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Sample records for quantum dots synthesis

  1. Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high light stability. The application of QDs, as a new technology for biosystems, has been typically studied on mammalian cells. Due to the small structures of QDs, some physical properties such as optical and electron transport characteristics are quite different from those of the bulk materials. PMID:22929008

  2. Luminescent graphene quantum dots fabricated by pulsed laser synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Habiba, Khaled; Makarov, Vladimir I.; Avalos, Javier; Guinel, Maxime J.F.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has been the subject of intense research in recent years due to its unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is expected that quantum dots of graphene would make their way into devices due to their structure and composition which unify graphene and quantum dots properties. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are planar nano flakes with a few atomic layers thick and with a higher surface-to-volume ratio than spherical carbon dots (CDs) of the same size. We have developed a pulsed laser synthesis (PLS) method for the synthesis of GQDs that are soluble in water, measure 2–6 nm across, and are about 1–3 layers thick. They show strong intrinsic fluorescence in the visible region. The source of fluorescence can be attributed to various factors, such as: quantum confinement, zigzag edge structure, and surface defects. Confocal microscopy images of bacteria exposed to GQDs show their suitability as biomarkers and nano-probes in high contrast bioimaging. PMID:27570249

  3. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Shenli; Pan, Wei Shen, Wenzhong; Wan, Neng

    2014-12-28

    We report a facile hydrothermal synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two-dimensional morphology. This synthesis uses glucose, concentrate sulfuric acid, and deionized water as reagents. Concentrated sulfuric acid is found to play a key role in controlling the transformation of as-prepared hydrothermal products from amorphous carbon nanodots to well-crystallized GQDs. These GQDs show typical absorption characteristic for graphene, and have nearly excitation-independent ultraviolet and blue intrinsic emissions. Temperature-dependent PL measurements have demonstrated strong electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon interactions, suggesting a similar temperature behavior of GQDs to inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. According to optical studies, the ultraviolet emission is found to originate from the recombination of electron-hole pairs localized in the C=C bonds, while the blue emission is from the electron transition of sp{sup 2} domains.

  4. Enchanced methods of hydrophilized CdSe quantum dots synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, D. V.; Zharkova, I. S.; Goryacheva, I. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are bright and stable fluorescence signal sources, but for most of applications they need an additional hydrophilization step. Unfortunately, most of existing approaches lead to QD's fluorescence quenching, so there is a need for additional enhancing of hydrophilized QD's brightness like UV irradiation, which can be used both on water insoluble QD's with oleic acid ligands (in toluene) and on hydrophilized QD's covered with UV-stable polymer (in aqueous solution). For synthesis of bright water-soluble fluorescent labels CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal quantum dots were covered with PAMAM dendrimer and irradiated with UV lamp in quartz cuvettes for 3 hours at the room temperature and then compared with control sample.

  5. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  6. Controllable Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Boron Nitride Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Zhen, Xu; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2015-12-22

    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have aroused great interest in fundamental research and practical application due to their unique physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high-quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong fluorescent. In this work, BNQDs have been successfully fabricated by the liquid exfoliation and the subsequent solvothermal process with respect to its facileness and easy large scale up. Importantly, BNQDs with high-quality can be controllably obtained by adjusting the synthetic parameters involved in the solvothermal process including filling factor, synthesis temperature, and duration time. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with QY as high as 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, this strategy presented here provides a new reference for the controllable synthesis of other heavy metal-free QDs. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and exhibit nanosecond-scaled lifetimes, suggesting they have great potential biological and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  8. Design and Synthesis of Antiblinking and Antibleaching Quantum Dots in Multiple Colors via Wave Function Confinement.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hujia; Ma, Junliang; Huang, Lin; Qin, Haiyan; Meng, Renyang; Li, Yang; Peng, Xiaogang

    2016-12-07

    Single-molecular spectroscopy reveals that photoluminescence (PL) of a single quantum dot blinks, randomly switching between bright and dim/dark states under constant photoexcitation, and quantum dots photobleach readily. These facts cast great doubts on potential applications of these promising emitters. After ∼20 years of efforts, synthesis of nonblinking quantum dots is still challenging, with nonblinking quantum dots only available in red-emitting window. Here we report synthesis of nonblinking quantum dots covering most part of the visible window using a new synthetic strategy, i.e., confining the excited-state wave functions of the core/shell quantum dots within the core quantum dot and its inner shells (≤ ∼5 monolayers). For the red-emitting ones, the new synthetic strategy yields nonblinking quantum dots with small sizes (∼8 nm in diameter) and improved nonblinking properties. These new nonblinking quantum dots are found to be antibleaching. Results further imply that the PL blinking and photobleaching of quantum dots are likely related to each other.

  9. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photoluminescence of Boron Nitride Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have attracted great interest owing to its unique structure as well as fascinating physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong luminescence. Here we present a facile and effective approach to controllablly fabricate BNQDs by snoication-solvothermal technique. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with high QY of up to 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, the size of the BNQDs could be controlled with a narrow size distribution of 1.32 nm and the smallest average size achieved is 2.62 nm with an average thickness of ~3 atomic layers. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and show nanosecond-scaled lifetimes and little photobleaching effect. Therefore, it is believed that BNQDs are promising as one of the novel heavy metal-free QDs for multi-purpose applications in a range of fields. Moreover, this synthesis concept is expected to open a new window to controllably prepare other heavy metal-free QDs, as well as to understand their luminescence mechanism.

  10. Facile synthesis, silanization, and biodistribution of biocompatible quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Marshall, Ann F; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Rao, Jianghong

    2010-07-19

    A facile strategy for the synthesis of silica-coated quantum dots (QDs) for in vivo imaging is reported. All the QD synthesis and silanization steps are conducted in water and methanol under mild conditions without involving any organometallic precursors or high-temperature, oxygen-free environments. The as-prepared silica-coated QDs possess high quantum yields and are extremely stable in mouse serum. In addition, the silanization method developed here produces nanoparticles with small sizes that are difficult to achieve via conventional silanization methods. The silica coating helps to prevent the exposure of the QD surface to the biological milieu and therefore increases the biocompatibility of QDs for in vivo applications. Interestingly, the silica-coated QDs exhibit a different biodistribution pattern from that of commercially available Invitrogen QD605 (carboxylate) with a similar size and emission wavelength. The Invitrogen QD605 exhibits predominant liver (57.2% injected dose (ID) g(-1)) and spleen (46.1% ID g(-1)) uptakes 30 min after intravenous injection, whereas the silica-coated QDs exhibit much lower liver (16.2% ID g(-1)) and spleen (3.67% ID g(-1)) uptakes but higher kidney uptake (8.82% ID g(-1)), blood retention (15.0% ID g(-1)), and partial renal clearance. Overall, this straightforward synthetic strategy paves the way for routine and customized synthesis of silica-coated QDs for biological use.

  11. Facile Synthesis, Silanization and Biodistribution of Biocompatible Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Nan; Marshall, Ann F.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile strategy to the synthesis of silica-coated quantum dots (QDs) for in vivo imaging. All the QD synthesis and silanization steps are conducted in water and methanol under mild conditions without involving any organometallic precursors and high temperature, oxygen-free environments. The as-prepared silica-coated QDs possess high quantum yields and are extremely stable in mouse serum. In addition, the silanization method developed here produces nanoparticles (NPs) with small sizes that are difficult to achieve via conventional silanization methods. The silica coating helps to prevent the exposure of QD surface to the biological milieu and therefore increases the biocompatibility of QDs for in vivo applications. Interestingly, the silica-coated QDs exhibit a different biodistribution pattern than commercially available Invitrogen QD605 (carboxylate) with a similar size and emission wavelength. The Invitrogen QD605 exhibited predominant liver (57.2% ID g-1) and spleen (46.1% ID g-1) uptakes 30 mins after intravenous injection, whereas the silica-coated QDs exhibited much lower liver (16.2% ID g-1) and spleen (3.67% ID g-1) uptakes but higher kidney uptake (8.82% ID g-1), blood retention (15.0% ID g-1) and partial renal clearance. Overall, this straightforward synthetic strategy paves the way for routine and customized synthesis of silica-coated QDs for biological use. PMID:20564726

  12. A one-step synthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots from a novel single source precursor.

    PubMed

    Crouch, D J; O'Brien, P; Malik, M A; Skabara, P J; Wright, S P

    2003-06-21

    A new approach to the one-step synthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots is reported using the air stable complex cadmium imino-bis(diisopropylphosphine selenide); the ligand is readily prepared from elemental selenium and the precursor, quantum dots of comparable quality to those prepared by conventional methods are obtained.

  13. Laser synthesis and size tailor of carbon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengliang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jinlong; Wang, Yanzhong; Cao, Shirui

    2011-12-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-dots) with average sizes of about 3, 8, and 13 nm were synthesized by laser irradiation of graphite flakes in polymer solution. The obtained C-dots display size and excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence behavior. The size control of C-dots can be realized by tuning laser pulse width. The original reason could be the effects of laser pulse width on the conditions of nucleation and growth of C-dots. Compared with short-pulse-width laser, the long-pulse-width laser would be better fitted to the size and morphology control of nanostructures in the different material systems.

  14. The use of heat transfer fluids in the synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots, core/shell quantum dots, and quantum rods.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Subashini; Krueger, Karl M; Alkhawaldeh, Ammar; Carreon, Alessandra R; Mu, Zuze; Colvin, Vicki L; Mantzaris, Nikos V; Wong, Michael S

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, have potential uses as an optical material, in which the optoelectronic properties can be tuned precisely by particle size. Advances in chemical synthesis have led to improvements in size and shape control, cost, and safety. A limiting step in large-scale production is identified to be the raw materials cost, in which a common synthesis solvent, octadecene, accounts for most of the materials cost for a batch of CdSe quantum dots. Thus, less expensive solvents are needed. In this paper, we identify heat transfer fluids, a class of organic liquids commonly used in chemical process industries to transport heat between unit operations, as alternative solvents for quantum dot synthesis. We specifically show that two heat transfer fluids can be used successfully in the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with uniform particle sizes. We show that the synthesis chemistry for CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots and CdSe quantum rods can also be performed in heat transfer fluids. With the aid of a population balance model, we interpret the effect of different HT fluids on QD growth kinetics in terms of solvent effects, i.e., solvent viscosity, CdSe bulk solubility in the solvent, and surface free energy.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of aqueous quantum dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals (1˜20 nm) exhibiting distinctive photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. Having many advantages over organic dyes, such as broad excitation and resistance to photobleaching, QDs are widely used in bioapplications as one of most exciting nanobiotechnologies. To date, most commercial QDs are synthesized through the traditional organometallic method and contain toxic elements, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, etc. The overall goal of this thesis study is to develop an aqueous synthesis method to produce nontoxic quantum dots with strong emission and good stability, suitable for biomedical imaging applications. Firstly, an aqueous, simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was developed. With cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs as an example system, various processing parameters and capping molecules were examined to improve the synthesis and optimize the PL properties. The obtained water soluble QDs exhibited ultra small size (˜5 nm), strong PL and good stability. Thereafter, using the aqueous method, the zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs were synthesized with different capping molecules, i.e., 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS). Especially, via a newly developed capping molecule replacement method, the present ZnS QDs exhibited bright blue emission with a quantum yield of 75% and more than 60 days lifetime in the ambient conditions. Two cytotoxicity tests with human endothelial cells verified the nontoxicity of the ZnS QDs by cell counting with Trypan blue staining and fluorescence assay with Alamar Blue. Taking advantage of the versatile surface chemistry, several strategies were explored to conjugate the water soluble QDs with biomolecules, i.e., antibody and streptavidin. Accordingly, the imaging of Salmonella t. cells and biotinylated microbeads has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, polyethylenimine (PEI)-QDs complex was formed and

  16. Magnetic quantum dots in biotechnology--synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kalpesh D; Fan, Qirui; Dorcéna, Jenny; Ruan, Gang; Winter, Jessica O

    2013-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have great promise in biological imaging, and as this promise is realized, there has been increasing interest in combining the benefits of QDs with those of other materials to yield composites with multifunctional properties. One of the most common materials combined with QDs is magnetic materials, either as ions (e.g. gadolinium) or as nanoparticles (e.g. superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, SPIONs). The fluorescent property of the QDs permits visualization, whereas the magnetic property of the composite enables imaging, magnetic separation, and may even have therapeutic benefit. In this review, the synthesis of fluorescent-magnetic nanoparticles, including magnetic QDs is explored; and the applications of these materials in imaging, separations, and theranostics are discussed. As the properties of these materials continue to improve, QDs have the potential to greatly impact biological imaging, diagnostics, and treatment.

  17. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  18. Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Matthew A; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Fichter, Katye M; Fichter, Kathryn M

    2016-02-06

    Fluorescent nanocrystals, specifically quantum dots, have been a useful tool for many biomedical applications. For successful use in biological systems, quantum dots should be highly fluorescent and small/monodisperse in size. While commonly used cadmium-based quantum dots possess these qualities, they are potentially toxic due to the possible release of Cd(2+) ions through nanoparticle degradation. Indium-based quantum dots, specifically InP/ZnS, have recently been explored as a viable alternative to cadmium-based quantum dots due to their relatively similar fluorescence characteristics and size. The synthesis presented here uses standard hot-injection techniques for effective nanoparticle growth; however, nanoparticle properties such as size, emission wavelength, and emission intensity can drastically change due to small changes in the reaction conditions. Therefore, reaction conditions such temperature, reaction duration, and precursor concentration should be maintained precisely to yield reproducible products. Because quantum dots are not inherently soluble in aqueous solutions, they must also undergo surface modification to impart solubility in water. In this protocol, an amphiphilic polymer is used to interact with both hydrophobic ligands on the quantum dot surface and bulk solvent water molecules. Here, a detailed protocol is provided for the synthesis of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS quantum dots that are suitable for use in biomedical applications.

  19. InAs Colloidal Quantum Dots Synthesis via Aminopnictogen Precursor Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grigel, Valeriia; Dupont, Dorian; De Nolf, Kim; Hens, Zeger; Tessier, Mickael D

    2016-10-05

    Despite their various potential applications, InAs colloidal quantum dots have attracted considerably less attention than more classical II-VI materials because of their complex syntheses that require hazardous precursors. Recently, amino-phosphine has been introduced as a cheap, easy-to-use and efficient phosphorus precursor to synthesize InP quantum dots. Here, we use aminopnictogen precursors to implement a similar approach for synthesizing InAs quantum dots. We develop a two-step method based on the combination of aminoarsine as the arsenic precursor and aminophosphine as the reducing agent. This results in state-of-the-art InAs quantum dots with respect to the size dispersion and band-gap range. Moreover, we present shell coating procedures that lead to the formation of InAs/ZnS(e) core/shell quantum dots that emit in the infrared region. This innovative synthesis approach can greatly facilitate the research on InAs quantum dots and may lead to synthesis protocols for a wide range of III-V quantum dots.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent cadmium selenide/zinc selenide/zinc sulfide cholinomimetic quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gégout, Claire; McAtee, Maria L; Bennett, Nichole M; Viranga Tillekeratne, L M; Kirchhoff, Jon R

    2012-08-07

    Luminescent quantum dots conjugated with highly selective molecular recognition ligands are widely used for targeting and imaging biological structures. In this paper, water soluble cholinomimetic cadmium selenide (core), zinc selenide/zinc sulfide (shell) quantum dots were synthesized for targeting cholinergic sites. Cholinomimetic specificity was incorporated by conjugation of the quantum dots to an aminated analogue of hemicholinium-15, a well known competitive inhibitor of the high affinity choline uptake transporter. Detailed evaluation of the nanocrystal synthesis and characterization of the final product was conducted by (1)H and (31)P NMR, absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Synthesis Approaches Towards Large-Scale Industrial Production for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Zhu, Ting

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental synthesis and engineering developments that focused on various green approaches and large-scale process production routes for quantum dots. Fundamental process engineering principles were illustrated. In relation to the small-scale hot injection method, our discussions focus on the non-injection route that could be scaled up with engineering stir-tank reactors. In addition, applications that demand to utilize quantum dots as "commodity" chemicals are discussed, including solar cells and solid-state lightings.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of InP and InN colloidal quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Osinski, Marek; Greenberg, Melisa; Bunge, Scott D.; Chen, Weiliang; Smolyakov, G. A.; Pulford, B. N.; Jiang, Ying-Bing

    2005-04-01

    InP quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure and InN QDs with hexagonal structure were synthesized from appropriate organometallic precursors in a noncoordinating solvent using myristic acid as a ligand. The QDs were characterized by TEM, the associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron diffraction, and steady state UV-VIS optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. To our best knowledge, this paper reports synthesis of InN colloidal quantum dots for the first time.

  3. Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dot synthesis approaches towards large-scale industrial production for energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.; Zhu, Ting

    2015-12-04

    This study reviews the experimental synthesis and engineering developments that focused on various green approaches and large-scale process production routes for quantum dots. Fundamental process engineering principles were illustrated. In relation to the small-scale hot injection method, our discussions focus on the non-injection route that could be scaled up with engineering stir-tank reactors. In addition, applications that demand to utilize quantum dots as "commodity" chemicals are discussed, including solar cells and solid-state lightings.

  4. A Safer, Easier, Faster Synthesis for CdSe Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Elizabeth M.; Lisensky, George C.; Nordell, Karen J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis for CdSe quantum dot nanocrystals that vary in color and are a visually engaging way to demonstrate quantum effects in chemistry is presented. CdSe nanocrystals are synthesized from CdO and elemental Se using a kinetic growth method where particle size depends on reaction time.

  5. Quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays produced by electrochemical synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Miller, A.E.; Yue, D.F.; Banerjee, G.; Ricker, R.E.; Jones, S.; Eastman, J.A.; Baugher, E.; Chandrasekhar, M.

    1994-06-01

    We discuss a ``gentle`` electrochemical technique for fabricating quasi-periodic quantum dot arrays. The technique exploits a self-organizing phenomenon to produce quasi-periodic arrangement of dots and provides excellent control over dot size and interdot spacing. Unlike conventional nanolithography, it does not cause radiation damage to the structures during exposure to pattern delineating beams (e-beam, ion-beam or x-ray). Moreover, it does not require harsh processing steps like reactive ion etching, offers a minimum feature size of {approximately}40 {angstrom}, allows the fabrication of structures on nonplanar surfaces (e.g. spherical or cylindrical substrates), is amenable to mass production (millions of wafers can be processed simultaneously) and is potentially orders of magnitude cheaper than conventional nanofabrication. In this paper, we describe our initial results and show the promise of this technique for low-cost and high-yield nanosynthesis.

  6. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Laser Based Synthesis of High Purity Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Gondall, M A; Qahtan, Talal F; Dastageer, M A; Yamani, Z H; Anjum, D H

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and cost effective method is developed to synthesize high purity cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots in acetone medium using second harmonic of Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. The thermal agglomeration due the nanosecond pulse duration of the laser was successfully eliminated by using unfocussed laser beam and thereby providing a favorable conditions for the synthesis of quantum dots having the grain size of 3 nm. The morphological and optical characterizations like XRD, HRTEM, optical absorption of the synthesized CdSe quantum dots, reveal that the material possesses the similar characteristics of the one synthesized through cumbersome wet chemical methods. Relative to the CdSe bulk material, the synthesized CdSe quantum dots showed a blue shift in the measured band gap energy from near infrared spectral region to visible region, making this material very attractive for many solar energy harvesting applications like photo-catalysis and solar cells.

  7. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  8. Sized controlled synthesis, purification, and cell studies with silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Amane; Prabakar, Sujay; Faramus, Angelique; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Northcote, Peter T.; Tilley, Richard D.

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales.This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10458f

  9. Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Chen, Guorong E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-21

    Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO{sub 2} electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}'s to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu{sub 2}S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.

  10. Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of carbon-based quantum dots: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Pooria; Negahdari, Babak; Eatemadi, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Carbon-based quantum dots (CQDs) are a newly developed class of carbon nano-materials that have attracted much interest and attention as promising competitors to already available semiconductor quantum dots owing to their un-comparable and unique properties. In addition, controllability of CQDs unique physiochemical properties is as a result of their surface passivation and functionalization. This is an update article (between 2013 and 2016) on the recent progress, characteristics and synthesis methods of CQDs and different advantages in varieties of applications.

  11. Synthesis of quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using a segmented flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbwahnche, R. C.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Ryzhov, O. A.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an automated method of synthesizing quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using segmented flow rector synthesis as a new alternative to the batch method of synthesizing nanoparticles. A reactor was successfully applied to the synthesis of colloidal solutions of semiconductor (CdSe) and metal (Ag) nanoparticles. This instrument is applicable in both material science laboratories and industry.

  12. Synthesis and application of quantum dots-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Giang Duong, Thi; Hoang, Van Nong; Thang Pham, Nam; Cao Dao, Tran; Nga Pham, Thu

    2015-03-01

    Trichlorfon (TF) is one of the organophosphorus pesticides used widely in agriculture. The content of this paper includes the exploitation of dominant optical properties of the quantum dots consisting of a core and multilayer shell CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS (QD). A biosensor was fabricated on the basis of this QD for rapidly detecting the residues of trichlofon pesticide with concentrations of 0.01 ppm to 5 ppm. The measurements were carried out to examine the morphology of the QD structure and fluorescent properties such as transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The linking mechanism among biological agents and the specificity of the acetylcholinesterase enzymes in hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiolcholine was applied to create the changes in surroundings, affecting the fluorescence of the QD. In particular, the mechanism of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is discussed to clearly explain the recombination of electrons and holes in the QD.

  13. Continuous injection synthesis of indium arsenide quantum dots emissive in the short-wavelength infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Daniel; Harris, Daniel K.; Chen, Ou; Bruns, Oliver T.; Carr, Jessica A.; Wilson, Mark W. B.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-11-01

    With the emergence of applications based on short-wavelength infrared light, indium arsenide quantum dots are promising candidates to address existing shortcomings of other infrared-emissive nanomaterials. However, III-V quantum dots have historically struggled to match the high-quality optical properties of II-VI quantum dots. Here we present an extensive investigation of the kinetics that govern indium arsenide nanocrystal growth. Based on these insights, we design a synthesis of large indium arsenide quantum dots with narrow emission linewidths. We further synthesize indium arsenide-based core-shell-shell nanocrystals with quantum yields up to 82% and improved photo- and long-term storage stability. We then demonstrate non-invasive through-skull fluorescence imaging of the brain vasculature of murine models, and show that our probes exhibit 2-3 orders of magnitude higher quantum yields than commonly employed infrared emitters across the entire infrared camera sensitivity range. We anticipate that these probes will not only enable new biomedical imaging applications, but also improved infrared nanocrystal-LEDs and photon-upconversion technology.

