which are reminiscent of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and also suggest that the fundamental spatial scale (area gap) may give rise to a temporal scale.
Effective dynamics, big bounces, and scaling symmetry in Bianchi type I loop quantum cosmology
Chiou, D.-W.
2007-12-15
The detailed formulation for loop quantum cosmology (LQC) in the Bianchi I model with a scalar massless field has been constructed. In this paper, its effective dynamics is studied in two improved strategies for implementing the LQC discreteness corrections. Both schemes show that the big bang is replaced by the big bounces, which take place up to 3 times, once in each diagonal direction, when the area or volume scale factor approaches the critical values in the Planck regime measured by the reference of the scalar field momentum. These two strategies give different evolutions: In one scheme, the effective dynamics is independent of the choice of the finite sized cell prescribed to make Hamiltonian finite; in the other, the effective dynamics reacts to the macroscopic scales introduced by the boundary conditions. Both schemes reveal interesting symmetries of scaling, which are reminiscent of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and also suggest that the fundamental spatial scale (area gap) may give rise to a temporal scale.
Loop quantum cosmology: The horizon problem and the probability of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Long; Zhu, Jian-Yang
2015-10-01
Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology reveal a deformed space-time structure, in which the signature changes when the energy density is ρ =ρc/2 . Furthermore, in loop quantum cosmology, one can obtain an effective causal structure only for a low density region (ρ ≤ρc/2 ), which gives a natural initial condition to consider the horizon problem. Choosing the initial value at ρ (0 )=ρc/2 in this paper, we investigate the horizon problem and the probability of inflation in the framework of loop quantum cosmology. Two models are considered: the quadratic inflation and the natural inflation. We use the Liouville measure to calculate the probability of inflation which solves the horizon problem, and find that, for the quadratic inflation model, the probability is very close to unity, while for the natural inflation model, the probability is about 35%.
Quantum Newtonian cosmology and the biconfluent Heun functions
Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.
2015-09-15
We obtain the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation for a particle (galaxy) moving in a Newtonian universe with a cosmological constant, which is given in terms of the biconfluent Heun functions. The first six Heun polynomials of the biconfluent function are written explicitly. The energy spectrum which resembles the one corresponding to the isotropic harmonic oscillator is also obtained. The wave functions as well as the energy levels codify the role played by the cosmological constant.
Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction with Superconducting Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew
2015-03-01
Quantum information science seeks to take advantage of the properties of quantum mechanics to manipulate information in ways that are not otherwise possible. Quantum computation, for example, promises to solve certain problems in days that would take a conventional supercomputer the age of the universe to decipher. This power does not come without a cost however, as quantum bits are inherently more susceptible to errors than their classical counterparts. Fortunately, it is possible to redundantly encode information in several entangled qubits, making it robust to decoherence and control imprecision with quantum error correction. I studied one possible physical implementation for quantum computing, employing the ground and first excited quantum states of a superconducting electrical circuit as a quantum bit. These ``transmon'' qubits are dispersively coupled to a superconducting resonator used for readout, control, and qubit-qubit coupling in the cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In this talk I will give an general introduction to quantum computation and the superconducting technology that seeks to achieve it before explaining some of the specific results reported in my thesis. One major component is that of the first realization of three-qubit quantum error correction in a solid state device, where we encode one logical quantum bit in three entangled physical qubits and detect and correct phase- or bit-flip errors using a three-qubit Toffoli gate. My thesis is available at arXiv:1311.6759.
NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes
Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois
2011-05-15
Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.
Quantum correction to classical gravitational interaction between two polarizable objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Puxun; Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2016-12-01
When gravity is quantized, there inevitably exist quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations which induce quadrupole moments in gravitationally polarizable objects and produce a quantum correction to the classical Newtonian interaction between them. Here, based upon linearized quantum gravity and the leading-order perturbation theory, we study, from a quantum field-theoretic prospect, this quantum correction between a pair of gravitationally polarizable objects treated as two-level harmonic oscillators. We find that the interaction potential behaves like r-11 in the retarded regime and r-10 in the near regime. Our result agrees with what were recently obtained in different approaches. Our study seems to indicate that linearized quantum gravity is robust in dealing with quantum gravitational effects at low energies.
Big-bounce cosmology from quantum gravity: The case of a cyclical Bianchi I universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moriconi, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni; Capozziello, Salvatore
2016-07-01
We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of a Bianchi I model in the presence of a small negative cosmological constant characterizing its evolution in term of the dust-time dualism. We demonstrate that in a canonical metric approach, the cosmological singularity is removed in correspondence to a positive defined value of the dust energy density. Furthermore, the quantum big bounce is connected to the Universe's turning point via a well-defined semiclassical limit. Then we can reliably infer that the proposed scenario is compatible with a cyclical universe picture. We also show how, when the contribution of the dust energy density is sufficiently high, the proposed scenario can be extended to the Bianchi IX cosmology and therefore how it can be regarded as a paradigm for the generic cosmological model. Finally, we investigate the origin of the observed cutoff on the cosmological dynamics, demonstrating how the big-bounce evolution can be mimicked by the same semiclassical scenario, where the negative cosmological constant is replaced via a polymer discretization of the Universe's volume. A direct proportionality law between these two parameters is then established.
Cosmological perturbations of quantum-mechanical origin and anisotropy of the microwave background
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grishchuk, L. P.
1993-01-01
Cosmological perturbations generated quantum mechanically (as a particular case, during inflation) possess statistical properties of squeezed quantum states. The power spectra of the perturbations are modulated and the angular distribution of the produced temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background radiation is quite specific. An exact formula is derived for the angular correlation function of the temperature fluctuations caused by squeezed gravitational waves. The predicted angular pattern can, in principle, be revealed by observations like those by the Cosmic Background Explorer.
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotas, Ronald
2016-03-01
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/
Performance of two different quantum annealing correction codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Anurag; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2016-02-01
Quantum annealing is a promising approach for solving optimization problems, but like all other quantum information processing methods, it requires error correction to ensure scalability. In this work, we experimentally compare two quantum annealing correction (QAC) codes in the setting of antiferromagnetic chains, using two different quantum annealing processors. The lower-temperature processor gives rise to higher success probabilities. The two codes differ in a number of interesting and important ways, but both require four physical qubits per encoded qubit. We find significant performance differences, which we explain in terms of the effective energy boost provided by the respective redundantly encoded logical operators of the two codes. The code with the higher energy boost results in improved performance, at the expense of a lower-degree encoded graph. Therefore, we find that there exists an important trade-off between encoded connectivity and performance for quantum annealing correction codes.
Cosmological dispersion, the corrected redshift formula, and large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hochberg, David; Kephart, Thomas W.
1992-04-01
We calculate the exact frequency redshift for both massless and massive scalar fields coupled to gravity in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds. The exact redshift expression factorizes and is proportional to the naive Doppler shift times a term representing diffractive effects. These diffractive or dispersive corrections can be large for field modes with wavelengths on the order of the horizon size. The corresponding mode amplitudes undergo amplification or deamplification, with respect to conformally coupled scalars, depending on the value of the coupling to gravity. Implications for cosmological density perturbations are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rau, Markus Michael; Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella
2017-04-01
Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by choosing a suboptimal redshift histogram bin width and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small-scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to 6σ for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalized resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surveys to obtain unbiased cosmological parameter constraints using a minimum number of spectroscopic calibration data. For a DES-like galaxy clustering forecast, we obtain unbiased results with respect to errors caused by suboptimal histogram bin width selection, using only 5k representative spectroscopic calibration objects per tomographic redshift bin.
Suboptimal quantum-error-correcting procedure based on semidefinite programming
Yamamoto, Naoki; Hara, Shinji; Tsumura, Koji
2005-02-01
In this paper, we consider a simplified error-correcting problem: for a fixed encoding process, to find a cascade connected quantum channel such that the worst fidelity between the input and the output becomes maximum. With the use of the one-to-one parametrization of quantum channels, a procedure finding a suboptimal error-correcting channel based on a semidefinite programming is proposed. The effectiveness of our method is verified by an example of the bit-flip channel decoding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucky Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei
2016-06-01
We aim to use the observations of B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to probe the ‘parent universe’ under the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). In particular, we investigate the possibility for the gravitational waves (GW) such as those from the stellar binary systems in the parent universe to survive the big bounce and thus to be still observable today. Our study is based on the background dynamics with the zeroth-order holonomy correction using the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We propose a new framework in which transfer functions are invoked to bring the GWs in the parent universe through the big bounce, inflation, and big bang to reach today. This transparent and intuitive formalism allows us to accurately discuss the influence of the GWs from the parent universe on the B-mode polarization in the CMB today under backgrounds of different LQC parameters. These features can soon be tested by the forth-coming CMB observations and we note that the LQC backgrounds with symmetric bouncing scenarios are ruled out by the latest observational results from Planck and BICEP2/Keck experiments.
Single-Shot Fault-Tolerant Quantum Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombín, Héctor
2015-07-01
Conventional quantum error correcting codes require multiple rounds of measurements to detect errors with enough confidence in fault-tolerant scenarios. Here, I show that for suitable topological codes, a single round of local measurements is enough. This feature is generic and is related to self-correction and confinement phenomena in the corresponding quantum Hamiltonian model. Three-dimensional gauge color codes exhibit this single-shot feature, which also applies to initialization and gauge fixing. Assuming the time for efficient classical computations to be negligible, this yields a topological fault-tolerant quantum computing scheme where all elementary logical operations can be performed in constant time.
Tunneling in perfect-fluid (minisuperspace) quantum cosmology
Brown, J.D. )
1990-02-15
A minisuperspace model of general relativity with a positive cosmological constant coupled to a perfect isentropic fluid is presented. The classical equations of motion are solved for a tunneling solution that consists of a Euclidean instanton of the wormhole type, connected to Lorentzian Robertson-Walker universes. The path integral is then defined as a sum over Lorentzian geometries and it is shown that the tunneling solution dominates the semiclassical evaluation of the path integral.
Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan
2016-11-01
Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either an explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication.
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H
2014-11-26
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Ground state of the universe in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorobey, Natalia; Lukyanenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We find a physical state of a closed universe with the minimal excitation of the universe expansion energy in quantum gravity. It is an analog of the vacuum state of the ordinary quantum field theory in the Minkowsky space, but in our approach an energy of space of a closed universe together with the energy of its matter content are minimized. This ground state is chosen among an enlarged set of physical states, compared with the ordinary covariant quantum gravity. In our approach, physical states are determined by weak constraints: quantum mechanical averages of gravitational constraint operators equal zero. As a result, they appear to be non-static in such a modification of quantum gravity. Quantum dynamics of the universe is described by Schrödinger equation with a cosmic time determined by weak gravitational constraints. In order to obtain the observed megascopic universe with the inflation stage just after its quantum beginning, a lot of the energy in the form of the inflaton scalar field condensate is prescribed to the initial state. Parameters of the initial state for a homogeneous model of the universe are calculated.
Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2013-05-20
We propose an efficient protocol for optimizing the physical implementation of three-qubit quantum error correction with spatially separated quantum dot spins via virtual-photon-induced process. In the protocol, each quantum dot is trapped in an individual cavity and each two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. We propose the optimal quantum circuits and describe the physical implementation for correcting both the bit flip and phase flip errors by applying a series of one-bit unitary rotation gates and two-bit quantum iSWAP gates that are produced by the long-range interaction between two distributed quantum dot spins mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity. The protocol opens promising perspectives for long distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation networks.
Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description
Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@phys.lsu.edu
2014-03-01
A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models.
Unitary evolution for a quantum Kantowski-Sachs cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Sridip; Banerjee, Narayan
2015-10-01
It is shown that like the Bianchi I, V and IX models, a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model also allows unitary evolution on quantization. It has also been shown that this unitarity is not at the expense of anisotropy. Non-unitarity, if there is any, cannot escape notice here, as the evolution is studied against a properly oriented time parameter fixed by the evolution of the fluid. Furthermore, we have constructed a wave packet by superposing different energy eigenstates, thereby establishing unitarity in a non-trivial way, which is a stronger result than an energy eigenstate trivially giving a time independent probability density. For α \
Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables
Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd
2010-01-15
Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-variable quantum information, and we propose a simple environmental measurement that under certain circumstances fully restores the quantum information of the signal state although the state is not reconstructed with unit fidelity. We implement the protocol for which information is encoded into conjugate quadratures of coherent states of light and the noise added under the decoherence process is of Gaussian nature. The correction protocol is tested using both a deterministic as well as a probabilistic strategy. The potential use of the protocol in a continuous-variable quantum-key distribution scheme as a means to combat excess noise is also investigated.
Quantum cosmology with matter in scalar-tensor theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S.; Lim, H.
2016-11-01
The cosmological application of the low energy effective action of string theory with perfect fluid type matter (satisfying p=γ ρ ) is reconsidered. First, its isotropic and anisotropic spacetime cosmological solutions are obtained for general γ . The scale factor duality is applied and checked for our model as well as in the presence of γ of which possible extension to nonvanishing γ is pioneered before. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated because of the complexity of the solutions. Second, as a quantization, we apply the canonical quantization and the corresponding Wheeler-De Witt equation is constructed for this scalar-tensor theory. By solving the Wheeler-De Witt equation the wave function is found for general value of γ . On the basis of its wave function, the tunneling rate turns out to be just the ratio of norms of the wave function for pre- and post-big-bang phases. This result shows that the rate grows as γ gets value close to a specific value. This resolves the undetermined value for the behavior of the scale factors.
Gambini, R; Pullin, J
2000-12-18
We consider general relativity with a cosmological constant as a perturbative expansion around a completely solvable diffeomorphism invariant field theory. This theory is the lambda --> infinity limit of general relativity. This allows an explicit perturbative computational setup in which the quantum states of the theory and the classical observables can be explicitly computed. An unexpected relationship arises at a quantum level between the discrete spectrum of the volume operator and the allowed values of the cosmological constant.
Behavior of nonlinear anisotropies in bouncing Bianchi I models of loop quantum cosmology
Chiou, D.-W.; Vandersloot, Kevin
2007-10-15
In homogeneous and isotropic loop quantum cosmology, gravity can behave repulsively at Planckian energy densities leading to the replacement of the big bang singularity with a big bounce. Yet in any bouncing scenario it is important to include nonlinear effects from anisotropies which typically grow during the collapsing phase. We investigate the dynamics of a Bianchi I anisotropic model within the framework of loop quantum cosmology. Using effective semiclassical equations of motion to study the dynamics, we show that the big bounce is still predicted with only differences in detail arising from the inclusion of anisotropies. We show that the anisotropic shear term grows during the collapsing phase, but remains finite through the bounce. Immediately following the bounce, the anisotropies decay and with the inclusion of matter with equation of state w<+1, the universe isotropizes in the expanding phase.
Quantum error-correcting codes over mixed alphabets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2013-08-01
We study the quantum error-correcting codes over mixed alphabets to deal with a more complicated and practical situation in which the physical systems for encoding may have different numbers of energy levels. In particular we investigate their constructions and propose the theory of quantum Singleton bound. Two kinds of code constructions are presented: a projection-based construction for general case and a graphical construction based on a graph-theoretical object composite coding clique dealing with the case of reducible alphabets. We find out some optimal one-error correcting or detecting codes over two alphabets. Our method of composite coding clique also sheds light on constructing standard quantum error-correcting codes, and other families of optimal codes are found.
Dynamics of a Perfect Fluid Through Velocity Potentials with Application in Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarenga, F. G.; Fracalossi, R.; Furtado, R. G.; Gonçalves, S. V. B.
2017-02-01
We review the Eulerian description of hydrodynamics using Seliger-Whitham's formalism (in classical case) and Schutz's formalism (in relativistic case). In these formalisms, the velocity field of a perfect fluid is described by scalar potentials. With this, we can obtain the evolution equations of the fluid and its Hamiltonian. In the scenario of quantum cosmology, the Schutz's formalism makes it possible to introduce phenomenologically a time variable in minisuperspace models.
Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds
Guth, Larry; Lubotzky, Alexander
2014-08-15
Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance n{sup ε}. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z{sub 2}-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all.
Some implications of signature-change in cosmological models of loop quantum gravity
Bojowald, Martin; Mielczarek, Jakub E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl
2015-08-01
Signature change at high density has been obtained as a possible consequence of deformed space-time structures in models of loop quantum gravity. This article provides a conceptual discussion of implications for cosmological scenarios, based on an application of mathematical results for mixed-type partial differential equations (the Tricomi problem). While the effective equations from which signature change has been derived are shown to be locally regular and therefore reliable, the underlying theory of loop quantum gravity may face several global problems in its semiclassical solutions.
New class of photonic quantum error correction codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silveri, Matti; Michael, Marios; Brierley, R. T.; Salmilehto, Juha; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Girvin, S. M.
We present a new class of quantum error correction codes for applications in quantum memories, communication and scalable computation. These codes are constructed from a finite superposition of Fock states and can exactly correct errors that are polynomial up to a specified degree in creation and destruction operators. Equivalently, they can perform approximate quantum error correction to any given order in time step for the continuous-time dissipative evolution under these errors. The codes are related to two-mode photonic codes but offer the advantage of requiring only a single photon mode to correct loss (amplitude damping), as well as the ability to correct other errors, e.g. dephasing. Our codes are also similar in spirit to photonic ''cat codes'' but have several advantages including smaller mean occupation number and exact rather than approximate orthogonality of the code words. We analyze how the rate of uncorrectable errors scales with the code complexity and discuss the unitary control for the recovery process. These codes are realizable with current superconducting qubit technology and can increase the fidelity of photonic quantum communication and memories.
Determination and Correction of Persistent Biases in Quantum Annealers
2016-08-25
24. King, A. D. & McGeoch, C. C. Algorithm engineering for a quantum annealing platform. arXiv:1410.2628 (2014). 25. Harris, R. et al. Experimental...1Scientific RepoRts | 6:18628 | DOI: 10.1038/srep18628 www.nature.com/scientificreports Determination and correction of persistent biases in quantum ...annealers Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz1,2, Bryan O’Gorman1,3, Joseph Fluegemann1,4, Rupak Biswas5 & Vadim N. Smelyanskiy6 Calibration of quantum
Quantum gravity corrections in Chandrasekhar limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Mohamed
2017-01-01
It is agreed that Chandrasekhar mass and central density of white dwarfs are independent, which means that there is a whole series of stars having radius and central density as parameters that all have the same Chandrasekhar mass. In this article the influence of a quantum gravity is shown so the Chandrasekhar limits (mass and radius) depend explicitly on the central density and gravity parameters. A new polytropic relation between degenerate pressure of the star and its density is investigated. This leads to a modification in Lane-Emden equation and mass and radius formulas of the star. A modified Lane-Emden equation is solved numerically with consideration to the mass density of the star depends on its radius. The solution was used in calculating the mass and radius limit of the white dwarf. It was found that mass and radius limits decrease due to increase in central density and gravity parameters in a comparison with the original values. We can say that central density and quantum gravity constitute a new tool that can help to make the theoretical values corresponding to experimental observations apply in a better manner.
Tachyon field in loop quantum cosmology: An example of traversable singularity
Li Lifang; Zhu Jianyang
2009-06-15
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) predicts a nonsingular evolution of the universe through a bounce in the high energy region. But LQC has an ambiguity about the quantization scheme. Recently, the authors in [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124008 (2008)] proposed a new quantization scheme. Similar to others, this new quantization scheme also replaces the big bang singularity with the quantum bounce. More interestingly, it introduces a quantum singularity, which is traversable. We investigate this novel dynamics quantitatively with a tachyon scalar field, which gives us a concrete example. Our result shows that our universe can evolve through the quantum singularity regularly, which is different from the classical big bang singularity. So this singularity is only a weak singularity.
GUP parameter from quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardigli, Fabio; Lambiase, Gaetano; Vagenas, Elias C.
2017-04-01
We propose a technique to compute the deformation parameter of the generalized uncertainty principle by using the leading quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential. We just assume General Relativity as theory of Gravitation, and the thermal nature of the GUP corrections to the Hawking spectrum. With these minimal assumptions our calculation gives, to first order, a specific numerical result. The physical meaning of this value is discussed, and compared with the previously obtained bounds on the generalized uncertainty principle deformation parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2008-07-01
We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.
Cosmology from quantum potential in brane-anti-brane system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza
2015-09-01
Recently, some authors removed the big-bang singularity and predicted an infinite age of our universe. In this paper, we show that the same result can be obtained in string theory and M-theory; however, the shape of universe changes in different epochs. In our mechanism, first, N fundamental string decay to N D0-anti-D0-brane. Then, D0-branes join each other, grow and form a six-dimensional brane-antibrane system. This system is unstable, broken and at present the form of four-dimensional universes, one anti-universe in addition to one wormhole are produced. Thus, there isn't any big-bang in cosmology and the universe is a fundamental string at the beginning. Also, the total age of universe contains two parts, one is related to initial age and the other corresponds to the present age of universe (ttot =tinitial +tpresent). On the other hand, the initial age of universe includes two parts, the age of fundamental string and the time of transition (tinitial =ttransition +tf-string). We observe that only in the case of (tf-string → ∞), the scale factor of universe is zero and as a result, the total age of universe is infinity.
Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods
Melius, C.F.; Allendorf, M.D.
2000-03-23
New bond additivity correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) Moller-Plesset (MP)2 method, BAC-hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-hybrid method is expected to scale well for large molecules. The BAC-hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 predictions as an indication of the method's accuracy, whereas the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to accomplish this. A statistical analysis of the error in each of the methods is presented on the basis of calculations performed for large sets (more than 120) of molecules.
Impact of quantum entanglement on spectrum of cosmological fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi
2014-07-01
We investigate the effect of entanglement between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider a free massive scalar field, and construct the reduced density matrix by tracing out the vacuum state for one of the open charts, as recently derived by Maldacena and Pimentel. We formulate the mean-square vacuum fluctuations by using the reduced density matrix and show that the scale invariant spectrum of massless scalar field is realized on small scales. On the other hand, we find that the quantum entanglement affects the shape of the spectrum on large scales comparable to or greater than the curvature radius.
Applications and error correction for adiabatic quantum optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudenz, Kristen
Adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) is a fast-developing subfield of quantum information processing which holds great promise in the relatively near future. Here we develop an application, quantum anomaly detection, and an error correction code, Quantum Annealing Correction (QAC), for use with AQO. The motivation for the anomaly detection algorithm is the problematic nature of classical software verification and validation (V&V). The number of lines of code written for safety-critical applications such as cars and aircraft increases each year, and with it the cost of finding errors grows exponentially (the cost of overlooking errors, which can be measured in human safety, is arguably even higher). We approach the V&V problem by using a quantum machine learning algorithm to identify charateristics of software operations that are implemented outside of specifications, then define an AQO to return these anomalous operations as its result. Our error correction work is the first large-scale experimental demonstration of quantum error correcting codes. We develop QAC and apply it to USC's equipment, the first and second generation of commercially available D-Wave AQO processors. We first show comprehensive experimental results for the code's performance on antiferromagnetic chains, scaling the problem size up to 86 logical qubits (344 physical qubits) and recovering significant encoded success rates even when the unencoded success rates drop to almost nothing. A broader set of randomized benchmarking problems is then introduced, for which we observe similar behavior to the antiferromagnetic chain, specifically that the use of QAC is almost always advantageous for problems of sufficient size and difficulty. Along the way, we develop problem-specific optimizations for the code and gain insight into the various on-chip error mechanisms (most prominently thermal noise, since the hardware operates at finite temperature) and the ways QAC counteracts them. We finish by showing
Classical and quantum dynamics of a perfect fluid scalar-energy dependent metric cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodadi, M.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.
2016-05-01
Inspired from the idea of minimally coupling of a real scalar field to geometry, we investigate the classical and quantum models of a flat energy-dependent FRW cosmology coupled to a perfect fluid in the framework of the scalar-rainbow metric gravity. We use the standard Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid and show that under a particular energy-dependent gauge fixing, it may lead to the identification of a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. It is shown that, under some circumstances on the minisuperspace prob energy, the classical evolution of the of the universe represents a late time expansion coming from a bounce instead of the big-bang singularity. Then we go forward by showing that this formalism gives rise to a Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wave function of the universe. We use the resulting wave function in order to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects by means of the many-worlds and Bohmian interpretation of quantum cosmology.
SL(2,C) Chern-Simons Theory and Quantum Gravity with a Cosmological Constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haggard, Hal; Han, Muxin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Riello, Aldo
2015-04-01
We show a relation between 4-dimensional quantum gravity with a cosmological constant and SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory in 3-dimensions with knotted graph defects. In particular, we study the expectation value of a non-planar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory on S3. We analyze its asymptotic behavior in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. We find that a class of flat connections in the graph complement manifold are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. We show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged curved volume of the 4-simplex. Interestingly, the volume term stems from the asymptotics of the Chern-Simons action. Another peculiarity of our approach is that the sign of the curvature of the reconstructed geometry, and hence of the cosmological constant in the Regge action, is not fixed a priori, but rather emerges semiclassically and dynamically from the solution of the equations of motion. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the European Marie Curie actions, and the Perimeter Institute.