  14. Continuous injection synthesis of indium arsenide quantum dots emissive in the short-wavelength infrared

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Daniel; Harris, Daniel K.; Chen, Ou; Bruns, Oliver T.; Carr, Jessica A.; Wilson, Mark W. B.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of applications based on short-wavelength infrared light, indium arsenide quantum dots are promising candidates to address existing shortcomings of other infrared-emissive nanomaterials. However, III–V quantum dots have historically struggled to match the high-quality optical properties of II–VI quantum dots. Here we present an extensive investigation of the kinetics that govern indium arsenide nanocrystal growth. Based on these insights, we design a synthesis of large indium arsenide quantum dots with narrow emission linewidths. We further synthesize indium arsenide-based core-shell-shell nanocrystals with quantum yields up to 82% and improved photo- and long-term storage stability. We then demonstrate non-invasive through-skull fluorescence imaging of the brain vasculature of murine models, and show that our probes exhibit 2–3 orders of magnitude higher quantum yields than commonly employed infrared emitters across the entire infrared camera sensitivity range. We anticipate that these probes will not only enable new biomedical imaging applications, but also improved infrared nanocrystal-LEDs and photon-upconversion technology. PMID:27834371

  15. Synthesis and characterization of surface-modified colloidal CdTe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Rajh, T. ); Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J. )

    1993-11-18

    The controlled synthesis of quantized colloidal CdTe nanocrystals (in aqueous solutions) with narrow size distributions and stabilized against rapid oxidation was achieved by capping the quantum dot particles with 3-mercapto-1,2-propanediol. Nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots) with mean diameters of 20, 25, 35, and 40 A were produced. Optical absorption spectra showed strong excitonic peaks at the smallest size; the absorption coefficient was shown to follow an inverse cube dependence on particle diameter, while the extinction coefficient per particle remained constant. The quantum yield for photoluminescence increased with decreasing particle size and reached 20% at 20 A. The valence band edges of the CdTe quantum dots were determined by pulse radiolysis experiments (hole injection from oxidizing radicals); the bandgaps were estimated from pulse radiolysis data (redox potentials of hole and electron injecting radicals) and from the optical spectra. The dependence of the CdTe bandgap on quantum dot size was found to be much weaker than predicted by the effective mass approximation; this result is consistent with recently published theoretical calculations by several groups. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of quantum dots designed for biomedical use.

    PubMed

    Kuzyniak, Weronika; Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Sekhosana, Kutloano; D'Souza, Sarah; Tshangana, Sesethu Charmaine; Hoffmann, Björn; Ermilov, Eugeny A; Nyokong, Tebello; Höpfner, Michael

    2014-05-15

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have become promising nanoparticles for a wide variety of biomedical applications. However, the major drawback of QDs is their potential toxicity. Here, we determined possible cytotoxic effects of a set of QDs by systematic photophysical evaluation in vitro as well as in vivo. QDs were synthesized by the hydrothermal aqueous route with sizes in the range of 2.0-3.5 nm. Cytotoxic effects of QDs were studied in the human pancreatic carcinoid cell line BON. Cadmium telluride QDs with or without zinc sulfide shell and coated with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were highly cytotoxic even at nanomolar concentrations. Capping with l-glutathione (GSH) or thioglycolic acid (TGA) reduced the cytotoxicity of cadmium telluride QDs and cadmium selenide QDs. Determination of the toxicity of QDs revealed IC50 values in the micromolar range. In vivo studies showed good tolerability of CdSe QDs with ZnS shell and GSH capping. We could demonstrate that QDs with ZnS shell and GSH capping exhibit low toxicity and good tolerability in cell models and living organisms. These QDs appear to be promising candidates for biomedical applications such as drug delivery for enhanced chemotherapy or targeted delivery of light sensitive substances for photodynamic therapy.

  17. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In2S3) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In2S3 nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In2S3, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530-600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar+ laser as the excitation source.

  18. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530–600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

  19. Synthesis, Photoluminescence and Bio-Targeting Applications of Blue Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Zhou, Ji; Zhou, Wenhua; Shi, Jilong; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Fu, Ming; Zhang, Yongna

    2016-04-01

    Chemical derived graphene oxide, an atomically thin sheet of graphite with two-dimensional construction, offers interesting physical, electronic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced physics electronics, membranes, and composites. Herein, we study graphene quantum dots (GQD) with the blue photoluminescence under various parameters. The GQD samples were prepared at different temperatures, and the blue photoluminescence intensity of the solution improved radically as the heating temperatures increased. Concerning PL peak and intensity of the quantum dots, the results demonstrated dependence on time under heating, temperature of heating, and pH adjusted by the addition of sodium hydroxide. After hydrothermal synthesis routes, the functional groups of graphene oxide were altered the morphology showed the stacking configuration, and self-assembled structure of the graphene sheets with obvious wrinkles appeared at the edge structures. In addition, absorption, PL, and PLE spectra of the graphene quantum dots increase with different quantities of sodium hydroxide added. Finally, using GQD to target PNTIA cells was carried out successfully. High uptake efficiency and no cytotoxic effects indicate graphene quantum dots can be suitable for bio-targeting.

  20. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  1. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  2. Cluster-seeded synthesis of doped CdSe:Cu4 quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Ali M; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Wink, Donald J; Page, Leah E; Snee, Preston T

    2013-04-23

    We report here a method for synthesizing CdSe quantum dots (QDs) containing copper such that each QD is doped with four copper ions. The synthesis is a derivative of the cluster-seed method, whereby organometallic clusters act as nucleation centers for quantum dots. The method is tolerant of the chemical identity of the seed; as such, we have doped four copper ions into CdSe QDs using [Na(H2O)3]2[Cu4(SPh)6] as a cluster seed. The controlled doping allows us to monitor the photophysical properties of guest ions with X-ray spectroscopy, specifically XANES and EXAFS at the copper K-edge. These data reveal that copper can capture both electrons and holes from photoexcited CdSe QDs. When the dopant is oxidized, photoluminescence is quenched and the copper ions translocate within the CdSe matrix, which slows the return to an emissive state.

  3. Synthesis of N, F and S co-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumana; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Narayanan, T. N.; Shelke, Manjusha V.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, P. M.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PLQY calculation, MWCNT synthetic details, TGA analysis and tabular format of GQD synthesis processes. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02427g

  4. Design and synthesis of heterostructured quantum dots with dual emission in the visible and infrared.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianglu; Makarov, Nikolay S; Koh, Weon-kyu; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Cirloganu, Claudiu M; Luo, Hongmei; Klimov, Victor I; Pietryga, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-27

    The unique optical properties exhibited by visible emitting core/shell quantum dots with especially thick shells are the focus of widespread study, but have yet to be realized in infrared (IR)-active nanostructures. We apply an effective-mass model to identify PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a promising system for achieving this goal. We then synthesize colloidal PbSe/CdSe quantum dots with shell thicknesses of up to 4 nm that exhibit unusually slow hole intraband relaxation from shell to core states, as evidenced by the emergence of dual emission, i.e., IR photoluminescence from the PbSe core observed simultaneously with visible emission from the CdSe shell. In addition to the large shell thickness, the development of slowed intraband relaxation is facilitated by the existence of a sharp core-shell interface without discernible alloying. Growth of thick shells without interfacial alloying or incidental formation of homogeneous CdSe nanocrystals was accomplished using insights attained via a systematic study of the dynamics of the cation-exchange synthesis of both PbSe/CdSe and the related system PbS/CdS. Finally, we show that the efficiency of the visible photoluminescence can be greatly enhanced by inorganic passivation.

  5. The design and synthesis of heterostructured quantum dots with dual emission in the visible and infrared

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Qianglu; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Koh, Weon-kyu; ...

    2014-11-26

    The unique optical properties exhibited by visible emitting core/shell quantum dots with especially thick shells are the focus of widespread study, but have yet to be realized in infrared (IR) -active nanostructures. We apply an effective-mass model to identify PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a promising system for achieving this goal. We then synthesize colloidal PbSe/CdSe quantum dots with shell thicknesses of up to 4 nm that exhibit unusually slow hole intra-band relaxation from shell to core states, as evidenced by the emergence of dual emission, i.e., IR photoluminescence from the PbSe core observed simultaneously with visible emission from themore » CdSe shell. In addition to the large shell thickness, the development of slowed intraband relaxation is facilitated by the existence of a sharp core-shell interface without discernible alloying. Growth of thick shells without interfacial alloying or incidental formation of homogenous CdSe nanocrystals was accomplished using insights attained via a systematic study of the dynamics of the cation-exchange synthesis of both PbSe/CdSe as well as the related system PbS/CdS. Finally, we show that the efficiency of the visible photoluminescence can be greatly enhanced by inorganic passivation.« less

  6. The design and synthesis of heterostructured quantum dots with dual emission in the visible and infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qianglu; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Koh, Weon-kyu; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Cirloganu, Claudiu M.; Luo, Hongmei; Klimov, Victor I.; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.

    2014-11-26

    The unique optical properties exhibited by visible emitting core/shell quantum dots with especially thick shells are the focus of widespread study, but have yet to be realized in infrared (IR) -active nanostructures. We apply an effective-mass model to identify PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a promising system for achieving this goal. We then synthesize colloidal PbSe/CdSe quantum dots with shell thicknesses of up to 4 nm that exhibit unusually slow hole intra-band relaxation from shell to core states, as evidenced by the emergence of dual emission, i.e., IR photoluminescence from the PbSe core observed simultaneously with visible emission from the CdSe shell. In addition to the large shell thickness, the development of slowed intraband relaxation is facilitated by the existence of a sharp core-shell interface without discernible alloying. Growth of thick shells without interfacial alloying or incidental formation of homogenous CdSe nanocrystals was accomplished using insights attained via a systematic study of the dynamics of the cation-exchange synthesis of both PbSe/CdSe as well as the related system PbS/CdS. Finally, we show that the efficiency of the visible photoluminescence can be greatly enhanced by inorganic passivation.

  7. One-Step Synthesis of Boron Nitride Quantum Dots: Simple Chemistry Meets Delicate Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingping; Yan, Shihai; Song, Zhongqian; Liu, Mengli; Ji, Xuqiang; Yang, Wenrong; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-12-23

    Herein, a conceptually new and straightforward aqueous route is described for the synthesis of hydroxyl- and amino-functionalized boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs) with quantum yields (QY) as high as 18.3 % by using a facile bottom-up approach, in which a mixture of boric acid and ammonia solution was hydrothermally treated in one pot at 200 °C for 12 h. The functionalized BNQDs, with excellent photoluminescence properties, could be easily dispersed in an aqueous medium and applied as fluorescent probes for the detection of ferrous (Fe(2+) ) and ferric (Fe(3+) ) ions with excellent selectivity and low detection limits. The mechanisms for the hydrothermal reaction and fluorescence quenching were also simulated by using density functional theory (DFT), which confirmed the feasibility and advantages of this strategy. It provides a scalable and eco-friendly method for preparation of BNQDs with good dispersability and could also be generalized to the synthesis of other 2D quantum dots and nanoplates.

  8. Synthesis and Characterizations of Pb-modified CdSe Aqueous Quantum Dots and Their Applications in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Hsin

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with typical size ranges around 1-20 nm. They exhibit distinctive size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. QDs have great potentials in display, lighting, lasing, bioimaging, fluorescent label, sensor, photodetector, and photovoltaic applications, and have been widely studied in the past decades. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs have been synthesized using an environmentally friendly, aqueous method under low temperature. While traditional QDs synthesized by hot injection method using organic solvent generally exhibit edge-state emission with narrow peaks, aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) tend to have trap-state emissions with broad peaks. The objective of this thesis is to investigate how Pb modifications in CdSe AQDs synthesis can affect the optoelectronic properties of the QDs and how these modifications affect their corresponding photovoltaic performance in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) applications. Lead (Pb) precursor has been introduced either during the synthesis or after the synthesis of CdSe AQDs forming either Pb-doped or Pb-coated CdSe QDs, respectively. Pb-doped CdSe QDs exhibit red-shift in both absorption and emission spectra while Pb-coated CdSe QDs exhibit blue-shift in both absorption and emission spectra along with the generation of more surface defects. Although blue-shifted absorption indicating a narrower absorption range and the surface defects providing undesired recombination pathways are detrimental to solar cell performance, however surprisingly, we found that QDSSCs made from Pb-coated CdSe QDs actually had better solar cell performance than that made from Pb-doped CdSe QDs. We attributed this finding to a protection/passivation layer formed in-situ when the coated Pb react with the iodide/triiodide electrolyte during solar cell operation resulting in QDSSCs with better charge injection and stability.

  9. Synthesis of AgInS2 quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence for sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunqi; Zhai, Lanlan; Ma, Yahui; Zou, Chao; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Yun; Huang, Shaoming

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) with high photoluminescence is critical for quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). A series of high quality AgInS2 QDs were synthesized under air circumstance by the organometallic high temperature method. Feature of tunable photoluminescence of AgInS2 QDs with long lifetime and quantum yields beyond 40% has been achieved, which was mainly attributed to the donor-acceptor pair recombination, contributed above 91% to the whole emission profiles. After ligand exchange with bifunctional linker, water-soluble AgInS2 QDs were adopted as light harvesters to fabricate QDSCs, achieved best PCE of 2.91% (short-circuit current density of 13.78 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage of 0.47 V, and fill factor of 45%) under one full sun illumination. The improved photovoltaic performance of AgInS2 QDs-based QDSCs is mainly originated from broadened optoelectronic response range up to ∼900 nm, and enhanced photoluminescence with long lifetime and high quantum yield beyond 40%, which provide strong photoresponse ∼40% over the window below 750 nm. The synthetic approach combined with intrinsic defects created by intentionally composition modulation introduces a new approach towards the goal of high performance QDSCs.

  10. A general solid-state synthesis of chemically-doped fluorescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong-Bo; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Wang, Hang-Xing; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Qi, Xiaoying; Zhang, Hao-Li; Zhu, Yihan; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yong; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01757b

  11. Synthesis of cadmium selenide colloidal quantum dots in aquatic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazing, D. S.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Tarasov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium selenide nanocrystals were prepared in water phase through facile wet chemistry technique with thioglycolic acid (TGA) acting as capping agent. Structures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Depending on synthesis conditions nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence with maximum in the region of 580 - 680 nm. Influence of technological parameters and component concentrations on nanocrystals average size and properties was studied.

  12. Understanding the isothermal growth kinetics of cdse quantum dots through microfluidic reactor assisted combinatorial synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Hong, Myung Hwan; Kang, Lee-Seung; Lee, Chan Gi

    2016-11-01

    With the use of a microfluidic-assisted combinatorial reactor, the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots was optimized by varying one parameter at a time, and the isothermal growth kinetics of CdSe quantum dots using various models was analyzed. To understand precisely the nucleation and growth characteristics of CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we synthesized the CdSe QDs using various experimental conditions. Different model equations, like acceleratory growth-time curves, sigmoidal growth-time curves or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), acceleratory growthtime curves based on diffusion, geometric model growth-time curves, and nth order growth-time curves were fitted. Among all growth models, the JMAK model with α = 1 - {e^{ - {{(kt)}^n}}}, and n = 1 was the best fitting model with the MATLAB interactive curve-fitting procedure were used. Errors associated with the best-fitting model and statistics for the goodness of fit were analyzed. Most of the models were not as good as the other than the proposed model. The errors associated with the proposed model were minimal, and the growth kinetics and other associated statistical factors are very similar, for all the variables investigated. The minimal error associated with the reproducibility and the similar data for growth kinetics for all studied parameters indicated that microfluidic-assisted combinatorial synthesis can be used in the industrial production of QDs. By using the proposed model to obtain an understanding of growth of QDs, their size and properties can be managed and simulated.

  13. Aqueous phase synthesis of CdTe quantum dots for biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ken-Tye; Law, Wing-Cheung; Roy, Indrajit; Jing, Zhu; Huang, Huijie; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, CdTe quantum dots have been demonstrated as powerful probes for biophotonics applications. The aqueous phase synthesis technique remains the best approach to make high quality CdTe QDs in a single-pot process. CdTe QDs prepared directly in the aqueous phase can have quantum yield as high as 80%. In addition, the surface of CdTe QDs prepared using the aqueous phase technique is functionalized with reactive groups that enable them to be directly conjugated with specific ligands for targeted delivery and sensing. In this contribution, we review recent progress in fabricating aqueous CdTe QDs and exploiting their optical properties in novel approaches to biomedical imaging and sensing applications.

  14. Simple synthesis of luminescent CdSe quantum dots from ascorbic acid and selenium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Yu, Meihua; Yang, Kun; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Linqing

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost and convenient method was developed for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium. Compared with previous methods, this synthesis was carried out in one pot using ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) to replace NaBH4 or N2H4·H2O as a reductant, and selenium dioxide to replace selenium or its other hazardous, expensive and unstable compounds as a precursor. The mechanism of CdSe QDs formation was elucidated. The influence of various experimental variables, including refluxing time, Cd/MSA and Cd/Se molar ratios, on the luminescent properties of the QDs were systematically investigated. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterization indicated that the QDs had a pure cubic zinc-blended structure with a spherical shape.

  15. Size control by rate control in colloidal PbSe quantum dot synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čapek, Richard Karel; Yanover, Dianna; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2015-03-01

    A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses.A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data about the reaction and growth kinetics, NMR-data and exemplary TEM images of PbSe-CQDs prepared by the procedure described in this publication. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00028a

  16. A general solid-state synthesis of chemically-doped fluorescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chong-Bo; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Wang, Hang-Xing; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Qi, Xiaoying; Zhang, Hao-Li; Zhu, Yihan; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yong; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-14

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state.

  17. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  18. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yunping; Li, Na; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhenguo; Zhu, Jingli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Xu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm) and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL) GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications. PMID:26709828

  19. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with luminescence in the violet region of the solar spectrum.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nisha; Nigra, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    We have designed a simple, one-step synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with photoluminescence frequencies ranging from the red through to the violet region of the solar spectrum. The photoluminescence peaks have FWHM of 30 nm indicating absorption over a narrow range of wavelengths. The effect of solvent type and solvent boiling point on the physical and photoluminescence properties of the quantum dots has been studied. High boiling point, non-polar solvents shift the photoluminescence peak to longer wavelengths and low boiling point, polar solvents shift the photoluminescence peak to shorter wavelengths.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of core-multi-shell CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots: Surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2017-02-01

    We report two port synthesis of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots (Q-dots) and their structural properties. The multi-shell structures of Q-dots were developed by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The obtained Q-dots show high crystallinity with the step-wise adjustment of lattice parameters in the radial direction. The size of the core and core-shell Q-dots estimated by transmission electron microscopy images and absorption spectra is about 3.4 and 5.3 nm, respectively. The water soluble Q-dots (scheme-1) were prepared by using ligand exchange method, and the effect of pH was discussed regarding the variation of quantum yield (QY). The decrease of a lifetime of core-multi-shell Q-dots with respect to core CdSe indicates that the shell growth may be tuned by the lifetimes. Thus, the study clearly demonstrates that the core-shell approach can be used to substantially improve the optical properties of Q-dots desired for various applications.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersed CdTe/CdSe core/shell type II quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sai, Li-Man; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2011-05-27

    A facile synthesis of mercaptanacid-capped CdTe/CdSe (core/shell) type II quantum dots in aqueous solution by means of a microwave-assisted approach is reported. The results of X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the as-prepared CdTe/CdSe quantum dots had a core/shell structure with high crystallinity. The core/shell quantum dots exhibit tunable fluorescence emissions by controlling the thickness of the CdSe shell. The photoluminescent properties were dramatically improved through UV-illuminated treatment, and the time-resolved fluorescence spectra showed that there is a gradual increase of decay lifetime with the thickness of CdSe shell.

  2. Low temperature synthesis of silicon quantum dots with plasma chemistry control in dual frequency non-thermal plasmas.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon Geon; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-06-21

    The advanced materials process by non-thermal plasmas with a high plasma density allows the synthesis of small-to-big sized Si quantum dots by combining low-temperature deposition with superior crystalline quality in the background of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride matrix. Here, we make quantum dot thin films in a reactive mixture of ammonia/silane/hydrogen utilizing dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas with high atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radical densities. Systematic data analysis using different film and plasma characterization tools reveals that the quantum dots with different sizes exhibit size dependent film properties, which are sensitively dependent on plasma characteristics. These films exhibit intense photoluminescence in the visible range with violet to orange colors and with narrow to broad widths (∼0.3-0.9 eV). The observed luminescence behavior can come from the quantum confinement effect, quasi-direct band-to-band recombination, and variation of atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radicals in the film growth network. The high luminescence yields in the visible range of the spectrum and size-tunable low-temperature synthesis with plasma and radical control make these quantum dot films good candidates for light emitting applications.

  3. Convenient synthesis of stable silver quantum dots with enhanced photoluminescence emission by laser fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Li; Ming, Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new strategy for the facile synthesis of very stable and mono-dispersed silver (Ag) quantum dots (QDs) is developed by laser fragmentation of bulk Ag in water using polysorbate 80 as a dispersing and stabilizing agent. The surfactant plays an important role in the formation of size-controlled Ag nano-structures. The Ag QDs have excellent photo-stability of ∼500 h and enhanced photoluminescence (PL) at 510 nm. This has significant implications for selective and ultrasensitive PL probes. Based on laser fragmentation in the biocompatible surfactant solution, our results have opened up a novel paradigm to obtain stable metal QDs directly from bulk targets. This is a breakthrough in the toxicity problems that arise from standard chemical fabrication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575102, 11105085, 11275116, and 11375108) and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China (Grant No. 2015JC007).

  4. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun; Noh, Sung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Won Jun; Jaung, Jae Yun; Lee, Seung Geol; Han, Tae Hee

    2015-09-18

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp(2) hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films.

  5. Tuning the Synthesis of Ternary Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots by Balancing Precursor Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Danielle K.; Luther, Joseph M; Semonin, Octavi Escala; Nozik, Arthur J; Beard, Matthew C

    2011-01-25

    We report the synthesis and characterization of composition-tunable ternary lead chalcogenide alloys PbSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}, PbS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}, and PbS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}. This work explores the relative reaction rates of chalcogenide precursors to produce alloyed quantum dots (QDs), and we find the highly reactive bis(trimethylsilyl) (TMS{sub 2})-based precursors allow for the homogeneous incorporation of anions. By varying the Pb to oleic acid ratio, we demonstrate size control of similar composition alloys. We find the resulting QDs are Pb-rich but the Pb/anion ratio is size- and composition-dependent in all alloyed QD as well as in PbSe, PbTe, and PbS QDs and is consistent with the reaction rates of the anion precursors. A more reactive anion precursor results in a lower Pb/anion ratio.

  6. New quantum dot sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gun'ko, Y. K.; Moloney, M. M.; Gallagher, S.; Govan, J.; Hanley, C.

    2010-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor (e.g. II-VI) nanocrystals, which have a strong characteristic spectral emission. This emission is tunable to a desired energy by selecting variable particle size, size distribution and composition of the nanocrystals. QDs have recently attracted enormous interest due to their unique photophysical properties and range of potential applications in photonics and biochemistry. The main aim of our work is develop new chiral quantum dots (QDs) and establish fundamental principles influencing their structure, properties and biosensing behaviour. Here we present the synthesis and characterisation of chiral CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles and their utilisation as new chiral biosensors. Penicillamine stabilised CdSe nanoparticles have shown both very strong and very broad luminescence spectra. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies have revealed that the D- and Lpenicillamine stabilised CdSe QDs demonstrate circular dichroism and possess almost identical mirror images of CD signals. Studies of photoluminescence and CD spectra have shown that there is a clear relationship between defect emission and CD activity. We have also demonstrated that these new QDs can serve as fluorescent nanosensors for various chiral biomolecules including nucleic acids. These novel nanosensors can be potentially utilized for detection of various chiral biological and chemical species with the broad range of potential applications.

  7. Biomimetic, Mild Chemical Synthesis of CdTe-GSH Quantum Dots with Improved Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Monrás, Juan P.; Bravo, Denisse; Aguirre, Adam; Quest, Andrew F.; Osorio-Román, Igor O.; Aroca, Ricardo F.; Chasteen, Thomas G.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple applications of nanotechnology, especially those involving highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) or quantum dots (QDs) have stimulated the research to develop simple, rapid and environmentally friendly protocols for synthesizing NPs exhibiting novel properties and increased biocompatibility. In this study, a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe QDs (CdTe-GSH) resembling conditions found in biological systems is described. Using only CdCl2, K2TeO3 and GSH, highly fluorescent QDs were obtained under pH, temperature, buffer and oxygen conditions that allow microorganisms growth. These CdTe-GSH NPs displayed similar size, chemical composition, absorbance and fluorescence spectra and quantum yields as QDs synthesized using more complicated and expensive methods. CdTe QDs were not freely incorporated into eukaryotic cells thus favoring their biocompatibility and potential applications in biomedicine. In addition, NPs entry was facilitated by lipofectamine, resulting in intracellular fluorescence and a slight increase in cell death by necrosis. Toxicity of the as prepared CdTe QDs was lower than that observed with QDs produced by other chemical methods, probably as consequence of decreased levels of Cd+2 and higher amounts of GSH. We present here the simplest, fast and economical method for CdTe QDs synthesis described to date. Also, this biomimetic protocol favors NPs biocompatibility and helps to establish the basis for the development of new, “greener” methods to synthesize cadmium-containing QDs. PMID:22292028

  8. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Core/Shell Quantum Dots: Strained Ge/Si Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Katharine I; Held, Jacob T; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2017-03-08

    In this work, we present an all-gas-phase approach for the synthesis of quantum-confined core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) as a promising alternative to traditional solution-based methods. Spherical quantum dots (QDs) are grown using a single-stage flow-through nonthermal plasma, yielding monodisperse NCs, with a concentric core/shell structure confirmed by electron microscopy. The in-flight negative charging of the NCs by plasma electrons keeps the NC cores separated during shell growth. The success of this gas-phase approach is demonstrated here through the study of Ge/Si core/shell QDs. We find that the epitaxial growth of a Si shell on the Ge QD core compressively strains the Ge lattice and affords the ability to manipulate the Ge band structure by modulation of the core and shell dimensions. This all-gas-phase approach to core/shell QD synthesis offers an effective method to produce high-quality heterostructured NCs with control over the core and shell dimensions.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes, doped by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzova, N. V.; Gerasimova, M. A.; Slabko, V. V.; Slyusareva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Doping of polymer particles by a fluorophores results in the sensitization within the visible spectral region becoming very promising materials for sensor applications. Colloids of biocompatible chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) doped with quantum dots (QD) of CdTe and CdSe/ZnS (with sizes of 2.0-2.4 nm) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurements, absorption and luminescence (including time-resolved) spectroscopy. The influence of ionic strength (0.02-1.5 M) on absorption and photoluminescence properties of encapsulated into PEC and unencapsulated quantum dots was investigated. The stability of the emission intensity of the encapsulated quantum dots has been shown to be strongly dependent on concentration of quantum dots.

  10. Lab-on-a-chip synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and quantum dots for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Li, Yuehao; Li, Shuning; Kumar, Challa S S R

    2013-11-01

    The past two decades have seen a dramatic raise in the number of investigations leading to the development of Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for synthesis of nanomaterials. A majority of these investigations were focused on inorganic nanomaterials comprising of metals, metal oxides, nanocomposites and quantum dots. Herein, we provide an analysis of these findings, especially, considering the more recent developments in this new decade. We made an attempt to bring out the differences between chip-based as well as tubular continuous flow systems. We also cover, for the first time, various opportunities the tools from the field of computational fluid dynamics provide in designing LOC systems for synthesis inorganic nanomaterials. Particularly, we provide unique examples to demonstrate that there is a need for concerted effort to utilize LOC devices not only for synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials but also for carrying out superior in vitro studies thereby, paving the way for faster clinical translation. Even though LOC devices with the possibility to carry out multi-step syntheses have been designed, surprisingly, such systems have not been utilized for carrying out simultaneous synthesis and bio-functionalization of nanomaterials. While traditionally, LOC devices are primarily based on microfluidic systems, in this review article, we make a case for utilizing millifluidic systems for more efficient synthesis, bio-functionalization and in vitro studies of inorganic nanomaterials tailor-made for biomedical applications. Finally, recent advances in the field clearly point out the possibility for pushing the boundaries of current medical practices towards personalized health care with a vision to develop automated LOC-based instrumentation for carrying out simultaneous synthesis, bio-functionalization and in vitro evaluation of inorganic nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  11. Low-cost and gram-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2014-01-01

    We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch.We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PL decay curves, PL lifetimes, EDS spectra, chemical composition, cost analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05014a

  12. Low-cost and gram-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2014-01-01

    We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ∼3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch.

  13. Graphene and Carbon Quantum Dot-Based Materials in Photovoltaic Devices: From Synthesis to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Sofia; Palomares, Emilio; Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and carbon quantum dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features because of their quantum confinement properties. This makes them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV). Their versatility has led to their being used as light harvesting materials or selective contacts, either for holes or electrons, in silicon quantum dot, polymer or dye-sensitized solar cells. In this review, we summarize the most common uses of both types of semiconducting materials and highlight the significant advances made in recent years due to the influence that synthetic materials have on final performance. PMID:28335285

  14. Green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots from sugarcane bagasse pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambiraj, S.; Ravi Shankaran, D.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have great potential due to its advantageous characteristics of highly fluorescent nature and good stability. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple and efficient method for the green synthesis of fluorescent CQDs from sugarcane bagasse, a renewable and sustainable resource. The process involves the top down approach of chemical oxidation followed by exfoliation of sugarcane carbon. The synthesized CQDs was characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Spectrofluorophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The synthesized CQDs possess stable fluorescent properties, good bio-compatibility and high quantum yield. The CQDs are highly crystalline with longitudinal dimensions of 4.1 ± 0.17 nm with an average roughness of around 5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicates that the synthesized CQDs possess face centred cubic crystal structure. The results suggest that the proposed CQDs could be utilized for bio-sensor, bio-imaging and drug delivery applications.

  15. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-22

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5-10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8-2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs.

  16. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5-10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8-2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs.

  17. Synthesis and enhanced fluorescence of Ag doped CdTe semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ding, Si-Jing; Liang, Shan; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jia-Hong; Zhou, Li; Yu, Xue-Feng; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-02-07

    Doping with intentional impurities is an intriguing way to tune the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. However, the synthesis of some specific doped semiconductor nanocrystals remains a challenge and the doping mechanism in this strongly confined system is still not clearly understood. In this work, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of stable and water-soluble Ag-doped CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) via a facile aqueous approach. Experimental characterization demonstrated the efficient doping of the Ag impurities into the CdTe SQDs with an appropriate reaction time. By doping 0.3% Ag impurities, the Stokes shift is decreased by 120 meV, the fluorescence intensity is enhanced more than 3 times, the radiative rate is enhanced 4.2 times, and the non-radiative rate is efficiently suppressed. These observations reveal that the fluorescence enhancement in Ag-doped CdTe SQDs is mainly attributed to the minimization of surface defects, filling of the trap states, and the enhancement of the radiative rate by the silver dopants. Our results suggest that the silver doping is an efficient method for tuning the optical properties of the CdTe SQDs.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Sensitizing Dye and Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Jason Michael

    Quantum dots have demonstrated their conduction and luminescent abilities in solar cells, light emitting diodes and in vivo imaging [1]. The most intriguing of these is their potential as light absorbers in solar cells. The goal of this research was to dope copper indium sulfide (CIS, formula: CuInS2) quantum dots with aluminum (Al) or cerium (Ce) to determine if these dopants were able to shift the peak absorbance wavelength into the 300--750 nm range of the AM1.5 Solar Radiation Spectrum. Changing the CIS absorbance wavelengths would allow the solar cells to effectively absorb light in the ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) regions of the solar spectrum. The Al doped quantum dots shifted the CIS absorbance from 284 nm to 307 nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of the Ce doped CIS quantum dots confirmed the crystallization and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) confirmed the chemical composition. This research has shown a new way to create rare earth doped CIS quantum dots and their commercial applications are only beginning to be realized.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of intrinsically radiolabeled quantum dots for bimodal detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minghao; Hoffman, David; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Yang, Likun; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to synthesize radioactive quantum dots (r-QDs) thereby enabling both optical and radionuclide signals to be detected from the same intrinsic bimodal probe. This proof-of-concept is exemplified by the incorporation of the radionuclide 109Cadmium into the core/shell of the nanoparticle. Green and near infrared (NIR) emission intrinsic r-QDs were synthesized and characterized. Zwitterionic and Poly-polyethlene glycol (PEGylated) ligands were synthesized and used to coat r-QDs. Zwitterionic NIR r-QDs (quantum yield = 11%) and PEGylated NIR r-QDs (quantum yield = 14%) with an average size of 13.8 nm and 16.8 nm were obtained respectively. The biodistribution of NIR zwitterionic and PEGylated r-QDs in nude mice was investigated and zwitterionic r-QDs showed longer blood circulation (t1/2 = 21.4±1.1 hrs) than their PEGylated counterparts (t1/2 = 6.4±0.5 min). Both zwitterionic and PEGylated r-QDs exhibited progressive accumulation in the liver and spleen, but the magnitude of the accumulation (%ID/g) was about 3-6 fold higher with the PEGylated r-QDs at all the time points. The results demonstrated the feasibility of r-QDs synthesis in quantitative yield and retention of fluorescence following incorporation of radioactivity into the core/shell of the nanoparticle. The gamma signal from the same fluorescent elemental material enabled quantitative and robust pharmacokinetic measurements and how these changed depended on the type of coating ligands used. This strategy for intrinsically radio-labeling the QDs is currently being implemented in our laboratory for the incorporation of other radiometals. PMID:23133807

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-05-07

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells.

  1. A facile synthesis of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots and their application in flexible nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Fushan; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present a simple and facile one step synthesis strategy to prepare CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite quantum dots and apply them into the nonvolatile memory. Resistive switching phenomenon was observed in this perovskite quantum dots and polymer composite based memory device with the ON/OFF current ratio larger than 103 as well as good reproducibility and reliability. Flexible memory was also demonstrated, and a possible resistance switching mechanism was discussed. Our work paves a way for the application of organolead halide perovskite quantum dots in flexible and transparent nonvolatile memories.

  2. Supramolecular Gel-Templated In Situ Synthesis and Assembly of CdS Quantum Dots Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; He, Jie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Dawei; He, Haibing; Ren, Lianbing; Jiang, Biwang; Wang, Yong; Teng, Chao; Xue, Gi; Tao, Huchun

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have attempted to develop strategies for spontaneously organizing nanoparticles (NPs) into three-dimensional (3D) geometries, it remains a fascinating challenge. In this study, a method for in situ synthesis and self-assembly of a CdS quantum dots (QDs) gel using a Cd supramolecular gel as a scaffold was demonstrated. During the QDs formation process, the Cd ions that constituted the Cd gels served as the precursors of the CdS QDs, and the oleic acid (OA) that ligated with the Cd in the supramolecular gels was capped on the surface of the CdS QDs in the form of carboxylate. The OA-stabilized CdS QDs were in situ synthesized in the entangled self-assembled fibrillar networks (SAFIN) of the Cd gels through reactions between the gelator and H2S. As a result, the QDs exactly replicated the framework of the SAFIN in the CdS QD gels instead of simply assembling along the SAFIN of the supramolecular gels. Moreover, the CdS QDs showed extraordinary sensitivity in the fluorescence detection of IO4 - anions. The facile one-step method developed here is a new approach to assembling nanostructured materials into 3D architectures and has general implications for the design of low molecular mass gelators to bring desired functionality to the developed supramolecular gels.

  3. Synthesis and biological assay of GSH functionalized fluorescent quantum dots for staining Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tortiglione, Claudia; Quarta, Alessandra; Tino, Angela; Manna, Liberato; Cingolani, Roberto; Pellegrino, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been used extensively as fluorescent markers in several studies on living cells. Here, we report the synthesis of conjugates based on glutathione (GSH) and QDs (GSH-QDs) and we prove how these functionalized fluorescent probes can be used for staining a freshwater invertebrate called Hydra vulgaris. GSH is known to promote Hydra feeding response by inducing mouth opening. We demonstrate that GSH-QDs as well are able to elicit biological activity in such an animal, which results in the fluorescent staining of Hydra. GSH-QDs, once they reach the gastric region, are internalized by endodermal cells. The efficiency of GSH-QD internalization increases significantly when nanoparticles are coadministrated with free GSH. We also compared the behavior of bare QDs to that of GSH-QDs both in the presence and in the absence of free GSH. The conclusions from these series of experiments point to the presence of GSH binding proteins in the endodermal cell layer and uncover a novel role played by glutathione in this organism.

  4. Phosphine-free synthesis of CdSe quantum dots in a new co-capping ligand system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Zhongping; Li, Guohua; Chen, Lanlan; Jie, Jiansheng

    2009-08-01

    High-quality CdSe quantum dots with zinc blende structure were successfully synthesized via a new cheaper, greener phosphine-free route, using environmentally friendly N,N-dimethyl-oleoyl amide as the solvent of Se. The process eliminates trioctylphoshine from the synthesis, using oleic acid (OA) as a primary capping ligand and benzophenone (BP) as a secondary ligand in the noncoordinating solvent. It has been found that the addition of BP can improve the size distribution (below 10%) of as-synthesized CdSe quantum dots greatly, and the nucleation and growth process can also be well-separated. Moreover, a comprehensive examination on the control of particle size and size distribution was performed by systematically varying the BP/OA molar ratio. The phosphine-free route enables us to obtain high-quality CdSe quantum dots with sharp UV-vis absorption peak, size ranging from 2.8 to 6.8 nm, and narrow full width of half-maximum between 27 and 35 nm with purely band-edge luminescence, and without any post-synthesis processing.

  5. Single-step synthesis of graphene quantum dots by femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paola; Liang, Robert; Jabari, Elahe; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and laser power, it is possible to produce GQDs with average sizes of 2-5 nm, emitting a blue luminescence at 410 nm. We tested the feasibility of the synthesized GQDs as materials for electronic devices by aerosol-jet printing of an ink that is a mixture of water dispersion of laser synthesized GQDs and silver nanoparticle dispersion, which resulted in lower resistivity of the final printed patterns. Preliminary results showed that femtosecond laser synthesized GQDs can be mixed with silver nanoparticle dispersion to fabricate a hybrid material, which can be employed in printing electronic devices by either printing patterns that are more conductive and/or reducing costs of the ink by decreasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the ink.In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and

  6. Cathodic stripping synthesis and cytotoxity studies of glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cunwang; Zhao, Yu; Hui, Jie; Zhang, Tianyi; Miao, Wujian; Yu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    A cathodic stripping of Te precursor in the presence of Cd2+ and biocompatible glutathione (GSH) was reported for facile synthesis of lowly cytotoxic and highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution. The photoluminescence, electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), toxicity, and cyto-osmosis of the QDs were evaluated to reveal their potential bio-applications. The morphology and composition of as-prepared QDs were investigated by HRTEM and powder XRD spectroscopy, which indicated that the QDs consisted of a CdTe core coated with a CdS shell. The obtained CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs possessed good crystallinity, narrow monodispersity and long-term stability. These QDs showed high fluorescence quantum yields of 49% to 63% over a broad spectral range of 540-650 nm. Efficient and stable ECL of QDs was observed on the anodic potential region upon the electrode potential cycled between 1.5 and -2.0 V versus Ag/AgCl. Furthermore, human liver cancer HepG2 cells were chosen as model cells for toxicity assay of QDs. Effects of the concentration, size, and incubation time of CdTe QDs capped with GSH or mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) on the cell metabolic viability and cyto-osmosis were evaluated. GSH-capped CdTe QDs could infiltrate cytomembrane and karyothecas, and were less cytotoxic than MAA-capped ones under the same experimental conditions. The reported CdTe QDs could be good candidates of fluorescent and ECL probes for biosensing and cell imaging.

  7. Low-temperature synthesis of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Siy, Jacqueline T; Brauser, Eric M; Bartl, Michael H

    2011-01-07

    A method for fabricating colloidal CdSe nanocrystals at low reaction temperatures was developed. The transition from CdSe clusters to continuously-growing nanocrystals was found to be crucial in the formation of high-quality quantum dots with narrow size distribution and efficient, tunable optical properties.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Quantum Dots: A Case Study Using PbS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi; Li, Yue Ru; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    A research project for senior undergraduates of chemistry has been developed to introduce syntheses of a series of monodispersed semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) and their characterization methodologies. In this paper, we report the preparation of monodispersed semiconductor PbS QDs with sizes smaller than the exciton Bohr radius using a…

  9. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang; Zhou, Liya; Gong, Fuzhong

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ► The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ► CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ► CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  10. Facile synthesis and optical properties of colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a quantum dot layer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungje; Lim, Kipil; Woo, Kyoungja

    2010-08-14

    We present colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a homogeneous quantum dot layer at radial equidistance from the centre by utilizing electrostatic interaction between surface-engineered silica microspheres and QDs. The microspheres show dramatically enhanced optical absorption and emission with an appropriate silica shell thickness.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures related to characterization, computational studies and protein conjugation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01519g

  12. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Khan, Shamshad A.; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2016-05-01

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  13. CdTe and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, characterizations and applications in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Nga Pham, Thu; Nghia Nguyen, Duc; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-12-01

    This paper highlights the results of the whole work including the synthesis of highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs), characterizations and testing applications of them in different kinds of sensors. Concretely, it presents: (i) the successful synthesis of colloidal CdTe and CdSe QDs, their core/shell structures with single- and/or double-shell made by CdS, ZnS or ZnSe/ZnS; (ii) morphology, structural and optical characterizations of the synthesized QDs; and (iii) testing examples of QDs as the fluorescence labels for agricultural-bio-medical objects (for tracing residual pesticide in agricultural products, residual clenbuterol in meat/milk and for detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in breeding farms). Overall, the results show that the synthesized QDs have very good crystallinity, spherical shape and strongly emit at the desired wavelengths between ˜500 and 700 nm with the luminescence quantum yield (LQY) of 30-85%. These synthesized QDs were used in fabrication of the three testing fluorescence QD-based sensors for the detection of residual pesticides, clenbuterol and H5N1 avian influenza virus. The specific detection of parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at a content as low as 0.05 ppm has been realized with the biosensors made from CdTe/CdS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS QDs and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs conjugated with 2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid were fabricated that enable detection of diazotized clenbuterol at a content as low as 10 pg ml-1. For detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus, fluorescence biosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs bound on the surface of chromatophores extracted and purified from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum were prepared and characterized. The specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in the range of 3-50 ng μl-1 with a detection limit of 3 ng μL-1 has been performed based on the antibody-antigen recognition.

  14. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  15. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  16. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount.

  17. Synthesis of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots with various fluorescent properties and their application in immunoassay for determination of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, V K

    2014-09-01

    Effects of various factors on synthesis and fluorescent properties of CdSe quantum dots were studied. It was shown that variation of pH, stabilizer and concentration of precursors brings to obtaining of quantum dots with various fluorescent properties. The nanoparticles prepared were conjugated with rabbit antibodies to C-Reactive protein and C-Reactive protein for competitive immunoassay for determination of CRP. It was shown that interaction of these dots as a result of antigen-antibody reaction brings to resonance energy transfer and these changes in fluorescence spectra correlate with concentration of CRP. This approach permits to determine CRP in range between 4-100 ng.

  18. Synthesis of Non-blinking Semiconductor Quantum Dots Emitting in the Near-Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2012-06-21

    Our previous work demonstrates that Quasi-Type II CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots with thick shells (3-5 nm) exhibit unique photophysical characteristics, including improved chemical robustness over typical thin-shelled core/shell systems and the elimination of blinking through suppression of nonradiative Auger recombination. Here we describe a new thick-shelled heterostructure, InP/CdS, which exhibits a Type II bandgap alignment producing near-infrared (NIR) emission. Samples with a range of shell thicknesses were synthesized, enabling shell-thickness-dependent study of the absorbance and emission spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and quantum yields. InP/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell structures were also synthesized to reduce cadmium exposure for applications in the biological environment. Single particle spectroscopy indicates reduced blinking and improved photostability with increasing shell thickness, resulting in thick-shelled dots that are appropriate for single-particle tracking measurements with NIR emission.

  19. Synthesis of copper quantum dots by chemical reduction method and tailoring of its band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhash, P. G.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2016-05-01

    Metallic copper nano particles are synthesized with citric acid and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as surfactant and chlorides as precursors. The particle size and surface morphology are analyzed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. The average size of the nano particle is found to be 3 - 10 nm. The optical absorption characteristics are done by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. From the Tauc plots, the energy band gaps are calculated and because of their smaller size the particles have much higher band gap than the bulk material. The energy band gap is changed from 3.67 eV to 4.27 eV in citric acid coated copper quantum dots and 4.17 eV to 4.52 eV in CTAB coated copper quantum dots.

  20. Aqueous synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots at freezing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhuang; Fu, Shasha; Dong, Tingmei; Liu, Shuxian; Huang, Chaobiao

    2012-07-11

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have traditionally been synthesized in organic phase and then transferred to aqueous solution by functionalizing their surface with silica, polymers, short-chain thiol ligands, or phospholipid micelles. However, a drastic increase in the hydrodynamic size and biotoxicity of QDs may hinder their biomedical applications. In this paper, the TGA-capped CdSe QDs are directly synthesized in aqueous phase at freezing temperature, and they prove to possess high QY (up to 14%).