Robustness of channel-adapted quantum error correction
Ballo, Gabor; Gurin, Peter
2009-07-15
A quantum channel models the interaction between the system we are interested in and its environment. Such a model can capture the main features of the interaction, but, because of the complexity of the environment, we cannot assume that it is fully accurate. We study the robustness of quantum error correction operations against completely unexpected and subsequently undetermined type of channel uncertainties. We find that a channel-adapted optimal error correction operation does not only give the best possible channel fidelity but it is more robust against channel alterations than any other error correction operation. Our results are valid for Pauli channels and stabilizer codes, but based on some numerical results, we believe that very similar conclusions can be drawn also in the general case.
Atomic electron energies including relativistic effects and quantum electrodynamic corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aoyagi, M.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Mark, H.
1977-01-01
Atomic electron energies have been calculated relativistically. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all orbitals in all atoms with 2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. These results will serve for detailed comparison of calculations based on other approaches. The magnitude of quantum electrodynamic corrections is exhibited quantitatively for each state.
Determination and correction of persistent biases in quantum annealers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.
2016-01-01
Calibration of quantum computers is essential to the effective utilisation of their quantum resources. Specifically, the performance of quantum annealers is likely to be significantly impaired by noise in their programmable parameters, effectively misspecification of the computational problem to be solved, often resulting in spurious suboptimal solutions. We developed a strategy to determine and correct persistent, systematic biases between the actual values of the programmable parameters and their user-specified values. We applied the recalibration strategy to two D-Wave Two quantum annealers, one at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, and another at D-Wave Systems in Burnaby, Canada. We show that the recalibration procedure not only reduces the magnitudes of the biases in the programmable parameters but also enhances the performance of the device on a set of random benchmark instances.
Determination and correction of persistent biases in quantum annealers
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O’Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.
2016-01-01
Calibration of quantum computers is essential to the effective utilisation of their quantum resources. Specifically, the performance of quantum annealers is likely to be significantly impaired by noise in their programmable parameters, effectively misspecification of the computational problem to be solved, often resulting in spurious suboptimal solutions. We developed a strategy to determine and correct persistent, systematic biases between the actual values of the programmable parameters and their user-specified values. We applied the recalibration strategy to two D-Wave Two quantum annealers, one at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, and another at D-Wave Systems in Burnaby, Canada. We show that the recalibration procedure not only reduces the magnitudes of the biases in the programmable parameters but also enhances the performance of the device on a set of random benchmark instances. PMID:26783120
Halliwell, J. J.
2009-12-15
In the quantization of simple cosmological models (minisuperspace models) described by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, an important step is the construction, from the wave function, of a probability distribution answering various questions of physical interest, such as the probability of the system entering a given region of configuration space at any stage in its entire history. A standard but heuristic procedure is to use the flux of (components of) the wave function in a WKB approximation. This gives sensible semiclassical results but lacks an underlying operator formalism. In this paper, we address the issue of constructing probability distributions linked to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation using the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. The key step is the construction of class operators characterizing questions of physical interest. Taking advantage of a recent decoherent histories analysis of the arrival time problem in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, we show that the appropriate class operators in quantum cosmology are readily constructed using a complex potential. The class operator for not entering a region of configuration space is given by the S matrix for scattering off a complex potential localized in that region. We thus derive the class operators for entering one or more regions in configuration space. The class operators commute with the Hamiltonian, have a sensible classical limit, and are closely related to an intersection number operator. The definitions of class operators given here handle the key case in which the underlying classical system has multiple crossings of the boundaries of the regions of interest. We show that oscillatory WKB solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation give approximate decoherence of histories, as do superpositions of WKB solutions, as long as the regions of configuration space are sufficiently large. The corresponding probabilities coincide, in a semiclassical approximation, with standard heuristic procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo; Page, Don N.
1992-05-01
The expansion of the wave function of a quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential by its scalar-field part decouples the gravitational-field part into an infinite system of linear homogeneous differential equations (equivalent to a matrix equation). The solutions for the gravitational-field part are found in the product integral formulation. It is shown that there exists a spectrum of the wave functions exponentially damped for large three-geometries under the condition that the cosmological constant should vanish. These are interpeted as the Hawking-Page wormholes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, Viqar
2012-03-01
Research on quantum gravity from a non-perturbative 'quantization of geometry' perspective has been the focus of much research in the past two decades, due to the Ashtekar-Barbero Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity. This approach provides an SU(2) gauge field as the canonical configuration variable; the analogy with Yang-Mills theory at the kinematical level opened up some research space to reformulate the old Wheeler-DeWitt program into what is now known as loop quantum gravity (LQG). The author is known for his work in the LQG approach to cosmology, which was the first application of this formalism that provided the possibility of exploring physical questions. Therefore the flavour of the book is naturally informed by this history. The book is based on a set of graduate-level lectures designed to impart a working knowledge of the canonical approach to gravitation. It is more of a textbook than a treatise, unlike three other recent books in this area by Kiefer [1], Rovelli [2] and Thiemann [3]. The style and choice of topics of these authors are quite different; Kiefer's book provides a broad overview of the path integral and canonical quantization methods from a historical perspective, whereas Rovelli's book focuses on philosophical and formalistic aspects of the problems of time and observables, and gives a development of spin-foam ideas. Thiemann's is much more a mathematical physics book, focusing entirely on the theory of representing constraint operators on a Hilbert space and charting a mathematical trajectory toward a physical Hilbert space for quantum gravity. The significant difference from these books is that Bojowald covers mainly classical topics until the very last chapter, which contains the only discussion of quantization. In its coverage of classical gravity, the book has some content overlap with Poisson's book [4], and with Ryan and Shepley's older work on relativistic cosmology [5]; for instance the contents of chapter five of the
Less Decoherence and More Coherence in Quantum Gravity, Inflationary Cosmology and Elsewhere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okon, Elias; Sudarsky, Daniel
2016-07-01
In Crull (Found Phys 45:1019-1045, 2015) it is argued that, in order to confront outstanding problems in cosmology and quantum gravity, interpretational aspects of quantum theory can by bypassed because decoherence is able to resolve them. As a result, Crull (Found Phys 45:1019-1045, 2015) concludes that our focus on conceptual and interpretational issues, while dealing with such matters in Okon and Sudarsky (Found Phys 44:114-143, 2014), is avoidable and even pernicious. Here we will defend our position by showing in detail why decoherence does not help in the resolution of foundational questions in quantum mechanics, such as the measurement problem or the emergence of classicality.
Anisotropic loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2016-04-01
A loop quantization of the diagonal class A Bianchi models starting from the complex-valued self-dual connection variables is presented in this paper. The basic operators in the quantum theory correspond to areas and generalized holonomies of the Ashtekar connection, and the reality conditions are implemented via the choice of the inner product on the kinematical Hilbert space. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is given explicitly for the case when the matter content is a massless scalar field (in which case the scalar field can be used as a relational clock), and it is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved in the sense that singular and nonsingular states decouple under the action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator.
Quantum mechanics of conformally and minimally coupled Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo
1992-10-01
The expansion method by a time-dependent basis of the eigenfunctions for the space-coordinate-dependent sub-Hamiltonian is one of the most natural frameworks for quantum systems, relativistic as well as nonrelativistic. The complete set of wave functions is found in the product integral formulation, whose constants of integration are fixed by Cauchy initial data. The wave functions for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology conformally and minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential or a polynomial potential are expanded in terms of the eigenfunctions of the scalar field sub-Hamiltonian part. The resultant gravitational field part which is an ``intrinsic'' timelike variable-dependent matrix-valued differential equation is solved again in the product integral formulation. There are classically allowed regions for the ``intrinsic'' timelike variable depending on the scalar field quantum numbers and these regions increase accordingly as the quantum numbers increase. For a fixed large three-geometry the wave functions corresponding to the low excited (small quantum number) states of the scalar field are exponentially damped or diverging and the wave functions corresponding to the high excited (large quantum number) states are still oscillatory but become eventually exponential as the three-geometry becomes larger. Furthermore, a proposal is advanced that the wave functions exponentially damped for a large three-geometry may be interpreted as ``tunneling out'' wave functions into, and the wave functions exponentially diverging as ``tunneling in'' from, different universes with the same or different topologies, the former being interpreted as the recently proposed Hawking-Page wormhole wave functions. It is observed that there are complex as well as Euclidean actions depending on the quantum numbers of the scalar field part outside the classically allowed region both of the gravitational and scalar fields, suggesting the usefulness of complex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharov, Yu. P.
This survey is devoted to possible manifestations of remarkable topological duality between real scalar and spinor fields (TDSS) existing on a great number of manifolds important in physical applications. The given manifestations are demonstrated to occur within the framework of miscellaneous branches in ordinary and supersymmetric quantum field theories, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein type theories, cosmology, strings, membranes and p-branes. All this allows one to draw the condusion that the above duality will seem to be an essential ingredient in many questions of present and future investigations.
Homoclinic chaos in axisymmetric Bianchi-IX cosmological models with an ad hoc quantum potential
Correa, G. C.; Stuchi, T. J.; Joras, S. E.
2010-04-15
In this work we study the dynamics of the axisymmetric Bianchi-IX cosmological model with a term of quantum potential added. As it is well known, this class of Bianchi-IX models is homogeneous and anisotropic with two scale factors, A(t) and B(t), derived from the solution of Einstein's equation for general relativity. The model we use in this work has a cosmological constant and the matter content is dust. To this model we add a quantum-inspired potential that is intended to represent short-range effects due to the general relativistic behavior of matter in small scales and play the role of a repulsive force near the singularity. We find that this potential restricts the dynamics of the model to positive values of A(t) and B(t) and alters some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the dynamics studied previously by several authors. We make a complete analysis of the phase space of the model finding critical points, periodic orbits, stable/unstable manifolds using numerical techniques such as Poincare section, numerical continuation of orbits, and numerical globalization of invariant manifolds. We compare the classical and the quantum models. Our main result is the existence of homoclinic crossings of the stable and unstable manifolds in the physically meaningful region of the phase space [where both A(t) and B(t) are positive], indicating chaotic escape to inflation and bouncing near the singularity.
Quantum cosmology in (1 +1 )-dimensional Hořava-Lifshitz theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitelli, J. P. M.
2016-05-01
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 92, 084012 (2015)], the author studied the classical (1 +1 )-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe filled with a perfect fluid in the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity. This theory is dynamical due to the anisotropic scaling of space and time. It also resembles the Jackiw-Teitelboim model, in which a dilatonic degree of freedom is necessary for dynamics. In this paper, I will take one step further in the understanding of (1 +1 )-dimensional HL cosmology by means of the quantization of the FRW universe filled with a perfect fluid with the equation of state (EoS) p =w ρ . The fluid will be introduced in the model via Schutz formalism and Dirac's algorithm will be used for quantization. It will be shown that the Schrödinger equation for the wave function of the universe has the following properties: for w =1 (radiation fluid), the characteristic potential will be exponential, resembling Liouville quantum mechanics; for w ≠1 , a characteristic inverse square potential appears in addition to a regular polynomial that depends on the EoS. Explicit solutions for a few cases of interest will be found and the expectation value of the scale factor will be calculated. As in usual quantum cosmology, it will be shown that the quantum theory smooths out the big-bang singularity, but the classical behavior of the universe is recovered in the low-energy limit.
Iterative Phase Optimization of Elementary Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M.; Rivas, A.; Martínez, E. A.; Nigg, D.; Schindler, P.; Monz, T.; Blatt, R.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-07-01
Performing experiments on small-scale quantum computers is certainly a challenging endeavor. Many parameters need to be optimized to achieve high-fidelity operations. This can be done efficiently for operations acting on single qubits, as errors can be fully characterized. For multiqubit operations, though, this is no longer the case, as in the most general case, analyzing the effect of the operation on the system requires a full state tomography for which resources scale exponentially with the system size. Furthermore, in recent experiments, additional electronic levels beyond the two-level system encoding the qubit have been used to enhance the capabilities of quantum-information processors, which additionally increases the number of parameters that need to be controlled. For the optimization of the experimental system for a given task (e.g., a quantum algorithm), one has to find a satisfactory error model and also efficient observables to estimate the parameters of the model. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a method to optimize the encoding procedure for a small quantum error correction code in the presence of unknown but constant phase shifts. The method, which we implement here on a small-scale linear ion-trap quantum computer, is readily applicable to other AMO platforms for quantum-information processing.
Barvinsky, A O
2007-08-17
The density matrix of the Universe for the microcanonical ensemble in quantum cosmology describes an equipartition in the physical phase space of the theory (sum over everything), but in terms of the observable spacetime geometry this ensemble is peaked about the set of recently obtained cosmological instantons limited to a bounded range of the cosmological constant. This suggests the mechanism of constraining the landscape of string vacua and a possible solution to the dark energy problem in the form of the quasiequilibrium decay of the microcanonical state of the Universe.
Numerical evolution of squeezed and non-Gaussian states in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diener, Peter; Gupt, Brajesh; Megevand, Miguel; Singh, Parampreet
2014-08-01
In recent years, numerical simulations with Gaussian initial states have demonstrated the existence of a quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology in various models. A key issue pertaining to the robustness of the bounce and the associated physics is to understand the quantum evolution for more general initial states, which may depart significantly from Gaussianity and may have no well defined peakedness properties. The analysis of such states, including squeezed and highly non-Gaussian states, has been computationally challenging until now. In this paper, we overcome these challenges by using the Chimera scheme for the spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic model sourced with a massless scalar field. We demonstrate that the quantum bounce in this model occurs even for states that are highly squeezed or are non-Gaussian with multiple peaks and with little resemblance to semi-classical states. The existence of the bounce is found to be robust, being independent of the properties of the states. The evolution of squeezed and non-Gaussian states turns out to be qualitatively similar to that of Gaussian states, and satisfies strong constraints on the growth of the relative fluctuations across the bounce. We also compare the results from the effective dynamics and find that, although it captures the qualitative aspects of the evolution for squeezed and highly non-Gaussian states, it always underestimates the bounce volume. We show that various properties of the evolution, such as the energy density at the bounce, are in excellent agreement with the predictions from an exactly solvable loop quantum cosmological model for arbitrary states.
Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model.
Esteban, Ruben; Borisov, Andrei G; Nordlander, Peter; Aizpurua, Javier
2012-05-08
Electromagnetic coupling between plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles allows for engineering of the optical response and generation of strong localized near-fields. Classical electrodynamics fails to describe this coupling across sub-nanometer gaps, where quantum effects become important owing to non-local screening and the spill-out of electrons. However, full quantum simulations are not presently feasible for realistically sized systems. Here we present a novel approach, the quantum-corrected model (QCM), that incorporates quantum-mechanical effects within a classical electrodynamic framework. The QCM approach models the junction between adjacent nanoparticles by means of a local dielectric response that includes electron tunnelling and tunnelling resistivity at the gap and can be integrated within a classical electrodynamical description of large and complex structures. The QCM predicts optical properties in excellent agreement with fully quantum mechanical calculations for small interacting systems, opening a new venue for addressing quantum effects in realistic plasmonic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Mandal, Jyotirmay; Debnath, Ujjal
2016-08-01
We have studied the tachyon intermediate and logamediate warm inflation in loop quantum cosmological background by taking the dissipative co-efficient Γ = Γ0 (where Γ0 is a constant) in “intermediate” inflation and Γ = V(ϕ), (where V(ϕ) is the potential of tachyonic field) in “logamediate” inflation. We have assumed slow-roll condition to construct scalar field ϕ, potential V, N-folds, etc. Various slow-roll parameters have also been obtained. We have analyzed the stability of this model through graphical representations.
Continuous quantum error correction as classical hybrid control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabuchi, Hideo
2009-10-01
The standard formulation of quantum error correction (QEC) comprises repeated cycles of error estimation and corrective intervention in the free dynamics of a qubit register. QEC can thus be seen as a form of feedback control, and it is of interest to seek a deeper understanding of the connection between the associated theories. Here we present a focused case study within this broad program, connecting continuous QEC with elements of hybrid control theory. We show that canonical methods of the latter engineering discipline, such as recursive filtering and dynamic programming approaches to solving the optimal control problem, can be applied fruitfully in the design of separated controller structures for quantum memories based on coding and continuous syndrome measurement.
Corrections to scaling near the quantum Hall transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evers, Ferdinand; Obuse, Hideaki; Bera, Soumya; Gruzberg, Ilya
2012-02-01
Corrections to scaling near critical points are important to understand, because they superimpose and often obscure the true asymptotics of critical scaling laws. This is true, in particular, for studies near the quantum Hall transition where recent numerical work by Slevin and Ohtsuki (Phys. Rev. B 80, 041304 (2009)) reports a very small value for the leading irrelevant scaling index |y| 0.17. We here report a numerical study of two-point conductances and two-terminal conductances at the integer quantum Hall transition within the Chalker-Coddington network. The scaling of these observables will be analyzed in the two-dimensional and the quasi-onedimensional geometries. We confirm the relation between the conductance exponents Xq and the anomalous dimensions δq known from the multifractal wavefunction analysis: Xq=2δq. For a consistent picure it is essential to carefully account for corrections to scaling due to subleading power laws and irrelevant scaling operators.
Quantum error correction against photon loss using multicomponent cat states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter
2016-10-01
We analyze a generalized quantum error-correction code against photon loss where a logical qubit is encoded into a subspace of a single oscillator mode that is spanned by distinct multicomponent cat states (coherent-state superpositions). We present a systematic code construction that includes the extension of an existing one-photon-loss code to higher numbers of losses. When subject to a photon loss (amplitude damping) channel, the encoded qubits are shown to exhibit a cyclic behavior where the code and error spaces each correspond to certain multiples of losses, half of which can be corrected. As another generalization we also discuss how to protect logical qudits against photon losses, and as an application we consider a one-way quantum communication scheme in which the encoded qubits are periodically recovered while the coherent-state amplitudes are restored as well at regular intervals.
Cosmology from quantum potential in a system of oscillating branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza
2016-11-01
energy is produced and leads to an increase in the velocity of opening of M3. In these conditions, our universe, which is located on this brane, expands very fast and experiences an inflation epoch. Finally, by reducing the fields in 11-dimensional M-theory to the fields in four-dimensional universe, we show that our theory matches with quantum field theory prescriptions.
Concurrent remote entanglement with quantum error correction against photon losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Ananda; Stone, A. Douglas; Jiang, Liang
2016-09-01
Remote entanglement of distant, noninteracting quantum entities is a key primitive for quantum information processing. We present a protocol to remotely entangle two stationary qubits by first entangling them with propagating ancilla qubits and then performing a joint two-qubit measurement on the ancillas. Subsequently, single-qubit measurements are performed on each of the ancillas. We describe two continuous variable implementations of the protocol using propagating microwave modes. The first implementation uses propagating Schr o ̈ dinger cat states as the flying ancilla qubits, a joint-photon-number-modulo-2 measurement of the propagating modes for the two-qubit measurement, and homodyne detections as the final single-qubit measurements. The presence of inefficiencies in realistic quantum systems limit the success rate of generating high fidelity Bell states. This motivates us to propose a second continuous variable implementation, where we use quantum error correction to suppress the decoherence due to photon loss to first order. To that end, we encode the ancilla qubits in superpositions of Schrödinger cat states of a given photon-number parity, use a joint-photon-number-modulo-4 measurement as the two-qubit measurement, and homodyne detections as the final single-qubit measurements. We demonstrate the resilience of our quantum-error-correcting remote entanglement scheme to imperfections. Further, we describe a modification of our error-correcting scheme by incorporating additional individual photon-number-modulo-2 measurements of the ancilla modes to improve the success rate of generating high-fidelity Bell states. Our protocols can be straightforwardly implemented in state-of-the-art superconducting circuit-QED systems.
Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction with Superconducting Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew David
A quantum computer will use the properties of quantum physics to solve certain computational problems much faster than otherwise possible. One promising potential implementation is to use superconducting quantum bits in the circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. There, the low energy states of a nonlinear electronic oscillator are isolated and addressed as a qubit. These qubits are capacitively coupled to the modes of a microwave-frequency transmission line resonator which serves as a quantum communication bus. Microwave electrical pulses are applied to the resonator to manipulate or measure the qubit state. State control is calibrated using diagnostic sequences that expose systematic errors. Hybridization of the resonator with the qubit gives it a nonlinear response when driven strongly, useful for amplifying the measurement signal to enhance accuracy. Qubits coupled to the same bus may coherently interact with one another via the exchange of virtual photons. A two-qubit conditional phase gate mediated by this interaction can deterministically entangle its targets, and is used to generate two-qubit Bell states and three-qubit GHZ states. These three-qubit states are of particular interest because they redundantly encode quantum information. They are the basis of the quantum repetition code prototypical of more sophisticated schemes required for quantum computation. Using a three-qubit Toffoli gate, this code is demonstrated to autonomously correct either bit- or phase-flip errors. Despite observing the expected behavior, the overall fidelity is low because of decoherence. A superior implementation of cQED replaces the transmission-line resonator with a three-dimensional box mode, increasing lifetimes by an order of magnitude. In-situ qubit frequency control is enabled with control lines, which are used to fully characterize and control the system Hamiltonian.
Design of nanophotonic circuits for autonomous subsystem quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerckhoff, J.; Pavlichin, D. S.; Chalabi, H.; Mabuchi, H.
2011-05-01
We reapply our approach to designing nanophotonic quantum memories in order to formulate an optical network that autonomously protects a single logical qubit against arbitrary single-qubit errors. Emulating the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor subsystem code, the network replaces the traditionally discrete syndrome measurement and correction steps by continuous, time-independent optical interactions and coherent feedback of unitarily processed optical fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, James E.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Ganti, Anand; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Landahl, Andrew J.; Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Carr, Robert D.; Stalford, Harold L.; Nielsen, Erik
2011-08-01
In this paper we present the impact of classical electronics constraints on a solid-state quantum dot logical qubit architecture. Constraints due to routing density, bandwidth allocation, signal timing and thermally aware placement of classical supporting electronics significantly affect the quantum error correction circuit's error rate (by a factor of ~3-4 in our specific analysis). We analyze one level of a quantum error correction circuit using nine data qubits in a Bacon-Shor code configured as a quantum memory. A hypothetical silicon double quantum dot quantum bit (qubit) is used as the fundamental element. A pessimistic estimate of the error probability of the quantum circuit is calculated using the total number of gates and idle time using a provably optimal schedule for the circuit operations obtained with an integer program methodology. The micro-architecture analysis provides insight about the different ways the electronics impact the circuit performance (e.g. extra idle time in the schedule), which can significantly limit the ultimate performance of any quantum circuit and therefore is a critical foundation for any future larger scale architecture analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunao, J.
2017-02-01
This study considers the operator \\hat{T} corresponding to the classical spacetime four-volume \\tilde{T} (on-shell) of a finite patch of spacetime in the context of unimodular loop quantum cosmology for the homogeneous and isotropic model with flat spatial sections and without matter sources. Since the spacetime four-volume is canonically conjugate to the cosmological ‘constant’, the operator \\hat{T} is constructed by solving its canonical commutation relation with {\\hat Λ } —the operator corresponding to the classical cosmological constant on-shell {\\tilde Λ } . This conjugacy, along with the action of \\hat{T} on definite volume states reducing to \\tilde{T} , allows us to interpret that \\hat{T} is indeed a quantum spacetime four-volume operator. The discrete spectrum of \\hat{T} is calculated by considering the set of all τ’s where the eigenvalue equation has a solution {{ Φ }τ} in the domain of \\hat{T} . It turns out that, upon assigning the maximal domain D≤ft(\\hat{T}\\right) to \\hat{T} , we have {{ Φ }τ}\\in D≤ft(\\hat{T}\\right) for all τ \\in {C} so that the spectrum of \\hat{T} is purely discrete and is the entire complex plane. A family of operators {{\\hat{T}}≤ft({{b0},{φ0}\\right)}} was also considered as possible self-adjoint versions of \\hat{T} . They represent the restrictions of \\hat{T} on their respective domains D≤ft({{\\hat{T}}≤ft({{b0},{φ0}\\right)}}\\right) which are just the maximal domain with additional quasi-periodic conditions. Their possible self-adjointness is motivated by their discrete spectra only containing real and discrete numbers {τm} for m=0,+/- 1,+/- 2,... .
Exactly solvable quantum cosmologies from two killing field reductions of general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husain, Viqar; Smolin, Lee
1989-11-01
An exact and, possibly, general solution to the quantum constraints is given for the sector of general relativity containing cosmological solutions with two space-like, commuting, Killing fields. The dynamics of these model space-times, which are known as Gowdy space-times, is formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. The quantization is done by using the recently introduced self-dual and loop representations. On the classical phase space we find four explicit physical observables, or constants of motion, which generate a GL(2) symmetry group on the space of solutions. In the loop representations we find that a complete description of the physical state space, consisting of the simultaneous solutions to all of the constraints, is given in terms of the equivalence classes, under Diff(S1), of a pair of densities on the circle. These play the same role that the link classes play in the loop representation solution to the full 3+1 theory. An infinite dimensional algebra of physical observables is found on the physical state space, which is a GL(2) loop algebra. In addition, by freezing the local degrees of freedom of the model, we find a finite dimensional quantum system which describes a set of degenerate quantum cosmologies on T3 in which the length of one of the S1's has gone to zero, while the area of the remaining S1×S1 is quantized in units of the Planck area. The quantum kinematics of this sector of the model is identical to that of a one-plaquette SU(2) lattice gauge theory.
Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu
2014-12-01
We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.
Perturbative approach to continuous-time quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ippoliti, Matteo; Mazza, Leonardo; Rizzi, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2015-04-01
We present a discussion of the continuous-time quantum error correction introduced by J. P. Paz and W. H. Zurek [Proc. R. Soc. A 454, 355 (1998), 10.1098/rspa.1998.0165]. We study the general Lindbladian which describes the effects of both noise and error correction in the weak-noise (or strong-correction) regime through a perturbative expansion. We use this tool to derive quantitative aspects of the continuous-time dynamics both in general and through two illustrative examples: the three-qubit and five-qubit stabilizer codes, which can be independently solved by analytical and numerical methods and then used as benchmarks for the perturbative approach. The perturbatively accessible time frame features a short initial transient in which error correction is ineffective, followed by a slow decay of the information content consistent with the known facts about discrete-time error correction in the limit of fast operations. This behavior is explained in the two case studies through a geometric description of the continuous transformation of the state space induced by the combined action of noise and error correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zampeli, Adamantia; Pailas, Theodoros; Terzis, Petros A.; Christodoulakis, T.
2016-05-01
In this paper, the classical and quantum solutions of some axisymmetric cosmologies coupled to a massless scalar field are studied in the context of minisuperspace approximation. In these models, the singular nature of the Lagrangians entails a search for possible conditional symmetries. These have been proven to be the simultaneous conformal symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantization is performed by adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems, i.e. promoting the first-class constraints to operators annihilating the wave function. To further enrich the approach, we follow [1] and impose the operators related to the classical conditional symmetries on the wave function. These additional equations select particular solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. In order to gain some physical insight from the quantization of these cosmological systems, we perform a semiclassical analysis following the Bohmian approach to quantum theory. The generic result is that, in all but one model, one can find appropriate ranges of the parameters, so that the emerging semiclassical geometries are non-singular. An attempt for physical interpretation involves the study of the effective energy-momentum tensor which corresponds to an imperfect fluid.
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Cosmological Observations of Quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I; Guth, Alan
2014-06-01
We discuss a proposed experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Specifically, we aim to close the "setting independence" or so-called "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality by choosing the detector settings (e.g. polarizer orientations) using real-time observations of causally disconnected cosmic sources, for example sufficiently distant quasar pairs, all while the entangled particles are still in flight. This would help close one of the most important remaining Bell test loopholes whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. The talk will demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup, with emphasis on the theoretical cosmology constraints needed to choose optimal sources. We thus describe general conditions for pairs of cosmological events with arbitrary redshifts and angular separations to have no shared causal pasts since the hot big bang in flat, dark energy dominated, accelerating Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes like our own. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology that meet the condition of having no shared causal past since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago. Results are illustrated for our universe with causal structure animations to help visualize the intersections of past light cones for arbitrary event pairs.
Serialized quantum error correction protocol for high-bandwidth quantum repeaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaudell, A. N.; Waks, E.; Taylor, J. M.
2016-09-01
Advances in single-photon creation, transmission, and detection suggest that sending quantum information over optical fibers may have losses low enough to be correctable using a quantum error correcting code (QECC). Such error-corrected communication is equivalent to a novel quantum repeater scheme, but crucial questions regarding implementation and system requirements remain open. Here we show that long-range entangled bit generation with rates approaching 108 entangled bits per second may be possible using a completely serialized protocol, in which photons are generated, entangled, and error corrected via sequential, one-way interactions with as few matter qubits as possible. Provided loss and error rates of the required elements are below the threshold for quantum error correction, this scheme demonstrates improved performance over transmission of single photons. We find improvement in entangled bit rates at large distances using this serial protocol and various QECCs. In particular, at a total distance of 500 km with fiber loss rates of 0.3 dB km-1, logical gate failure probabilities of 10-5, photon creation and measurement error rates of 10-5, and a gate speed of 80 ps, we find the maximum single repeater chain entangled bit rates of 51 Hz at a 20 m node spacing and 190 000 Hz at a 43 m node spacing for the {[[3,1,2
Quantum Mechanical Corrections to Simulated Shock Hugoniot Temperatures
Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E
2009-07-17
The authors present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a grueneisen equation of state and a quasi-harmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, they derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. They have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of both shock compressed water and methane. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data for these two systems. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or covalent solids, and has the potential to decrease the large uncertainties inherent in many experimental Hugoniot temperature measurements of these systems.
Failure of random matrix theory to correctly describe quantum dynamics.
Kottos, T; Cohen, D
2001-12-01
Consider a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(0). At t=0 the Hamiltonian undergoes a sudden change (H)0-->H. We consider the quantum-mechanical spreading of the evolving energy distribution, and argue that it cannot be analyzed using a conventional random-matrix theory (RMT) approach. Conventional RMT can be trusted only to the extent that it gives trivial results that are implied by first-order perturbation theory. Nonperturbative effects are sensitive to the underlying classical dynamics, and therefore the Planck's over 2 pi-->0 behavior for effective RMT models is strikingly different from the correct semiclassical limit.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback.
Cramer, J; Kalb, N; Rol, M A; Hensen, B; Blok, M S; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R; Taminiau, T H
2016-05-05
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Quantum electrodynamic corrections for valence electrons in Eka-Hg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovko, O. A.; Goidenko, I. A.; Tupitsyn, I. I.
2008-05-01
The quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to the coupling energy of valence electrons in heavy and superheavy nuclei are calculated in the effective local-potential approximation, as well as by the Hartree-Fock-Dirac self-consistent method. It is clearly shown that the contribution from the QED corrections is within the accuracy of modern calculations, which do not take into account QED effects. It is shown that, in certain cases, to exactly calculate the coupling energy of electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms, it is necessary to take into account the self-consistency, which shows that the inaccuracy of the use of the method of the effective local potential in calculations of QED effects can exceed 10%, which is also within the limits of calculations of the coupling energy without taking into account QED effects.
Quantum corrections to the conductivity of itinerant antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muttalib, K. A.; Wölfle, P.
2015-04-01
We present a systematic calculation of the effects of scattering of electrons off spin waves on electron transport properties in itinerant antiferromagnetic thin films in two and three dimensions. We study various regimes set by the parameters related to the spin-wave gap, exchange energy, as well as the exchange splitting, in addition to the scales set by temperature and disorder. We find an interaction-induced quantum correction to the conductivity linear in temperature, similar to that obtained recently for ferromagnetic systems within a certain regime of disorder, although the disorder dependence is different. In addition, we explore the phase relaxation rates and the associated weak-localization corrections for both small and large spin-wave gaps. We obtain a wide variety of temperature and disorder dependence for various parameter regimes. These results should provide an alternative way to study magnetic properties of thin antiferromagnetic films, for which neutron scattering measurements could be difficult, by direct transport measurements.
Off-shell dark matter: A cosmological relic of quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh
2017-02-01
We study a novel proposal for the origin of cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) which is rooted in the quantum nature of spacetime. In this model, off-shell modes of quantum fields can exist in asymptotic states as a result of spacetime nonlocality (expected in generic theories of quantum gravity) and play the role of CDM, which we dub off-shell dark matter (O f DM ). However, their rate of production is suppressed by the scale of nonlocality (e.g. Planck length). As a result, we show that O f DM is only produced in the first moments of big bang, and then effectively decouples (except through its gravitational interactions). We examine the observational predictions of this model: In the context of cosmic inflation, we show that this proposal relates the reheating temperature to the inflaton mass, which narrows down the uncertainty in the number of e -foldings of specific inflationary scenarios. We also demonstrate that O f DM is indeed cold, and discuss potentially observable signatures on small scale matter power spectrum.
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the real scalar case
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl
2014-02-01
We present a critical discussion of quantum corrections, renormalisation, and the computation of the beta functions and the effective potential in Higgs inflation. In contrast with claims in the literature, we find no evidence for a disagreement between the Jordan and Einstein frames, even at the quantum level. For clarity of discussion we concentrate on the case of a real scalar Higgs. We first review the classical calculation and then discuss the back reaction of gravity. We compute the beta functions for the Higgs quartic coupling and non-minimal coupling constant. Here, the mid-field regime is non-renormalisable, but we are able to give an upper bound on the 1-loop corrections to the effective potential. We show that, in computing the effective potential, the Jordan and Einstein frames are compatible if all mass scales are transformed between the two frames. As such, it is consistent to take a constant cutoff in either the Jordan or Einstein frame, and both prescriptions yield the same result for the effective potential. Our results are extended to the case of a complex scalar Higgs.
Quantum Corrections to the Conductivity in Disordered Conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahnoune, Abdelhadi
Quantum corrections to the conductivity have been studied at low temperatures down to 0.15K and fields up to 8.8T in two different disordered systems, namely amorphous Ca-Al alloys doped with Ag and Au and icosahedral Al-Cu -Fe alloys. In the former the influence of spin-orbit scattering on the enhanced electron-electron contribution to the resistivity has been, for the first time, clearly displayed. As the spin-orbit scattering rate increases, this contribution decreases rapidly to finally vanish at extremely high spin -orbit scattering rates. Furthermore the analysis shows that the current weak localization theory gives an accurate description of the experiments irrespective of the level of spin-orbit scattering. In icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe alloys, detailed study of the low temperature resistivity shows that the magnetoresistance and the temperature dependence of the resistivity data are consistent with the predictions of quantum corrections to the conductivity theories. The success of these theories in this alloy system is attributed to intense electron scattering due to disorder. The spin-orbit scattering and the electron wave-function dephasing rates are extracted from fitting the magnetoresistance. The dephasing rate is found to vary as AT^{p} with p~1.5; a characteristic of electron-electron scattering in the strong disorder limit. An antilocalization effect has also been directly observed in the temperature dependence of the resistivity in one of the samples.
Quantum Corrections and Effective Action in Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalvit, Diego A. R.
1998-07-01
In this Thesis we study quantum corrections to the classical dynamics for mean values in field theory. To that end we make use of the formalism of the closed time path effective action to get real and causal equations of motion. We introduce a coarse grained effective action, which is useful in the study of phase transitions in field theory. We derive an exact renormalization group equation that describes how this action varies with the coarse graining scale. We develop different approximation methods to solve that equation, and we obtain non perturbative improvements to the effective potential for a self interacting scalar field theory. We also discuss the stochastic aspects contained in this action. On the other hand, using the effective action, we find low energy and large distance quantum corrections for the gravitational potential, treating relativity as an effective low energy theory. We include the effect of scalar fields, fermions and gravitons. The inclusion of metric fluctuations causes Einstein semiclassical equations to depend on the gauge fixing parameters, and they are therefore non physical. We solve this problem identifying as a physical observable the trayectory of a test particle. We explicitly show that the geodesic equation for such particle is independent of the arbitrary parameters of the gauge fixing.
Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-10-14
We report the implementation of a 3-qubit quantum error-correction code on a quantum information processor realized by the magnetic resonance of carbon nuclei in a single crystal of malonic acid. The code corrects for phase errors induced on the qubits due to imperfect decoupling of the magnetic environment represented by nearby spins, as well as unwanted evolution under the internal Hamiltonian. We also experimentally demonstrate sufficiently high-fidelity control to implement two rounds of quantum error correction. This is a demonstration of state-of-the-art control in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, a leading test bed for the implementation of quantum algorithms.
Optimized quantum error-correction codes for experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nebendahl, V.
2015-02-01
We identify gauge freedoms in quantum error correction (QEC) codes and introduce strategies for optimal control algorithms to find the gauges which allow the easiest experimental realization. Hereby, the optimal gauge depends on the underlying physical system and the available means to manipulate it. The final goal is to obtain optimal decompositions of QEC codes into elementary operations which can be realized with high experimental fidelities. In the first part of this paper, this subject is studied in a general fashion, while in the second part, a system of trapped ions is treated as a concrete example. A detailed optimization algorithm is explained and various decompositions are presented for the three qubit code, the five qubit code, and the seven qubit Steane code.
Quantum Error-Correction-Enhanced Magnetometer Overcoming the Limit Imposed by Relaxation.
Herrera-Martí, David A; Gefen, Tuvia; Aharonov, Dorit; Katz, Nadav; Retzker, Alex
2015-11-13
When incorporated in quantum sensing protocols, quantum error correction can be used to correct for high frequency noise, as the correction procedure does not depend on the actual shape of the noise spectrum. As such, it provides a powerful way to complement usual refocusing techniques. Relaxation imposes a fundamental limit on the sensitivity of state of the art quantum sensors which cannot be overcome by dynamical decoupling. The only way to overcome this is to utilize quantum error correcting codes. We present a superconducting magnetometry design that incorporates approximate quantum error correction, in which the signal is generated by a two qubit Hamiltonian term. This two-qubit term is provided by the dynamics of a tunable coupler between two transmon qubits. For fast enough correction, it is possible to lengthen the coherence time of the device beyond the relaxation limit.
The effect of the ancilla verification on the quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-Nada, Ali
Communication is the prototypical application of error-correction methods. To communicate, a sender needs to convey information to a receiver over a noisy "communication channel." Such a channel can be thought of as a means of transmitting an information-carrying physical system from one place to another. During transmission, the physical system is subject to disturbances (noise) that can adversely affect the information carried. To use a communication channel, the sender needs to encode the information to be transmitted in the physical system. After transmission, the receiver decodes the information. Quantum error correction is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation that can deal with both noise on stored quantum information, and also with faulty quantum gates, faulty quantum preparation,and faulty measurements. In this dissertation, we look at how additional information about the structure of the quantum circuit and noise can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction. Chapter 1 and 2, are an introduction to the quantum computation, quantum error correction codes and fault-tolerant quantum computing. These chapters are written to be a useful for students at the graduate and advanced undergraduate level. Also. The first two chapters of this dissertation will be useful to researchers in other fields who would like to understand how quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computing are possible. In chapter 3, we present numerical simulation results comparing the logical error rates for the fault-tolerant [[7, 1, 3
Universal corrections to entanglement entropy of local quantum quenches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Justin R.; Khetrapal, Surbhi; Kumar, S. Prem
2016-08-01
We study the time evolution of single interval Rényi and entanglement entropies following local quantum quenches in two dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperature for which the locally excited states have a finite temporal width ɛ. We show that, for local quenches produced by the action of a conformal primary field, the time dependence of Rényi and entanglement entropies at order ɛ2 is universal. It is determined by the expectation value of the stress tensor in the replica geometry and proportional to the conformal dimension of the primary field generating the local excitation. We also show that in CFTs with a gravity dual, the ɛ2 correction to the holographic entanglement entropy following a local quench precisely agrees with the CFT prediction. We then consider CFTs admitting a higher spin symmetry and turn on a higher spin chemical potential μ. We calculate the time dependence of the order ɛ2 correction to the entanglement entropy for small μ, and show that the contribution at order μ 2 is universal. We verify our arguments against exact results for minimal models and the free fermion theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blau, S. K.; Guth, A. H.
Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Summary of the standard cosmological model. 3. Problems of the standard cosmological model. 4. The original inflationary universe. 5. Successes of the original inflationary model. 6. Problems of the original inflationary model. 7. The new inflationary universe. 8. Density perturbations in the new inflationary universe. 9. Quantum theory of the new inflationary universe phase transition. 10. Inflation in the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory. 11. False vacuum bubbles and child universes. 12. Conclusion.
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement.
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-10-26
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.
Quantum gravitational correction to the Hawking temperature from the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model
Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Kiefer, Claus
2010-08-15
We solve the quantum constraint equations of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model in a semiclassical approximation in which an expansion is performed with respect to the Planck length. We recover in this way the standard expression for the Hawking temperature as well as its first quantum gravitational correction. We then interpret this correction in terms of the one-loop trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor and thereby make contact with earlier work on quantum black holes.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Analogues: From Phase Transitions to Black Holes and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liberati, Stefano
2008-09-01
'And I cherish more than anything else the analogies, my most trustworthy masters. They know all the secrets of nature, and they ought to be least neglected in geometry.' These words of the great astronomer Johannes Kepler embody the philosophy behind the research recounted in this interesting book—a book composed of nine selected lectures (and a nice introduction by Bill Unruh) from the international workshop on 'Quantum Simulations via Analogues', which was held in the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden during the summer of 2005. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. However the last decade has seen a remarkable and steady development of analogue gravity models based on condensed matter systems, leading to some hundreds of published articles, numerous workshops, and several books. While the main driver for this booming field has definitely been the puzzling physics associated with quantum effects in black holes, more recently much attention has also been devoted to other interesting issues—such as cosmological particle production or the cosmological constant problem. Moreover, together with these new themes there has been a persistent interest in the possibility of simulating cosmic topological defects in the laboratory (although it should be said that momentum for this line of research has been somewhat weakened by the progressive decrease of interest in cosmological topological defects as an alternative to inflationary scenarios). All these aspects are faithfully accounted for in this book, which does a good job at presenting a vivid snapshot of many (if not quite all) of the most interesting lines of research in the field. All the articles have a self-consistent structure—which allows one to read them in arbitrary order and appreciate the full richness of each topic. However, when considered together I would say that they also
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.
2010-05-01
The recently developed quantum-classical method has been applied to the study of dissipative dynamics in multidimensional systems. The method is designed to treat many-body systems consisting of a low dimensional quantum part coupled to a classical bath. Assuming the approximate zeroth order evolution rule, the corrections to the quantum propagator are defined in terms of the total Hamiltonian and the zeroth order propagator. Then the corrections are taken to the classical limit by introducing the frozen Gaussian approximation for the bath degrees of freedom. The evolution of the primary part is governed by the corrected propagator yielding the exact quantum dynamics. The method has been tested on two model systems coupled to a harmonic bath: (i) an anharmonic (Morse) oscillator and (ii) a double-well potential. The simulations have been performed at zero temperature. The results have been compared to the exact quantum simulations using the surrogate Hamiltonian approach.
Solutions to the mean king’s problem: Higher-dimensional quantum error-correcting codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Masakazu; Kuriyama, Toru; Cheng, Jun
2016-12-01
Mean king’s problem is a kind of quantum state discrimination problems. In the problem, we try to discriminate eigenstates of noncommutative observables with the help of classical delayed information. The problem has been investigated from the viewpoint of error detection and correction. We construct higher-dimensional quantum error-correcting codes against error corresponding to the noncommutative observables. Any code state of the codes provides a way to discriminate the eigenstates correctly with the classical delayed information.
A Compact Code for Simulations of Quantum Error Correction in Classical Computers
Nyman, Peter
2009-03-10
This study considers implementations of error correction in a simulation language on a classical computer. Error correction will be necessarily in quantum computing and quantum information. We will give some examples of the implementations of some error correction codes. These implementations will be made in a more general quantum simulation language on a classical computer in the language Mathematica. The intention of this research is to develop a programming language that is able to make simulations of all quantum algorithms and error corrections in the same framework. The program code implemented on a classical computer will provide a connection between the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and computational methods. This gives us a clear uncomplicated language for the implementations of algorithms.
Experimental demonstration of a graph state quantum error-correction code.
Bell, B A; Herrera-Martí, D A; Tame, M S; Markham, D; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G
2014-04-22
Scalable quantum computing and communication requires the protection of quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and noise. Previous work tackling this problem has relied on the original circuit model for quantum computing. However, recently a family of entangled resources known as graph states has emerged as a versatile alternative for protecting quantum information. Depending on the graph's structure, errors can be detected and corrected in an efficient way using measurement-based techniques. Here we report an experimental demonstration of error correction using a graph state code. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a four-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably detect errors and correct against qubit loss. The graph we realize is setup independent, thus it could be employed in other physical settings. Our results show that graph state codes are a promising approach for achieving scalable quantum information processing.
Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register.
Waldherr, G; Wang, Y; Zaiser, S; Jamali, M; Schulte-Herbrüggen, T; Abe, H; Ohshima, T; Isoya, J; Du, J F; Neumann, P; Wrachtrup, J
2014-02-13
Error correction is important in classical and quantum computation. Decoherence caused by the inevitable interaction of quantum bits with their environment leads to dephasing or even relaxation. Correction of the concomitant errors is therefore a fundamental requirement for scalable quantum computation. Although algorithms for error correction have been known for some time, experimental realizations are scarce. Here we show quantum error correction in a heterogeneous, solid-state spin system. We demonstrate that joint initialization, projective readout and fast local and non-local gate operations can all be achieved in diamond spin systems, even under ambient conditions. High-fidelity initialization of a whole spin register (99 per cent) and single-shot readout of multiple individual nuclear spins are achieved by using the ancillary electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect. Implementation of a novel non-local gate generic to our electron-nuclear quantum register allows the preparation of entangled states of three nuclear spins, with fidelities exceeding 85 per cent. With these techniques, we demonstrate three-qubit phase-flip error correction. Using optimal control, all of the above operations achieve fidelities approaching those needed for fault-tolerant quantum operation, thus paving the way to large-scale quantum computation. Besides their use with diamond spin systems, our techniques can be used to improve scaling of quantum networks relying on phosphorus in silicon, quantum dots, silicon carbide or rare-earth ions in solids.
Quantum Error Correction: Optimal, Robust, or Adaptive? Or, Where is The Quantum Flyball Governor?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosut, Robert; Grace, Matthew
2012-02-01
In The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (1950), Norbert Wiener introduces feedback control in this way: ``This control of a machine on the basis of its actual performance rather than its expected performance is known as feedback ... It is the function of control ... to produce a temporary and local reversal of the normal direction of entropy.'' The classic classroom example of feedback control is the all-mechanical flyball governor used by James Watt in the 18th century to regulate the speed of rotating steam engines. What is it that is so compelling about this apparatus? First, it is easy to understand how it regulates the speed of a rotating steam engine. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, it is a part of the device itself. A naive observer would not distinguish this mechanical piece from all the rest. So it is natural to ask, where is the all-quantum device which is self regulating, ie, the Quantum Flyball Governor? Is the goal of quantum error correction (QEC) to design such a device? Devloping the computational and mathematical tools to design this device is the topic of this talk.
Evaluation of Quantum Corrections to Second Virial Coefficient with Lennard-Jones (12-6) Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamedov, B. A.; Somuncu, E.
2016-10-01
The efficient method is developed for analytical evalualtion of quantum corrections to second virial coefficient with Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential. The quantum corrections to second virial coefficient played a significant role in the investigation of real gases in the low temperatures range. In this paper, we obtained a series of formula in terms of gamma and exponential integral functions which is one of the useful approaches for analytical evaluation of quantum corrections to second virial coefficient. The calculation results excellently agreement with of the literature data.
Does a generalized Chaplygin gas correctly describe the cosmological dark sector?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
vom Marttens, R. F.; Casarini, L.; Zimdahl, W.; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Mota, D. F.
2017-03-01
Yes, but only for a parameter value that makes it almost coincide with the standard model. We reconsider the cosmological dynamics of a generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg) which is split into a cold dark matter (CDM) part and a dark energy (DE) component with constant equation of state. This model, which implies a specific interaction between CDM and DE, has a ΛCDM limit and provides the basis for studying deviations from the latter. Including matter and radiation, we use the (modified) CLASS code (Blas et al., 2011) to construct the CMB and matter power spectra in order to search for a gCg-based concordance model that is in agreement with the SNIa data from the JLA sample and with recent Planck data. The results reveal that the gCg parameter α is restricted to | α | ≲ 0 . 05, i.e., to values very close to the ΛCDM limit α = 0. This excludes, in particular, models in which DE decays linearly with the Hubble rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linsefors, Linda; Barrau, Aurelien
2013-06-01
Loop quantum cosmology with a scalar field is known to be closely linked with an inflationary phase. In this article, we study probabilistic predictions for the duration of slow-roll inflation, by assuming a minimalist massive scalar field as the main content of the Universe. The phase of the field in its “prebounce” oscillatory state is taken as a natural random parameter. We find that the probability for a given number of inflationary e-folds is quite sharply peaked around 145, which is consistent with the most favored minimum values. In this precise sense, a satisfactory inflation is therefore a clear prediction of loop gravity. In addition, we derive an original and stringent upper limit on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter. The general picture of inflation, superinflation, deflation, and superdeflation is also much clarified in the framework of bouncing cosmologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, P.