  1. Synthesis and optical characterisation of triphenylamine-based hole extractor materials for CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Planells, Miquel; Reynolds, Luke X; Bansode, Umesh; Chhatre, Shraddha; Ogale, Satishchandra; Robertson, Neil; Haque, Saif A

    2013-05-28

    We report the synthesis and optical characterisation of different triphenylamine-based hole capture materials able to anchor to CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that these materials exhibit reversible electrochemical behaviour. Photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy techniques are used to study interfacial charge transfer properties of the triphenylamine functionalized CdSe QDs. Specifically, we show that the functionalized QDs based on the most easily oxidised triphenylamine display efficient hole-extraction and long-lived charge separation. The present findings should help identify new strategies to control charge transfer QD-based optoelectronic devices.

  2. Real-time in situ probing of high-temperature quantum dots solution synthesis.

    PubMed

    Abécassis, Benjamin; Bouet, Cécile; Garnero, Cyril; Constantin, Doru; Lequeux, Nicolas; Ithurria, Sandrine; Dubertret, Benoit; Pauw, Brian Richard; Pontoni, Diego

    2015-04-08

    Understanding the formation mechanism of colloidal nanocrystals is of paramount importance in order to design new nanostructures and synthesize them in a predictive fashion. However, reliable data on the pathways leading from molecular precursors to nanocrystals are not available yet. We used synchrotron-based time-resolved in situ small and wide-angle X-ray scattering to experimentally monitor the formation of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in solution through the heating up of precursors in octadecene at 240 °C. Our experiment yields a complete movie of the structure of the solution from the self-assembly of the precursors to the formation of the quantum dots. We show that the initial cadmium precursor lamellar structure melts into small micelles at 100 °C and that the first CdSe nuclei appear at 218.7 °C. The size distributions and concentration in nanocrystals are measured in a quantitative fashion as a function of time. We show that a short nucleation burst lasting 30 s is followed by a slow decrease of nanoparticle concentration. The rate-limiting process of the quantum dot formation is found to be the thermal activation of selenium.

  3. 'One-pot' synthesis of multifunctional GSH-CdTe quantum dots for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Tang, Yajun; Cai, Bing; Fan, Hongsong

    2014-06-13

    A novel quantum dots-based multifunctional nanovehicle (DOX-QD-PEG-FA) was designed for targeted drug delivery, fluorescent imaging, tracking, and cancer therapy, in which the GSH-CdTe quantum dots play a key role in imaging and drug delivery. To exert curative effects, the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded on the GSH-CdTe quantum dots through a condensation reaction. Meanwhile, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell was introduced to wrap the DOX-QD, thus stabilizing the structure and preventing clearance and drug release during systemic circulation. To actively target cancer cells and prevent the nanovehicles from being absorbed by normal cells, the nanoparticles were further decorated with folic acid (FA), allowing them to target HeLa cells that express the FA receptor. The multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA conjugates were simply prepared using the 'one pot' method. In vitro study demonstrated that this simple, multifunctional nanovehicle can deliver DOX to the targeted cancer cells and localize the nanoparticles. After reaching the tumor cells, the FA on the DOX-QD-PEG surface allowed folate receptor recognition and increased the drug concentration to realize a higher curative effect. This novel, multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA system shows great potential for tumor imaging, targeting, and therapy.

  4. Synthesis and Resonance Energy Transfer in Conjugates of Luminescent Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots and Chlorin e6 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosyuk, A. A.; Artemyev, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a new type of conjugates of highly luminescent water soluble CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots covalently bound to Chlorin e6 dye molecules. We observed a resonance energy transfer from quantum dots emitting at 660 nm to Chlorine e6 molecules in our conjugates which can be utilized for phototherapy. Contrary to that quantum dots emitting at 588 nm show non-resonance quenching of excitonic luminescence without the energy transfer to dye molecules.

  5. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur

  6. Peptide-Decorated Tunable-Fluorescence Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Bedanga; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Liang, Wentao; Champion, Paul; Wanunu, Meni

    2017-03-22

    We report here the synthesis of graphene quantum dots with tunable size, surface chemistry, and fluorescence properties. In the size regime 15-35 nm, these quantum dots maintain strong visible light fluorescence (mean quantum yield of 0.64) and a high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (6500 Göppert-Mayer units). Furthermore, through noncovalent tailoring of the chemistry of these quantum dots, we obtain water-stable quantum dots. For example, quantum dots with lysine groups bind strongly to DNA in solution and inhibit polymerase-based DNA strand synthesis. Finally, by virtue of their mesoscopic size, the quantum dots exhibit good cell permeability into living epithelial cells, but they do not enter the cell nucleus.

  7. Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide) are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.

  8. Simple continuous-flow synthesis of Cu-In-Zn-S/ZnS and Ag-In-Zn-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenjie; Chen, Yanyan; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2013-10-04

    We present a simple continuous-flow reaction for the synthesis of quaternary Cu-In-Zn-S/ZnS and Ag-In-Zn-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) using inexpensive and low-toxic precursors. The composition and band gap of Cu-In-Zn-S and Ag-In-Zn-S QDs were well controlled by changing the molar ratios of the starting materials. The PL quantum yields of Cu-In-Zn-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots can reach as high as 40%.

  9. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  10. C8-structured carbon quantum dots: Synthesis, blue and green double luminescence, and origins of surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xifang, Chen; Wenxia, Zhang; Qianjin, Wang; Jiyang, Fan

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted great attention in the past few years due to their low cytotoxicity, exploited various synthesis methods, unexampled abundance of raw materials on earth, and robust near-infrared to near-UV luminescence. Carbon nanoparticles have applications in biological labeling, delivery of drugs and biological molecules into cells, and light emitting diodes and lasing. CQDs generally exist as nanodiamonds or graphite quantum dots according to previous research reports. In this study, we report the first synthesis of the third-allotrope CQDs through carbonization of sucrose and study their luminescence properties. These CQDs have a body-centered cubic structure and each lattice point is composed of eight atoms which form a sub-cube (so called C8 crystal structure). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirm the C8 structure of the synthesized carbon nanocrystallites with an average size of 2 nm. The C8 CQDs exhibit double-band luminescence with two peaks centered at around 432 and 520 nm. The study based on the photoluminescence, UV-Vis absorption, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies reveals that the green emission originates from the C=O related surface defect.

  11. Synthesis of novel monomeric graphene quantum dots and corresponding nanocomposite with molecularly imprinted polymer for electrochemical detection of an anticancerous ifosfamide drug.

    PubMed

    Bali Prasad, Bhim; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Ragini

    2017-02-20

    This paper reports a typical synthesis of a nanocomposite of functionalized graphene quantum dots and imprinted polymer at the surface of screen-printed carbon electrode using N-acryloyl-4-aminobenzamide, as a functional monomer, and an anticancerous drug, ifosfamide, as a print molecule (test analyte). Herein, graphene quantum dots in nanocomposite practically induced the electrocatalytic activity by lowering the oxidation overpotential of test analyte and thereby amplifying electronic transmission, without any interfacial barrier in between the film and the electrode surface. The differential pulse anodic stripping signal at functionalized graphene quantum dots based imprinted sensor was realized to be about 3- and 7-fold higher as compared to the traditionally made imprinted polymers prepared in the presence and the absence of graphene quantum dots (un-functionalized), respectively. This may be attributed to a pertinent synergism in between the positively charged functionalized graphene quantum dots in the film and the target analyte toward the enhancement of electro-conductivity of the film and thereby the electrode kinetics. In fact, the covalent attachment of graphene quantum dots with N-acryloyl-4-aminobenzamide molecules might exert an extended conjugation at their interface facilitating electro conducting to render the channelized pathways for the electron transport. The proposed sensor is practically applicable to the ultratrace evaluation of ifosfamide in real (biological/pharmaceutical) samples with detection limit as low as 0.11ngmL(-1) (S/N=3), without any matrix effect, cross-reactivity, and false-positives.

  12. Si, Ge, and SiGe quantum wires and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearsall, T. P.

    This document is part of subvolume C3 'Optical Properties' of volume 34 'Semiconductor quantum structures' of Landolt-Börnstein, Group III, Condensed Matter, on the optical properties of quantum structures based on group IV semiconductors. It discusses Si, Ge, and SiGe quantum wire and quantum dot structures, the synthesis of quantum wires and quantum dots, and applications of SiGe quantum-dot structures as photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, for optical amplification and as Si quantum-dot memories.

  13. Addition of Zn during the phosphine-based synthesis of indium phospide quantum dots: doping and surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Mordvinova, Natalia E; Vinokurov, Alexander A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Dorofeev, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-doped InP(Zn) colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with narrow size distribution and low defect concentration were grown for the first time via a novel phosphine synthetic route and over a wide range of Zn doping. We report the influence of Zn on the optical properties of the obtained quantum dots. We propose a mechanism for the introduction of Zn in the QDs and show that the incorporation of Zn atoms into the InP lattice leads to the formation of Zn acceptor levels and a luminescence tail in the red region of the spectra. Using photochemical etching with HF, we confirmed that the Zn dopant atoms are situated inside the InP nanoparticles. Moreover, doping with Zn is accompanied with the coverage of the QDs by a zinc shell. During the synthesis Zn myristate covers the QD nucleus and inhibits the particle growth. At the same time the zinc shell leads to an increase of the luminescence quantum yield through the reduction of phosphorous dangling bonds. A scenario for the growth of the colloidal InP(Zn) QDs was proposed and discussed.

  14. Quantum transport in ballistic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R. A.; Pivin, D. P., Jr.; Bird, J. P.; Holmberg, N.; Badrieh, F.; Vasileska, D.

    1998-10-01

    Carriers in small 3D quantum boxes take us from unintentional qquantum dots in MOSFETs (arising from the doping fluctuations) tto single-electron quantum dots in semiconductor hheterostructures. In between these two extremes are the realm of oopen, ballistic quantum dots, in which the transport can be quite regular. Several issues must be considered in treating the transport in these dots, among which are: (1) phase coherence within the dot; (2) the transition between semi-classical and fully quantum transport, (3) the role of the contacts, vis-à-vis the fabricated boundaries, and (4) the actual versus internal boundaries. In this paper, we discuss these issues, including the primary observables in experiment, the intrinsic nature of oscillatory behavior in magnetic field and dot size, and the connection to semi-classical transport emphasizing the importance of the filtering by the input (and output) quantum point contacts.

  15. Synthesis of tetrahedral quasi-type-II CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sugunan, Abhilash; Zhao, Yichen; Mitra, Somak; Dong, Lin; Li, Shanghua; Popov, Sergei; Marcinkevicius, Saulius; Toprak, Muhammet S; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-10-21

    Synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals of II-VI semiconductor materials has been refined in recent decades and their size dependent optoelectronic properties have been well established. Here we report a facile synthesis of CdSe-CdS core-shell heterostructures using a two-step hot injection process. Red-shifts in absorption and photoluminescence spectra show that the obtained quantum dots have quasi-type-II alignment of energy levels. The obtained nanocrystals have a heterostructure with a large and highly faceted tetrahedral CdS shell grown epitaxially over a spherical CdSe core. The obtained morphology as well as high resolution electron microscopy confirms that the tetrahedral shell have a zinc blende crystal structure. A phenomenological mechanism for the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals is discussed.

  16. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  17. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  18. Synthesis of CuInS2 quantum dots using polyetheramine as solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shei, Shih-Chang; Chiang, Wen-Jui; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a facile solvothermal method of synthesizing copper indium sulfide (CuInS2) quantum dots (QDs) via a non-coordinated system using polyetheramine as a solvent. The structural and optical properties of the resulting CuInS2 QDs were investigated using composition analysis, absorption spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. We employed molar ratios of I, III, and VI group elements to control the structure of CuInS2 QDs. An excess of group VI elements facilitated precipitation, whereas an excess of group I elements resulted in CuInS2 QDs with high photoluminescence quantum yield. The emission wavelength and photoluminescence quantum yield could also be modulated by controlling the composition ratio of Cu and In in the injection stock solution. An increase in the portion of S shifted the emission wavelength of the QDs to a shorter wavelength and increased the photoluminescence quantum yield. Our results demonstrate that the band gap of the CuInS2 QDs is tunable with size as well as the composition of the reactant. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the CuInS2 QDs ranged between 0.7% and 8.8% at 250°C. We also determined some important physical parameters such as the band gaps and energy levels of this system, which are crucial for the application of CuInS2 nanocrystals.

  19. Quantum Dot Spins and Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atature, Mete

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots are interesting and rich physical systems. Their inherently mesoscopic nature leads to a multitude of interesting interaction mechanisms of confined spins with the solid state environment of spins, charges and phonons. In parallel, the relatively clean spin-dependent optical transitions make quantum dots strong candidates for stationary and flying qubits within the context of spin-based quantum information science. The recently observed quantum dot resonance fluorescence has become a key enabler for further progress in this context. I will first discuss the real-time optical detection (or single-shot readout) of quantum dot spins, and then I will discuss how resonance fluorescence allows coherent generation of single photons suitable (and tailored) for linear-optics quantum computation and for establishing a high-efficiency spin-photon quantum interface within a distributed quantum network.

  20. Aminophosphines: A Double Role in the Synthesis of Colloidal Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Mickael D; De Nolf, Kim; Dupont, Dorian; Sinnaeve, Davy; De Roo, Jonathan; Hens, Zeger

    2016-05-11

    Aminophosphines have recently emerged as economical, easy-to-implement precursors for making InP nanocrystals, which stand out as alternative Cd-free quantum dots for optoelectronic applications. Here, we present a complete investigation of the chemical reactions leading to InP formation starting from InCl3 and tris(dialkylamino)phosphines. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction, we demonstrate that injection of the aminophosphine in the reaction mixture is followed by a transamination with oleylamine, the solvent of the reaction. In addition, mass spectrometry and NMR indicate that the formation of InP concurs with that of tetra(oleylamino)phosphonium chloride. The chemical yield of the InP formation agrees with this 4 P(+III) → P(-III) + 3 P(+V) disproportionation reaction occurring, since full conversion of the In precursor was only attained for a 4:1 P/In ratio. Hence it underlines the double role of the aminophosphine as both precursor and reducing agent. These new insights will guide further optimization of high quality InP quantum dots and might lead to the extension of synthetic protocols toward other pnictide nanocrystals.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of hapten-quantum dots bioconjugates: Application to development of a melamine fluorescentimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Trapiella-Alfonso, Laura; Costa-Fernandez, José M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-03-15

    A general and universal analytical strategy for characterization of hapten-BSA conjugates based on complementary optical spectroscopy and molecular mass spectrometry techniques is here described. The proposed procedure provides highly-valuable information about the molecular weight of the conjugate, its stoichiometry and the concentration of the precursors (hapten and BSA) in the conjugate; such information is of great analytical interest for further development of novel quantitative immunoassays. Further, due to great demand of new, simple and robust methodologies for the melamine analysis in milk infant formula, a new immunoprobe melamine-bovine serum albumin-quantum dot was synthetized, characterized and successfully applied in a competitive fluorescent quantum dot-based immunoassay. It should be highlighted that the limit of detection achieved without any sample pretreatment, 0.15 mg kg(-1) for melamine in milk infant formula, is one order of magnitude lower than the maximum concentration level allowed by international legislation in such type of samples. Finally, this simple approach was validated by the use of an alternative technique (HPLC-UV) for the analysis of melamine in contaminated milk infant formula, showing a good agreement between the results obtained by using both analytical methodologies.

  2. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  3. Synthesis of CdSe/ZnS and CdTe/ZnS Quantum Dots: Refined Digestive Ripening

    DOE PAGES

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M.; ...

    2012-01-01

    We report synthesis of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) from the bulk CdSe and CdTe material by evaporation/co-condensation using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique and refined digestive ripening. The outcomes of this new process are (1) the reduction of digestive ripening time by employing ligands (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and oleylamine (OA)) as capping agent as well as digestive ripening solvent, (2) ability to tune the photoluminescence (PL) from 410 nm to 670 nm, (3) demonstrate the ability of SMAD synthesis technique for other semiconductors (CdTe), (4) direct comparison of CdSe QDs growth with CdTe QDs growth based on digestivemore » ripening times, and (5) enhanced PL quantum yield (QY) of CdSe QDs and CdTe QDs upon covering with a ZnS shell. Further, the merit of this synthesis is the use of bulk CdSe and CdTe as the starting materials, which avoids usage of toxic organometallic compounds, eliminates the hot injection procedure, and size selective precipitation processes. It also allows the possibility of scale up. These QDs were characterized by UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and powder XRD.« less

  4. Surface-treated biocompatible ZnS quantum dots: Synthesis, photo-physical and microstructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherian, M.; Sabbagh Alvani, A. A.; Shokrgozar, M. A.; Salimi, R.; Moosakhani, S.; Sameie, H.; Tabatabaee, F.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the ZnS semiconductor quantum dots were successfully synthesized via an aqueous method utilizing glutathione (GSH), thioglycolic acid (TGA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agents. The structural, morphological and photo-physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated using comprehensive characterization techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), UV-Vis optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer and MTT assay. The XRD patterns showed a cubic zinc blende crystal structure and a crystallite size of about 2-3 nm using Scherrer's equation confirmed by the electron micrographs and Effective Mass Approximation (EMA). The DLS and zeta-potential results revealed that GSH capped ZnS nanoparticles have the narrowest size distribution with an average size of 27 nm and relatively good colloidal stability. Also, the FT-IR spectrum confirmed the interaction of the capping agent groups with ZnS nanoparticles. According to the UV-Vis absorption results, optical bandgap of the spherical capped nanoparticles is higher compared to the uncapped sample and could be wider than 3.67 eV (corresponding to the bulk ZnS), which is due to the quantum confinement effect. From photoluminescence spectra, it was found that the emission becomes more intensive and shifts towards the shorter wavelengths in the presence of the capping agent. Moreover, the emission mechanism of uncapped and capped ZnS was discussed in detail. Finally, the MTT results revealed the satisfactory (>94%) biocompatibility of GSH capped ZnS quantum dots which would be a promising candidate applicable in fluorescent biological labels.

  5. Chemical synthesis and optical characterization of regular and magic-sized CdS quantum dot nanocrystals using 1-dodecanethiol

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Rachel E.; Hu, Michael Z.

    2015-03-23

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one-pot noninjection reaction procedure in solvent medium 1-octadecene. This approach used a cadmium salt and 1-dodecanethiol, an organic sulfur, as the cadmium and sulfur sources, respectively, along with a long-chain organic acid (myristic acid, lauric acid, or stearic acid). The acid has dual effects as a surface capping ligand and a solubility controlling agent as well. UV–Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry techniques were used to characterize the optical properties, along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the structure and size. Our newly developed synthesis procedure allowed for investigation of both regular and “magic-sized” CdS QDs by systematically controlling reaction parameters such as reactant type, reactant concentration, and reaction temperature. The organic sulfur (1-dodecanethiol) proved to be a useful sulfur source for synthesizing magic-sized CdS QDs, previously unreported. Several distinctive size regimes of magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs), including Families 378 and 407, were successfully produced by controlling a small number of factors. Finally, the understanding of controlled Cd release in a MSQD formation mechanism is developed.

  6. Sustainable microalgae for the simultaneous synthesis of carbon quantum dots for cellular imaging and porous carbon for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen-Cui

    2017-05-01

    Microalgae biomass is a sustainable source with the potential to produce a range of products. However, there is currently a lack of practical and functional processes to enable the high-efficiency utilization of the microalgae. We report here a hydrothermal process to maximize the utilizability of microalgae biomass. Specifically, our concept involves the simultaneous conversion of microalgae to (i) hydrophilic and stable carbon quantum dots and (ii) porous carbon. The synthesis is easily scalable and eco-friendly. The microalgae-derived carbon quantum dots possess a strong two-photon fluorescence property, have a low cytotoxicity and an efficient cellular uptake, and show potential for high contrast bioimaging. The microalgae-based porous carbons show excellent CO2 capture capacities of 6.9 and 4.2mmolg(-1) at 0 and 25°C respectively, primarily due to the high micropore volume (0.59cm(3)g(-1)) and large specific surface area (1396m(2)g(-1)).

  7. In-situ synthesis of high stable CdS quantum dots and their application for photocatalytic degradation of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Sadeghi-Maleki, Mohammad-Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis based on semiconductor quantum dots, which utilize the solar energy can be used for elimination of pollutants from aqueous media and applied for water purification. In this paper, high stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) with good optical properties were successfully synthesized in a facile in-situ method, using Na2S2O3 as precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a catalyst, as well as capping agent in aqueous media. The synthesis process was optimized with a 2IV7-3 fractional factorial design method. Then, we studied the degradation of some industrial dyes including: alizarin, acid violet, mordant red and thymol blue as a tool to check the photocatalytic activity of synthesized CdS QDs. Results specified that the synthesized CdS QDs are capable for degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation with good recycling stability during photocatalytic experiments. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the synthesized CdS QDs were studied by TEM, XRD and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized TGA-capped CdS QDs have sizes in the range of 2.65-2.93 nm with cubic crystalline structures.

  8. Efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer in biotemplated assemblies.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A

    2011-03-22

    CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular "scaffolds." Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum dot pairs on the biotemplate and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the biomediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and to small-molecule-mediated quantum dot-dye couples, respectively.

  9. Synthesis, Phase Transfer and Surface Modification of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots for Bioapplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Ping

    2013-04-01

    We review the preparation, phase transfer, surface modification and possible bioapplications of hydrophobic CdSe based quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores with rod and spherical morphologies were prepared through adjusting preparation conditions. The photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs depended strongly on preparation conditions. The QDs were coated with semiconductor shells to improve their PL properties. Anisotropic growth occurred during shell coating. Core/shell QDs revealed tunable PL and high PL efficiencies up to 90%. The phase transfer of QDs from oil phase to water phase was carried out via polymer or a sol-gel process. The silanization of the QDs plays an important role for the sol-gel process. Because of a SiO2 coating, the surface modification of the QDs for bioapplications became easy. After transferring into water phase, the QDs still retained high PL efficiency. Because of their high PL, these biofunctional materials could provide a platform for various applications.

  10. Bovine serum albumin-directed synthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots and bacteria labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisui; Ye, Fangyun; Fang, Tingting; Niu, Wenhan; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin; Li, Xi

    2011-03-01

    A simple method was developed for preparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using a common protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) to sequester QD precursors (Cd(2+)) in situ. Fluorescence (FL) and absorption spectra showed that the chelating time between BSA and Cd(2+), the molar ratio of BSA/Cd(2+), temperature, and pH are the crucial factors for the quality of QDs. The average QD particle size was estimated to be about 5 nm, determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. With FL spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis, an interesting mechanism was discussed for the formation of the BSA-CdSe QDs. The results indicate that there might be conjugated bonds between CdSe QDs and -OH, -NH, and -SH groups in BSA. In addition, fluorescence imaging suggests that the QDs we designed can successfully label Escherichia coli cells, which gives us a great opportunity to develop biocompatible tools to label bacteria cells.

  11. Ultrasmall Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Use as Photothermal Agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengbo; Xie, Hanhan; Tang, Siying; Yu, Xue-Feng; Guo, Zhinan; Shao, Jundong; Zhang, Han; Huang, Hao; Wang, Huaiyu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-09-21

    Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) were synthesized using a liquid exfoliation method that combined probe sonication and bath sonication. With a lateral size of approximately 2.6 nm and a thickness of about 1.5 nm, the ultrasmall BPQDs exhibited an excellent NIR photothermal performance with a large extinction coefficient of 14.8 L g(-1) cm(-1) at 808 nm, a photothermal conversion efficiency of 28.4%, as well as good photostability. After PEG conjugation, the BPQDs showed enhanced stability in physiological medium, and there was no observable toxicity to different types of cells. NIR photoexcitation of the BPQDs in the presence of C6 and MCF7 cancer cells led to significant cell death, suggesting that the nanoparticles have large potential as photothermal agents.

  12. One step synthesis of quantum dot-magnetic nanoparticle heterodimers for dual modal imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Hwang, Gyoyeon; Hong, Yeon Sun; Sim, Taebo

    2015-04-21

    Dual modal nanoprobes are promising tools for accurately detecting target molecules as part of the diagnosis of diseases including cancers. We have explored a new dual modal bioimaging probe that is comprised of a quantum dot (QD)-magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hybrid. The MNP-QD heterodimers explored are fabricated by using a platinum-guanine coordination bonding guided self-assembly process, employing the metal-DNA conjugation method. Investigations utilizing energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) equipped high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrate that the heterodimer contains an iron (Fe) dominant MNP and a cadmium (Cd) dominant QD. Finally, the results of cell studies show that the MNP-QD conjugates display good HeLa cell uptake in the absence of non-specific binding to the cell membrane and, as such, they can be used to label cells in vitro and in vivo as part of a new cell imaging technique.

  13. Single step, bulk synthesis of engineered MoS2 quantum dots for multifunctional electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadi, Kiran Kumar; Palve, Anil M.; Pal, Shubhadeep; Sudeep, P. M.; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.

    2016-07-01

    Bi- or tri- functional catalysts based on atomic layers are receiving tremendous scientific attention due to their importance in various energy technologies. Recent studies on molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanosheets revealed that controlling the edge states and doping/modifying with suitable elements are highly important in tuning the catalytic activities of MoS2. Here we report a bulk, single step method to synthesize metal modified MoS2 quantum dots (QDs). Three elements, namely Fe, Mg and Li, are chosen to study the effects of dopants in the catalytic activities of MoS2. Fe and Mg are found to act like dopants in the MoS2 lattice forming respective doped MoS2 QDs, while Li formed an intercalated MoS2 QD. The efficacy and tunability of these luminescent doped QDs towards various electrocatalytic activities (hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction and oxygen reduction action) are reported here.

  14. Synthesis and photochemical applications of processable polymers enclosing photoluminescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Dario; Mazzier, Daniela; Silvestrini, Simone; Privitera, Alberto; Marega, Carla; Franco, Lorenzo; Moretto, Alessandro

    2015-04-28

    Herein, we propose convenient routes to produce hybrid-polymers that covalently enclosed, or confined, N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs). We focus our attention on polyamide, polyurea-urethane, polyester, and polymethylmetacrylate polymers, some of the most common resources used to create everyday materials. These hybrid materials can be easily prepared and processed to obtain macroscopic objects of different shapes, i.e., fibers, transparent sheets, and bulky forms, where the characteristic luminescence properties of the native N-doped CQDs are preserved. More importantly we explore the potential use of these hybrid composites to achieve photochemical reactions as those of photoreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (under UV-light), the selective photo-oxidation of benzylalcohol to the benzaldehyde (under vis-light), and the photocatalytic generation of H2 (under UV-light).

  15. Biodetection using fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckman, Donna M.; Jennings, Travis L.; LaLumondiere, Steven D.; Klimcak, Charles M.; Moss, Steven C.; Loper, Gary L.; Beck, Steven M.

    2002-07-01

    Multi-pathogen biosensors that take advantage of sandwich immunoassay detection schemes and utilize conventional fluorescent dye reporter molecules are difficult to make into extremely compact and autonomous packages. The development of a multi-pathogen, immunoassay-based, fiber optic detector that utilizes varying sized fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as the reporter labels has the potential to overcome these problems. In order to develop such a quantum dot-based biosensor, it is essential to demonstrate that QDs can be attached to antibody proteins, such that the specificity of the antibody is maintained. We have been involved in efforts to develop a reproducible method for attaching QDs to antibodies for use in biodetection applications. We have synthesized CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs of differing size, functionalized their surfaces with several types of organic groups for water solubility, and covalently attached these functionalized QDs to rabbit anti-ovalbumin antibody protein. We also demonstrated that these labeled antibodies exhibit selective binding to ovalbumin antigen. We characterized the QDs at each step in the overall synthesis by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and by picosecond (psec) transient photoluminescence (TPL) spectroscopy. TPL spectroscopy measurements indicate that QD lifetime depends on the size of the QD, the intensity of the optical excitation source, and whether or not they are functionalized and conjugated to antibodies. We describe details of these experiments and discuss the impact of our results on our biosensor development program.

  16. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters. PMID:27877634

  17. Synthesis of Ag and AgI quantum dots in AOT-stabilized water-in-CO2 microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juncheng; Raveendran, Poovathinthodiyil; Shervani, Zameer; Ikushima, Yutaka; Hakuta, Yukiya

    2005-03-04

    Silver and silver iodide nanocrystals have been synthesized in the water-in-CO(2) reverse microemulsions formed by the commonly used surfactant, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), in the presence of 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol as cosurfactant. The nanometer-sized aqueous domains in the microemulsion cores not only act as nanoreactors, but the surfactant interfacial monolayer also helps the stabilization of the metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopy results show that silver and silver iodide nanocrystals with average diameters of 6.0 nm (standard deviation, SD=1.3 nm) and 5.7 nm (SD=1.4 nm), respectively, were formed. The results indicate that the method can be utilized as a general and economically viable approach for the synthesis of metal and semiconductor quantum dots in environmentally benign supercritical carbon dioxide.

  18. Ultrafast ammonia-driven, microwave-assisted synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Binjie; Chen, Yuanfu; Li, Pingjian; Wang, Zegao; Cao, Bingqiang; Qi, Fei; Liu, Jinbo; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, a facile, ultrafast, ammonia-driven microwave-assisted synthesis of high-quality nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is presented. This one-step method is very cheap, environment friendly, and suitable for large-scale production. The as-synthesized NGQDs consisting of one to three graphene monolayers exhibit highly crystalline quality with an average size of 5.3 nm. A new fluorescence (FL) emission peak at 390 nm is observed, which might be attributed to the doped nitrogen atoms into the GQDs. An interesting red-shift is observed by comparing the FL excitation spectra to the UV-visible absorption spectra. Based on the optical properties, the detailed Jablonski diagram representing the energy level structure of NGQDs is derived.

  19. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-02-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters.

  20. Phosphine-Free Synthesis of Metal Chalcogenide Quantum Dots by Directly Dissolving Chalcogen Dioxides in Alkylthiol as the Precursor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dong; Xin, Wei; Liu, Zhaoyu; Wang, Ze; Feng, Jianyou; Dong, Chunwei; Liu, Yi; Yang, Bai; Zhang, Hao

    2017-03-09

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are competitive emitting materials in developing new-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high color rendering and broad color gamut. However, the use of highly toxic alkylphosphines cannot be fully avoided in the synthesis of metal selenide and telluride QDs because they are requisite reducing agents and solvents for preparing chalcogen precursors. In this work, we demonstrate the phosphine-free preparation of selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te) precursors by directly dissolving chalcogen dioxides in the alkylthiol under the mild condition. The chalcogen dioxides are reduced to elemental chalcogen clusters, while the alkylthiol is oxidized to disulfides. The chalcogen clusters further combine with the disulfides, generating dispersible chalcogen precursors. The resulting chalcogen precursors are suitable for synthesizing various metal chalcogenide QDs, including CdSe, CdTe, Cu2Te, Ag2Te, PbTe, HgTe, and so forth. In addition, the precursors are of high reactivity, which permits a shorter QD synthesis process at lower temperature. Owing to the high quantum yield (QYs) and easy tunability of the photoluminescence (PL), the as-synthesized QDs are further employed as down-conversion materials to fabricate monochrome and white LEDs.

  1. Infrared emitting and photoconducting colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots from a silylamide-promoted synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Günter; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2011-05-24

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region, making these materials promising as environmentally benign alternatives to established infrared active nanocrystals containing toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb. We present Ag(2)Se nanocrystals in detail, giving size-tunable luminescence with quantum yields above 1.7%. The luminescence, with a decay time on the order of 130 ns, was shown to improve due to the growth of a monolayer thick ZnSe shell. Photoconductivity with a quantum efficiency of 27% was achieved by blending the Ag(2)Se nanocrystals with a soluble fullerene derivative. The co-injection of lithium silylamide was found to be crucial to the synthesis of Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals, which drastically increased their nucleation rate even at relatively low growth temperatures. Because the same observation was made for the nucleation of Cd chalcogenide nanocrystals, we conclude that the addition of lithium silylamide might generally promote wet-chemical synthesis of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, including in as-yet unexplored materials.

  2. Angiogenic Profiling of Synthesized Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shereema, R M; Sruthi, T V; Kumar, V B Sameer; Rao, T P; Shankar, S Sharath

    2015-10-20

    A simple method was employed for the synthesis of green luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from styrene soot. The CQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The prepared carbon quantum dots did not show cellular toxicity and could successfully be used for labeling cells. We also evaluated the effects of carbon quantum dots on the process of angiogenesis. Results of a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay revealed the significant decrease in the density of branched vessels after their treatment with CQDs. Further application of CQDs significantly downregulated the expression levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors like VEGF and FGF. Expression of VEGFR2 and levels of hemoglobin were also significantly lower in CAMs treated with CQDs, indicating that the CQDs inhibit angiogenesis. Data presented here also show that CQDs can selectively target cancer cells and therefore hold potential in the field of cancer therapy.

  3. Low Threshold Quantum Dot Lasers.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Veena Hariharan; Mahadevu, Rekha; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-04-07

    Semiconductor quantum dots have replaced conventional inorganic phosphors in numerous applications. Despite their overall successes as emitters, their impact as laser materials has been severely limited. Eliciting stimulated emission from quantum dots requires excitation by intense short pulses of light typically generated using other lasers. In this Letter, we develop a new class of quantum dots that exhibit gain under conditions of extremely low levels of continuous wave illumination. We observe thresholds as low as 74 mW/cm(2) in lasers made from these materials. Due to their strong optical absorption as well as low lasing threshold, these materials could possibly convert light from diffuse, polychromatic sources into a laser beam.

  4. Green synthesis of near infrared core/shell quantum dots for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Yufeng; Bandar, AlOtaibi; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O.; Mi, Zetian; Sun, Shuhui; Rosei, Federico; Vomiero, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are attractive systems for potential applications in future solar energy technologies, due to their optical properties which are tunable as a function of size and composition. In this study, we synthesized PbS QDs with first excitonic peak in the range 1060 to 1300 nm using a PbCl2/sulfur molar ratio of 10:1. The first excitonic absorption peak from 1300 to 950 nm of the PbS/CdS core/shell QDs can be further synthesized via the cation exchange approach. Our method resulted in high quantum yield, good stability, monodisperse QD solutions with a full surface coverage by excess Cd cations. In addition, we used our core/shell QDs in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation. This heterostructure exhibited a saturated photocurrent as high as 3.3 mA cm-2, leading to ˜29 ml cm-2 d-1 hydrogen generation, indicating the strong potential of our core/shell QDs for applications in water splitting.

  5. Novel synthesis of β-cyclodextrin functionalized CdTe quantum dots as luminescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Min; Chang, Yan-Ping; Ren, Cui-Ling; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2012-12-01

    A novel, inexpensive procedure for the preparation of highly fluorescent and water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as surface-coating agents was fabricated through the substitution reaction at the C-6 position of mono-6-deoxy-6-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-cyclodextrin (6-TsO-β-CD) by the sbnd NH2 of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-coated CdTe QDs (APTES/CdTe QDs) under mild conditions. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence (FL) spectrophotometer were used to characterize the obtained nanoparticles, which proved that the CdTe QDs have been effectively modified by β-CD. The quantum yields (QYs) of CdTe QDs, APTES/CdTe QDs and β-CD/APTES/CdTe QDs in water comparative to Rhodamine 6G were about 17%, 12%, and 9%, respectively. A pair of isomer o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT was chosen as the template molecules to evaluate the molecular recognition properties of β-CD/APTES/CdTe QDs. The results revealed that β-CD/APTES/CdTe QDs simultaneously possessed unique optical properties of QDs and excellent molecules recognition ability of β-CD through combining their individual distinct advantages.

  6. Compact biocompatible quantum dots via RAFT-mediated synthesis of imidazole-based random copolymer ligand

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhao; Greytak, Andrew B.; Lee, Jungmin; Wong, Cliff R.; Park, Jongnam; Marshall, Lisa F.; Jiang, Wen; Curtin, Peter N.; Ting, Alice Y.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new class of polymeric ligands for quantum dot (QD) water solubilization to yield biocompatible and derivatizable QDs with compact size (~10-12 nm diameter), high quantum yields (>50%), excellent stability across a large pH range (pH 5-10.5), and low nonspecific binding. To address the fundamental problem of thiol instability in traditional ligand exchange systems, the polymers here employ a stable multidentate imidazole binding motif to the QD surface. The polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization to produce molecular weight controlled monodisperse random copolymers from three types of monomers that feature imidazole groups for QD binding, polyethylene glycol (PEG) groups for water solubilization, and either primary amines or biotin groups for derivatization. The polymer architecture can be tuned by the monomer ratios to yield aqueous QDs with targeted surface functionalities. By incorporating amino-PEG monomers, we demonstrate covalent conjugation of a dye to form a highly efficient QD-dye energy transfer pair as well as covalent conjugation to streptavidin for high-affinity single molecule imaging of biotinylated receptors on live cells with minimal non-specific binding. The small size and low serum binding of these polymer-coated QDs also allow us to demonstrate their utility for in-vivo imaging of the tumor microenvironment in live mice. PMID:20025223

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Shivani; Kaur, Gurvir; Gupta, Shikha; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    Bio-functionalization or surface modification is an important technique to obtain biocompatibility in semiconductor nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this study semiconductor core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS have been prepared by chemical reduction method and then further PEGylated using Poly(ethylene glycol) diamine of Mw 2000. They were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results reveals the successful PEGylation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K.; Kaur, Gurvir; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-08-28

    Bio-functionalization or surface modification is an important technique to obtain biocompatibility in semiconductor nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this study semiconductor core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS have been prepared by chemical reduction method and then further PEGylated using Poly(ethylene glycol) diamine of M{sub w} 2000. They were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results reveals the successful PEGylation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

  9. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

  10. Aqueous synthesis of high bright and tunable near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongchen; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-02-01

    Efficient synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots with good biophysical properties as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emissions in aqueous media is reported. This method avoids high temperature and pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs. The photoluminescence emission peak of the AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs ranged from 625 to 940nm, with quantum yields up to 31%. The AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging.

  11. Hydrophobin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Sandiford, Lydia; Cooper, Maggie; Rosca, Elena V; Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Fairclough, Simon M; Thanou, Maya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Wohlleben, Wendel; von Vacano, Bernhard; de Rosales, Rafael T M; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Dylan M; Green, Mark

    2016-02-01

    The phase transfer of quantum dots to water is an important aspect of preparing nanomaterials that are suitable for biological applications, and although numerous reports describe ligand exchange, very few describe efficient ligand encapsulation techniques. In this report, we not only report a new method of phase transferring quantum dots (QDs) using an amphiphilic protein (hydrophobin) but also describe the advantages of using a biological molecule with available functional groups and their use in imaging cancer cells in vivo and other imaging applications.

  12. Thiol antioxidant-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Mortensen, Luke J; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing industry with wide ranging applications in consumer product and technology development. In the biomedical field, nanoparticles are finding increasing use as imaging agents for biomolecular labeling and tumor targeting. The nanoparticle physiochemical properties must be tailored for the specific application. For example, nanoparticle chemical and physical stability in the biological milieu (no oxidation, aggregation, agglomeration or toxicity) are often required. Nanoparticles used for biomolecular fluorescent imaging should also have high quantum yield (QY). The aim of this paper is to examine the QY, stability, and cell toxicity of a series of positive, negative and neutral surface charge quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. Simple protocols are described to prepare water soluble QDs by modifying the surface with thiol containing antioxidant ligands and polymers keeping the QD core/shell composition constant. The ligands used to produce negatively charged QDs include glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), tiopronin (TP), bucilliamine (BUC), and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA). Ligands used to produce positively charged QDs include cysteamine (CYS) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to produce neutral charged QDs. Commercially available nonaqueous octadecylamine (ODA) capped QDs served as the starting material. Our results suggest that QD uptake and cytotoxicity are both dependent on surface ligand coating composition. The negative charged GSH coated QDs show superior performance exhibiting low cytotoxicity, high stability, high QY and therefore are best suited for bioimaging applications. PEI coated QD also show superior performance exhibiting high QY and stability. However, they are considerably more cytotoxic due to their high positive charge which is an advantageous property that can be exploited for gene transfection and/or tumor targeting applications. The synthetic procedures

  13. Novel fluorescent CdTe quantum dot-thymine conjugate—synthesis, properties and possible application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodzik, Łucja; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Novel, highly fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots conjugated with thymine and stabilized with thioglycolic acid were obtained and characterized. Successful formation of the conjugate was confirmed by elemental analysis, and UV-vis, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. Crystal structure and composition of the conjugates were characterized with xray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The size of the conjugates was 4-6 nm as demonstrated using atomic force microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. The plasmon resonance fluorescence band at 540 nm on excitation at 351 nm was observed for these nanoparticles. The intensity of this band increased with the increase in the amount of conjugated thymine with no shift in its position. Based on the fluorescence measurements it was found that the CdTe-thymine conjugate interacted efficiently and selectively not only with adenine, a nucleobase complementary to thymine, but also with adenine-containing modified nucleosides, i.e., 5‧-deoxy-5‧-(methylthio)adenosine and 2‧-O-methyladenosine, the urinary tumor markers which allow monitoring of the disease progression. To the best of our knowledge, as yet, there have been no studies presented in literature on that type of the interaction with CdTe-thymine conjugates. Therefore, the system presented can be considered as a working component of a selective adenine/adenosine biosensor with potential application in cancer diagnosis.

  14. Methotrexate-conjugated quantum dots: synthesis, characterisation and cytotoxicity in drug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Johari-Ahar, Mohammad; Barar, Jaleh; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Davaran, Soodabeh; Omidi, Yadollah; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid derivative, is a potent anticancer used for treatment of different malignancies, but possible initiation of drug resistance to MTX by cancer cells has limited its applications. Nanoconjugates (NCs) of MTX to quantum dots (QDs) may favour the cellular uptake via folate receptors (FRs)-mediated endocytosis that circumvents the efflux functions of cancer cells. We synthesised MTX-conjugated l-cysteine capped CdSe QDs (MTX-QD nanoconjugates) and evaluated their internalisation and cytotoxicity in the KB cells with/without resistancy to MTX. The NCs were fully characterised by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical spectroscopy. Upon conjugation with MTX, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of QDs altered, while an obvious quenching in PL of QDs was observed after physical mixing. The MTX-QD nanoconjugates efficiently internalised into the cancer cells, and induced markedly high cytotoxicity (IC50, 12.0 µg/mL) in the MTX-resistant KB cells as compared to the free MTX molecules (IC50,105.0 µg/mL), whereas, these values were respectively about 7.0 and 0.6 µg/mL in the MTX-sensitive KB cells. Based on these findings, the MTX-QD nanoconjugates are proposed for the targeted therapy of MTX-resistant cancers, which may provide an improved outcome in the relapsed FR-overexpressing cancers.

  15. Aqueous synthesis and biostabilization of CdS@ZnS quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Liu, Y.; Lai, C.; Berry, R. M.; Tam, K. C.

    2015-10-01

    Bionanohybrids, combining biocompatible natural polymers with inorganic materials, have aroused interest because of their structural, functional, and environmental advantages. In this work, we report on the stabilization of CdS@ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) using carboxylated cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) as nanocarrieers in aqueous phase. The high colloidal stability was achieved with sufficient negative charge on CNC surface and the coordination of Cd2+ to carboxylate groups. This coordination allows the in-situ nucleation and growth of QDs on CNC surface. The influences of QD to CNC ratio, pH and ZnS coating on colloidal stability and photoluminescence property of CNC/QD nanohybirds were also studied. The results showed that products obtained at pH 8 with a CdS to CNC weight ratio of 0.19 and a ZnS/CdS molar ratio of 1.5 possessed excellent colloidal stability and highest photoluminescence intensity. By anchoring QDs on rigid bionanotemplates, CNC/CdS@ZnS exhibited long-term colloidal and optical stability. Using biocompatible CNC as nanocarriers, the products have been demonstrated to exhibit low cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells and can serve as promising red-emitting fluorescent bioimaging probes.

  16. MoS2-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ze, Lu; Yueqiu, Gong; Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS2 and MoS2-modified ZnO QDs (MoS2@ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11-95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  17. Gas assisted method synthesis nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots and Hg (II) sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yamei; Wang, Nan; He, Zhanhang

    2016-11-29

    Nitrogen-doped fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was prepared by gas-assisted method using cellulose as precursors under ammonia atmosphere, which not only exhibited excellent photoluminescent properties, but also showed highly selective and sensitive detection of mercury ion. The nitrogen-doped CQDs displayed excitation wavelength dependent fluorescent behavior with outstanding dispersibility. Moreover, they exhibited high tolerance to various external conditions, such as storage time, pH value, and ionic strength. The rapid detection of Hg (II) by one-step operation within 1 min and the good linear correlation between I0/I and Hg (II) concentration in the range of 10-100 nM made the nitrogen-doped CQDs a promising nanoprobe for Hg (II) detection. The detection limit of the nitrogen-doped CQDs is about 7.7 nM. Such a nanoprobe has been successfully applied for the analysis of Hg (II) in natural water samples, demonstrating excellent practical feasibility.