2014-05-01
Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of the cosmos, which in turn points to even deeper questions to be further addressed. Concurrently the laser technology has undergone dramatic revolutions, providing exciting opportunity for science applications. History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory investigation is instrumental in the progress of astrophysics. We believe that this remains true in cosmology. Current frontier phenomena related to particle astrophysics and cosmology typically involve one or more of the following conditions: (1) extremely high energy events;(2) very high density, high temperature processes; (3) super strong field environments. Laboratory experiments using high intensity lasers can calibrate astrophysical observations, investigate underlying dynamics of astrophysical phenomena, and probe fundamental physics in extreme limits. In this article we give an overview of the exciting prospect of laser cosmology. In particular, we showcase its unique capability of investigating frontier cosmology issues such as cosmic accelerator and quantum gravity.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback
Cramer, J.; Kalb, N.; Rol, M. A.; Hensen, B.; Blok, M. S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.; Taminiau, T. H.
2016-01-01
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing. PMID:27146630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimakis, N.; Terzis, Petros A.; Zampeli, Adamantia; Christodoulakis, T.
2016-09-01
The high degree of symmetry renders the dynamics of cosmological as well as some black hole spacetimes describable by a system of finite degrees of freedom. These systems are generally known as minisuperspace models. One of their important key features is the invariance of the corresponding reduced actions under reparametrizations of the independent variable, a fact that can be seen as the remnant of the general covariance of the full theory. In the case of a system of n degrees of freedom, described by a Lagrangian quadratic in velocities, one can use the lapse by either gauge fixing it or letting it be defined by the constraint and subsequently substitute into the rest of the equations. In the first case, the system of the second-order equations of motion is solvable for all n accelerations and the constraint becomes a restriction among constants of integration. In the second case, the system can be solved for only n -1 accelerations and the "gauge" freedom is transferred to the choice of one of the scalar degrees of freedom. In this paper, we take the second path and express all n -1 scalar degrees of freedom in terms of the remaining one, say q . By considering these n -1 degrees of freedom as arbitrary but given functions of q , we manage to extract a two-dimensional pure gauge system consisting of the lapse N and the arbitrary q : in a way, we decouple the reparametrization invariance from the rest of the equations of motion, which are thus describing the "true" dynamics. The solution of the corresponding quantum two-dimensional system is used for the definition of a generalized probability for every configuration fi(q ), be it classical or not. The main result is that, interestingly enough, this probability attains its extrema on the classical solution of the initial n -dimensional system.
FALCON: a concept to extend adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammer, Francois; Puech, Mathieu; Assemat, Francois F.; Gendron, Eric; Sayede, Frederic; Laporte, Philippe; Marteaud, Michel; Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frederic
2004-07-01
FALCON is an original concept for a next generation spectrograph at ESO VLT or at future ELTs. It is a spectrograph including multiple small integral field units (IFUs) which can be deployed within a large field of view such as that of VLT/GIRAFFE. In FALCON, each IFU features an adaptive optics correction using off-axis natural reference stars in order to combine, in the 0.8 - 1.8 μm wavelength range, spatial and spectral resolutions (0.1 - 0.15 arcsec and R = 1000 +/- 5000). These conditions are ideally suited for distant galaxy studies, which should be done within fields of view larger than the galaxy clustering scales (4 - 9 Mpc), i.e. foV > 100 arcmin. Instead of compensating the whole field, the adaptive correction will be performed locally on each IFU. This implies to use small miniaturized devices both for adaptive optics correction and wavefront sensing. Applications to high latitude fields imply to use atmospheric tomography because the stars required for wavefront sensing will be in most of the cases far outside the isoplanatic patch.
The effect of quantum correction on plasma electron heating in ultraviolet laser interaction
Zare, S.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R. Anvari, A.; Yazdani, E.; Hora, H.
2015-04-14
The interaction of the sub-picosecond UV laser in sub-relativistic intensities with deuterium is investigated. At high plasma temperatures, based on the quantum correction in the collision frequency, the electron heating and the ion block generation in plasma are studied. It is found that due to the quantum correction, the electron heating increases considerably and the electron temperature uniformly reaches up to the maximum value of 4.91 × 10{sup 7 }K. Considering the quantum correction, the electron temperature at the laser initial coupling stage is improved more than 66.55% of the amount achieved in the classical model. As a consequence, by the modified collision frequency, the ion block is accelerated quicker with higher maximum velocity in comparison with the one by the classical collision frequency. This study proves the necessity of considering a quantum mechanical correction in the collision frequency at high plasma temperatures.
Quantum cryptography: individual eavesdropping with the knowledge of the error-correcting protocol
Horoshko, D B
2007-12-31
The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapit, Eliot; Chalker, John T.; Simon, Steven H.
2015-06-01
A physical realization of self-correcting quantum code would be profoundly useful for constructing a quantum computer. In this theoretical work, we provide a partial solution to major challenges preventing self-correcting quantum code from being engineered in realistic devices. We consider a variant of Kitaev's toric code coupled to propagating bosons, which induce a ranged interaction between anyonic defects. By coupling the primary quantum system to an engineered dissipation source through resonant energy transfer, we demonstrate a "rate barrier" which leads to a potentially enormous increase in the system's quantum-state lifetime through purely passive quantum error correction, even when coupled to an infinite-temperature bath. While our mechanism is not scalable to infinitely large systems, the maximum effective size can be very large, and it is fully compatible with active error-correction schemes. Our model uses only on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions and could be implemented in superconducting qubits. We sketch one such implementation at the end of this work.
Feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory and thermal stability of topological order
Yoshida, Beni
2011-10-15
Recently, it has become apparent that the thermal stability of topologically ordered systems at finite temperature, as discussed in condensed matter physics, can be studied by addressing the feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory, as discussed in quantum information science. Here, with this correspondence in mind, we propose a model of quantum codes that may cover a large class of physically realizable quantum memory. The model is supported by a certain class of gapped spin Hamiltonians, called stabilizer Hamiltonians, with translation symmetries and a small number of ground states that does not grow with the system size. We show that the model does not work as self-correcting quantum memory due to a certain topological constraint on geometric shapes of its logical operators. This quantum coding theoretical result implies that systems covered or approximated by the model cannot have thermally stable topological order, meaning that systems cannot be stable against both thermal fluctuations and local perturbations simultaneously in two and three spatial dimensions. - Highlights: > We define a class of physically realizable quantum codes. > We determine their coding and physical properties completely. > We establish the connection between topological order and self-correcting memory. > We find they do not work as self-correcting quantum memory. > We find they do not have thermally stable topological order.
Quantum error-correcting subsystems are unitarily recoverable subsystems
Kribs, David W.; Spekkens, Robert W.
2006-10-15
We show that every correctable subsystem for an arbitrary noise operation can be recovered by a unitary operation, where the notion of recovery is more relaxed than the notion of correction insofar as it does not protect the subsystem from subsequent iterations of the noise. We also demonstrate that in the case of unital noise operations one can identify a subset of all correctable subsystems--those that can be corrected by a single unitary operation--as the noiseless subsystems for the composition of the noise operation with its dual. Using the recently developed structure theory for noiseless subsystems, the identification of such unitarily correctable subsystems is reduced to an algebraic exercise.
Quantum Corrections to Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water and Ice.
Waheed, Qaiser; Edholm, Olle
2011-09-13
Classical simulations of simple water models reproduce many properties of the liquid and ice but overestimate the heat capacity by about 65% at ordinary temperatures and much more for low temperature ice. This is due to the fact that the atomic vibrations are quantum mechanical. The application of harmonic quantum corrections to the molecular motion results in good heat capacities for the liquid and for ice at low temperatures but a successively growing positive deviation from experimental results for ice above 200 K that reaches 15% just below melting. We suggest that this deviation is due to the lack of quantum corrections to the anharmonic motions. For the liquid, the anharmonicities are even larger but also softer and thus in less need of quantum correction. Therefore, harmonic quantum corrections to the classically calculated liquid heat capacities result in agreement with the experimental values. The classical model underestimates the heat of melting by 15%, while the application of quantum corrections produces fair agreement. On the other hand, the heat of vaporization is overestimated by 10% in the harmonically corrected classical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.
2008-07-01
The recently developed mixed quantum-classical propagation method is extended to treat tunneling effects in multidimensional systems. Formulated for systems consisting of a quantum primary part and a classical bath of heavier particles, the method employs a frozen Gaussian description for the bath degrees of freedom, while the dynamics of the quantum subsystem is governed by a corrected propagator. The corrections are defined in terms of matrix elements of zeroth-order propagators. The method is applied to a model system of a double-well potential bilinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator. The extension of the method, which includes nondiagonal elements of the correction propagator, enables an accurate treatment of tunneling in an antisymmetric double-well potential.
Molecular dynamics of large systems with quantum corrections for the nuclei
Gu, Bing; Garashchuk, Sophya
2015-12-31
This paper describes an approximate approach to quantum dynamics based on the quantum trajectory formulation of the Schrödinger equation. The quantum-mechanical effects are incorporated through the quantum potential of the mean-field type, acting on a trajectory ensemble in addition to the classical potential. Efficiency for large systems is achieved by using the quantum corrections for selected degrees of freedom and introduction of empirical friction into the ground-state energy calculations. The classical potential, if needed, can be computed on-the-fly using the Density Functional Tight Binding method of electronic structure merged with the quantum trajectory dynamics code. The approach is practical for a few hundred atoms. Applications include a study of adsorption of quantum hydrogen colliding with the graphene model, C{sub 37}H{sub 15} and a calculation of the ground state of solid {sup 4}He simulated by a cell 180-atoms.
Message passing in fault-tolerant quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Zachary W. E.; Stephens, Ashley M.
2008-12-01
Inspired by Knill’s scheme for message passing error detection, here we develop a scheme for message passing error correction for the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor code. We show that for two levels of concatenated error correction, where classical information obtained at the first level is used to help interpret the syndrome at the second level, our scheme will correct all cases with four physical errors. This results in a reduction of the logical failure rate relative to conventional error correction by a factor proportional to the reciprocal of the physical error rate.
Bulk locality and quantum error correction in AdS/CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel
2015-04-01
We point out a connection between the emergence of bulk locality in AdS/CFT and the theory of quantum error correction. Bulk notions such as Bogoliubov transformations, location in the radial direction, and the holographic entropy bound all have natural CFT interpretations in the language of quantum error correction. We also show that the question of whether bulk operator reconstruction works only in the causal wedge or all the way to the extremal surface is related to the question of whether or not the quantum error correcting code realized by AdS/CFT is also a "quantum secret sharing scheme", and suggest a tensor network calculation that may settle the issue. Interestingly, the version of quantum error correction which is best suited to our analysis is the somewhat nonstandard "operator algebra quantum error correction" of Beny, Kempf, and Kribs. Our proposal gives a precise formulation of the idea of "subregion-subregion" duality in AdS/CFT, and clarifies the limits of its validity.
Error correction in short time steps during the application of quantum gates
Castro, L.A. de Napolitano, R.D.J.
2016-04-15
We propose a modification of the standard quantum error-correction method to enable the correction of errors that occur due to the interaction with a noisy environment during quantum gates without modifying the codification used for memory qubits. Using a perturbation treatment of the noise that allows us to separate it from the ideal evolution of the quantum gate, we demonstrate that in certain cases it is necessary to divide the logical operation in short time steps intercalated by correction procedures. A prescription of how these gates can be constructed is provided, as well as a proof that, even for the cases when the division of the quantum gate in short time steps is not necessary, this method may be advantageous for reducing the total duration of the computation.
Classical simulation of quantum error correction in a Fibonacci anyon code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burton, Simon; Brell, Courtney G.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-02-01
Classically simulating the dynamics of anyonic excitations in two-dimensional quantum systems is likely intractable in general because such dynamics are sufficient to implement universal quantum computation. However, processes of interest for the study of quantum error correction in anyon systems are typically drawn from a restricted class that displays significant structure over a wide range of system parameters. We exploit this structure to classically simulate, and thereby demonstrate the success of, an error-correction protocol for a quantum memory based on the universal Fibonacci anyon model. We numerically simulate a phenomenological model of the system and noise processes on lattice sizes of up to 128 ×128 sites, and find a lower bound on the error-correction threshold of approximately 0.125 errors per edge, which is comparable to those previously known for Abelian and (nonuniversal) non-Abelian anyon models.
New Class of Quantum Error-Correcting Codes for a Bosonic Mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michael, Marios H.; Silveri, Matti; Brierley, R. T.; Albert, Victor V.; Salmilehto, Juha; Jiang, Liang; Girvin, S. M.
2016-07-01
We construct a new class of quantum error-correcting codes for a bosonic mode, which are advantageous for applications in quantum memories, communication, and scalable computation. These "binomial quantum codes" are formed from a finite superposition of Fock states weighted with binomial coefficients. The binomial codes can exactly correct errors that are polynomial up to a specific degree in bosonic creation and annihilation operators, including amplitude damping and displacement noise as well as boson addition and dephasing errors. For realistic continuous-time dissipative evolution, the codes can perform approximate quantum error correction to any given order in the time step between error detection measurements. We present an explicit approximate quantum error recovery operation based on projective measurements and unitary operations. The binomial codes are tailored for detecting boson loss and gain errors by means of measurements of the generalized number parity. We discuss optimization of the binomial codes and demonstrate that by relaxing the parity structure, codes with even lower unrecoverable error rates can be achieved. The binomial codes are related to existing two-mode bosonic codes, but offer the advantage of requiring only a single bosonic mode to correct amplitude damping as well as the ability to correct other errors. Our codes are similar in spirit to "cat codes" based on superpositions of the coherent states but offer several advantages such as smaller mean boson number, exact rather than approximate orthonormality of the code words, and an explicit unitary operation for repumping energy into the bosonic mode. The binomial quantum codes are realizable with current superconducting circuit technology, and they should prove useful in other quantum technologies, including bosonic quantum memories, photonic quantum communication, and optical-to-microwave up- and down-conversion.
Short wavelength quantum electrodynamical correction to cold plasma-wave propagation
Lundin, J.; Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.
2006-10-15
The effect of short wavelength quantum electrodynamic (QED) correction on plasma-wave propagation is investigated. The effect on plasma oscillations and on electromagnetic waves in an unmagnetized as well as a magnetized plasma is investigated. The effects of the short wavelength QED corrections are most evident for plasma oscillations and for extraordinary modes. In particular, the QED correction allow plasma oscillations to propagate, and the extraordinary mode loses its stop band. The significance of our results is discussed.
Anomaly freedom in perturbative loop quantum gravity
Bojowald, Martin; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Kagan, Mikhail; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2008-09-15
A fully consistent linear perturbation theory for cosmology is derived in the presence of quantum corrections as they are suggested by properties of inverse volume operators in loop quantum gravity. The underlying constraints present a consistent deformation of the classical system, which shows that the discreteness in loop quantum gravity can be implemented in effective equations without spoiling space-time covariance. Nevertheless, nontrivial quantum corrections do arise in the constraint algebra. Since correction terms must appear in tightly controlled forms to avoid anomalies, detailed insights for the correct implementation of constraint operators can be gained. The procedures of this article thus provide a clear link between fundamental quantum gravity and phenomenology.
Optimally combining dynamical decoupling and quantum error correction.
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Lidar, D A
2013-01-01
Quantum control and fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC) are two of the cornerstones on which the hope of realizing a large-scale quantum computer is pinned, yet only preliminary steps have been taken towards formalizing the interplay between them. Here we explore this interplay using the powerful strategy of dynamical decoupling (DD), and show how it can be seamlessly and optimally integrated with FTQC. To this end we show how to find the optimal decoupling generator set (DGS) for various subspaces relevant to FTQC, and how to simultaneously decouple them. We focus on stabilizer codes, which represent the largest contribution to the size of the DGS, showing that the intuitive choice comprising the stabilizers and logical operators of the code is in fact optimal, i.e., minimizes a natural cost function associated with the length of DD sequences. Our work brings hybrid DD-FTQC schemes, and their potentially considerable advantages, closer to realization.
Quantum Corrections Crossover and Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators
Bao, Lihong; Wang, Weiyi; Meyer, Nicholas; Liu, Yanwen; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Ai, Ping; Xiu, Faxian
2013-01-01
Revelation of emerging exotic states of topological insulators (TIs) for future quantum computing applications relies on breaking time-reversal symmetry and opening a surface energy gap. Here, we report on the transport response of Bi2Te3 TI thin films in the presence of varying Cr dopants. By tracking the magnetoconductance (MC) in a low doping regime we observed a progressive crossover from weak antilocalization (WAL) to weak localization (WL) as the Cr concentration increases. In a high doping regime, however, increasing Cr concentration yields a monotonically enhanced anomalous Hall effect (AHE) accompanied by an increasing carrier density. Our results demonstrate a possibility of manipulating bulk ferromagnetism and quantum transport in magnetic TI, thus providing an alternative way for experimentally realizing exotic quantum states required by spintronic applications. PMID:23928713
Complete single-horizon quantum corrected black hole spacetime
Peltola, Ari; Kunstatter, Gabor
2009-03-15
We show that a semiclassical polymerization of the interior of Schwarzschild black holes gives rise to a tantalizing candidate for a nonsingular, single-horizon black hole spacetime. The exterior has nonzero quantum stress energy but closely approximates the classical spacetime for macroscopic black holes. The interior exhibits a bounce at a microscopic scale and then expands indefinitely to a Kantowski-Sachs spacetime. Polymerization therefore removes the singularity and produces a scenario reminiscent of past proposals for universe creation via quantum effects inside a black hole.
Cranking the Chiral Soliton Bag Model:. Quantum Corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clement, Gérard; Stern, Jacqueline
The generation of physical states from mean field hedgehogs by cranking is extended to coherent hedgehogs, thus improving the agreement between the cranking and coherent state projection methods, and enabling us to correct simultaneously for translational and rotational fluctuations. These corrections lead to a drastic reduction in the mean nucleon-delta mass which, for the physical values of mπ and Fπ, is lower than, or approximately equal to, the experimental value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Yan Qi; Normand, B.; Sandvik, Anders W.; Meng, Zi Yang
2015-12-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition in an S =1 /2 dimerized Heisenberg antiferromagnet in three spatial dimensions. By performing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations and detailed finite-size scaling analyses, we obtain high-precision results for the quantum critical properties at the transition from the magnetically disordered dimer-singlet phase to the antiferromagnetically ordered Néel phase. This transition breaks O(N ) symmetry with N =3 in D =3 +1 dimensions. This is the upper critical dimension, where multiplicative logarithmic corrections to the leading mean-field critical properties are expected; we extract these corrections, establishing their precise forms for both the zero-temperature staggered magnetization ms and the Néel temperature TN. We present a scaling ansatz for TN, including logarithmic corrections, which agrees with our data and indicates exact linearity with ms, implying a complete decoupling of quantum and thermal fluctuation effects even arbitrarily close to the quantum critical point. We also demonstrate the predicted N -independent leading and subleading logarithmic corrections in the size dependence of the staggered magnetic susceptibility. These logarithmic scaling forms have not previously been identified or verified by unbiased numerical methods, and we discuss their relevance to experimental studies of dimerized quantum antiferromagnets such as TlCuCl3.
GQ corrections in the circuit theory of quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campagnano, G.; Nazarov, Yu. V.
2006-09-01
We develop a finite-element technique that allows one to evaluate correction of the order of GQ to various transport characteristics of arbitrary nanostructures. Common examples of such corrections are the weak-localization effect on conductance and universal conductance fluctuations. Our approach, however, is not restricted to conductance only. It allows one in the same manner to evaluate corrections to the noise characteristics, superconducting properties, strongly nonequilibrium transport, and transmission distribution. To enable such functionality, we consider Green’s functions of arbitrary matrix structure. We derive a finite-element technique from Cooperon and diffuson ladders for these Green’s functions. The derivation is supplemented with application examples. Those include transitions between ensembles and the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
A quantum-drive-time (QDT) quantization of the Taub cosmology
Miller, W.A.; Kheyfets, A.
1994-10-01
We present here an application of a new quantization scheme. We quantize the Taub cosmology by quantizing only the anisotropy parameter {beta} and imposing the super-Hamiltonian constraint as an expectation-value equation to recover the relationship between the scale factor {Omega} and time t. This approach appears to avoid the problem of time.
Goto, Hayato; Uchikawa, Hironori
2013-01-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computation with quantum error-correcting codes has been considerably developed over the past decade. However, there are still difficult issues, particularly on the resource requirement. For further improvement of fault-tolerant quantum computation, here we propose a soft-decision decoder for quantum error correction and detection by teleportation. This decoder can achieve almost optimal performance for the depolarizing channel. Applying this decoder to Knill's C4/C6 scheme for fault-tolerant quantum computation, which is one of the best schemes so far and relies heavily on error correction and detection by teleportation, we dramatically improve its performance. This leads to substantial reduction of resources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Enrique
1985-01-01
Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Yanqi; Normand, Bruce; Sandvik, Anders; Meng, Zi Yang
We investigate the quantum phase transition in an S=1/2 dimerized Heisenberg antiferromagnet in three spatial dimensions. By means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analyses, we get high-precision results for the quantum critical properties at the transition from the magnetically disordered dimer-singlet phase to the ordered Neel phase. This transition breaks O(N) symmetry with N=3 in D=3+1 dimensions. This is the upper critical dimension, where multiplicative logarithmic corrections to the leading mean-field critical properties are expected; we extract these corrections, establishing their precise forms for both the zero-temperature staggered magnetization, ms, and the Neel temperature, TN. We present a scaling ansatz for TN, including logarithmic corrections, which agrees with our data and indicates exact linearity with ms, implying a complete decoupling of quantum and thermal fluctuation effects close to the quantum critical point. These logarithmic scaling forms have not previously identified or verified by unbiased numerical methods and we discuss their relevance to experimental studies of dimerized quantum antiferromagnets such as TlCuCl3. Ref.: arXiv:1506.06073
Yuan, Jie; Liu, Yun
This paper relates the quantum-mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to the radiocarbon dating method by Eq. 9, and also shows the significant influence of temperature on the method. It is suggested that the correction is a function of the frequencies and temperature of a specific sample and these two variables can be evaluated theoretically by the ab initio quantum calculations and experimentally by analyzing the clumped-isotope ratios in it, respectively. This paper also suggests that the (14)C/(12)C ratio in the atmosphere in geological time can be calculated by Eq. 10.
Manakov, N. L. Krylovetsky, A. A.; Marmo, S. I.
2015-11-15
Compact analytic expressions have been derived by a direct expansion in ħ → 0 for the nonrelativistic amplitude of Coulomb bremsstrahlung radiation (BR), the differential (in frequency and angles of the scattered electron) BR cross section, and the triply differential BR cross section that takes into account the bremsstrahlung photon direction and polarization and the scattered electron direction. They contain the classical limit and a quantum correction of the order of ħ at an arbitrary BR frequency ω. An explicit expression has been found for the quantum correction of the order of ħ to the classical BR spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh, Mahamat; Bouetou, Bouetou Thomas; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin
2016-04-01
In this work, quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the Schwarzschild black hole are investigated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations. Gravitational and Dirac perturbations were considered for this case. The Regge-Wheeler gauge and the Dirac equation were used to derive the perturbation equations of the gravitational and Dirac fields respectively and the third order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation method is used for the computing of the quasinormal frequencies. The results show that due to the quantum fluctuations in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole, the QNMs of the black hole damp more slowly when increasing the quantum correction factor (a), and oscillate more slowly.
Timofeev, A. V.; Pomozov, D. I.; Makkaveev, A. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2007-05-15
Quantum cryptography systems combine two communication channels: a quantum and a classical one. (They can be physically implemented in the same fiber-optic link, which is employed as a quantum channel when one-photon states are transmitted and as a classical one when it carries classical data traffic.) Both channels are supposed to be insecure and accessible to an eavesdropper. Error correction in raw keys, interferometer balancing, and other procedures are performed by using the public classical channel. A discussion of the requirements to be met by the classical channel is presented.
Corrections to chance fluctuations: quantum mind in biological evolution?
Damiani, Giuseppe
2009-01-01
According to neo-Darwinian theory, biological evolution is produced by natural selection of random hereditary variations. This assumption stems from the idea of a mechanical and deterministic world based on the laws of classic physics. However, the increased knowledge of relationships between metabolism, epigenetic systems, and editing of nucleic acids suggests the existence of self-organized processes of adaptive evolution in response to environmental stresses. Living organisms are open thermodynamic systems which use entropic decay of external source of electromagnetic energy to increase their internal dynamic order and to generate new genetic and epigenetic information with a high degree of coherency and teleonomic creativity. Sensing, information processing, and decision making of biological systems might be mainly quantum phenomena. Amplification of microscopic quantum events using the long-range correlation of fractal structures, at the borderline between deterministic order and unpredictable chaos, may be used to direct a reproducible transition of the biological systems towards a defined macroscopic state. The discoveries of many natural genetic engineering systems, the ability to choose the most effective solutions, and the emergence of complex forms of consciousness at different levels confirm the importance of mind-action directed processes in biological evolution, as suggested by Alfred Russel Wallace. Although the main Darwinian principles will remain a crucial component of our understanding of evolution, a radical rethinking of the conceptual structure of the neo-Darwinian theory is needed.
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the Standard Model case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop renormalization group equations for Standard Model Higgs inflation. The calculation is done in the Einstein frame, using a covariant formalism for the multi-field system. All counterterms, and thus the betafunctions, can be extracted from the radiative corrections to the two-point functions; the calculation of higher n-point functions then serves as a consistency check of the approach. We find that the theory is renormalizable in the effective field theory sense in the small, mid and large field regime. In the large field regime our results differ slightly from those found in the literature, due to a different treatment of the Goldstone bosons.
Improving Performance in Quantum Mechanics with Explicit Incentives to Correct Mistakes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Benjamin R.; Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
An earlier investigation found that the performance of advanced students in a quantum mechanics course did not automatically improve from midterm to final exam on identical problems even when they were provided the correct solutions and their own graded exams. Here, we describe a study, which extended over four years, in which upper-level…
Quantum error-correcting codes from algebraic geometry codes of Castle type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munuera, Carlos; Tenório, Wanderson; Torres, Fernando
2016-10-01
We study algebraic geometry codes producing quantum error-correcting codes by the CSS construction. We pay particular attention to the family of Castle codes. We show that many of the examples known in the literature in fact belong to this family of codes. We systematize these constructions by showing the common theory that underlies all of them.
Quantum self-correction in the 3D cubic code model.
Bravyi, Sergey; Haah, Jeongwan
2013-11-15
A big open question in the quantum information theory concerns the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. A quantum state recorded in such memory can be stored reliably for a macroscopic time without need for active error correction, if the memory is in contact with a cold enough thermal bath. Here we report analytic and numerical evidence for self-correcting behavior in the quantum spin lattice model known as the 3D cubic code. We prove that its memory time is at least L(cβ), where L is the lattice size, β is the inverse temperature of the bath, and c>0 is a constant coefficient. However, this bound applies only if the lattice size L does not exceed a critical value which grows exponentially with β. In that sense, the model can be called a partially self-correcting memory. We also report a Monte Carlo simulation indicating that our analytic bounds on the memory time are tight up to constant coefficients. To model the readout step we introduce a new decoding algorithm, which can be implemented efficiently for any topological stabilizer code. A longer version of this work can be found in Bravyi and Haah, arXiv:1112.3252.
Quantum Corrections to the Free Energy Difference between Peptides and Proteins Conformers.
Cecchini, Marco
2015-09-08
The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key in understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Most current computational approaches evaluate the difference in conformational free energy in the classical limit based on the common "dogma" that only the lowest-frequency modes make a significant contribution to it, i.e. they assume that quantum mechanical corrections are negligible. Here, I show for three biomolecular systems described in the rigid-rotor, harmonic-oscillator approximation that the zero-point energy contribution, although small, is not negligible even at room temperature. I find that a quantum correction arises from the intermediate-frequency vibrational modes and that its magnitude is strongly correlated with the number of atoms in the system. A straightforward, though approximate, way to account for this quantum correction in the calculation of conformational free-energy differences by classical molecular dynamics is presented. The relevance of the quantum correction analyzed in this paper is discussed in the context of conventional force fields for proteins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, William
2014-03-01
I will discuss my transition from Quantum Gravity and Cosmology to the world of consulting and describe the differences and similarities between academia and industry. I will give some dos and don'ts for industry interviews and jobs searches.
Quantum-corrected drift-diffusion models for transport in semiconductor devices
De Falco, Carlo; Gatti, Emilio; Lacaita, Andrea L.; Sacco, Riccardo . E-mail: riccardo.sacco@mate.polimi.it
2005-04-10
In this paper, we propose a unified framework for Quantum-corrected drift-diffusion (QCDD) models in nanoscale semiconductor device simulation. QCDD models are presented as a suitable generalization of the classical drift-diffusion (DD) system, each particular model being identified by the constitutive relation for the quantum-correction to the electric potential. We examine two special, and relevant, examples of QCDD models; the first one is the modified DD model named Schroedinger-Poisson-drift-diffusion, and the second one is the quantum-drift-diffusion (QDD) model. For the decoupled solution of the two models, we introduce a functional iteration technique that extends the classical Gummel algorithm widely used in the iterative solution of the DD system. We discuss the finite element discretization of the various differential subsystems, with special emphasis on their stability properties, and illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithms and models on the numerical simulation of nanoscale devices in two spatial dimensions.
Topological order and memory time in marginally-self-correcting quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siva, Karthik; Yoshida, Beni
2017-03-01
We examine two proposals for marginally-self-correcting quantum memory: the cubic code by Haah and the welded code by Michnicki. In particular, we prove explicitly that they are absent of topological order above zero temperature, as their Gibbs ensembles can be prepared via a short-depth quantum circuit from classical ensembles. Our proof technique naturally gives rise to the notion of free energy associated with excitations. Further, we develop a framework for an ergodic decomposition of Davies generators in CSS codes which enables formal reduction to simpler classical memory problems. We then show that memory time in the welded code is doubly exponential in inverse temperature via the Peierls argument. These results introduce further connections between thermal topological order and self-correction from the viewpoint of free energy and quantum circuit depth.
Formation and evolution of structure in loop cosmology.
Bojowald, Martin; Kagan, Mikhail; Singh, Parampreet; Hernández, Hector H; Skirzewski, Aureliano
2007-01-19
Inhomogeneous cosmological perturbation equations are derived in loop quantum gravity, taking into account corrections, in particular, in gravitational parts. This provides a framework for calculating the evolution of modes in structure formation scenarios related to inflationary or bouncing models. Applications here are corrections to the Newton potential and to the evolution of large scale modes which imply nonconservation of curvature perturbations possibly noticeable in a running spectral index. These effects are sensitive to quantization procedures and test the characteristic behavior of correction terms derived from quantum gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedrocchi, Fabio L.; Bonesteel, N. E.; DiVincenzo, David P.
2015-09-01
The Majorana code is an example of a stabilizer code where the quantum information is stored in a system supporting well-separated Majorana bound states (MBSs). We focus on one-dimensional realizations of the Majorana code, as well as networks of such structures, and investigate their lifetime when coupled to a parity-preserving thermal environment. We apply the Davies prescription, a standard method that describes the basic aspects of a thermal environment, and derive a master equation in the Born-Markov limit. We first focus on a single wire with immobile MBSs and perform error correction to annihilate thermal excitations. In the high-temperature limit, we show both analytically and numerically that the lifetime of the Majorana qubit grows logarithmically with the size of the wire. We then study a trijunction with four MBSs when braiding is executed. We study the occurrence of dangerous error processes that prevent the lifetime of the Majorana code from growing with the size of the trijunction. The origin of the dangerous processes is the braiding itself, which separates pairs of excitations and renders the noise nonlocal; these processes arise from the basic constraints of moving MBSs in one-dimensional (1D) structures. We confirm our predictions with Monte Carlo simulations in the low-temperature regime, i.e., the regime of practical relevance. Our results put a restriction on the degree of self-correction of this particular 1D topological quantum computing architecture.
On classical and quantum dynamics of tachyon-like fields and their cosmological implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrijević, Dragoljub D.; Djordjević, Goran S.; Milošević, Milan; Vulcanov, Dumitru
2014-11-01
We consider a class of tachyon-like potentials, motivated by string theory, D-brane dynamics and inflation theory in the context of classical and quantum mechanics. A formalism for describing dynamics of tachyon fields in spatially homogenous and one-dimensional - classical and quantum mechanical limit is proposed. A few models with concrete potentials are considered. Additionally, possibilities for p-adic and adelic generalization of these models are discussed. Classical actions and corresponding quantum propagators, in the Feynman path integral approach, are calculated in a form invariant on a change of the background number fields, i.e. on both archimedean and nonarchimedean spaces. Looking for a quantum origin of inflation, relevance of p-adic and adelic generalizations are briefly discussed.
On classical and quantum dynamics of tachyon-like fields and their cosmological implications
Dimitrijević, Dragoljub D. Djordjević, Goran S. Milošević, Milan; Vulcanov, Dumitru
2014-11-24
We consider a class of tachyon-like potentials, motivated by string theory, D-brane dynamics and inflation theory in the context of classical and quantum mechanics. A formalism for describing dynamics of tachyon fields in spatially homogenous and one-dimensional - classical and quantum mechanical limit is proposed. A few models with concrete potentials are considered. Additionally, possibilities for p-adic and adelic generalization of these models are discussed. Classical actions and corresponding quantum propagators, in the Feynman path integral approach, are calculated in a form invariant on a change of the background number fields, i.e. on both archimedean and nonarchimedean spaces. Looking for a quantum origin of inflation, relevance of p-adic and adelic generalizations are briefly discussed.
Symmetries and quantum corrections in heavy quark effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIrvin, Matthew James
1997-11-01
Finite-mass corrections to the Lagrangian of heavy quark effective field theory appear in a power series in the reciprocal of the quark mass. The running of these terms' coefficients to order 1/m2 is calculated to one loop, continuously redefining the quark field to eliminate operators vanishing according to the leading- order equation of motion. Results are found to agree with other recent calculations, and with constraints implied by reparameterization invariance. Different forms for the reparameterization transformation have appeared in the literature. A field redefinition is discussed which reveals the equivalence, at the level of the S-matrix, of a large family of reparameterization transformations. To order 1/m2 in the Lagrangian, these give differing predictions only for operators vanishing by the leading- order equation of motion. A new, very straightforward proof of the reparameterization constraints, applicable to order 1/m2 but to all orders in αs, is described. The results are compared with two previously proposed versions of reparameterization invariance.
Classical and quantum solutions in Brans-Dicke cosmology with a perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael; Basilakos, Spyros; Barrow, John D.
2016-02-01
We consider the application of group invariant transformations in order to constrain a flat isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model, containing a Brans-Dicke scalar field and a perfect fluid with a constant equation of state parameter w , where the latter is not interacting with the scalar field in the gravitational action integral. The requirement that the Wheeler-DeWitt equation be invariant under one-parameter point transformations provides us with two families of power-law potentials for the Brans-Dicke field, in which the powers are functions of the Brans-Dicke parameter ωBD and the parameter w . The existence of the Lie symmetry in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is equivalent to the existence of a conserved quantity in field equations and with oscillatory terms in the wave function of the Universe. This enables us to solve the field equations. For a specific value of the conserved quantity, we find a closed-form solution for the Hubble factor, which is equivalent to a cosmological model in general relativity containing two perfect fluids. This provides us with different models for specific values of the parameters ωBD , and w . Finally, the results hold for the specific case where the Brans-Dicke parameter ωBD is zero, that is, for the O'Hanlon massive dilaton theory and, consequently, for f (R ) gravity in the metric formalism.
Quantum-annealing correction at finite temperature: Ferromagnetic p -spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuura, Shunji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Vinci, Walter; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2017-02-01
The performance of open-system quantum annealing is adversely affected by thermal excitations out of the ground state. While the presence of energy gaps between the ground and excited states suppresses such excitations, error correction techniques are required to ensure full scalability of quantum annealing. Quantum annealing correction (QAC) is a method that aims to improve the performance of quantum annealers when control over only the problem (final) Hamiltonian is possible, along with decoding. Building on our earlier work [S. Matsuura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 220501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.220501], we study QAC using analytical tools of statistical physics by considering the effects of temperature and a transverse field on the penalty qubits in the ferromagnetic p -body infinite-range transverse-field Ising model. We analyze the effect of QAC on second (p =2 ) and first (p ≥3 ) order phase transitions, and construct the phase diagram as a function of temperature and penalty strength. Our analysis reveals that for sufficiently low temperatures and in the absence of a transverse field on the penalty qubit, QAC breaks up a single, large free-energy barrier into multiple smaller ones. We find theoretical evidence for an optimal penalty strength in the case of a transverse field on the penalty qubit, a feature observed in QAC experiments. Our results provide further compelling evidence that QAC provides an advantage over unencoded quantum annealing.
Hardware-Efficient and Fully Autonomous Quantum Error Correction in Superconducting Circuits.
Kapit, Eliot
2016-04-15
Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this Letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single-qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven superconducting quantum interference device couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multiqubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of 40 or more compared to the individual qubit T_{1} and T_{2} using this technique. We thus demonstrate that there is substantial headroom for improving the coherence of modern superconducting qubits with a fairly modest increase in device complexity.
Hardware-Efficient and Fully Autonomous Quantum Error Correction in Superconducting Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapit, Eliot
2016-04-01
Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this Letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single-qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven superconducting quantum interference device couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multiqubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of 40 or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique. We thus demonstrate that there is substantial headroom for improving the coherence of modern superconducting qubits with a fairly modest increase in device complexity.
Nuclear numerical range and quantum error correction codes for non-unitary noise models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipka-Bartosik, Patryk; Życzkowski, Karol
2017-01-01
We introduce a notion of nuclear numerical range defined as the set of expectation values of a given operator A among normalized pure states, which belong to the nucleus of an auxiliary operator Z. This notion proves to be applicable to investigate models of quantum noise with block-diagonal structure of the corresponding Kraus operators. The problem of constructing a suitable quantum error correction code for this model can be restated as a geometric problem of finding intersection points of certain sets in the complex plane. This technique, worked out in the case of two-qubit systems, can be generalized for larger dimensions.
Jain, Shweta Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2015-07-31
The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seshavatharam, U. V. S.; Lakshminarayana, S.
If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole (universe that constitutes dynamic space-time and exhibits quantum behavior) automatically general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a `scale independent' true unified model of quantum gravity. By considering the `Planck mass' as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Current rate of cosmic black hole expansion is being stopped by the microscopic quantum mechanical lengths. In this new direction authors observed 5 important quantum mechanical methods for understanding the current cosmic deceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of `whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past, in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy's excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of high cosmic back ground temperature. Need of new mathematical methods & techniques, computer simulations, advanced engineering skills seem to be essential
Homogeneous cosmologies as group field theory condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2014-06-01
We give a general procedure, in the group field theory (GFT) formalism for quantum gravity, for constructing states that describe macroscopic, spatially homogeneous universes. These states are close to coherent (condensate) states used in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The condition on such states to be (approximate) solutions to the quantum equations of motion of GFT is used to extract an effective dynamics for homogeneous cosmologies directly from the underlying quantum theory. The resulting description in general gives nonlinear and nonlocal equations for the `condensate wavefunction' which are analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates. We show the general form of the effective equations for current quantum gravity models, as well as some concrete examples. We identify conditions under which the dynamics becomes linear, admitting an interpretation as a quantum-cosmological Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and give its semiclassical (WKB) approximation in the case of a kinetic term that includes a Laplace-Beltrami operator. For isotropic states, this approximation reproduces the classical Friedmann equation in vacuum with positive spatial curvature. We show how the formalism can be consistently extended from Riemannian signature to Lorentzian signature models, and discuss the addition of matter fields, obtaining the correct coupling of a massless scalar in the Friedmann equation from the most natural extension of the GFT action. We also outline the procedure for extending our condensate states to include cosmological perturbations. Our results form the basis of a general programme for extracting effective cosmological dynamics directly from a microscopic non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity.
Cho, Edward Namkyu; Shin, Yong Hyeon; Yun, Ilgu
2014-11-07
A compact quantum correction model for a symmetric double gate (DG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is investigated. The compact quantum correction model is proposed from the concepts of the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM}) and the gate capacitance (C{sub g}) degradation. First of all, ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM} induced by quantum mechanical (QM) effects is modeled. The C{sub g} degradation is then modeled by introducing the inversion layer centroid. With ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM} and the C{sub g} degradation, the QM effects are implemented in previously reported classical model and a comparison between the proposed quantum correction model and numerical simulation results is presented. Based on the results, the proposed quantum correction model can be applicable to the compact model of DG MOSFET.
Ehrenfest-time dependence of quantum transport corrections and spectral statistics.
Waltner, Daniel; Kuipers, Jack
2010-12-01
The Ehrenfest-time scale in quantum transport separates essentially classical propagation from wave interference and here we consider its effect on the transmission and reflection through quantum dots. In particular, we calculate the Ehrenfest-time dependence of the next-to-leading-order quantum corrections to the transmission and reflection for dc and ac transport and check that our results are consistent with current conservation relations. Looking as well at spectral statistics in closed systems, we finally demonstrate how the contributions analyzed here imply changes in the calculation, given by Brouwer [Phys. Rev. E 74, 066208 (2006)], of the next-to-leading order of the spectral form factor. Our semiclassical result coincides with the result obtained by Tian and Larkin [Phys. Rev. B 70, 035305 (2004)] by field-theoretical methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal
2016-05-01
In the context of effective field theory, we consider quantum gravity with minimally coupled massless particles. Fixing the background geometry to be of the Kerr-Schild type, we fully determine the one-loop effective action of the theory whose finite non-local part is induced by the long-distance portion of quantum loops. This is accomplished using the non-local expansion of the heat kernel in addition to a non-linear completion technique through which the effective action is expanded in gravitational curvatures. Via Euclidean methods, we identify a logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Schwarzschild black hole. Using dimensional transmutation the result is shown to exhibit an interesting interplay between the UV and IR properties of quantum gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Corredoira, M.
2009-08-01
Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.
Sim(n-2):Very Special Relativity and its Deformations, Holonomy and Quantum Corrections
Gibbons, G. W.
2009-05-01
I review some recent work on the applications of Sim(n-2), the maximal subroup of the Lorentz group SO(n-1,1). Topics covered include Myrheim's formula for the volume of Aleaxandrov open sets, Lorentz Violation and Very Special Relativity, deformations of Sim(n-2) and Bogoslovky's Finsler model, metrics with holonony Sim(n-2) and the possible absence of quantum corrections.
Multi-Run Quantum Error Correction in Coupled Electron-Nuclear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahimi Darabad, Robabeh; Park, Daniel K.; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2013-03-01
It has been a milestone in realizing quantum computing, to enhance our control over physical systems so that making quantum processors performing accurately and precisely in presence of environmental noise. For practical uses, quantum error correction should be employed in multi-run cycles in order to keep the encoded qubit, that is carrying the information, safe from noise. We have been working towards implementing multi-run quantum error correction in molecular systems that involve electron and nuclear spins. Electron spins of a molecular sample are used for pumping up the nuclear spin polarizations, in addition to addressing and manipulating the nuclear spins. The required experimental conditions for having access to refreshable ancilla qubits are very much enhanced by a careful design of the molecular sample. We report the progress and prospects towards overcoming the experimental challenges in terms of sample preparation; irradiation imposed free electron samples, free radical molecular spin systems, and triplet state photoexcitable co-crystal samples. Industry of Canada, and CIFAR
One-loop quantum gravity repulsion in the early Universe.
Broda, Bogusław
2011-03-11
Perturbative quantum gravity formalism is applied to compute the lowest order corrections to the classical spatially flat cosmological Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker solution (for the radiation). The presented approach is analogous to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Coulomb potential in electrodynamics, or rather to the approach applied to compute quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild solution in gravity. In the framework of the standard perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that the corrections to the classical deceleration, coming from the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization (self-energy), have (UV cutoff free) opposite to the classical repulsive properties which are not negligible in the very early Universe. The repulsive "quantum forces" resemble those known from loop quantum cosmology.
Quantum Oscillations Can Prevent the Big Bang Singularity in an Einstein-Dirac Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian
2010-01-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic system of Dirac particles coupled to classical gravity. The dust and radiation dominated closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-times are recovered as limiting cases. We find a mechanism where quantum oscillations of the Dirac wave functions can prevent the formation of the big bang or big crunch singularity. Thus before the big crunch, the collapse of the universe is stopped by quantum effects and reversed to an expansion, so that the universe opens up entering a new era of classical behavior. Numerical examples of such space-times are given, and the dependence on various parameters is discussed. Generically, one has a collapse after a finite number of cycles. By fine-tuning the parameters we construct an example of a space-time which satisfies the dominant energy condition and is time-periodic, thus running through an infinite number of contraction and expansion cycles.
From conformal field theory spectra to CMB multipoles in quantum gravity cosmology
Hamada, Ken-ji; Horata, Shinichi; Yukawa, Tetsuyuki
2010-04-15
We study the inflation process of the Universe based on the renormalizable quantum gravity formulated as a conformal field theory. We show that the power-law conformal field theory spectrum approaches that of the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles-type as the amplitude of gravitational potential gradually reduces during the inflation. The non-Gaussanity parameter is preserved within an order of unity due to the diffeomorphism invariance. Sharp falloff of the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background at large scale is understood as a consequence of the existence of dynamical scale of the quantum gravity {Lambda}{sub QG}({approx_equal}10{sup 17} GeV). The angular power spectra are computed and compared with the WMAP5 and ACBAR data with a quality of {chi}{sup 2}/dof{approx_equal}1.1.
Improved HDRG decoders for qudit and non-Abelian quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutter, Adrian; Loss, Daniel; Wootton, James R.
2015-03-01
Hard-decision renormalization group (HDRG) decoders are an important class of decoding algorithms for topological quantum error correction. Due to their versatility, they have been used to decode systems with fractal logical operators, color codes, qudit topological codes, and non-Abelian systems. In this work, we develop a method of performing HDRG decoding which combines strengths of existing decoders and further improves upon them. In particular, we increase the minimal number of errors necessary for a logical error in a system of linear size L from \\Theta ({{L}2/3}) to Ω ({{L}1-ε }) for any ε \\gt 0. We apply our algorithm to decoding D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models and a non-Abelian anyon model with Fibonacci-like fusion rules, and show that it indeed significantly outperforms previous HDRG decoders. Furthermore, we provide the first study of continuous error correction with imperfect syndrome measurements for the D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models. The parallelized runtime of our algorithm is poly(log L) for the perfect measurement case. In the continuous case with imperfect syndrome measurements, the averaged runtime is O(1) for Abelian systems, while continuous error correction for non-Abelian anyons stays an open problem.
Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a Yang-Mills field and positive energy levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhardt, Claus
2010-02-01
We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a Yang-Mills field, with or without mass term, if the spatial geometry of the underlying spacetime is homothetic to {\\bb R}^{3} . The energy levels of the resulting quantum model, i.e. the eigenvalues of the corresponding self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a pure point spectrum, are strictly positive. This work has been supported by the DFG.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, L.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2016-08-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The ‘break-even’ point of QEC—at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system—has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0>f and |1>f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits.
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Jiang, L; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2016-08-25
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The 'break-even' point of QEC--at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system--has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0〉f and |1〉f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Applegate, J. H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Scherrer, R. J.
1988-01-01
A simple one-dimensional model is used to describe the evolution of neutron density before and during nucleosynthesis in a high-entropy bubble left over from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. It is shown why cosmic nucleosynthesis in such a neutron-rich environment produces a surfeit of elements heavier than lithium. Analytical and numerical techniques are used to estimate the abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and heavier elements up to Ne-22. A high-density neutron-rich region produces enough primordial N-14 to be observed in stellar atmospheres. It shown that very heavy elements may be created in a cosmological r-process; the neutron exposure in the neutron-rich regions is large enough for the Ne-22 to trigger a catastrophic r-process runaway in which the quantity of heavy elements doubles in much less than an expansion time due to fission cycling. A primordial abundance of r-process elements is predicted to appear as an excess of rare earth elements in extremely metal-poor stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megow, Jörg; Kulesza, Alexander; May, Volkhard
2016-01-01
The ground-state classical path approximation is utilized to compute molecular absorption spectra in a mixed quantum-classical frame. To improve the description for high-frequency vibrational satellites, related quantum correction factors are introduced. The improved method is demonstrated for the Qy- and Qx-bands of pheophorbide a.
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Ferrera, Antonio E-mail: a.ferrera.pardo@gmail.com
2008-10-15
We construct a new brane-world model composed of a bulk with a dilatonic field, plus a brane with brane tension coupled to the dilaton, cold dark matter and an induced gravity term. It is possible to show that, depending on the nature of the coupling between the brane tension and the dilaton, this model can describe the late time acceleration of the brane expansion (for the normal branch) as it moves within the bulk. The acceleration is produced together with a mimicry of the crossing of the cosmological constant line (w = -1) on the brane, although this crossing of the phantom divide is obtained without invoking any phantom matter either on the brane or in the bulk. The role of dark energy is played by the brane tension, which reaches a maximum positive value along the cosmological expansion of the brane. It is precisely at that maximum that the crossing of the phantom divide takes place. We also show that these results remain valid when the induced gravity term on the brane is switched off.