  18. Synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped ZnCdSe quantum dots via hydrothermal method and their characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fang; Liu, Yuying; Fan, Yao; Zhao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the most studied green-red emitting (530–650 nm) quantum dots (QDs), the preparation of short-wavelength-emitting QDs remains difficult. Besides, one of the representative short-wavelength QDs materials, ZnCdSe, has a shortcoming of high content of toxic cadmium metal. In this paper, we report the synthesis of high-quality water-soluble ZnCdSe QDs via optimized one-step hydrothermal method with a new thiol as ligand, within a short time of 65 min. The emission wavelength of prepared QDs is tunable in the range of 425–540 nm by merely controlling the molar ratio of Cd:Zn or Se:Zn, and the quantum yield reaches 35%. More importantly, the maximum Cd:Zn molar ratio has been reduced to 0.04:1.0, much lower than that reported in the literature (0.5:1.0), resulting in excellent biological compatibility of prepared QDs and thus their promising applications in biological fields. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy was employed to examine the effect of Cd:Zn ratio on the size of prepared ZnCdSe QDs, which were also characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron diffraction spectroscopy. PMID:27877713

  19. One-Pot Synthesis of Biocompatible CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots and Their Applications as Fluorescent Biological Labels.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chuanxin; Zhang, Hui; Du, Ning; Chen, Bingdi; Huang, Hai; Wu, Yulian; Yang, Deren

    2011-12-01

    We developed a novel one-pot polyol approach for the synthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a capping ligand at 240°C. The morphological and structural characterization confirmed the formation of biocompatible and monodisperse CdSe QDs with several nanometers in size. The encapsulation of CdS thin layers on the surface of CdSe QDs (CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs) was used for passivating the defect emission (650 nm) and enhancing the fluorescent quantum yields up to 30% of band-to-band emission (530-600 nm). Moreover, the PL emission peak of CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs could be tuned from 530 to 600 nm by the size of CdSe core. The as-prepared CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs with small size, well water solubility, good monodispersity, and bright PL emission showed high performance as fluorescent cell labels in vitro. The viability of QDs-labeled 293T cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2-diphenyltertrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed the satisfactory (>80%) biocompatibility of as-synthesized PAA-capped QDs at the Cd concentration of 15 μg/ml.

  20. Synthesis, COSMO-RS analysis and optical properties of surface modified ZnS quantum dots using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Robina; Muhammad, Nawshad; Gonfa, Girma; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2015-10-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using the microwave assisted ionic liquid (MAIL) route. Three ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4]), trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ([P6,6,6,14][TSFA]) and trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium chloride ([P6,6,6,14][Cl]) were used in this study. The size and structure of the QDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, respectively. The synthesized QDs were of wurtzite crystalline structure with size less than 5 nm. The QDs were more uniformly distributed while using the phosponium based ILs as a reaction medium during synthesis. The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The optical properties of QDs showed the quantum confinement effect in their absorption and the effect of cation and anion structural moiety was observed on their bandedge emission. The QDs emission intensity was measured higher for [P6,6,6,14][Cl] due to their better dispersion as well as high charge density of Cl anion. The capability of the ILs in stabilizing the QDs was interpreted by density functional theory (DFT) computations. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  1. Controlled synthesis of CdSe quantum dots by a microwave-enhanced process: a green approach for mass production.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Delele Worku; Chen, Hung-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Liang-Yih; Chou, Hung-Lung; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2011-05-09

    A method that does not employ hot-injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and thus their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV/Vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot-injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. Possible applications of the CdSe QDs were assessed by deposition on TiO(2) films.

  2. One-step colloidal synthesis of biocompatible water-soluble ZnS quantum dot/chitosan nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fábio P.; Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals with great prospective for use in biomedical and environmental applications. Nonetheless, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs made with heavy metals is still a challenge facing the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel facile route for synthesising biocompatible QDs employing carbohydrate ligands in aqueous colloidal chemistry with optical properties tuned by pH. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by chitosan was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanobioconjugates were extensively characterised by several techniques, and the results demonstrated that the average size of ZnS nanocrystals and their fluorescent properties were influenced by the pH during the synthesis. Hence, novel 'cadmium-free' biofunctionalised systems based on ZnS QDs capped by chitosan were successfully developed exhibiting luminescent activity that may be used in a large number of possible applications, such as probes in biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  3. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-04-01

    Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  4. Green and facile synthesis of water-soluble ZnS quantum dots nanohybrids using chitosan derivative ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fábio P.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Borsagli, Fernanda G. L. M.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2014-07-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanocrystals with great potential for use in biomedical and environmental applications. However, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs comprised of a core containing heavy metals and using a green chemical process are still challenges faced by the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel green and facile route for synthesizing biocompatible water-soluble QDs using chemically modified chitosan as a capping ligand in aqueous media, with their chemical and optical properties tuned by the nanoparticle size. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanohybrids were extensively characterized by several imaging and spectroscopic techniques, and the results demonstrated that ultra-small ZnS nanocrystals were produced with average nanoparticles ranging from 3.2 to 4.2 nm. In addition, the luminescent properties of ZnS QDs were influenced by the pH during the synthesis due to the size distribution of the nanoparticles produced. Hence, new "heavy metal free" nanohybrids were successfully developed based on ZnS QDs directly surface-functionalized by biopolymer exhibiting fluorescent activity that may be potentially used in a large number of eco-friendly and biomedical applications.

  5. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  6. Facile synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped CdHgSe quantum dots and selective determination of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Chunya

    2014-01-03

    Using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a stabilizer, well water-dispersed, high-quality and stable CdHgSe quantum dots were facilely synthesized via a simple aqueous phase method. The as-prepared NAC capped CdHgSe quantum dots were thoroughly characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A novel method for the selective determination of hemoglobin (Hb) was developed based on fluorescence quenching of the NAC capped CdHgSe quantum dots. A number of key factors including pH value of phosphate buffer solution, quantum dots concentration, the adding sequence of reagents and reaction time that influence the analytical performance of the NAC capped CdHgSe quantum dots in Hb determination were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the change of fluorescence intensity (ΔI) was linearly proportional to the concentration of Hb in the range of 4.0×10(-9)-4.4×10(-7) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0×10(-9) mol L(-1). The developed method has been successfully employed to determine Hb in human urine samples.

  7. Probing silicon quantum dots by single-dot techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Silicon nanocrystals represent an important class of non-toxic, heavy-metal free quantum dots, where the high natural abundance of silicon is an additional advantage. Successful development in mass-fabrication, starting from porous silicon to recent advances in chemical and plasma synthesis, opens up new possibilities for applications in optoelectronics, bio-imaging, photovoltaics, and sensitizing areas. In this review basic physical properties of silicon nanocrystals revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy, lifetime, intensity trace and electrical measurements on individual nanoparticles are summarized. The fabrication methods developed for accessing single Si nanocrystals are also reviewed. It is concluded that silicon nanocrystals share many of the properties of direct bandgap nanocrystals exhibiting sharp emission lines at low temperatures, on/off blinking, spectral diffusion etc. An analysis of reported results is provided in comparison with theory and with direct bandgap material quantum dots. In addition, the role of passivation and inherent interface/matrix defects is discussed.

  8. Irradiation route to aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe quantum dots and its function as a copper ion fluorescence sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Yeluri Narayana; Datta, Aparna

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Radiation chemical technique can provide a useful route for synthesis of ZnSe QDs. • Chelating nature of ethylene diamine is exploited for capping nanoparticles. • ZnSe QDs can be a suitable sensitive alternative to toxic cadmium-based system. • Cu(II) ion is probed by QDs in the presence of other physiologically relevant ions. - Abstract: Size-controlled synthesis of stable ZnSe QDs with narrow distribution in aqueous environment through conventional soft chemical method still poses a challenge. The proposed radiation assisted strategy demonstrates aqueous synthesis of stable, monodisperse and luminescent ZnSe QDs capped with chelating ethylene diamine under ambient conditions and at room temperature. Radiation chemical method facilitates in slow and in-situ release of selenium ion from sodium selenosulfate. The concentrations of precursors, such as zinc salt, selenium source, ethylene diamine and absorbed radiation (7–90 kGy) dose were optimized for obtaining good quality particles. Selective quenching of luminescence of as-synthesized quantum dots (QDs) by Cu{sup 2+} ions vis-à-vis other physiologically important cations provide evidence for use of ZnSe quantum dots as alternative to toxic Cd-based quantum dots to probe Cu{sup 2+} ions. The linear relation of ratio of loss in emission intensity as a function of concentration of Cu(II) indicates detection limit in nano-molar range.

  9. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  10. Controllable synthesis, growth mechanism and optical properties of the ZnSe quantum dots and nanoparticles with different crystalline phases

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Bo; Yang, Jinghai; Cao, Jian; Yang, Lili; Gao, Ming; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Yang; Song, Hang

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The ZnSe quantum dots (3.5 nm) with the wurtzite structure exhibited a strong near band-edge emission (NBE) peak centered at 422 nm. The zinc blende ZnSe nanoparticles (21 nm) exhibited near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm. Highlights: ► The results of TEM showed that the ZnSe quantum dots were about 3.5 nm. ► The ZnSe quantum dots exhibited a near band-edge emission peak centered at 422 nm. ► The ZnSe nanoparticles exhibited near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm. - Abstract: ZnSe precursors were prepared by a solvothermal method at 180 °C without any surface-active agents. ZnSe quantum dots and nanoparticles were obtained by annealing the precursors at 300 °C for 2 h in argon atmosphere. The ZnSe quantum dots were about 3.5 nm, while the ZnSe nanoparticles were about 21 nm, as observed using TEM. The growth mechanisms for the two samples were discussed; this proved that the high coordination ability of ethylenediamine to zinc played an important role in the final phase of the products. The ZnSe quantum dots with the wurtzite structure exhibited a strong near band-edge emission (NBE) peak centered at 422 nm, which was blue-shifted in comparison to that of the bulk ZnSe, which was mainly caused by the quantum confinement effect. However, the zinc blende ZnSe nanoparticles exhibited a near-band-edge luminescence peak centered at 472 nm.

  11. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots at Low Temperature for Electrochemical Sensing Trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhewei; Li, Fumin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Lijuan; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Chenxin; Gervasio, Dominic F

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) are synthesized at low temperature as a new catalyst allowing electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). N-GQDs are made by an oxidative ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO) forming nanometer-sized species, which are then chemically reduced and nitrogen doped by reacting with hydrazine. The as-synthesized N-GQDs have an average diameter of ∼2.5 nm with an N/C atomic ratio of up to ∼6.4%. To detect TNT, TNT is first accumulated on N-GQDs modified glassy carbon (N-GQDs/GC) electrode by holding the electrode at a 0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 150 s in an aqueous TNT solution. Next, the N-GQDs/GC electrode with accumulated TNT is transferred to a fresh PBS solution (0.1 M, pH 7.0, without TNT), where the TNT reduction current at -0.36 V versus Ag/AgCl in a linear scan voltammogram (LSV) shows a linear response to TNT concentration in the aqueous solution from 1 to 400 ppb, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, a detection limit of 0.2 ppb at a signal/noise (S/N) of 3, and a detection sensitivity of 363 ± 7 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit of 0.2 ppb of TNT for this new method is much lower than 2 ppb set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Therefore, N-GQDs allow an electrochemical method for assaying TNT in drinking water to determine if levels of TNT are safe or not.

  12. Large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots and their phosphorescence properties in a polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jing; Zou, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liqun; Yue, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors.An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors. Electronic

  13. CdTe quantum dots: aqueous phase synthesis, stability studies and protein conjugation for development of biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borse, Vivek; Sadawana, Mayur; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous medium is advantageous as compared to the organic solvent mediated synthesis, as the aqueous synthesis is less toxic, reagent effective, easily reproducible and importantly, synthesized QDs have biological compatibility. The QDs should be aqueous in nature for use in cell imaging, drug labeling, tracking and delivery. Structural modifications are necessary to enable their use in biosensing application. In this work, mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride QDs (MPA-CdTe QDs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by various techniques. Water and various biochemical buffers were used to study the fluorescence intensity stability of the QDs at different physicochemical conditions. QDs stored in 4° C showed excellent stability of fluorescence intensity values as compared to the samples stored at room temperature. Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was conjugated with the QDs (SPA-QDs) and characterized using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta potential, HRTEM, FTIR, and AFM. Blue shift was observed in the fluorescence emission spectra that may be due to reduction in the surface charge as carboxyl groups on QDs were replaced by amino groups of SPA. This SPA conjugated to QDs enables binding of the C-terminal of antibodies on its surface allowing N-terminal binding site remain free to bind with antigenic biomarkers. Thus, the biosensor i.e. antibody bound on SPA-QDs would bind to the antigenic biomarkers in sample and the detection system could be developed. As QDs have better fluorescence properties than organic dyes, this biosensor will provide high sensitivity and quantitative capability in diagnostics.

  14. Synthesis, solubilization, and surface functionalization of highly fluorescent quantum dots for cellular targeting through a small molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Justin F.

    To achieve long-term fluorescence imaging with quantum dots (QDs), a CdSe core/shell must first be synthesized. The synthesis of bright CdSe QDs is not trivial and as a consequence, the role of surfactant in nucleation and growth was investigated. It was found that the type of surfactant used, either phosphonic or fatty acid, played a pivotal role in the size of the CdSe core. The study of surfactant on CdSe synthesis, ultimately led to an electrical passivation method that utilized a short-chained phosphonic acid and highly reactive organometallic precursors to achieve high quantum yield (QY) as has been previously described. The synthesis of QDs using organometallic precursors and a phosphonic acid for passivation resulted in 4 out of 9 batches of QDs achieving QYs greater than 50% and 8 out of 9 batches with QYs greater than 35%. The synthesis of CdSe QDs was done in organic solutions rendering the surface of the particle hydrophobic. To perform cell-targeting experiments, QDs must be transferred to water. The transfer of QDs to water was successfully accomplished by using single acyl chain lipids. A systematic study of different lipid combinations and coatings demonstrated that 20-40 mol% single acyl chained lipids were able to transfer QDs to water resulting in monodispersed, stable QDs without adversely affecting the QY. The advantage to water solubilization using single acyl chain lipids is that the QD have a hydrodynamic radius less than 15 nm, QYs that can exceed 50% and additional surface functionalization can be down using the reactive sites incorporated into the lipid bilayer. QDs that are bright and stable in water were studied for the purpose of targeting G protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR). GPCRs are transmembrane receptors that internalize extracellular cues, and thus mediate signal transduction. The cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Receptor 1 of the model organism Dictyostelium disodium was the receptor of interest. The Halo protein, a genetically

  15. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  16. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.

  17. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using selenium dioxide as selenium source and its interaction with pepsin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Mo, Yunchuan; Zhou, Liya

    2011-09-01

    A novel method has been developed for the synthesis of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium when selenium dioxide worked as a selenium source and sodium borohydride acted as a reductant. The interaction between CdSe QDs and pepsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of pepsin by CdSe QDs was mainly a result of the formation of CdSe-pepsin complex. Based on the fluorescence quenching results, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv), binding constant (KA) and binding sites (n) were calculated. According to the Foster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between pepsin and CdSe QDs was obtained. The influence of CdSe QDs on the conformation of pepsin has been analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectra, which provided that the secondary structure of pepsin has been changed by the interaction of CdSe QDs with pepsin.

  18. Quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 quantum dot-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, passivation and ligand exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bing; Kou, Dongxing; Zhou, Wenhui; Zhou, Zhengji; Tian, Qingwen; Meng, Yuena; Wu, Sixin

    2016-06-01

    The quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) QDs had been successfully introduced into quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSC) via hydrolysis approach in our previous work [Green Chem. 2015, vol. 17, p. 4377], but the obtained cell efficiency was still limited by low open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Herein, we use 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) as capping ligand for fairly small-sized CZTS QDs synthesis to improve their intrinsic properties. Since this strong bonded capping ligand can not be replaced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) directly, the nature cation (Cu, Zn or Sn)-DDT units of QDs are first exchanged by the preconjugated Cd-oleate via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) procedure accompanied with the formation of a core/shell structure. The weak bonded oleic acid (OA) can be finally replaced by MPA and the constructed water soluble CZTS/CdSe QDSC achieves an impressive conversion efficiency of 4.70%. The electron transport and recombination dynamic processes are confirmed by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS)/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) measurements. It is found that the removal of long alkyl chain is conducive to improve the electron transport process and the type-II core/shell structure is beneficial to accelerate electron transport and retard charge recombination. This effective ligand removal strategy is proved to be more convenient for the applying of quaternary QDs in QDSC and would boost a more powerful efficiency in the future work.

  19. Synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with graphene oxide quantum dots and their use against cancer cell imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Yoo; Baek, Seung Hoon; Chang, Sung-Jin; Song, Yohan; Rafique, Rafia; Lee, Kang Taek; Park, Tae Jung

    2017-07-15

    Multifunctional nanocomposite has a huge potential for cell imaging, drug delivery, and improving therapeutic effect with less side effects. To date, diverse approaches have been demonstrated to endow a single nanostructure with multifunctionality. Herein, we report the synthesis and application of core-shell nanoparticles composed with upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) as a core and a graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) as a shell. The UCNP was prepared and applied for imaging-guided analyses of upconversion luminescence. GOQD was prepared and employed as promising drug delivery vehicles to improve anti-tumor therapy effect in this study. Unique properties of UCNPs and GOQDs were incorporated into a single nanostructure to provide desirable functions for cell imaging and drug delivery. In addition, hypocrellin A (HA) was loaded on GOQDs for photo-dynamic therapy (PDT). HA, a commonly used chemotherapy drug and a photo-sensitizer, was conjugated with GOQD by π-π interaction and loaded on PEGylated UCNP without complicated synthetic process, which can break structure of HA. Applying these core-shell nanoparticles to MTT assay, we demonstrated that the UCNPs with GOQD shell loaded with HA could be excellent candidates as multifunctional agents for cell imaging, drug delivery and cell therapy.

  20. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using selenium dioxide as selenium source and its interaction with pepsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilin; Mo, Yunchuan; Zhou, Liya

    2011-09-01

    A novel method has been developed for the synthesis of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium when selenium dioxide worked as a selenium source and sodium borohydride acted as a reductant. The interaction between CdSe QDs and pepsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of pepsin by CdSe QDs was mainly a result of the formation of CdSe-pepsin complex. Based on the fluorescence quenching results, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant ( Ksv), binding constant ( KA) and binding sites ( n) were calculated. According to the Foster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, the binding distance ( r) between pepsin and CdSe QDs was obtained. The influence of CdSe QDs on the conformation of pepsin has been analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectra, which provided that the secondary structure of pepsin has been changed by the interaction of CdSe QDs with pepsin.

  1. Synthesis of near-infrared-emitting CdTeSe and CdZnTeSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanghong; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Lipeng

    2013-01-01

    We exploited the synthesis of near-infrared (NIR) emitting ternary-alloyed CdTeSe and quaternary-alloyed CdZnTeSe quantum dots (QDs) with rod and tetrapod morphologies, which have tunable emission in the NIR electromagnetic spectrum. The morphologies of the QDs depended strongly on their growth kinetics, probably due to the coordinating ligands used in the preparation. Using oleic acid, stearic acid and hexadecylamine as ligands and keeping the same reaction parameters, QDs with tetrapod and rod morphologies were created. Not only had the capping ligands influenced the morphologies of QDs, but also they influenced the optical properties of QDs. The molar ratios of Cd/Zn and Te/Se upon preparation were adjusted for investigating the effect of composition on the properties of resulting QDs. By varying the composition of QDs, the photoluminescence (PL) wavelength of QDs was tuned from 650 nm to 800 nm. To enhance PL efficiency and stability, QDs were coated with a CdZnS shell. As NIR PL has numerous advantages in biological imaging detection, these QDs hold great potential for application.

  2. Highly Photoluminescent Molybdenum Oxide Quantum Dots: One-Pot Synthesis and Application in 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Determination.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sai Jin; Zhao, Xiao Jing; Hu, Ping Ping; Chu, Zhao Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    As a well-studied transition-metal semiconductor material, MoOx has a wider band gap than molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and its property varies dramatically for the existence of several different allotropes and suboxide phases of molybdenum oxides (MoOx, x < 3). In this manuscript, a one-pot method possessing the advantages of one pot, easily prepared, rapid, and environmentally friendly, has been developed for facile synthesis of highly photoluminescent MoOx quantum dots (MoOx QDs), in which commercial molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) powder and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are employed as the precursor and oxidant, respectively. The obtained MoOx QDs can be further utilized as an efficient photoluminescent probe, and a new turn-off sensor is developed for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) determination based on the fact that the photoluminescence of MoOx QDs can be quenched by the Meisenheimer complexes formed in the strong alkali solution through the inner filter effect (IFE). Under the optimal conditions, the decreased photoluminescence of MoOx QDs shows a good linear relationship to the concentration of TNT ranging from 0.5 to 240.0 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.12 μM (3σ/k). With the present turn-off sensor, TNT in river water samples can be rapidly and selectively detected without tedious sample pretreatment processes.

  3. Aqueous, protein-driven synthesis of transition metal-doped ZnS immuno-quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weibin; Baneyx, François

    2011-10-25

    The intentional introduction of transition metal impurities in semiconductor nanocrystals is an attractive approach for tuning quantum dot emission over a wide range of wavelengths. However, the development of effective doping strategies can be challenging, especially if one simultaneously requires a low-toxicity crystalline core, a functional protein shell, and a "green", single-step synthesis process. Here, we describe a simple and environmentally friendly route for the biofabrication of Cu-doped (blue-green) or Mn-doped (yellow-orange) ZnS nanocrystals surrounded by an antibody-binding protein shell. The ZnS:Mn hybrid particles obtained with this method exhibit a 60% enhancement in maximum photoluminescence intensity relative to undoped nanocrystals and have a hydrodynamic diameter inferior to 10 nm. They can be stored for months at 4 °C, are stable over a physiological range of pH and salt concentrations, can be decorated with variable amounts of antibodies by direct mixing, and hold promise for biosensing and imaging applications.

  4. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  5. Continuous-flow synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: a size-tunable and scalable approach.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Sadeghpour, Amin; Glatter, Otto; Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-08-26

    In recent years, continuous-flow/microreactor processing for the preparation of colloidal nanocrystals has received considerable attention. The intrinsic advantages of microfluidic reactors have opened new opportunities for the size-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals either in the laboratory or on a large scale. Herein, an experimentally simple protocol for the size-tunable continuous-flow synthesis of rather monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is presented. CdSe QDs are manufactured by using cadmium oleate as cadmium source, selenium dioxide as selenium precursor, and 1-octadecene as solvent. Exploiting selenium dioxide as selenium source and 1-octadecene as solvent allows execution of the complete process in open air without any requirement for air-free manipulations using a glove box or Schlenk line. Continuous-flow processing is performed with a stainless steel coil of 1.0 mm inner diameter pumping the combined precursor solution through the reactor by applying a standard HPLC pump. The effect of different reaction parameters, such as temperature, residence time, and flow rate, on the properties of the resulting CdSe QDs was investigated. A temperature increase from 240 to 260 °C or an extension of the residence time from 2 to 20 min affords larger nanocrystals (range 3-6 nm) whereas the size distribution does not change significantly. Longer reaction times and higher temperatures result in QDs with lower quantum yields (range 11-28 %). The quality of the synthesized CdSe QDs was confirmed by UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the potential of this protocol for large-scale manufacturing was evaluated and by operating the continuous-flow process for 87 min it was possible to produce 167 mg of CdSe QDs (with a mean diameter of 4 nm) with a quantum yield of 28 %.

  6. Nanoscale quantum-dot supercrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a theory allowing one to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions of collective excitations in twoand three-dimensional quantum-dot supercrystals. We derive analytical expressions for the energy spectra of twodimensional supercrystals with different Bravias lattices, and use them to analyze the possibility of engineering the supercrystals' band structure. We demonstrate that the variation of the supercrystal's parameters (such as the symmetry of the periodic lattice and the properties of the quantum dots or their environment) enables an unprecedented control over its optical properties, thus paving a way towards the development of new nanophotonics materials.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of DNA-quantum dot conjugates for the fluorescence ratiometric detection of unlabelled DNA.

    PubMed

    Page, Leah Elizabeth; Zhang, Xi; Tyrakowski, Christina Marie; Ho, Chiun-Teh; Snee, Preston Todd

    2016-11-21

    A quantum dot-based ratiometrically responsive fluorescent sensor for unlabeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is reported. Several technical issues concerning the development of high yield ssDNA-QD conjugation chemistry were addressed. The DNA sensor was synthesized by conjugating methacrylic phosphoramidite-functional oligonucleotides to water-soluble cadmium zinc sulfide core/zinc sulfide shell quantum dots (CdZnS/ZnS QDs). Duplex DNA was formed when the QD-bound ssDNA was incubated with its complement. Next, titration with PicoGreen resulted in FRET energy transfer from the dot to the dsDNA intercalating dye. The resulting ratio of the dye to QD integrated emissions is a calibratable metric for label-free DNA detection with a LOD of 3.8 nmol.

  8. Design and synthesis of amorphous SiOx structures generated by Sn quantum dots: growth mechanism and luminescent origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changhyun; Hwang, Seon Jae; Cho, Myeong Soo; Choi, Sun-Woo; Gil Na, Han; Park, Suyoung; Jeong, Hakyung; Noh, Youngwook; Lee, Dongjin

    2016-09-01

    SiOx structures with different diameters of a few hundreds of nanometers and/or a few micrometers are prepared using applied thermal evaporation. Subsequently, Sn quantum dot-based SiOx architectures are synthesized via the continuous steps of the carbothermal reduction of SnO2, substitution of Sn4+ for In3+, thermal oxidation of Si, Sn sublimation, interfacial reaction, and diffusion reaction consistent with corresponding phase equilibriums. Several crystalline and spherical-shaped Sn quantum dots with diameters between 2 and 7 nm are observed in the amorphous SiOx structures. The morphological evolution, including hollow Sn (or SnOx) sphere and wire-like, worm-like, tube-like, and flower-like SiOx, occurs stepwise on the Si substrate upon increasing the given process energies. The optical characteristics based on confocal measurements reveal the as-synthesized SiOx structures, irrespective of whether crystallinity is formed, which all have visible-range emissions originating from the numerous different-sized and -shaped Sn quantum dots permeating into the SiOx matrix. In addition, photoluminescence emissions ranging between ultraviolet and red regions are in agreement with confocal measurements. The origins of the morphology- and luminescence-controlled amorphous SiOx with Sn quantum dots are also discussed.

  9. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S.K.

    2012-05-15

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage ({approx}2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current. - Graphical abstract: Light emitting diode was fabricated using CdSe quantum dots using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting device shows strong electroluminescence in the range 630-661 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdSe Quantum dots were synthesized using olive oil as the capping agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emitting device was fabricated using CdSe QDs/P3HT polymer heterojunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The I-V characteristics study showed low turn on voltage at {approx}2.2 V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EL peak intensity increases with increasing the operating current.

  10. Synthesis of radioactively labelled CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots for in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Stachowski, Gordon M; Bauer, Christoph; Waurisch, Christian; Bargheer, Denise; Nielsen, Peter; Heeren, Jörg; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades of nanoparticles research, many nanomaterials have been developed for applications in the field of bio-labelling. For the visualization of transport processes in the body, organs and cells, luminescent quantum dots (QDs) make for highly useful diagnostic tools. However, intercellular routes, bio-distribution, metabolism during degradation or quantification of the excretion of nanoparticles, and the study of the biological response to the QDs themselves are areas which to date have not been fully investigated. In order to aid in addressing those issues, CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were radioactively labelled, which allows quantification of the QD concentration in the whole body or in ex vivo samples by γ-counting. However, the synthesis of radioactively labelled QDs is not trivial since the coating process must be completely adapted, and material availability, security and avoidance of radioactive waste must be considered. In this contribution, the coating of CdSe/CdS QDs with a radioactive (65)ZnS shell using a modified, operator-safe, SILAR procedure is presented. Under UV illumination, no difference in the photoluminescence of the radioactive and non-radioactive CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal solutions was observed. Furthermore, a down-scaled synthesis for the production of very small batches of 5 nmol QDs without loss in the fluorescence quality was developed. Subsequently, the radio-labelled QDs were phase transferred by encapsulation into an amphiphilic polymer. γ-counting of the radioactivity provided confirmation of the successful labelling and phase transfer of the QDs.

  11. Facile and green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots in protein matrix: tuning of morphology and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Guleria, A; Rath, M C; Singh, A K; Adhikari, S; Sarkar, S K

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we have demonstrated a facile and green approach for the synthesis of Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs). The process was mediated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and it was found that BSA plays the dual role of reducing agent as well as a stabilizing agent. The QDs exhibited sharp excitonic absorption features at ~500 nm and subsequently showed reasonably good photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The PL is seen to be strongly dependent on the concentration of the precursors and hence, the luminescence of these QDs could be conveniently tuned across the visible spectrum simply by varying molar ratio of the precursors. It can be envisaged from the fact that a red-shift of about 100 nm in the PL peak position was observed when the molar ratio of the precursors ([Cd2+]:[Se2-], in mM) was varied from 10:5 to 10:40. Subsequently, the charge carrier relaxation dynamics associated with the different molar ratio of precursors has been investigated and very interesting information regarding the energy level structures of these QDs were revealed. Most importantly, in conjunction with the optical tuning, the nanomorphology of these nanoparticles was found to vary with the change in molar ratios of Se and Cd precursors. This aspect can provide a new direction of controlling the shape of CdSe nanoparticles. The possible mechanism of the formation as well as for the shape variation of these nanoparticles with the molar ratios of precursors has been proposed, taking into account the role of amino acid residues (present in BSA). Moreover, the QDs were water soluble and possessed fairly good colloidal stability therefore, can have potential applications in catalysis and bio-labeling. On the whole, the present methodology of protein assisted synthesis is relatively new especially for semiconducting nanomaterials and may provide some unique and interesting aspects to control and fine tune the morphology vis-à-vis, their optical properties.

  12. Quantum optics in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Mauricio

    Coupled quantum dots present an active field of study, both at the fundamental and applied level, due to their atomic and molecular-like energy structure and the ability to design and tune their parameters. Being single-photon emitters, they are systems that behave fully according to the laws of quantum mechanics. The work presented here involved the experimental study of the electro-optical properties of Indium Arsenide, coupled quantum dots. Initial experiments involved the use of spectroscopic methods such as photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). Through such techniques, the top dot's hole energy level structure was mapped and different types of resonant absorption were identified. The characterization of these excited states and the knowledge of how to resonantly excite into them is an integral part of the development of certain controlled spin gates in quantum computation. Additionally, a shift of the spectra in the electric field was observed with varying excitation wavelength through and above the wetting layer, which allowed for direct measurement of the optically-created electric field within the device. This extends the quantum dots' capabilities to using them as electric-field nano-probes and opens up the possibility of an all-optical, fast switching mechanism. In the course of these studies, a novel data visualization method for PLE in this type of system was developed. Finally, to study correlated photon effects, a Hanbury Brown - Twiss experiment was built which revealed bunching and antibunching signals typical of quantum statistics in biexciton cascade emissions. This is an important step towards the experimental investigation of entangled states in coupled quantum dots.

  13. Synthesis, encapsulation, purification and coupling of single quantum dots in phospholipid micelles for their use in cellular and in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Carion, Olivier; Mahler, Benoît; Pons, Thomas; Dubertret, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    A detailed protocol for the synthesis of core/shell semiconductor nanocrystal, their encapsulation into phospholipid micelles, their purification and their coupling to a controlled number of small molecules is given. The protocol for the core/shell quantum dot (QD) CdSe/CdZnS synthesis has been specifically designed with two constraints in mind: green and reproducible core/shell QD synthesis with thick shell structure and QDs that can easily be encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid micelles with one QD per micelle. We present two procedures for the QD purification that are suitable for the use of QD micelles for in vivo imaging: ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. We also discuss the different coupling chemistry for covalently linking a controlled number of molecules to the QD micelles. The total time durations for the different protocols are as follows: QD synthesis: 6 h; encapsulation: 15 min; purification: 1-4 h; coupling: reaction dependent.

  14. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro; Martins, Manuel António; Trindade, Tito; Santos, José Luís; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilized in optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  15. Quantum dot behavior in graphene nanoconstrictions.

    PubMed

    Todd, Kathryn; Chou, Hung-Tao; Amasha, Sami; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2009-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons display an imperfectly understood transport gap. We measure transport through nanoribbon devices of several lengths. In long (>/=250 nm) nanoribbons we observe transport through multiple quantum dots in series, while shorter (quantum dots. New measurements indicate that dot size may scale with constriction width. We propose a model where transport occurs through quantum dots that are nucleated by background disorder potential in the presence of a confinement gap.

  16. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  17. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiguang; Prakash, Arjun; Benoit, Denise N; Jones, Christopher J; Colvin, Vicki L

    2010-06-25

    Methods for synthesizing quantum dots generally rely on very high temperatures to both nucleate and grow core and core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals. In this work, we generate highly monodisperse ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals at temperatures as low as 65 degrees C by enhancing the precursor solubility. Relatively small amounts of trioctylphosphine and trioctylphosphine oxide have marked effects on the solubility of the metal salts used to form shells; their inclusion in the precursor solutions, which use thiourea as a sulfur source, can lead to homogeneous and fully dissolved solutions. Upon addition to suspensions of quantum dot cores, these precursors deposit as uniform shells; the lowest temperature for shell growth (65 degrees C) yields the thinnest shells (d < 1 nm) while the same process at higher temperatures (180 degrees C) forms thicker shells (d approximately 1-2 nm). The growth of the shell structures, average particle size, size distribution, and shape were examined using optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmittance small angle x-ray scattering. The photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots ranged from 26% to 46% as compared to 10% for the CdSe cores. This method was further generalized to CdZnS shells by mixing cadmium and zinc acetate precursors. The CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystals have a thicker shell and higher QY (40% versus 36%) as compared to the CdSe/ZnS prepared under similar conditions. These low temperature methods for shell growth are readily amenable to scale-up and can provide a route for economical and less energy intensive production of quantum dots.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiguang; Prakash, Arjun; Benoit, Denise N.; Jones, Christopher J.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods for synthesizing quantum dots generally rely on very high temperatures to both nucleate and grow core and core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals. In this work, we generate highly monodisperse ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals at temperatures as low as 65 °C by enhancing the precursor solubility. Relatively small amounts of trioctylphosphine and trioctylphosphine oxide have marked effects on the solubility of the metal salts used to form shells; their inclusion in the precursor solutions, which use thiourea as a sulfur source, can lead to homogeneous and fully dissolved solutions. Upon addition to suspensions of quantum dot cores, these precursors deposit as uniform shells; the lowest temperature for shell growth (65 °C) yields the thinnest shells (d < 1 nm) while the same process at higher temperatures (180 °C) forms thicker shells (d ~ 1-2 nm). The growth of the shell structures, average particle size, size distribution, and shape were examined using optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmittance small angle x-ray scattering. The photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots ranged from 26% to 46% as compared to 10% for the CdSe cores. This method was further generalized to CdZnS shells by mixing cadmium and zinc acetate precursors. The CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystals have a thicker shell and higher QY (40% versus 36%) as compared to the CdSe/ZnS prepared under similar conditions. These low temperature methods for shell growth are readily amenable to scale-up and can provide a route for economical and less energy intensive production of quantum dots.

  20. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  1. Brightness-equalized quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M

    2015-10-05

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  2. Designing quantum dots for solotronics

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, J.; Smoleński, T.; Goryca, M.; Papaj, M.; Gietka, K.; Bogucki, A.; Koperski, M.; Rousset, J.-G.; Suffczyński, J.; Janik, E.; Nawrocki, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory. PMID:24463946

  3. Segmented flow reactor for synthesis of quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbwahnche, R. C.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Ryzhov, O. A.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    This research presents an automated method of synthesizing semiconductor and metal nanoparticles using flow rector synthesis as a new alternative to the batch method of synthesizing nanoparticles. Experiments were carried out to determine the optimal flow rates of reagents droplets. The reactor was successfully applied to the synthesis of colloidal solutions of semiconductor (CdSe) and metal (Ag) nanoparticles. This instrument is applicable both in material science laboratories and in industry.

  4. Functional Si and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, conjugate formation, and photoluminescence quenching by surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, P K; Emrick, Todd

    2009-12-22

    Silicon quantum dots (QDs) were prepared with a corona of di-n-octyl phosphine oxides, by performing hydrosilylation chemistry on the surface of hydrogen-terminated Si QDs. These novel Si QDs proved well-suited to serve as "ligands" for other semiconductor QDs, such as CdSe, by interaction of the phosphine oxide corona with the CdSe surface. A pronounced photoluminescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots was observed upon introduction of the phosphine oxide functionalized Si QDs to a CdSe QD solution. Surface functionalization of the Si QDs proved critically important to observing these effects, as conventional (alkane-covered) Si QD samples gave no evidence of electronic interactions with TOPO-covered CdSe. In a comparative system, phosphine oxide terminated oligo(phenylene vinylene) molecules acting as CdSe QD ligands provide a similar fluorescence quenching, with exciton decay kinetics supporting the formation of an electronically interacting hybrid materials system.

  5. Cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X=Cl, Br, I) perovskite quantum dots-synthesis, properties, and applications: a review of their present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakumar, Soosaimanickam; Kumar, Jeyagopal Ram; Babu, Sridharan Moorthy

    2016-10-01

    Metal halide-based perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as promising materials for optoelectronics and future energy applications. Among them, cesium lead halide-based perovskite quantum dots (Cs-LHQDs) have been found to be potential luminescent candidates and alternatives for the II-VI and I-III-VI2 groups semiconductor nanoparticles. These perovskites provide an excellent quantum yield (90%) larger than any other semiconductor QDs. At present, synthesis of Cs-LHQDs has been successfully achieved through a traditional colloidal-based hot-injection method and a room temperature precipitation method. Some of the interesting results in their structural, optical, and morphological properties are being analyzed to understand their energy-transfer mechanism in the colloidal state. Morphology of nanoplates, nanowires, nanocube, and nanosheets in these materials confirms their physical parameters-dependent self-assembly nature in a colloidal medium. Their potential use for light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers is also highly motivated. This review provides a collective view of recent developments made in the synthesis of Cs-LHQDs and their properties.

  6. Synthesis of blue-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin for Fe(III) detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Gan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    A novel solid fluorescent sensor with millimeter size, based on graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin (GQDs/PS-AER) was obtained for the detection of Fe3+. The linear response range of Fe3+ was obtained from 1 μM to 7 μM and the detection limit was as low as 0.65 μM. In addition, the sensor could be regenerated by adding complexing agent EDTA and be separated by using simple filtration.

  7. Thermal treatment of hair for the synthesis of sustainable carbon quantum dots and the applications for sensing Hg2+

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongming; Zhang, Lianfeng; Cao, Fengpu; Leng, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    A facile, simple and low-cost approach for synthesizing highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from thermal treatment of sustainable hair has been developed. The resultant CQDs exhibited strong blue emission with a quantum yield of 10.75%, excellent photostability and high stability in high salt conditions. As the fluorescence of CQDs can be efficiently quenched by Hg2+, the CQDs can be constructed as a nanosensor for Hg2+ with good sensitivity and selectivity. And as low as 10 nM Hg2+ can be successfully detected. PMID:27762342

  8. Thermal treatment of hair for the synthesis of sustainable carbon quantum dots and the applications for sensing Hg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongming; Zhang, Lianfeng; Cao, Fengpu; Leng, Yumin

    2016-10-01

    A facile, simple and low-cost approach for synthesizing highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from thermal treatment of sustainable hair has been developed. The resultant CQDs exhibited strong blue emission with a quantum yield of 10.75%, excellent photostability and high stability in high salt conditions. As the fluorescence of CQDs can be efficiently quenched by Hg2+, the CQDs can be constructed as a nanosensor for Hg2+ with good sensitivity and selectivity. And as low as 10 nM Hg2+ can be successfully detected.

  9. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical response of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A continuous and compact CdS quantum dot-sensitive layer was synthesized on TiO2 nanorods by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and subsequent thermal annealing. The thickness of the CdS quantum dot layer was tuned by SILAR cycles, which was found to be closely related to light absorption and carrier transformation. The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical property measurement. The optimum sample was fabricated by SILAR in 70 cycles and then annealed at 400°C for 1 h in air atmosphere. A TiO2/CdS core-shell structure was formed with a diameter of 35 nm, which presented an improvement in light harvesting. Finally, a saturated photocurrent of 3.6 mA/cm2 was produced under the irradiation of AM1.5G simulated sunlight at 100 mW/cm2. In particular, the saturated current density maintained a fixed value of approximately 3 mA/cm2 without decadence as time passed under the light conditions, indicating the steady photoelectronic property of the photoanode. PMID:23663590

  10. Synthesis of silver quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes and their incorporation in organic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xingwang; Liu, Kong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-08-01

    Uniform silver quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes (Ag-TiO2 NTs) were synthesized via a simple reduction reaction in ethanol solvent. The size distribution of composite NTs arranges from 3 to 5 nm for Ag quantum dots and about 10 nm for TiO2 NTs in diameter. The composite Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated in organic hybrid solar cells through doping into the active layer. Both the optical and electrical properties of the solar cells were improved. The photocurrent and fill factor of the devices were obviously increased after the Ag-TiO2 NTs were introduced, accompanied with a greatly reduced series resistance as well as enlarged shunt resistance. Suppressed recombination due to efficient charge transfer from plasmonic Ag quantum dots to the attached TiO2 NTs made contribution to the charge collection and transportation so that the fill factor was increased. Meanwhile, the enhanced light absorption resulted from effective incident light scattering by the Ag-TiO2 NTs composite played a role in increasing photocurrent. As a result, solar cells with Ag-TiO2 NTs generated an enhanced conversion efficiency up to 20 and 50 % compared to that adopting TiO2 NTs and that without doping, respectively.

  11. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical response of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Wang, Tian; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

    2013-05-10

    A continuous and compact CdS quantum dot-sensitive layer was synthesized on TiO2 nanorods by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and subsequent thermal annealing. The thickness of the CdS quantum dot layer was tuned by SILAR cycles, which was found to be closely related to light absorption and carrier transformation. The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical property measurement. The optimum sample was fabricated by SILAR in 70 cycles and then annealed at 400°C for 1 h in air atmosphere. A TiO2/CdS core-shell structure was formed with a diameter of 35 nm, which presented an improvement in light harvesting. Finally, a saturated photocurrent of 3.6 mA/cm2 was produced under the irradiation of AM1.5G simulated sunlight at 100 mW/cm2. In particular, the saturated current density maintained a fixed value of approximately 3 mA/cm2 without decadence as time passed under the light conditions, indicating the steady photoelectronic property of the photoanode.

  12. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical response of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Wang, Tian; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

    2013-05-01

    A continuous and compact CdS quantum dot-sensitive layer was synthesized on TiO2 nanorods by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and subsequent thermal annealing. The thickness of the CdS quantum dot layer was tuned by SILAR cycles, which was found to be closely related to light absorption and carrier transformation. The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical property measurement. The optimum sample was fabricated by SILAR in 70 cycles and then annealed at 400°C for 1 h in air atmosphere. A TiO2/CdS core-shell structure was formed with a diameter of 35 nm, which presented an improvement in light harvesting. Finally, a saturated photocurrent of 3.6 mA/cm2 was produced under the irradiation of AM1.5G simulated sunlight at 100 mW/cm2. In particular, the saturated current density maintained a fixed value of approximately 3 mA/cm2 without decadence as time passed under the light conditions, indicating the steady photoelectronic property of the photoanode.

  13. ‘One-pot’ synthesis of multifunctional GSH-CdTe quantum dots for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Tang, Yajun; Cai, Bing; Fan, Hongsong

    2014-06-01

    A novel quantum dots-based multifunctional nanovehicle (DOX-QD-PEG-FA) was designed for targeted drug delivery, fluorescent imaging, tracking, and cancer therapy, in which the GSH-CdTe quantum dots play a key role in imaging and drug delivery. To exert curative effects, the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded on the GSH-CdTe quantum dots through a condensation reaction. Meanwhile, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell was introduced to wrap the DOX-QD, thus stabilizing the structure and preventing clearance and drug release during systemic circulation. To actively target cancer cells and prevent the nanovehicles from being absorbed by normal cells, the nanoparticles were further decorated with folic acid (FA), allowing them to target HeLa cells that express the FA receptor. The multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA conjugates were simply prepared using the ‘one pot’ method. In vitro study demonstrated that this simple, multifunctional nanovehicle can deliver DOX to the targeted cancer cells and localize the nanoparticles. After reaching the tumor cells, the FA on the DOX-QD-PEG surface allowed folate receptor recognition and increased the drug concentration to realize a higher curative effect. This novel, multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA system shows great potential for tumor imaging, targeting, and therapy.

  14. The emission wavelength dependent photoluminescence lifetime of the N-doped graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xingxia; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; Ding, Guqiao; Shen, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Jian; Wang, Zhongyang

    2015-12-14

    Aromatic nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The PL lifetime was found to be dependent on the emission wavelength and coincident with the PL spectrum, which is different from most semiconductor quantum dots and fluorescent dyes. This result shows the synergy and competition between the quantum confinement effect and edge functional groups, which may have the potential to guide the synthesis and expand the applications of graphene quantum dots.