A small cosmological constant due to non-perturbative quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan
2014-06-01
We propose an explanation for the ‘unnatural smallness’ of the cosmological constant, arguing that the stress-energy tensor of the Standard Model should be given by
Analogue cosmological particle creation: Quantum correlations in expanding Bose-Einstein condensates
Prain, Angus; Liberati, Stefano; Fagnocchi, Serena
2010-11-15
We investigate the structure of quantum correlations in an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) through the analogue gravity framework. We consider both a 3+1 isotropically expanding BEC as well as the experimentally relevant case of an elongated, effectively 1+1 dimensional, expanding condensate. In this case we include the effects of inhomogeneities in the condensate, a feature rarely included in the analogue gravity literature. In both cases we link the BEC expansion to a simple model for an expanding spacetime and then study the correlation structure numerically and analytically (in suitable approximations). We also discuss the expected strength of such correlation patterns and experimentally feasible BEC systems in which these effects might be detected in the near future.
Quantum corrections to inflation: The importance of RG running and choosing the optimal RG scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herranen, Matti; Hohenegger, Andreas; Osland, Asgeir; Tranberg, Anders
2017-01-01
We demonstrate the importance of correctly implementing RG running and choosing the RG scale when calculating quantum corrections to inflaton dynamics. We show that such corrections are negligible for single-field inflation, in the sense of not altering the viable region in the ns-r plane, when imposing Planck constraints on As. Surprisingly, this also applies, in a nontrivial way, for an inflaton coupled to additional spectator degrees of freedom. The result relies on choosing the renormalization scale (pseudo-)optimally, thereby avoiding unphysical large logarithmic corrections to the Friedmann equations and large running of the couplings. We find that the viable range of parameters of the potential is altered relative to the classical limit, and we find an upper limit of g ≃10-4 on the value of the inflaton-spectator portal coupling still allowing for inflation and an upper limit of g ≃10-5 for inflation to correctly reproduce the scalar amplitude of fluctuations As.
Universal corrections to the entanglement entropy in gapped quantum spin chains: A numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Emanuele; Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin
2013-09-01
We carry out a numerical study of the bipartite entanglement entropy in the gapped regime of two paradigmatic quantum spin chain models: the Ising chain in an external magnetic field and the antiferromagnetic XXZ model. The universal scaling limit of these models is described by the massive Ising field theory and the SU(2)-Thirring (sine-Gordon) model, respectively. We may therefore exploit quantum field theoretical results to predict the behavior of the entropy. We numerically confirm that in the scaling limit, corrections to the saturation of the entropy at large region size are proportional to a modified Bessel function of the first kind, K0(2mr), where m is a mass scale (the inverse correlation length) and r the length of the region under consideration. The proportionality constant is simply related to the number of particle types in the universal spectrum. This was originally predicted by J. L. Cardy, O. A. Castro-Alvaredo, and B. Doyon [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-007-9422-x 130, 129 (2008)] and B. Doyon [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.031602 102, 031602 (2009)] for two-dimensional quantum field theories. Away from the universal region our numerics suggest an entropic behavior following quite closely the quantum field theory prediction, except for extra dependencies on the correlation length.
Babb, James; Kunstatter, Gabor; Daghigh, Ramin
2011-10-15
Quasinormal modes provide valuable information about the structure of spacetime outside a black hole. There is also a conjectured relationship between the highly damped quasinormal modes and the semiclassical spectrum of the horizon area/entropy. In this paper, we show that for spacetimes characterized by more than one scale, the 'infinitely damped' modes in principle probe the structure of spacetime outside the horizon at the shortest length scales. We demonstrate this with the calculation of the highly damped quasinormal modes of the nonsingular, single-horizon, quantum corrected black hole derived in [A. Peltola and G. Kunstatter, Phys. Rev. D 79, 061501 (2009); ].
Quantum electrodynamics corrections to the 2P fine splitting in Li.
Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2014-08-15
We consider quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to the fine splitting E(2P_{3/2})-E(2P_{1/2}) in the Li atom. We derive complete formulas for the mα^{6} and mα^{7}lnα contributions and calculate them numerically using highly optimized, explicitly correlated basis functions. The obtained results are in agreement with the most recent measurement, helping to resolve discrepancies between former ones and lay the foundation for the investigation of QED effects in light, many-electron atoms.
Aspects of quantum corrections in a Lorentz-violating extension of the Abelian Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, L. C. T.; Fargnoli, H. G.; Baêta Scarpelli, A. P.
2013-06-01
We investigate new aspects related to the Abelian gauge-Higgs model with the addition of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term. We focus on one-loop quantum corrections to the photon and Higgs sectors due to spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry and show that new finite and definite Lorentz-breaking terms are induced. Specifically in the gauge sector, a CPT-even aether term is induced. Besides, aspects of the one-loop renormalization of the background vector-dependent terms are discussed.
Brans-Dicke cosmology with time-dependent cosmological term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Marcelo Samuel
1990-12-01
Berman and Som's solution for a Brans-Dicke cosmology with time-dependent cosmological term, Robertson-Walker metric, perfect fluid, and perfect gas law of state solves the horizon, homogeneity, and isotropy problems without requiring any unnatural fine tuning in the very early universe, thus being an alternative model to inflation. The model also does not need recourse to quantum cosmology, and solves the flatness and magnetic monopole problems.
Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory.
Wu, Jianlan; Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei
2015-08-21
For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.
Quantum oscillations in the kinetic energy density: Gradient corrections from the Airy gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindmaa, Alexander; Mattsson, Ann E.; Armiento, Rickard
2014-03-01
We show how one can systematically derive exact quantum corrections to the kinetic energy density (KED) in the Thomas-Fermi (TF) limit of the Airy gas (AG). The resulting expression is of second order in the density variation and we demonstrate how it applies universally to a certain class of model systems in the slowly varying regime, for which the accuracy of the gradient corrections of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) model is limited. In particular we study two kinds of related electronic edges, the Hermite gas (HG) and the Mathieu gas (MG), which are both relevant for discussing periodic systems. We also consider two systems with finite integer particle number, namely non-interacting electrons subject to harmonic confinement as well as the hydrogenic potential. Finally we discuss possible implications of our findings mainly related to the field of functional development of the local kinetic energy contribution.
High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution
Dixon, A. R.; Sato, H.
2014-01-01
Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90–94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0–80 km. PMID:25450416
Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory
Wu, Jianlan Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei
2015-08-21
For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.
High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution.
Dixon, A R; Sato, H
2014-12-02
Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kailasvuori, Janik; Lüffe, Matthias C.
2010-06-01
Semiclassical spin-coherent kinetic equations can be derived from quantum theory by many different approaches (Liouville equation based approaches, nonequilibrium Green's function techniques, etc). The collision integrals turn out to be formally different, but coincide in textbook examples as well as for systems where the spin-orbit coupling is only a small part of the kinetic energy like in related studies on the spin Hall effect. In Dirac cone physics (graphene, surface states of topological insulators like Bi1 - xSbx, Bi2Te3 etc), where this coupling constitutes the entire kinetic energy, the difference manifests itself in the precise value of the electron-hole coherence originated quantum correction to the Drude conductivity \\sigma_0 \\sim ({e^2}/{h}) \\ell k_{\\mathrm {F}} . The leading correction is derived analytically for single and multilayer graphene with general scalar impurities. The often neglected principal value terms in the collision integral are important. Neglecting them yields a leading correction of order (\\ell k_{\\mathrm {F}})^{-1} , whereas including them can give a correction of order (\\ell k_{\\mathrm {F}})^0 . The latter opens up a counterintuitive scenario with finite electron-hole coherent effects at Fermi energies arbitrarily far above the neutrality point regime, for example in the form of a shift δσ ~ e2/h that only depends on the dielectric constant. This residual conductivity, possibly related to the one observed in recent experiments, depends crucially on the approach and could offer a setting for experimentally singling out one of the candidates. Concerning the different formalisms we notice that the discrepancy between a density matrix approach and a Green's function approach is removed if the generalized Kadanoff-Baym Ansatz in the latter is replaced by an anti-ordered version. This issue of Ansatz may also be important for Boltzmann type treatments of graphene beyond a linear response.
Schnell, Erich A.; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T.
2012-03-15
Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the noise power spectrum (NPS), and thus the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), of computed radiography (CR) images by correcting for spatial gain variations specific to individual imaging plates. CR devices have not traditionally employed gain-map corrections, unlike the case with flat-panel detectors, because of the multiplicity of plates used with each reader. The lack of gain-map correction has limited the DQE(f) at higher exposures with CR. This current work describes a feasible solution to generating plate-specific gain maps. Methods: Ten high-exposure open field images were taken with an RQA5 spectrum, using a sixth generation CR plate suspended in air without a cassette. Image values were converted to exposure, the plates registered using fiducial dots on the plate, the ten images averaged, and then high-pass filtered to remove low frequency contributions from field inhomogeneity. A gain-map was then produced by converting all pixel values in the average into fractions with mean of one. The resultant gain-map of the plate was used to normalize subsequent single images to correct for spatial gain fluctuation. To validate performance, the normalized NPS (NNPS) for all images was calculated both with and without the gain-map correction. Variations in the quality of correction due to exposure levels, beam voltage/spectrum, CR reader used, and registration were investigated. Results: The NNPS with plate-specific gain-map correction showed improvement over the noncorrected case over the range of frequencies from 0.15 to 2.5 mm{sup -1}. At high exposure (40 mR), NNPS was 50%-90% better with gain-map correction than without. A small further improvement in NNPS was seen from carefully registering the gain-map with subsequent images using small fiducial dots, because of slight misregistration during scanning. Further improvement was seen in the NNPS from scaling the gain map about the mean to account for different beam
Effect of quantum correction on nonlinear thermal wave of electrons driven by laser heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nafari, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2016-08-01
In thermal interaction of laser pulse with a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane, the thermal waves of electrons are generated instantly. Since the thermal conductivity of electron is a nonlinear function of temperature, a nonlinear heat conduction equation is used to investigate the propagation of waves in solid DT. This paper presents a self-similar analytic solution for the nonlinear heat conduction equation in a planar geometry. The thickness of the target material is finite in numerical computation, and it is assumed that the laser energy is deposited at a finite initial thickness at the initial time which results in a finite temperature for electrons at initial time. Since the required temperature range for solid DT ignition is higher than the critical temperature which equals 35.9 eV, the effects of quantum correction in thermal conductivity should be considered. This letter investigates the effects of quantum correction on characteristic features of nonlinear thermal wave, including temperature, penetration depth, velocity, heat flux, and heating and cooling domains. Although this effect increases electron temperature and thermal flux, penetration depth and propagation velocity are smaller. This effect is also applied to re-evaluate the side-on laser ignition of uncompressed DT.
Quantum corrections to the classical model of the atom-field system.
Ugulava, A; McHedlishvili, G; Chkhaidze, S; Chotorlishvili, L
2011-10-01
The nonlinear-oscillating system in action-angle variables is characterized by the dependence of frequency of oscillation ω(I) on action I. Periodic perturbation is capable of realizing in the system a stable nonlinear resonance at which the action I adapts to the resonance condition ω(I(0))≃ω, that is, "sticking" in the resonance frequency. For a particular physical problem there may be a case when I≫ℏ is the classical quantity, whereas its correction ΔI≃ℏ is the quantum quantity. Naturally, dynamics of ΔI is described by the quantum equation of motion. In particular, in the moderate nonlinearity approximation ɛ≪(dω/dI)(I/ω)≪1/ɛ, where ɛ is the small parameter, the description of quantum state is reduced to the solution of the Mathieu-Schrödinger equation. The state formed as a result of sticking in resonance is an eigenstate of the operator ΔI that does not commute with the Hamiltonian H. Expanding the eigenstate wave functions in Hamiltonian eigenfunctions, one can obtain a probability distribution of energy level population. Thus, an inverse level population for times lower than the relaxation time can be obtained.
Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert
2012-03-01
Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the Friedmann equations, and also that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies holds in linearized perturbation theory. Nevertheless, it is not obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology with significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed. We propose a straightforward dictionary---exact at the linearized level---that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into GR dust cosmologies, and we use our ordering scheme to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein's equation. We then find additional corrections needed to satisfy Einstein's equation to ``order 1'' at small scales and to ``order ɛ'' at large scales. We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations to describe GR cosmologies.
Cosmological phase transitions
Kolb, E.W. |
1993-10-01
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.
Some solutions for one of the cosmological constant problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nojiri, Shin'Ichi
2016-11-01
We propose several covariant models which may solve one of the problems in the cosmological constant. One of the models can be regarded as an extension of sequestering model. Other models could be regarded as extensions of the covariant formulation of the unimodular gravity. The contributions to the vacuum energy from the quantum corrections from the matters are absorbed into a redefinition of a scalar field and the quantum corrections become irrelevant to the dynamics. In a class of the extended unimodular gravity models, we also consider models which are regarded as topological field theories. The models can be extended and not only the vacuum energy but also any quantum corrections to the gravitational action could become irrelevant for the dynamics. We find, however, that the BRS symmetry in the topological field theories is broken spontaneously and therefore, the models might not be consistent.
Precision cosmology, Accuracy cosmology and Statistical cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verde, Licia
2014-05-01
The avalanche of data over the past 10-20 years has propelled cosmology into the ``precision era''. The next challenge cosmology has to meet is to enter the era of accuracy. Because of the intrinsic nature of studying the Cosmos and the sheer amount of data available now and coming soon, the only way to meet this challenge is by developing suitable and specific statistical techniques. The road from precision Cosmology to accurate Cosmology goes through statistical Cosmology. I will outline some open challenges and discuss some specific examples.
Cosmological perturbations and classical change of signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Jérôme
1995-12-01
Cosmological perturbations on a manifold admitting signature change are studied. The background solution consists in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe filled by a constant scalar field playing the role of a cosmological constant. It is shown that no regular solution exists satisfying the junction conditions at the surface of change. The comparison with similar studies in quantum cosmology is made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Michael S.
1999-03-01
For two decades the hot big-bang model as been referred to as the standard cosmology - and for good reason. For just as long cosmologists have known that there are fundamental questions that are not answered by the standard cosmology and point to a grander theory. The best candidate for that grander theory is inflation + cold dark matter. It holds that the Universe is flat, that slowly moving elementary particles left over from the earliest moments provide the cosmic infrastructure, and that the primeval density inhomogeneities that seed all the structure arose from quantum fluctuations. There is now prima facie evidence that supports two basic tenets of this paradigm. An avalanche of high-quality cosmological observations will soon make this case stronger or will break it. Key questions remain to be answered; foremost among them are: identification and detection of the cold dark matter particles and elucidation of the dark-energy component. These are exciting times in cosmology!
Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rips, Ilya
2017-01-01
Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωb<0.26 ), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ˜10 % ) within the
Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum.
Rips, Ilya
2017-01-01
Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ/ω_{b}<0.26), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajapati, Ramprasad
2016-07-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is recently investigated is strongly coupled plasma looking to its importance in dense stellar systems and Inertial Confinement Fusion [1-3]. In the present work, the effect of quantum corrections are studied on Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and internal wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized, viscoelastic fluid. The modified generalized hydrodynamic model is used to derive the analytical dispersion relation. The internal wave mode and dispersion relation are modified due to the presence of quantum corrections and viscoelastic effects. We observe that strong coupling effects and quantum corrections significantly modifies the dispersion characteristics. The dispersion relation is also discussed in weakly coupled (hydrodynamic) and strongly coupled (kinetic) limits. The explicit expression of R-T instability criterion is derived which is influenced by shear velocity and quantum corrections. Numerical calculations are performed in astrophysical and experimental relevance and it is examined that both the shear and quantum effects suppresses the growth rate of R-T instability. The possible application of the work is discussed in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) to discuss the suppression of R-T instability under considered situation. References: [1] R. P. Prajapati, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022106 (2016). [2] K. Avinash and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 22, 083707 (2015). [3] A. Das and P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 062102.
2015-07-01
Lai Y-S, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, et al. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; published online May 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3—Figure 1 of this Article should have contained a box stating ‘100 references added’ with an arrow pointing inwards, rather than a box stating ‘199 records excluded’, and an asterisk should have been added after ‘1473 records extracted into GNTD’. Additionally, the positioning of the ‘§ and ‘†’ footnotes has been corrected in table 1. These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 4, 2015.
2016-02-01
In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, S. P.; Agafonov, G. L.; Khomik, S. V.
2016-09-01
A reaction mechanism with quantum correction is used to model low-temperature/high-pressure autoignition of lean hydrogen-air mixtures. This approach provides a good approximation for experimental data on autoignition delay and the low activation energy observed in experiments. Calculated results demonstrate that ignition delay time is inversely proportional to pressure, squared. The proposed scaling reduces spread in experimental data. The application of a quantum correction to hydrogen oxidation provides a basis for developing a general reaction mechanism that can be used to predict the autoignition behavior of hydrogen over an entire temperature/pressure range relevant to rocket engine conditions.
Methane-water cross second virial coefficient with quantum corrections from an ab initio potential.
Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Harvey, Allan H; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2006-07-07
We present our calculations of the cross second virial coefficient (B12) and of a related quantity, phi 12 = B12-TdB12/dT, for the methane-water system in the temperature range T = 200-1000 K. These calculations were performed using one of the ab initio potentials developed in previous work [Akin-Ojo and Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 134311 (2005)]. Quantum corrections of order variant Planck's over 2pi(2) were added to the computed classical values. We have estimated the uncertainties in our computed B12 and phi 12(T). This allowed evaluation of the quality of the experimental data to which we compare our results. We also provide an analytical expression for B12(T) as a function of the temperature T obtained by fitting the calculated values. This formula also predicts values of phi12(T) consistent with the directly calculated values.
Overhead and noise threshold of fault-tolerant quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew M.
2003-10-01
Fault-tolerant quantum error correction (QEC) networks are studied by a combination of numerical and approximate analytical treatments. The probability of failure of the recovery operation is calculated for a variety of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, including large block codes and concatenated codes. Recent insights into the syndrome extraction process, which render the whole process more efficient and more noise tolerant, are incorporated. The average number of recoveries that can be completed without failure is thus estimated as a function of various parameters. The main parameters are the gate γ and memory ɛ failure rates, the physical scale-up of the computer size, and the time tm required for measurements and classical processing. The achievable computation size is given as a surface in parameter space. This indicates the noise threshold as well as other information. It is found that concatenated codes based on the [[23,1,7
Quantum corrections to energy of short spinning string in AdS{sub 5}
Tirziu, A.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2008-09-15
Motivated by a desire to shed light on the strong-coupling behavior of dimensions of short gauge-theory operators, we consider the famous example of folded spinning string in AdS{sub 5} in the limit of small semiclassical spin parameter S=(S/{radical}({lambda})). In this limit the string becomes short and is moving in a near-flat central region of AdS{sub 5}. Its energy scales with spin as E={radical}(2S)[a{sub 0}+a{sub 1}S+a{sub 2}S{sup 2}+...]. We explicitly compute the leading 1-loop quantum AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} superstring correction to the short string energy and show that the coefficient a{sub 0} is not renormalized from its classical value while a{sub 1} receives a nontrivial contribution containing {zeta}(3)
Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Finn; Lisbão, Pedro
2015-04-01
We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.
Quantum electrodynamic corrections for the valence shell in heavy many-electron atoms
Thierfelder, C.; Schwerdtfeger, P.
2010-12-15
We present quantum electrodynamic (QED) calculations within the picture of bound-state QED for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction between electrons, the vacuum polarization, and the electron self-energy correction starting from the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for the ionization potentials of the group 1, 2, 11, 12, 13, and 18 elements of the periodic table, and down to the superheavy elements up to nuclear charge Z=120. The results for the s-block elements are in very good agreement with earlier studies by Labzowsky et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 2707 (1999)]. We discuss the influence of the variational versus perturbative treatment of the Breit interaction for valence-space ionization potentials. We argue that the lowest-order QED contributions become as important as the Breit interaction for ionization potentials out of the valence s shell.
The cosmological constant problem and re-interpretation of time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, M. J.
2014-07-01
We abandon the interpretation that time is a global parameter in quantum mechanics, replace it by a quantum dynamical variable playing the role of time. This operational re-interpretation of time provides a solution to the cosmological constant problem. The expectation value of the zero-point energy under the new time variable vanishes. The fluctuation of the vacuum energy as the leading contribution to the gravitational effect gives a correct order to the observed "dark energy". The "dark energy" as a mirage is always seen comparable with the matter energy density by an observer using the internal clock time. Conceptual consequences of the re-interpretation of time are also discussed.
The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.
2003-11-01
Based on lectures given in honor of Stephen Hawking's 60th birthday, this book comprises contributions from the world's leading theoretical physicists. Popular lectures progress to a critical evaluation of more advanced subjects in modern cosmology and theoretical physics. Topics covered include the origin of the universe, warped spacetime, cosmological singularities, quantum gravity, black holes, string theory, quantum cosmology and inflation. The volume provides a fascinating overview of the variety of subjects to which Stephen Hawking has contributed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1998-12-01
Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brynjolfsson, Ari
2011-04-01
The newly discovered plasma redshift cross section explains a long range of phenomena; including the cosmological redshift, and the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars. It explains the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts correctly: a) the observed XRB, b) the magnitude redshift relation for supernovae, and c) the surface- brightness-redshift relation for galaxies. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion, and Black Holes. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever (for details, see: http://www.plasmaredshift.org). There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space, the average electron temperature is T = 2.7 million K, and the average electron density is N = 0.0002 per cubic cm. Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is: 1) the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant, 2) more exact calculations of imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and as required 3) a quantum mechanical treatment of the interactions.
Physical Foundations of Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhanov, Viatcheslav
2005-11-01
Inflationary cosmology has been developed over the last twenty years to remedy serious shortcomings in the standard hot big bang model of the universe. Taking an original approach, this textbook explains the basis of modern cosmology and shows where the theoretical results come from. The book is divided into two parts; the first deals with the homogeneous and isotropic model of the Universe, the second part discusses how inhomogeneities can explain its structure. Established material such as the inflation and quantum cosmological perturbation are presented in great detail, however the reader is brought to the frontiers of current cosmological research by the discussion of more speculative ideas. An ideal textbook for both advanced students of physics and astrophysics, all of the necessary background material is included in every chapter and no prior knowledge of general relativity and quantum field theory is assumed. Presents detailed derivations of all basic results needed in cosmology, including robust predictions of inflation Contains an analytical treatment of nucleosynthesis, recombination and CMB fluctuations Provides elementary introductions to more advanced topics
Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time
Weinstein, M
2004-06-03
This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB
Esteban, Rubén; Zugarramurdi, Asier; Zhang, Pu; Nordlander, Peter; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Borisov, Andrei G; Aizpurua, Javier
2015-01-01
The optical response of plasmonic nanogaps is challenging to address when the separation between the two nanoparticles forming the gap is reduced to a few nanometers or even subnanometer distances. We have compared results of the plasmon response within different levels of approximation, and identified a classical local regime, a nonlocal regime and a quantum regime of interaction. For separations of a few Ångstroms, in the quantum regime, optical tunneling can occur, strongly modifying the optics of the nanogap. We have considered a classical effective model, so called Quantum Corrected Model (QCM), that has been introduced to correctly describe the main features of optical transport in plasmonic nanogaps. The basics of this model are explained in detail, and its implementation is extended to include nonlocal effects and address practical situations involving different materials and temperatures of operation.
Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Dutton, Robert W.; Ancona, Mario G.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
We describe an electronic transport model and an implementation approach that respond to the challenges of device modeling for gigascale integration. We use the density-gradient (DG) transport model, which adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We present the current implementation of the DG model in PROPHET, a partial differential equation solver developed by Lucent Technologies. This implementation approach permits rapid development and enhancement of models, as well as run-time modifications and model switching. We show that even in typical bulk transport devices such as P-N diodes and BJTs, DG quantum effects can significantly modify the I-V characteristics. Quantum effects are shown to be even more significant in small, surface transport devices, such as sub-0.1 micron MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, we find that quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. The inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel MOSFETs due to the gate capacitance correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horoshko, D. B.
2007-12-01
The quantum key distribution protocol BB84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction is analysed from the point of view of its security against individual eavesdropping relying on quantum memory. It is shown that the mere knowledge of the error-correcting protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information on the distributed key.
On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.
Clark, Kevin B
2010-07-01
perfect ciliate mate selection via classical repetition and quantum bit-flip error-correction codes that safeguard transmitted social information from noise and might be exploited for signal encryption.
Foundations of modern cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.
2005-07-01
Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.
Spinfoam Cosmology with the Proper Vertex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilensky, Ilya
2017-01-01
A modification of the EPRL vertex amplitude in the spin-foam framework of quantum gravity - so-called ``proper vertex amplitude'' - has been developed to enable correct semi-classical behavior to conform to the classical Regge calculus. The proper vertex amplitude is defined by projecting to the single gravitational sector. The amplitude is recast into an exponentiated form and we derive the asymptotic form of the projector part of the action. This enables us to study the asymptotics of the proper vertex by applying extended stationary phase methods. We use the proper vertex amplitude to investigate transition amplitudes between coherent quantum boundary states of cosmological geometries. In particular, Hartle-Hawking no-boundary states are computed in the proper vertex framework. We confirm that in the classical limit the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction satisfies the Hamiltonian constraint. Partly supported by NSF grants PHY-1205968 and PHY-1505490.
Deser, S; Woodard, R P
2007-09-14
We explore nonlocally modified models of gravity, inspired by quantum loop corrections, as a mechanism for explaining current cosmic acceleration. These theories enjoy two major advantages: they allow a delayed response to cosmic events, here the transition from radiation to matter dominance, and they avoid the usual level of fine-tuning; instead, emulating Dirac's dictum, the required large numbers come from the large time scales involved. Their solar system effects are safely negligible, and they may even prove useful to the black hole information problem.
Quantum inflaton, primordial perturbations, and CMB fluctuations
Cao, F.J.; Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.G.
2004-10-15
We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow-roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of (m{sup 2}/NH{sup 2}), where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at the moment of horizon crossing. An upper estimate turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebedev, S. L.
2016-04-01
Spin radiative effects in a one-particle sector of QED have a dual nature and can be understood with the Frenkel classical rotating-electron model. In the region of parameters under study γ⊥ 2 ≫ 1 (γ⊥ 2 = 1 + p ⊥ 2/ m 2) and χ ≪ 1 (χ = {{√ {{{( {e{F_{μ v}}{p_v}} )}^2}} } {/ {{√ ( {e{F_{μ v}}{p_v}} )}^2}} {m^3}, the imaginary part of the mass shift and radiation power contain two types of spin contributions. The contributions of the first type are related to the intrinsic magnetic moment of a fermion representing an additional source of electromagnetic radiation. The contributions of the second type have the opposite sign and are caused by a small change in the electron acceleration appearing due to the Frenkel addition to the particle mass. Contributions of the second type dominate, which explains the "wrong" sign of total spin corrections. We show that not only the sign but also the values of coefficients can be explained with specified accuracy using classical electrodynamics if corrections to the mass shift (action) and radiation power are calculated in canonical variables, i.e., for fixed velocity and momentum values, respectively. The results can be treated as a demonstration of the correspondence principle in the field of radiative spin effects, in addition to correspondence between classical and quantum theories at the tree (in the external filed) level. For a e ≡ ( g-2)/2 ≲ χ ≪ 1, equations of the Frenkel model lead to generalization of the system of Lorentz-BMT (Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi) equations taking into account the Frenkel addition to mass. Some features of experimental observations of the spin light are discussed.
Quantum corrections to the polarizability and dephasing in isolated disordered metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treiber, M.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.; von Delft, J.; Lerner, I. V.
2013-07-01
We study the quantum corrections to the polarizability of isolated metallic mesoscopic systems using the loop expansion in diffusive propagators. We show that the difference between connected (grand-canonical ensemble) and isolated (canonical ensemble) systems appears only in subleading terms of the expansion, and can be neglected if the frequency of the external field, ω, is of the order of (or even slightly smaller than) the mean level spacing, Δ. If ω≪Δ, the two-loop correction becomes important. We calculate it by systematically evaluating the ballistic parts (the Hikami boxes) of the corresponding diagrams and exploiting electroneutrality. Our theory allows one to take into account a finite dephasing rate, γ, generated by electron interactions, and it is complementary to the nonperturbative results obtained from a combination of random matrix theory (RMT) and the σ-model, valid at γ→0. Remarkably, we find that the two-loop result for isolated systems with moderately weak dephasing, γ˜Δ, is similar to the result of the RMT+σ-model even in the limit ω→0. For smaller γ, we discuss the possibility to interpolate between the perturbative and the nonperturbative results. We compare our results for the temperature dependence of the polarizability of isolated rings to the experimental data of Deblock [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.5379 84, 5379 (2000); Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.075301 65, 075301 (2002)], and we argue that the elusive 0D regime of dephasing might have manifested itself in the observed magneto-oscillations. Besides, we thoroughly discuss possible future measurements of the polarizability, which could aim to reveal the existence of 0D dephasing and the role of the Pauli blocking at small temperatures.
Zapata, Mario; Camacho Beltrán, Ángela S; Borisov, Andrei G; Aizpurua, Javier
2015-03-23
Electron tunneling through narrow gaps between metal nanoparticles can strongly affect the plasmonic response of the hybrid nanostructure. Although quantum mechanical in nature, this effect can be properly taken into account within a classical framework of Maxwell equations using the so-called Quantum Corrected Model (QCM). We extend previous studies on spherical cluster and cylindrical nanowire dimers where the tunneling current occurs in the extremely localized gap regions, and perform quantum mechanical time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the plasmonic response of cylindrical core-shell nanoparticles (nanomatryushkas). In this axially symmetric situation, the tunneling region extends over the entire gap between the metal core and the metallic shell. For core-shell separations below 0.5 nm, the standard classical calculations fail to describe the plasmonic response of the cylindrical nanomatryushka, while the QCM can reproduce the quantum results. Using the QCM we also retrieve the quantum results for the absorption cross section of the spherical nanomatryushka calculated by V. Kulkarni et al. [Nano Lett. 13, 5873 (2013)]. The comparison between the model and the full quantum calculations establishes the applicability of the QCM for a wider range of geometries that hold tunneling gaps.
Infinity in string cosmology: A review through open problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros
We review recent developments in the field of string cosmology with particular emphasis on open problems having to do mainly with geometric asymptotics and singularities. We discuss outstanding issues in a variety of currently popular themes, such as tree-level string cosmology asymptotics, higher-order string correction effects, M-theory cosmology, braneworlds and finally ambient cosmology.
Gravitation and modern cosmology - The cosmological constant problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zichichi, Antonino; de Sabbata, Venzo; Sanchez, Norma
An updated version of different approaches to the cosmological constant problem discussed at a symposium in honor of Peter Gabriel Bergmann's 75th birthday, that took place in Erice on 17-20 September 1990, is presented. Topics addressed include an effective action model for the cosmological constant revisited; torsion, quantum effects, and the problem of cosmological constant; variations of constants and exact solutions in multidimensional gravity; null surface canonical formalism; qualitative cosmology; and the gravitational field of an arbitrary axisymmetric mass with a magnetic dipole moment. Attention is also given to a simple model of the universe without singularities; string theory and quantization of gravity; and velocity of propagation of gravitational radiation, mass of the gravitation, range of the gravitational force, and the cosmological constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girdhar, Parth; Kobakhidze, Archil
2013-10-01
We describe a new phenomenon of zitterbewegung of a free Dirac particle in cosmological spacetimes. Unlike the similar effect theorized by Schrödinger in 1930, the cosmological zitterbewegung is a real, physically attainable effect, which originates from the mixing of positive and negative frequency modes of a field operator in cosmological spacetimes. We briefly discuss the potential for observing this effect in laboratory experiments with trapped ions.
Cosmological model favored by the holographic principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina; Dobosz, Anna; Sołtysek, Bożena
2016-03-01
We present a regular spherically symmetric cosmological model of the Lemaitre class distinguished by the holographic principle as the thermodynamically stable end-point of quantum evaporation of the cosmological horizon. A source term in the Einstein equations connects smoothly two de Sitter vacua with different values of cosmological constant and corresponds to anisotropic vacuum dark fluid defined by symmetry of its stress-energy tensor which is invariant under the radial boosts. Global structure of space-time is the same as for the de Sitter space-time. Cosmological evolution goes from a big initial value of the cosmological constant towards its presently observed value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, IlKwon; Tarucha, Seigo; Choi, Byung-Soo
2017-01-01
The implementation of a scalable quantum computer requires quantum error correction (QEC). An important step toward this goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of QEC where the fidelity of an encoded qubit is higher than that of the physical qubits. Therefore, it is important to know the conditions under which QEC code is effective. In this study, we analyze the simple three-qubit and nine-qubit QEC codes for quantum-dot and superconductor qubit implementations. First, we carefully analyze QEC codes and find the specific range of memory time to show the effectiveness of QEC and the best QEC cycle time. Second, we run a detailed error simulation of the chosen error-correction codes in the amplitude damping channel and confirm that the simulation data agreed well with the theoretically predicted accuracy and minimum QEC cycle time. We also realize that since the swap gate worked rapidly on the quantum-dot qubit, it did not affect the performance in terms of the spatial layout.
Noncommutativity and scalar field cosmology
Guzman, W.; Sabido, M.; Socorro, J.
2007-10-15
In this work we extend and apply a previous proposal to study noncommutative cosmology to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background coupled to a scalar field. This is done in classical and quantum scenarios. In both cases noncommutativity is introduced in the gravitational field as well as in the scalar field through a deformation of minisuperspace, and we are able to find exact solutions. Finally, the effects of noncommutativity on the classical evolution are analyzed.
Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh
2014-08-01
An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).
Cosmology Solved? Quite Possibly!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Michael S.
1999-03-01
The discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in 1964 by Penzias and Wilson led to the establishment of the hot big bang cosmological model some 10 years later. Discoveries made in 1998 may ultimately have as profound an effect on our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe. Taken at face value, they confirm the basic tenets of inflation + cold dark matter, a bold and expansive theory that addresses all the fundamental questions left unanswered by the hot big bang model and holds that the universe is flat, slowly moving elementary particles provide the cosmic infrastructure, and quantum fluctuations seeded all the structure seen in the universe today. Just as it took a decade to establish the hot big bang model after the discovery of the CMB, it will likely take another 10 years to establish the latest addition to the standard cosmology and make the answer to ``Cosmology solved?'' ``YES!'' Whether or not 1998 proves to be a cosmic milestone, the coming avalanche of high-quality cosmological data promises to make the next 20 years an extremely exciting period for cosmology.
Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Saraceno, Marcos
2005-07-15
We analyze and further develop a method to represent the quantum state of a system of n qubits in a phase-space grid of NxN points (where N=2{sup n}). The method, which was recently proposed by Wootters and co-workers (Gibbons et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004).), is based on the use of the elements of the finite field GF(2{sup n}) to label the phase-space axes. We present a self-contained overview of the method, we give insights into some of its features, and we apply it to investigate problems which are of interest for quantum-information theory: We analyze the phase-space representation of stabilizer states and quantum error-correction codes and present a phase-space solution to the so-called mean king problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanke, Monika; Jurkowski, Jacek; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2017-03-01
Algorithms for calculating the quantum electrodynamics Araki–Sucher correction for n-electron explicitly correlated molecular Gaussian functions with shifted centers are derived and implemented. The algorithms are tested in calculations concerning the H2 molecule and applied in ground-state calculations of LiH and {{{H}}}3+ molecules. The implementation will significantly increase the accuracy of the calculations of potential energy surfaces of small diatomic and triatomic molecules and their rovibrational spectra.
Note on the semiclassicality of cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino
2016-12-01
Moving from the consideration that matter fields must be treated in terms of their fundamental quantum counterparts, we show straightforward arguments, within the framework of ordinary quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in order to convince readers that cosmological perturbations must be addressed in term of the semiclassical limit of the expectation value of quantum fields. We first take into account cosmological perturbations originated by a quantum scalar field, and then extend our treatment in order to account for the expectation values of bilinears of Dirac fermion fields. The latter can indeed transform as scalar quantities under diffeomorphisms, as well as all the other bilinear of the Dirac fields that belong to the Clifford algebra. This is the first of a series of works that is intended to prove that cosmological quantum perturbations can actually be accounted for in terms of Dirac fermion fields, which must be treated as fundamental quantum objects, and their dynamics.
Newtonian and relativistic cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.
2012-03-01
Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robinson-Walker cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in the light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed [S. R. Green and R. M. Wald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 084020 (2011).10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084020], which allows for such nonlinearity at small scales. We propose a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general relativistic dust cosmologies, and we use our “ordering scheme” to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein’s equation. We find that, within our ordering scheme, Einstein’s equation fails to hold at “order 1” at small scales and at “order ɛ” at large scales. We then find the additional corrections to the metric and matter distribution needed to satisfy Einstein’s equation to these orders. While these corrections are of some interest in their own right, our main purpose in calculating them is that their smallness should provide a criterion for the validity of the original dictionary (as well as simplified versions of this dictionary). We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations
Cosmological particle-in-cell simulations with ultralight axion dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veltmaat, Jan; Niemeyer, Jens C.
2016-12-01
We study cosmological structure formation with ultralight axion dark matter, or "fuzzy dark matter" (FDM), using a particle-mesh scheme to account for the quantum pressure arising in the Madelung formulation of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. Subpercent-level energy conservation and correct linear behavior are demonstrated. Whereas the code gives rise to the same core-halo profiles as direct simulations of the Schrödinger equation, it does not reproduce the detailed interference patterns. In cosmological simulations with FDM initial conditions, we find a maximum relative difference of O(10%) in the power spectrum near the quantum Jeans length compared to using a standard N -body code with identical initial conditions. This shows that the effect of quantum pressure during nonlinear structure formation cannot be neglected for precision constraints on a dark matter component consisting of ultralight axions.
Self-protection of massive cosmological gravitons
Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D.; Hofmann, Stefan E-mail: dietrich@cp3.sdu.dk
2010-11-01
Relevant deformations of gravity present an exciting window of opportunity to probe the rigidity of gravity on cosmological scales. For a single-graviton theory, the leading relevant deformation constitutes a graviton mass term. In this paper, we investigate the classical and quantum stability of massive cosmological gravitons on generic Friedman backgrounds. For a Universe expanding towards a de Sitter epoch, we find that massive cosmological gravitons are self-protected against unitarity violations by a strong coupling phenomenon.
Supersymmetric cosmological FRW model and dark energy
Rosales, J. J.; Tkach, V. I.
2010-11-15
In this work we consider a flat cosmological model with a set of fluids in the framework of supersymmetric cosmology. The obtained supersymmetric algebra allowed us to take quantum solutions. It is shown that only in the case of a cosmological constant do we have a condition between the density of dark energy {rho}{sub {Lambda}} and density energy of matter {rho}{sub M}, {rho}{sub {Lambda}>}2{rho}{sub M}.
Gravitational particle production in bouncing cosmologies
Haro, Jaume; Elizalde, Emilio E-mail: elizalde@ieec.uab.es
2015-10-01
It is argued that the Universe reheating in bouncing cosmologies could be explained via gravitational particle production, as due to a sudden phase transition in the contracting regime. To this end, it is shown that, in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology, gravitational production of massive particles conformally coupled with gravity in a matter-ekpyrotic bouncing Universe, where the sudden phase transition occurs in the contracting regime, yields a reheating temperature which is in good agreement with cosmological observations.
Splitting the Source Term for the Einstein Equation to Classical and Quantum Parts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, T. S.; Ván, P.
2015-11-01
We consider the special and general relativistic extensions of the action principle behind the Schrödinger equation distinguishing classical and quantum contributions. Postulating a particular quantum correction to the source term in the classical Einstein equation we identify the conformal content of the above action and obtain classical gravitation for massive particles, but with a cosmological term representing off-mass-shell contribution to the energy-momentum tensor. In this scenario the—on the Planck scale surprisingly small—cosmological constant stems from quantum bound states (gravonium) having a Bohr radius a as being Λ =3/a^2.
Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni
2015-01-01
Recently, S. Bravyi and R. König [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170503] have shown that there is a trade-off between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant-depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault tolerant by construction. In particular, they show that, for local stabilizer codes in D spatial dimensions, locality-preserving gates are restricted to a set of unitary gates known as the D th level of the Clifford hierarchy. In this paper, we explore this idea further by providing several extensions and applications of their characterization to qubit stabilizer and subsystem codes. First, we present a no-go theorem for self-correcting quantum memory. Namely, we prove that a three-dimensional stabilizer Hamiltonian with a locality-preserving implementation of a non-Clifford gate cannot have a macroscopic energy barrier. This result implies that non-Clifford gates do not admit such implementations in Haah's cubic code and Michnicki's welded code. Second, we prove that the code distance of a D -dimensional local stabilizer code with a nontrivial locality-preserving m th -level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by O (LD +1 -m) . For codes with non-Clifford gates (m >2 ), this improves the previous best bound by S. Bravyi and B. Terhal [New. J. Phys. 11, 043029 (2009), 10.1088/1367-2630/11/4/043029]. Topological color codes, introduced by H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 180501 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501; Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160502 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.160502; Phys. Rev. B 75, 075103 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.075103], saturate the bound for m =D . Third, we prove that the qubit erasure threshold for codes with a nontrivial transversal m th -level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by 1 /m . This implies that no family of fault-tolerant codes with
Semiclassical solutions of generalized Wheeler-DeWitt cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Cesare, Marco; Gargiulo, Maria Vittoria; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2016-01-01
We consider an extension of Wheeler-DeWitt minisuperpace cosmology with additional interaction terms that preserve the linear structure of the theory. General perturbative methods are developed and applied to known semiclassical solutions for a closed Universe filled with a massless scalar. The exact Feynman propagator of the free theory is derived by means of a conformal transformation in minisuperspace. As an example, a stochastic interaction term is considered, and first order perturbative corrections are computed. It is argued that such an interaction can be used to describe the interaction of the cosmological background with the microscopic d.o.f. of the gravitational field. A Helmoltz-like equation is considered for the case of interactions that do not depend on the internal time, and the corresponding Green's kernel is obtained exactly. The possibility of linking this approach to fundamental theories of quantum gravity is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian
2017-01-01
This work is devoted to the spatially open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe evolving from the stiff matter era to the dust dominated one. Within the quantum analysis based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we derive the wave function of the (k = -1)-FRW Universe with combined matter sources. On the classical level, one has to deal with the Friedmann equation which leads on a dependence of the scale function on time generally expressed from functional relations involving elliptic integrals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, L. M.
1999-01-01
The long-derided cosmological constant - a contrivance of Albert Einstein's that represents a bizarre form of energy inherent in space itself - is one of two contenders for explaining changes in the expansion rate of the Universe.
Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum
Semiclassical cosmology with polymer matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeez Hassan, Syed; Husain, Viqar
2017-04-01
In loop quantum cosmology, polymer quantization is applied to gravity and Schrödinger quantization to matter. This approach misses interesting cosmological dynamics coming from the polymer quantization of matter. We demonstrate this in semiclassical cosmology with a scalar field and pressureless dust: gravity is kept classical, dust is used to fix the time gauge, and polymer quantization effects are isolated in the scalar field. The resulting dynamics shows a period of inflation, both with and without a scalar potential, and the emergence of a classical universe at late times. Since gravity is not quantized, the cosmological singularity is not resolved, but our results suggest that polymer quantization of both gravity and matter are important for a complete picture.
Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise
Ralph, T. C.
2011-08-15
We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, J. C.; Ramos, F. B.
2014-10-01
We investigate the finite-size corrections of the entanglement entropy of critical ladders and propose a conjecture for its scaling behaviour. The conjecture is verified for free fermions, for Heisenberg ladders, and for quantum Ising ladders. Our results support that the prefactor of the logarithmic correction of the entanglement entropy of critical ladder models is universal and is associated with the central charge of the one-dimensional version of the models and with the number of branches associated with gapless excitations. Our results suggest that it is possible to infer whether there is a violation of the entropic area law in two-dimensional critical systems by analyzing the scaling behaviour of the entanglement entropy of ladder systems, which are easier to deal with.
Wang, Lei; Jakowski, Jacek; Garashchuk, Sophya; Sumpter, Bobby G
2016-09-13
The experimentally observed effect of selective deuterium substitution on the open circuit voltage for a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM; Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 3180) is explored using a 221-atom model of a polymer-wrapped PCBM molecule. The protonic and deuteronic wave functions for the H/D isotopologues of the hexyl side chains are described within a quantum trajectory/electronic structure approach where the dynamics is performed with newly developed nonlinear corrections to the quantum forces, necessary to describe the nuclear wave functions; the classical forces are generated with a density functional tight binding method. The resulting protonic and deuteronic time-dependent wave functions are used to assess the effects of isotopic substitution (deuteration) on the energy gaps relevant to the charge transfer for the donor and acceptor electronic states. While the isotope effect on the electronic energy levels is found negligible, the quantum-induced fluctuations of the energy gap between the charge transfer and charge separated states due to nuclear wave functions may account for experimental trends by promoting charge transfer in P3HT:PCBM and increasing charge recombination on the donor in the deuterium substituted P3HT:PCBM.
Wang, Lei; Jakowski, Jacek; Garashchuk, Sophya; ...
2016-08-09
The experimentally observed effect of selective deuterium substitution on the open circuit voltage for a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (Nat. Commun. 5:3180, 2014) is explored using a 221-atom model of a polymer-wrapped PCBM molecule. We describe the protonic and deuteronic wavefunctions for the H/D isotopologues of the hexyl side chains within a Quantum Trajectory/Electronic Structure approach where the dynamics is performed with newly developed nonlinear corrections to the quantum forces, necessary to describe the nuclear wavefunctions; the classical forces are generated with a Density Functional Tight Binding method. We used the resulting protonic andmore » deuteronic time-dependent wavefunctions to assess the effects of isotopic substitution (deuteration) on the energy gaps relevant to the charge transfer for the donor and acceptor electronic states. Furthermore, while the isotope effect on the electronic energy levels is found negligible, the quantum-induced fluctuations of the energy gap between the charge transfer and charge separated states due to nuclear wavefunctions may account for experimental trends by promoting charge transfer in P3HT/PCBM and increasing charge recombination on the donor in the deuterium substituted P3HT/PCBM.« less
Wang, Lei; Jakowski, Jacek; Garashchuk, Sophya; Sumpter, Bobby G.
2016-08-09
The experimentally observed effect of selective deuterium substitution on the open circuit voltage for a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C_{61}- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (Nat. Commun. 5:3180, 2014) is explored using a 221-atom model of a polymer-wrapped PCBM molecule. We describe the protonic and deuteronic wavefunctions for the H/D isotopologues of the hexyl side chains within a Quantum Trajectory/Electronic Structure approach where the dynamics is performed with newly developed nonlinear corrections to the quantum forces, necessary to describe the nuclear wavefunctions; the classical forces are generated with a Density Functional Tight Binding method. We used the resulting protonic and deuteronic time-dependent wavefunctions to assess the effects of isotopic substitution (deuteration) on the energy gaps relevant to the charge transfer for the donor and acceptor electronic states. Furthermore, while the isotope effect on the electronic energy levels is found negligible, the quantum-induced fluctuations of the energy gap between the charge transfer and charge separated states due to nuclear wavefunctions may account for experimental trends by promoting charge transfer in P3HT/PCBM and increasing charge recombination on the donor in the deuterium substituted P3HT/PCBM.
Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2015-01-01
I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.
The Higgs boson and cosmology.
Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2015-01-13
I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.
Generalized second law in cosmology from causal boundary entropy
Brustein
2000-03-06
A classical and quantum mechanical generalized second law of thermodynamics in cosmology implies constraints on the effective equation of state of the universe in the form of energy conditions, obeyed by many known cosmological solutions, forbids certain cosmological singularities, and is compatible with entropy bounds. This second law is based on the conjecture that causal boundaries and not only event horizons have geometric entropies proportional to their area. In string cosmology the second law provides new information about nonsingular solutions.
Higher-order corrections to dust ion-acoustic soliton in a quantum dusty plasma
Chatterjee, Prasanta; Das, Brindaban; Mondal, Ganesh; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.
2010-10-15
Dust ion-acoustic soliton is studied in an electron-dust-ion plasma by employing a two-fluid quantum hydrodynamic model. Ions and electrons are assumed to follow quantum mechanical behaviors in dust background. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and higher order contribution to KdV equations are derived using reductive perturbation technique. The higher order contribution is obtained as a higher order inhomogeneous differential equation. The nonsecular solution of the higher order contribution is obtained by using the renormalization method and the particular solution of the inhomogeneous equation is determined using a truncated series solution method. The effects of dust concentration, quantum parameter for ions and electrons, and soliton velocity on the amplitude and width of the dressed soliton are discussed.
Multi-dimensional cosmology and GUP
Zeynali, K.; Motavalli, H.; Darabi, F. E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu
2012-12-01
We consider a multidimensional cosmological model with FRW type metric having 4-dimensional space-time and d-dimensional Ricci-flat internal space sectors with a higher dimensional cosmological constant. We study the classical cosmology in commutative and GUP cases and obtain the corresponding exact solutions for negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that for negative cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in finite size universes with smaller size and longer ages, and larger size and shorter age, respectively. For positive cosmological constant, the commutative and GUP cases result in infinite size universes having late time accelerating behavior in good agreement with current observations. The accelerating phase starts in the GUP case sooner than the commutative case. In both commutative and GUP cases, and for both negative and positive cosmological constants, the internal space is stabilized to the sub-Planck size, at least within the present age of the universe. Then, we study the quantum cosmology by deriving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and obtain the exact solutions in the commutative case and the perturbative solutions in GUP case, to first order in the GUP small parameter, for both negative and positive cosmological constants. It is shown that good correspondence exists between the classical and quantum solutions.
Universe Without Singularities A Group Approach to De Sitter Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Ignazio
2006-05-01
In the last years the traditional scenario of ``Big Bang'' has been deeply modified by the study of the quantum features of the Universe evolution, proposing again the problem of using ``local'' physical laws on cosmic scale, with particular regard to the cosmological constant role. The ``group extention'' method shows that the De Sitter group univocally generalizes the Poincaré group, formally justifies the cosmological constant use and suggests a new interpretation for Hartle-Hawking boundary conditions in Quantum Cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narimani, Ali; Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas
2012-10-01
Although it is well known that any consideration of the variations of fundamental constants should be restricted to their dimensionless combinations, the literature on variations of the gravitational constant G is entirely dimensionfull. To illustrate applications of this to cosmology, we explicitly give a dimensionless version of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and describe the physics of both Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and recombination in a dimensionless manner. Rigorously determining how to talk about the model in a way which avoids physical dimensions is a requirement for proceeding with a calculation to constrain time-varying fundamental constants. The issue that appears to have been missed in many studies is that in cosmology the strength of gravity is bound up in the cosmological equations, and the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. We argue that it is useful to consider the hypothetical situation of communicating with another civilization (with entirely different units), comparing only dimensionless constants, in order to decide if we live in a Universe governed by precisely the same physical laws. In this thought experiment, we would also have to compare epochs, which can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. By setting things up carefully in this way one can avoid inconsistent results when considering variable constants, caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering microwave background anisotropies, being careful to maintain dimensionlessness throughout. We present Fisher matrix calculations to estimate how well the fine structure constants for electromagnetism and gravity can be determined with future microwave background experiments. We highlight how one can be misled by simply adding G to the usual cosmological parameter set.
Anisotropic spinfoam cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David
2014-01-01
The dynamics of a homogeneous, anisotropic universe are investigated within the context of spinfoam cosmology. Transition amplitudes are calculated for a graph consisting of a single node and three links—the ‘Daisy graph’—probing the behaviour a classical Bianchi I spacetime. It is shown further how the use of such single node graphs gives rise to a simplification of states such that all orders in the spin expansion can be calculated, indicating that it is the vertex expansion that contains information about quantum dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenson, Eric Johan
Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plionis, M.
2004-07-01
The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: Multidimensional cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Enrique
This paper briefly reports on some recent attempts to construct a cosmology consistent with present ideas about the fundamental theories of nature, which generally involve extra dimensions. The decoupling of the extra dimensions from the usual ones is analyzed, as well as the possiblity of phase transitions in a "superstring universe".
Zucchini, R.
1988-01-01
We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genov, Genko T.; Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2014-07-01
We introduce universal broadband composite pulse sequences for robust high-fidelity population inversion in two-state quantum systems, which compensate deviations in any parameter of the driving field (e.g., pulse amplitude, pulse duration, detuning from resonance, Stark shifts, unwanted frequency chirp, etc.) and are applicable with any pulse shape. We demonstrate the efficiency and universality of these composite pulses by experimental data on rephasing of atomic coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal.
Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J
2017-03-02
The success of aberration correction techniques at the end of the 20th century came at a time of increasing need for atomic resolution imaging to better understand known structural defects that influence semiconductor device operation, and to advance the search for new structures and behavior that will form the basis for devices in the future. With this in mind, it is a pleasure to recognize the contributions of Ondrej Krivanek to the success of aberration correction techniques, and his extension of aberration techniques to EELS equipment that further promises to unite structural studies with characterization of behavior from meV to keV energies in the STEM.
Region of validity of the Thomas-Fermi model with quantum, exchange and shell corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyachkov, S. A.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.
2016-11-01
A novel approach to calculate thermodynamically consistent shell corrections in wide range of parameters is used to predict the region of validity of the Thomas-Fermi approach. Calculated thermodynamic functions of electrons at high density are consistent with the more precise density functional theory. It makes it possible to work out a semi-classical model applicable both at low and high density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyle, Fred
The worrying situation at that time in cosmology, as it seemed, turned out to be a relatively minor matter, namely the choice of suitable coordinates. Even the best-known cosmologists - de Sitter, Eddington and Lemaitre - had chosen coordinates appropriate to localities in the universe rather than the whole. This produced a sense of mystery that was more apparent than real as to what happened at the boundary of a locality. It is one of the features of Einstein's general relativity that when you choose coordinate systems with special properties you can mistakenly come to think of the properties as physical instead of as mathematical artefacts. Early workers on gravitational waves thought they were investigating physical waves when in fact the waves were in their coordinate system, and a similar situation existed in cosmology. It was also in 1935-36 that this situation was put right, by H.P. Robertson in the United States and A.E. Walker in Britain and the resulting choice of coordinates later became known as the Robertson-Walker line element. Then in 1937 Robertson published an important article on cosmology in the Reviews of Modern Physics, which unfortunately I didn't read at that time because my research interests were in quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.
Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
We show that observations of quantum nonlocaltiy can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.
BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howell, Dale Andrew
2013-04-01
Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bothun, Greg
2011-10-01
Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen
2011-02-15
First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of a time-dependent electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.
Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric E-mail: enric.verdaguer@ub.edu
2016-03-01
We derive the leading quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials in a de Sitter background, due to the vacuum polarization from loops of conformal fields. Our results are valid for arbitrary conformal theories, even strongly interacting ones, and are expressed using the coefficients b and b' appearing in the trace anomaly. Apart from the de Sitter generalization of the known flat-space results, we find two additional contributions: one which depends on the finite coefficients of terms quadratic in the curvature appearing in the renormalized effective action, and one which grows logarithmically with physical distance. While the first contribution corresponds to a rescaling of the effective mass, the second contribution leads to a faster fall-off of the Newton potential at large distances, and is potentially measurable.
Das, Amit K. Ajimsha, R. S.; Kukreja, L. M.
2014-01-27
ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si (Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O) in the concentrations range of ∼0.5% to 5.8% were grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates at 400 °C. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements in the range from 300 to 4.2 K revealed negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) for the 0.5%, 3.8%, and 5.8% doped Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films in the entire temperature range. On the contrary, the Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films with Si concentrations of 1.0%, 1.7%, and 2.0% showed a transition from negative to positive TCR with increasing temperature. These observations were explained using weak localization based quantum corrections to conductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav
2012-12-01
We propose a renormalization scheme of the Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity with multiple backscatterings contributing to the electron-hole irreducible vertex derived from the asymptotic limit to high spatial dimensions. We use this vertex to represent the two-particle Green function via a symmetrized Bethe-Salpeter equation in momentum space. We further utilize the dominance of a pole in the irreducible vertex to an approximate diagonalization of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and a non-perturbative representation of the electron-hole correlation function. The latter function is then used to derive a compact representation for the electrical conductivity at zero temperature without the necessity to evaluate separately the Drude term and vertex corrections. The electrical conductivity calculated in this way remains nonnegative also in the strongly disordered regime where the localization effects become significant and the negative vertex corrections in the standard Kubo formula overweight the Drude term.
2016-01-01
Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core–valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204
2016-01-01
The semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected OMx methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by including additional interactions in the electronic structure calculation. When augmented with empirical dispersion corrections, the resulting OMx-Dn approaches offer a fast and robust treatment of noncovalent interactions. Here we evaluate the performance of the OMx and OMx-Dn methods for a variety of ground-state properties using a large and diverse collection of benchmark sets from the literature, with a total of 13035 original and derived reference data. Extensive comparisons are made with the results from established semiempirical methods (MNDO, AM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7) that also use the NDDO (neglect of diatomic differential overlap) integral approximation. Statistical evaluations show that the OMx and OMx-Dn methods outperform the other methods for most of the benchmark sets. PMID:26771261
Hanada, Masanori; Hyakutake, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2009-05-15
We perform a direct test of the gauge-gravity duality associated with the system of N D0-branes in type IIA superstring theory at finite temperature. Based on the fact that higher derivative corrections to the type IIA supergravity action start at the order of {alpha}{sup '3}, we derive the internal energy in expansion around infinite 't Hooft coupling up to the subleading term with one unknown coefficient. The power of the subleading term is shown to be nicely reproduced by the Monte Carlo data obtained nonperturbatively on the gauge theory side at finite but large effective (dimensionless) 't Hooft coupling constant. This suggests, in particular, that the open strings attached to the D0-branes provide the microscopic origin of the black hole thermodynamics of the dual geometry including {alpha}{sup '} corrections. The coefficient of the subleading term extracted from the fit to the Monte Carlo data provides a prediction for the gravity side.
Was Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vickers, Peter
This paper follows up a debate as to the consistency of Newtonian cosmology. Whereas Malament [(1995). Is Newtonian cosmology really inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62, 489-510] has shown that Newtonian cosmology is not inconsistent, to date there has been no analysis of Norton's claim [(1995). The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative. Philosophy of Science 62, 511-522.] that Newtonian cosmology was inconsistent prior to certain advances in the 1930s, and in particular prior to Seeliger's seminal paper of Seeliger [(1895). Über das Newton'sche Gravitationsgesetz. Astronomische Nachrichten 137 (3273), 129-136.] In this paper I agree that there are assumptions, Newtonian and cosmological in character, and relevant to the real history of science, which are inconsistent. But there are some important corrections to make to Norton's account. Here I display for the first time the inconsistencies-four in total-in all their detail. Although this extra detail shows there to be several different inconsistencies, it also goes some way towards explaining why they went unnoticed for 200 years.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.
2017-01-01
Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.
Hayes, E.F.; Darakjian, Z. . Dept. of Chemistry); Walker, R.B. )
1990-01-01
The Bending Corrected Rotating Linear Model (BCRLM), developed by Hayes and Walker, is a simple approximation to the true multidimensional scattering problem for reaction of the type: A + BC {yields} AB + C. While the BCRLM method is simpler than methods designed to obtain accurate three dimensional quantum scattering results, this turns out to be a major advantage in terms of our benchmarking studies. The computer code used to obtain BCRLM scattering results is written for the most part in standard FORTRAN and has been reported to several scalar, vector, and parallel architecture computers including the IBM 3090-600J, the Cray XMP and YMP, the Ardent Titan, IBM RISC System/6000, Convex C-1 and the MIPS 2000. Benchmark results will be reported for each of these machines with an emphasis on comparing the scalar, vector, and parallel performance for the standard code with minimum modifications. Detailed analysis of the mapping of the BCRLM approach onto both shared and distributed memory parallel architecture machines indicates the importance of introducing several key changes in the basic strategy and algorithums used to calculate scattering results. This analysis of the BCRLM approach provides some insights into optimal strategies for mapping three dimensional quantum scattering methods, such as the Parker-Pack method, onto shared or distributed memory parallel computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirillov, A. A.; Savelova, E. P.
2016-05-01
We describe in details the procedure how the Lobachevsky space can be factorized to a space of the constant negative curvature filled with a gas of wormholes. We show that such wormholes have throat sections in the form of tori and are traversable and stable in the cosmological context. The relation of such wormholes to the dark matter phenomenon is briefly described. We also discuss the possibility of the existence of analogous factorizations for all types of homogeneous spaces.
Topologically Correct Quantum Nonadiabatic Formalism for On-the-Fly Dynamics.
Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Sivasubramanium, Janakan; Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F
2017-01-19
On-the-fly quantum nonadiabatic dynamics for large systems greatly benefits from the adiabatic representation readily available from electronic structure programs. However, conical intersections frequently occurring in this representation introduce nontrivial geometric or Berry phases which require a special treatment for adequate modeling of the nuclear dynamics. We analyze two approaches for nonadiabatic dynamics using the time-dependent variational principle and the adiabatic representation. The first approach employs adiabatic electronic functions with global parametric dependence on the nuclear coordinates. The second approach uses adiabatic electronic functions obtained only at the centers of moving localized nuclear basis functions (e.g., frozen-width Gaussians). Unless a gauge transformation is used to enforce single-valued boundary conditions, the first approach fails to capture the geometric phase. In contrast, the second approach accounts for the geometric phase naturally because of the absence of the global nuclear coordinate dependence in the electronic functions.
The structure and interpretation of cosmology: Part I-general relativistic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCabe, Gordon
The purpose of this work is to review, clarify, and critically analyse modern mathematical cosmology. The emphasis is upon mathematical objects and structures, rather than numerical computations. This paper concentrates on general relativistic cosmology. The opening section reviews and clarifies the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models of general relativistic cosmology, while Section 2 deals with the spatially homogeneous models. Particular attention is paid in these opening sections to the topological and geometrical aspects of cosmological models. Section 3 explains how the mathematical formalism can be linked with astronomical observation. In particular, the informal, observational notion of the celestial sphere is given a rigorous mathematical implementation. Part II of this work will concentrate on inflationary cosmology and quantum cosmology.
Cosmology and the noncommutative approach to the standard model
Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2010-04-15
We study cosmological consequences of the noncommutative approach to the standard model of particle physics. Neglecting the nonminimal coupling of the Higgs field to the curvature, noncommutative corrections to Einstein's equations are present only for inhomogeneous and anisotropic space-times. Considering the nonminimal coupling however, corrections are obtained even for background cosmologies. Links with dilatonic gravity as well as chameleon cosmology are briefly discussed, and potential experimental consequences are mentioned.
Non-minimal Higgs inflation and frame dependence in cosmology
Steinwachs, Christian F.; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.
2013-02-21
We investigate a very general class of cosmological models with scalar fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. A particular representative in this class is given by the non-minimal Higgs inflation model in which the Standard Model Higgs boson and the inflaton are described by one and the same scalar particle. While the predictions of the non-minimal Higgs inflation scenario come numerically remarkably close to the recently discovered mass of the Higgs boson, there remains a conceptual problem in this model that is associated with the choice of the cosmological frame. While the classical theory is independent of this choice, we find by an explicit calculation that already the first quantum corrections induce a frame dependence. We give a geometrical explanation of this frame dependence by embedding it into a more general field theoretical context. From this analysis, some conceptional points in the long lasting cosmological debate: 'Jordan frame vs. Einstein frame' become more transparent and in principle can be resolved in a natural way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishmuratov, I. K.; Baibekov, E. I.
2016-12-01
We investigate the possibility to restore transient nutations of electron spin centers embedded in the solid using specific composite pulse sequences developed previously for the application in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We treat two types of systematic errors simultaneously: (i) rotation angle errors related to the spatial distribution of microwave field amplitude in the sample volume, and (ii) off-resonance errors related to the spectral distribution of Larmor precession frequencies of the electron spin centers. Our direct simulations of the transient signal in erbium- and chromium-doped CaWO4 crystal samples with and without error corrections show that the application of the selected composite pulse sequences can substantially increase the lifetime of Rabi oscillations. Finally, we discuss the applicability limitations of the studied pulse sequences for the use in solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Tripartite entanglement in qudit stabilizer states and application in quantum error correction
Looi, Shiang Yong; Griffiths, Robert B.
2011-11-15
Consider a stabilizer state on n qudits, each of dimension D with D being a prime or squarefree integer, divided into three mutually disjoint sets or parts. Generalizing a result of Bravyi et al.[J. Math. Phys. 47, 062106 (2006)] for qubits (D=2), we show that up to local unitaries, the three parts of the state can be written as tensor product of unentangled signle-qudit states, maximally entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, and tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We employ this result to obtain a complete characterization of the properties of a class of channels associated with stabilizer error-correcting codes, along with their complementary channels.
Starykh, O.; Singh, R.; Sandvik, A.
1997-01-01
Low temperature dynamics of the S=(1)/(2) Heisenberg chain is studied via a simple ansatz generalizing the conformal mapping and analytic continuation procedures to correlation functions with multiplicative logarithmic factors. Closed form expressions for the dynamic susceptibility and the NMR relaxation rates 1/T{sub 1} and 1/T{sub 2G} are obtained, and are argued to improve the agreement with recent experiments. Scaling in q/T and {omega}/T are violated due to these logarithmic terms. Numerical results show that the logarithmic corrections are very robust. While not yet in the asymptotic low temperature regime, they provide striking qualitative confirmation of the theoretical results. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaden, S.; Domínguez-Vidal, A.; Lendl, B.
2007-01-01
A robust method for the determination of carbon dioxide in sugar containing solutions using a single distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been developed. By switching the driving current between two selected values, 1.6 and 1 A, emission wavelengths at 2341.4 and 2341.6 cm-1 could be achieved. The method is based on absorbance measurements in transmission and the calculation of the absorbance differences between both wavenumbers. This allows the elimination of indirect matrix interference produced on carbon dioxide measurements with increasing sugar concentrations. A flow injection setup was employed to produce carbon dioxide standards from a series of bicarbonate solutions (0-3 g/l) by adjusting the pH with a sodium hydroxide/citric acid buffer solution to pH 3.13. Different concentrations (0-90 g/l) of sugar were also mixed on line with the analyte to study their influence on carbon dioxide measurement. As the difference in the two evaluated wavelengths is small compared to the absorption peak of CO2, the analytical readout of the QCL modulation can be seen as a proportional parameter to the first derivative of FTIR spectra in this spectral region.
A logarithmic correction in the entropy functional formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammad, Fayçal; Faizal, Mir
2016-04-01
The entropy functional formalism allows one to recover general relativity, modified gravity theories, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. In most approaches to quantum gravity, the Bekenstein-Hawking’s entropy formula acquires a logarithmic correction term. As such terms occur almost universally in most approaches to quantum gravity, we analyze the effect of such terms on the entropy functional formalism. We demonstrate that the leading correction to the micro-canonical entropy in the entropy functional formalism can be used to recover modified theories of gravity already obtained with an uncorrected micro-canonical entropy. Furthermore, since the entropy functional formalism reproduces modified gravity, the rise of gravity-dependent logarithmic corrections turns out to be one way to impose constraints on these theories of modified gravity. The constraints found here for the simple case of an ℱ(R)-gravity are the same as those obtained in the literature from cosmological considerations.
Problems with Chaos in String Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.
I review the main ideas of the pre-big-bang cosmology scenario emphasizing the role of different boundary conditions in comparison to the standard ones which appear in quantum cosmology. My main issue is duality symmetry - a very general feature of string theory - and its role in suppressing chaos in Bianchi type IX "Mixmaster" universes within the framework of the tree-level low-energy-effectiveactions for strings. Finally, I discuss the ways to possibly `generate' chaos in string cosmology by admitting dilaton potential/massive string modes, more spacetime dimensions or nonlinear Yang-Mills-Lorentz-Chern-Simons terms into the action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Hopper, Seth; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Pani, Paolo
2016-10-01
Gravitational waves from binary coalescences provide one of the cleanest signatures of the nature of compact objects. It has been recently argued that the postmerger ringdown waveform of exotic ultracompact objects is initially identical to that of a black hole, and that putative corrections at the horizon scale will appear as secondary pulses after the main burst of radiation. Here we extend this analysis in three important directions: (i) we show that this result applies to a large class of exotic compact objects with a photon sphere for generic orbits in the test-particle limit; (ii) we investigate the late-time ringdown in more detail, showing that it is universally characterized by a modulated and distorted train of "echoes"of the modes of vibration associated with the photon sphere; (iii) we study for the first time equal-mass, head-on collisions of two ultracompact boson stars and compare their gravitational-wave signal to that produced by a pair of black holes. If the initial objects are compact enough as to mimic a binary black-hole collision up to the merger, the final object exceeds the maximum mass for boson stars and collapses to a black hole. This suggests that—in some configurations—the coalescence of compact boson stars might be almost indistinguishable from that of black holes. On the other hand, generic configurations display peculiar signatures that can be searched for in gravitational-wave data as smoking guns of exotic compact objects.
Quantum therapy in correction of the lipidic metabolism at acute pancreatitis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anaskin, S. G.; Vlasov, A. P.; Spirina, M. A.; Vlasova, T. I.; Muratova, T. A.; Korniletsky, I. D.; Geraskin, V. S.
2017-01-01
Attempt to establish efficiency of laser therapy in correction of a lipid metabolism at patients with acute pancreatitis was the purpose of work. There were clinical laboratory researches of 48 patients with acute heavy pancreatitis. To the first clinical group (comparison) standard therapy was carried out. To patients of the second clinical group (main) in addition to basic therapy within 10 days daily sessions of laser therapy by the device "Matrix" were held later. Radiation with the wavelength of 635 nanometers, 2 MW was used. Percutaneous laser radiation of blood was carried out to projections of a cubital vein within 30 minutes daily. Inclusion of laser therapy in complex treatment of patients with pancreatitis led to more significant positive dynamics. Reduction of weight of endotoxemia in the main group is set that was verified by decrease in level of both hydrophilic, and hydrophobic toxins. The analysis of the data obtained as a result of research in the main group revealed decrease in concentration of products of free radical oxidation of lipids in comparison with group of comparison for 12,1 – 17,3% of % (p. <. 0,05). Laser radiation of blood as a part of complex treatment led to reliable inhibition of activity of enzymes of phospholipase system in blood plasma, in particular activity of a phospholipase of A2 fell for 13,2 – 34,4% (p <0,05). Thus, inclusion of laser therapy in structure of complex treatment of sharp pancreatitis allowed to reduce significantly expressiveness of endogenous intoxication, intensity of processes of free radical oxidation of membrane lipids and activity of phospholipase systems.
The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.
2009-08-01
Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Popular Symposium: 2. Our complex cosmos and its future Martin J. Rees; 3. Theories of everything and Hawking's wave function of the Universe James B. Hartle; 4. The problem of space-time singularities: implications for quantum gravity? Roger Penrose; 5. Warping spacetime Kip Thorne; 6. 60 years in a nutshell Stephen W. Hawking; Part II. Spacetime Singularities: 7. Cosmological perturbations and singularities George F. R. Ellis; 8. The quantum physics of chronology protection Matt Visser; 9. Energy dominance and the Hawking-Ellis vacuum conservation theorem Brandon Carter; 10. On the instability of extra space dimensions Roger Penrose; Part III. Black Holes: 11. Black hole uniqueness and the inner horizon stability problem Werner Israel; 12. Black holes in the real universe and their prospects as probes of relativistic gravity Martin J. Rees; 13. Primordial black holes Bernard Carr; 14. Black hole pair creation Simon F. Ross; 15. Black holes as accelerators Steven Giddings; Part IV. Hawking Radiation: 16. Black holes and string theory Malcolm Perry; 17. M theory and black hole quantum mechanics Joe Polchinski; 18. Playing with black strings Gary Horowitz; 19. Twenty years of debate with Stephen Leonard Susskind; Part V. Quantum Gravity: 20. Euclidean quantum gravity: the view from 2002 Gary Gibbons; 21. Zeta functions, anomalies and stable branes Ian Moss; 22. Some reflections on the status of conventional quantum theory when applied to quantum gravity Chris Isham; 23. Quantum geometry and its ramifications Abhay Ashtekar; 24. Topology change in quantum gravity Fay Dowker; Part VI. M Theory and Beyond: 25. The past and future of string theory Edward Witten; 26. String theory David Gross; 27. A brief description of string theory Michael Green; 28. The story of M Paul Townsend; 29. Gauged supergravity and holographic field theory Nick Warner; 30. 57 varieties in a NUTshell Chris Pope; Part VII. de Sitter Space
BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-10-01
flatness of the Universe, the horizon problem and isotropy of cosmological microwave background. All this material is covered in chapter seven. Chapter eight contains brief discussion of several popular inflation models. Chapter nine is devoted to the problem of the large-scale structure formation from initial quantum vacuum fluctuation during the inflation and the spectrum of the density fluctuations. It also contains remarks on the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe, baryogenesis and primordial black holes. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza-Klein scheme. The authors also discuss how extra dimensions may affect low energy physics. They present examples of higher-dimensional generalizations of the gravity with higher-in-curvature corrections and discuss a possible mechanism of self-stabilization of an extra space. A considerable part of the chapter 10 is devoted to cosmological models with extra dimensions. In particular, the authors discuss how extra dimensions can modify 'standard' inflation models. At the end of this chapter they make several remarks on a possible relation of the value of fundamental constants in our universe with the existence of extra dimensions. Finally, in chapter 11 they demonstrate that several observable properties of the Universe are closely related with the special value of the fundamental physical constants and their fine tuning. They give interesting examples of such fine tuning and summarize many other cases. The book ends with discussion of a so-called 'cascade birth of universes in multidimensional spaces' model, proposed by one of the authors. As is evident from this brief summary of topics presented in the book, many interesting areas of modern gravity and cosmology are covered. However, since the subject is so wide, this inevitably implies that the