  15. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: Stabilization by interactions with ligands

    PubMed Central

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethyleamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and L-cysteine (L-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and L-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30 – 45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9 –12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3–7.5 and 45–47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb:Se ratio was 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, L-Cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed method

  16. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: stabilization by interactions with ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and l-cysteine (l-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in the dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in the dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under the same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and l-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30-45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9-12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3-7.5 and 45-47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb : Se ratios were 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, l-cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed

  17. Colloidal quantum dots for fluorescent labels of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, P.; Kouznetsov, V.; Martinez Bonilla, C.; Dezhurov, S.; Krilsky, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Morenkov, O.; Vrublevskaya, V.; Tsygankov, P.; Ibragimova, S.; Rybakova, A.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and their bioconjugates with proteins. Various QDs were obtained as well with synthesis method in an organic solvent followed by hydrophilization and functionalization or synthesis in aqueous phase provides obtaining hydrophilic QDs directly. Particular attention is paid to the synthesis of QDs as fluorescent tags in the near infrared where minimum absorption occurs and the fluorescence of biological tissue and synthetic materials used in analytical systems. A method for the QDs synthesis of type fluorescent core/shell CdTeSe/CdS/CdZnS-PolyT with mixed telluride, selenide cadmium core with a high quantum yield and high resistance to photoaging. It is shown that these quantum dots may be effectively used in the immunoassay.

  18. Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.; Ward, T.H.; Gray, N.; Womack, C.; Jayson, G.; Hughes, A.; Dive, C.; Byers, R.

    2008-09-19

    Quantum dots are photostable fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals possessing wide excitation and bright narrow, symmetrical, emission spectra. These characteristics have engendered considerable interest in their application in multiplex immunohistochemistry for biomarker quantification and co-localisation in clinical samples. Robust quantitation allows biomarker validation, and there is growing need for multiplex staining due to limited quantity of clinical samples. Most reported multiplexed quantum dot staining used sequential methods that are laborious and impractical in a high-throughput setting. Problems associated with sequential multiplex staining have been investigated and a method developed using QDs conjugated to biotinylated primary antibodies, enabling simultaneous multiplex staining with three antibodies. CD34, Cytokeratin 18 and cleaved Caspase 3 were triplexed in tonsillar tissue using an 8 h protocol, each localised to separate cellular compartments. This demonstrates utility of the method for biomarker measurement enabling rapid measurement of multiple co-localised biomarkers on single paraffin tissue sections, of importance for clinical trial studies.

  19. Quantum Dot Detectors with Plasmonic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0102 TR-2015-0102 QUANTUM DOT DETECTORS WITH PLASMONIC STRUCTURES Sanjay Krishna University of...SUBTITLE Quantum Dot Detectors with Plasmonic Structures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-12-1-0131 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63401F 6...characterization, of multi-spectral quantum dots-in-a-double well (DDWELL) infrared detectors, by the integration of a surface Plasmon (SP) assisted resonant

  20. Barrier Engineered Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0111 TR-2015-0111 BARRIER ENGINEERED QUANTUM DOT INFRARED PHOTODETECTORS Sanjay Krishna Center for High Technology...2011 – 22 May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Barrier Engineered Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-12-1-0336 5b. GRANT...is Unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To investigate barrier engineered designs to reduce the dark current in quantum dot infrared

  1. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-03

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems.

  2. Aqueous synthesis of type-II CdTe/CdSe core-shell quantum dots for fluorescent probe labeling tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruosheng; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Jincheng; Hu, Song; Wan, Qiang; Liu, Xuanming; Peng, Zhiwei; Zou, Bingsuo

    2009-03-04

    In this paper, we report a two-step aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) via a simple method. The emission range of the CdTe/CdSe QDs can be tuned from 510 to 640 nm by controlling the thickness of the CdSe shell. Accordingly, the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of CdTe/CdSe QDs with an optimized thickness of the CdSe shell can reach up to 40%. The structures and compositions of the core/shell QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments, and their formation mechanism is discussed. Furthermore, folate conjugated CdTe/CdSe QDs in Hela cells were assessed with a fluorescence microscope. The results show that folate conjugated CdTe/CdSe QDs could enter tumor cells efficiently.

  3. A highly reactive chalcogenide precursor for the synthesis of metal chalcogenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs).Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to

  4. Synthesis and luminescence characteristics of DHLA-capped PbSe quantum dots with biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yaxin; Zhang, Kexin; Li, Zhen; Sun, Shuqing

    2012-03-01

    In this work, we report a facile aqueous route to prepare PbSe QDs with strong photoluminescent and near-infrared (NIR) emission using dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) as the capping ligands. It was found that the synthesis parameters including the molar ratio of DHLA/Pb, the pH value and the reaction time have considerable influence on photoluminescent intensity (PL) of the PbSe QDs. The as-synthesized DHLA-capped PbSe QDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the results indicated that the QDs were about 8.0 ± 0.2 nm in size and had good monodisperse and a rock salt crystalline structure. Also, there was DHLA on the surface of QDs, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. The PbSe QDs exhibited optimal PL intensity when Pb:Se:DHLA = 1:0.6:1 in weak alkaline aqueous. The as-synthesized QDs kept highly PL intensities when stored in the dark in normal air environment during the period of 60 days. In addition, the biocompatibility of these QDs was measured by hemolytic test, which indicated that DHLA-stabilized QDs are biocompatible. It is important for QDs as biomarkers in biological detection and diagnosis.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanotubes Sensitized with CdS Quantum Dots Using a One-Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiahui; Zhang, Xinguo; Zhou, Chunyan; Lan, Yuwei; Pang, Qi; Zhou, Liya

    2015-01-01

    A novel one-step synthesis process was used to assemble CdS quantum dots (QDs) into TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs). The sensitization time of the TiO2 nanotubes can be adjusted by controlling the CdS QD synthesis time. The absorption band of sensitized TNTAs red-shifted and broadened to the visible spectrum. The photoelectric conversion efficiency increased to 0.83%, the open-circuit voltage to 776 mV, and the short-circuit current density ( J SC) to 2.30 mA cm-2 with increased sensitization time. The conversion efficiency with this new sensitization method was five times that of nonsensitized TNTAs, providing novel ideas for study of TNTA solar cells.

  6. Influence of Mn2+ concentration on Mn2+-doped ZnS quantum dot synthesis: evaluation of the structural and photoluminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo-Gonzalez, Emma; Roces, Laura; Garcia-Granda, Santiago; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    The intentional introduction of transition metal impurities into semiconductor nanocrystals is an attractive approach for tuning quantum dot photoluminescence emission. Particularly, doping of ZnS quantum dots with Mn2+ (Mn:ZnS QDs) results in a phosphorescence-type emission, attributed to the incorporation of manganese ions into the nanocrystal structure, so that delayed radiational deactivation of the energy of nanoparticles, excited through the energy levels of the metal, is enabled. However, the development of effective doping strategies can be challenging, especially if a highly efficient photoluminescent emission within a known crystalline core structure, is required (e.g. for analytical phosphorescence applications). The spectroscopic properties and the crystal structure of Mn2+-doped ZnS QDs are studied here to provide a better understanding on how the luminescence emission and the crystalline composition are influenced by the presence of Mn2+ and its concentration used during the synthesis. In order to further control and optimize the synthesis of doped QDs for future bioanalytical applications, different complementary techniques including photoluminescence and X-ray powder diffraction have been employed. The information obtained has allowed standardization of the synthesis conditions of these doped QDs and the identification and quantification of the crystal phases obtained under different synthesis conditions.The intentional introduction of transition metal impurities into semiconductor nanocrystals is an attractive approach for tuning quantum dot photoluminescence emission. Particularly, doping of ZnS quantum dots with Mn2+ (Mn:ZnS QDs) results in a phosphorescence-type emission, attributed to the incorporation of manganese ions into the nanocrystal structure, so that delayed radiational deactivation of the energy of nanoparticles, excited through the energy levels of the metal, is enabled. However, the development of effective doping strategies can be

  7. The statistical theory of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.

    2000-10-01

    A quantum dot is a sub-micron-scale conducting device containing up to several thousand electrons. Transport through a quantum dot at low temperatures is a quantum-coherent process. This review focuses on dots in which the electron's dynamics are chaotic or diffusive, giving rise to statistical properties that reflect the interplay between one-body chaos, quantum interference, and electron-electron interactions. The conductance through such dots displays mesoscopic fluctuations as a function of gate voltage, magnetic field, and shape deformation. The techniques used to describe these fluctuations include semiclassical methods, random-matrix theory, and the supersymmetric nonlinear σ model. In open dots, the approximation of noninteracting quasiparticles is justified, and electron-electron interactions contribute indirectly through their effect on the dephasing time at finite temperature. In almost-closed dots, where conductance occurs by tunneling, the charge on the dot is quantized, and electron-electron interactions play an important role. Transport is dominated by Coulomb blockade, leading to peaks in the conductance that at low temperatures provide information on the dot's ground-state properties. Several statistical signatures of electron-electron interactions have been identified, most notably in the dot's addition spectrum. The dot's spin, determined partly by exchange interactions, can also influence the fluctuation properties of the conductance. Other mesoscopic phenomena in quantum dots that are affected by the charging energy include the fluctuations of the cotunneling conductance and mesoscopic Coulomb blockade.

  8. Photovoltaic Current in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switkes, M.; Marcus, C. M.; Campman, K.; Gossard, A. C.

    1998-03-01

    We investigate the DC photovoltaic current, I_pv, due to coherent ``pumping'' in open ( g >= e^2/h ) quantum dots with radio-frequency modulation of the confining potential(B. Spivak, F. Zhou, and M. T. Beal Monod, Phys. Rev. B 51), p. 13226 (1995). I_pv is on the order of 20 pA≈ 10ef for a modulation frequency f = 15 MHz. The photovoltaic current exhibits mesoscopic fluctuations with magnetic field and with the static shape of the confining potential which do not appear to be correlated with fluctuations in the conductance of the dot. The photovoltaic current induced by pumping with two independent shape distortion gates depends on their relative phase; the relationship of this phase to time reversal symmetry is investigated with a view toward defining a generalized Landauer-Büttiker relation.

  9. An Efficient Templating Approach for the Synthesis of Redispersible Size-Controllable Carbon Quantum Dots from Graphitic Polymeric Micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Abbasi, Farshad; Claverie, Jerome

    2015-10-19

    Access to high-quality, easily dispersible carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is essential in order to fully exploit their desirable properties. Copolymers based on N-acryloyl-D-glucosamine and acrylic acid prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are self-assembled into micelle-like nanoreactors. After a facile graphitization process (170 °C, atmospheric pressure), each micellar template is transformed into a CQD through a 1:1 copy process. These high-quality CQDs (quantum yield=22 %) with tunable sizes (2-5 nm) are decorated by carboxylic acid moieties and can be spontaneously redispersed in water and polar organic solvents. This preparation method renders the mass production of multifunctional CQDs possible. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, CQDs hybridized TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light have been prepared.

  10. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-03

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  11. A quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thakshila M; Hewageegana, Prabath; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-03-19

    We introduce a quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm as a bump at the surface of the nanofilm. Such a quantum dot can localize an electron if the size of the dot is large enough, ≳5 nm. The quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm has states of two types, which belong to two ('conduction' and 'valence') bands of the topological insulator nanofilm. We study the energy spectra of such defined quantum dots. We also consider intraband and interband optical transitions within the dot. The optical transitions of the two types have the same selection rules. While the interband absorption spectra have multi-peak structure, each of the intraband spectra has one strong peak and a few weak high frequency satellites.

  12. Synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum wires and the similarity of their band gaps to those of equidiameter cadmium telluride quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range of 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi-nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure, and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter is discussed.

  13. Synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum wires and the similarity of their effective band gaps to those of equidiameter cadmium telluride quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang; Buhro, William E

    2008-06-25

    High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the effective band gaps in the wires is determined from the absorption spectra and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the effective band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire effective band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter are discussed.

  14. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengji; Yuan, Shengjie; Fan, Junqi; Hou, Zeliang; Zhou, Wenhui; Du, Zuliang; Wu, Sixin

    2012-11-27

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-μm thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide quantum dots and their interaction with snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Ahalya, Pichaikkannu; Sengan, Megarajan; Kamlekar, Ravikanth; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2015-12-05

    Owing to the use of quantum dots in biological labeling, and the specific interaction of lectins with tumor cells, studies on lectin-QDs interaction are of potential interest. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare zinc sulfide quantum dots (ZnS QDs) using pectin as a capping agent and studied their interaction with snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The thermodynamic forces governing the interaction between ZnS-QDs and SGSL have been delineated from the temperature dependent association constant. These results suggest that the binding between ZnS QDs and SGSL is governed by enthalpic forces with negative entropic contribution. The red shift of synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment around the tryptophan residues of SGSL was perturbed by ZnS-QDs. The obtained results suggest that the development of optical bioimaging agents by using the conjugated lectin-QDs would be possible to diagnose cancerous tissues.

  16. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  17. Chemical synthesis and optical characterization of regular and magic-sized CdS quantum dot nanocrystals using 1-dodecanethiol

    DOE PAGES

    Dickson, Rachel E.; Hu, Michael Z.

    2015-03-23

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one-pot noninjection reaction procedure in solvent medium 1-octadecene. This approach used a cadmium salt and 1-dodecanethiol, an organic sulfur, as the cadmium and sulfur sources, respectively, along with a long-chain organic acid (myristic acid, lauric acid, or stearic acid). The acid has dual effects as a surface capping ligand and a solubility controlling agent as well. UV–Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry techniques were used to characterize the optical properties, along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the structure and size. Our newly developed synthesismore » procedure allowed for investigation of both regular and “magic-sized” CdS QDs by systematically controlling reaction parameters such as reactant type, reactant concentration, and reaction temperature. The organic sulfur (1-dodecanethiol) proved to be a useful sulfur source for synthesizing magic-sized CdS QDs, previously unreported. Several distinctive size regimes of magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs), including Families 378 and 407, were successfully produced by controlling a small number of factors. Finally, the understanding of controlled Cd release in a MSQD formation mechanism is developed.« less

  18. CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes: synthesis and performance optimization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto TiO2 nanorod arrays for different cycles by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of SILAR cycles on the light absorption and photoelectrochemical properties of the sensitized photoelectrodes was studied. With optimization of CuInS2 SILAR cycles and introduction of In2S3 buffer layer, quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assembled with 3-μm thick TiO2 nanorod film exhibited a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 4.51 mA cm−2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.41, and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06%, respectively. This study indicates that SILAR process is a very promising strategy for preparing directly anchored semiconductor QDs on TiO2 nanorod surface in a straightforward but controllable way without any complicated fabrication procedures and introduction of a linker molecule. PMID:23181940

  19. Research on Self-Assembling Quantum Dots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-30

    0K. in a second phase of this contract we turned our efforts to the fabrication and studies of self assembled quantum dots . We first demonstrated a...method for producing InAs-GasAs self assembled quantum dots (SAD) using MBE. (AN)

  20. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-05-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.

  1. Optically active quantum-dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Shlykov, Alexander I; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D

    2017-02-20

    Chiral molecules made of coupled achiral semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots, show great promise for photonic applications owing to their prospective uses as configurable building blocks for optically active structures, materials, and devices. Here we present a simple model of optically active quantum-dot molecules, in which each of the quantum dots is assigned a dipole moment associated with the fundamental interband transition between the size-quantized states of its confined charge carriers. This model is used to analytically calculate the rotatory strengths of optical transitions occurring upon the excitation of chiral dimers, trimers, and tetramers of general configurations. The rotatory strengths of such quantum-dot molecules are found to exceed the typical rotatory strengths of chiral molecules by five to six orders of magnitude. We also study how the optical activity of quantum-dot molecules shows up in their circular dichroism spectra when the energy gap between the molecular states is much smaller than the states' lifetime, and maximize the strengths of the circular dichroism peaks by optimizing orientations of the quantum dots in the molecules. Our analytical results provide clear design guidelines for quantum-dot molecules and can prove useful in engineering optically active quantum-dot supercrystals and photonic devices.

  2. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  3. Excitonic quantum interference in a quantum dot chain with rings.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2008-04-16

    We demonstrate excitonic quantum interference in a closely spaced quantum dot chain with nanorings. In the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model with direct diagonalization method, we have found a peculiar feature that the excitation of specified quantum dots in the chain is completely inhibited, depending on the orientational configuration of the transition dipole moments and specified initial preparation of the excitation. In practice, these excited states facilitating quantum interference can provide a conceptual basis for quantum interference devices of excitonic hopping.

  4. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935

  5. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra; Chang, Jerry; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James; Tomlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  6. Quantum-dot supercrystals for future nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-01-01

    The study of supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots is essential for the advancement of emerging nanophotonics technologies. By combining the strong spatial confinement of elementary excitations inside quantum dots and exceptional design flexibility, quantum-dot supercrystals provide broad opportunities for engineering desired optical responses and developing superior light manipulation techniques on the nanoscale. Here we suggest tailoring the energy spectrum and wave functions of the supercrystals' collective excitations through the variation of different structural and material parameters. In particular, by calculating the excitonic spectra of quantum dots assembled in two-dimensional Bravais lattices we demonstrate a wide variety of spectrum transformation scenarios upon alterations in the quantum dot arrangement. This feature offers unprecedented control over the supercrystal's electromagnetic properties and enables the development of new nanophotonics materials and devices.

  7. Tailoring Magnetism in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutic, Igor; Abolfath, Ramin; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2007-03-01

    We study magnetism in magnetically doped quantum dots as a function of particle numbers, temperature, confining potential, and the strength of Coulomb interaction screening. We show that magnetism can be tailored by controlling the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, even without changing the number of particles. The interplay of strong Coulomb interactions and quantum confinement leads to enhanced inhomogeneous magnetization which persists at substantially higher temperatures than in the non-interacting case or in the bulk-like dilute magnetic semiconductors. We predict a series of electronic spin transitions which arise from the competition between the many-body gap and magnetic thermal fluctuations. Cond-mat/0612489. [1] R. Abolfath, P. Hawrylak, I. Zuti'c, preprint.

  8. Optophononics with coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Mark L; Govorov, Alexander O; Czarnocki, Cyprian; Lu, Davis; Gad, Youstina N; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Scheibner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Modern technology is founded on the intimate understanding of how to utilize and control electrons. Next to electrons, nature uses phonons, quantized vibrations of an elastic structure, to carry energy, momentum and even information through solids. Phonons permeate the crystalline components of modern technology, yet in terms of technological utilization phonons are far from being on par with electrons. Here we demonstrate how phonons can be employed to render a single quantum dot pair optically transparent. This phonon-induced transparency is realized via the formation of a molecular polaron, the result of a Fano-type quantum interference, which proves that we have accomplished making typically incoherent and dissipative phonons behave in a coherent and non-dissipative manner. We find the transparency to be widely tunable by electronic and optical means. Thereby we show amplification of weakest coupling channels. We further outline the molecular polaron's potential as a control element in phononic circuitry architecture.

  9. Quantum dot spectroscopy using cavity quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Winger, Martin; Badolato, Antonio; Hennessy, Kevin J; Hu, Evelyn L; Imamoğlu, Ataç

    2008-11-28

    We show how cavity quantum electrodynamics using a tunable photonic crystal nanocavity in the strong-coupling regime can be used for single quantum dot spectroscopy. From the distinctive avoided crossings observed in the strongly coupled system we can identify the neutral and single positively charged exciton as well as the biexciton transitions. Moreover we are able to investigate the fine structure of those transitions and to identify a novel cavity mediated mixing of bright and dark exciton states, where the hyperfine interactions with lattice nuclei presumably play a key role. These results are enabled by a deterministic coupling scheme which allowed us to achieve unprecedented coupling strengths in excess of 150 microeV.

  10. Quantum dots in aperiodic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörnquist, Michael; Ouchterlony, Thomas

    1998-12-01

    We study numerically with a Green-function technique one-dimensional arrays of quantum dots with two different models. The arrays are ordered according to the Fibonacci, the Thue-Morse, and the Rudin-Shapiro sequences. As a comparison, results from a periodically ordered chain and also from a random chain are included. The focus is on how the conductance (calculated within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism) depends on the Fermi level. In the first model, we find that in some cases rather small systems (≈60 dots) behave in the same manner as very large systems (>16,000 dots) and this makes it possible in these cases to interpret our results for the small systems in terms of the spectral properties of the infinite systems. In particular, we find that it is possible to see some consequences of the singular continuous spectra that some of the systems possess, at least for temperatures up to 100 mK. In the second model, we study the phenomenon ohmic addition, i.e. when the resistances of the constrictions add up to the total resistance. It results that of the systems studied, it is only the Rudin-Shapiro system that has this behaviour for large structures, while the resistances of the Fibonacci and the Thue-Morse systems might reach a limiting value (as a periodic system does).

  11. New generation of chitosan-encapsulated ZnO quantum dots loaded with drug: synthesis, characterization and in vitro drug delivery response.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Hein, S; Misra, R D K

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study is to describe a new approach of combining quantum dots technology with anti-cancer drug therapy. In this regard, we communicate the preliminary research on the synthesis of blue-light emitting ZnO quantum dots (QDs) combined with biodegradable chitosan (N-acetylglucosamine) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. The results presented here indicate that the proposed new generation of QDs loaded with anti-cancer agents and encapsulated with biocompatible polymer represent a potential platform to deliver tumor-targeted drugs and document the delivery process, if desired. Non-toxic water-dispersed ZnO QDs with long-term fluorescence stability were synthesized by a chemical hydrolysis method, encapsulated with chitosan and loaded with anti-cancer drug. Chitosan enhanced the stability of the QDs because of the hydrophilicity and cationic charge of chitosan. The study points toward the application of water-dispersed ZnO QDs with long-term fluorescence stability for design of new drug release carrier.

  12. One-pot synthesis of quantum dot-labeled hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for direct optosensing of folic acid in real, undiluted biological samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Zhengzheng; Niu, Hui; Zhang, Huiqi

    2016-12-15

    A facile and efficient one-pot approach for the synthesis of quantum dot (QD)-labeled hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles for direct optosensing of folic acid (FA) in the undiluted bovine and porcine serums is described. Hydrophilic macromolecular chain transfer agent-mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization was used to implement the molecular imprinting of FA in the presence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The resulting FA-imprinted polymer nanoparticles with surface-grafted hydrophilic poly(glyceryl monomethacrylate) brushes and QDs labeling not only showed outstanding specific molecular recognition toward FA in biological samples, but also exhibited good photostability, rapid binding kinetics, and obvious template binding-induced fluorescence quenching. These characteristics make them a useful fluorescent chemosensor for directly and selectively optosensing FA in the undiluted bovine and porcine serums, with its limit of detection being 0.025μM and average recoveries ranging from 98% to 102%, even in the presence of several interfering compounds. This advanced fluorescent MIP chemosensor is highly promising for rapid quantification of FA in such applications as clinical diagnostics and food analysis.

  13. Fluorescent carbon 'quantum' dots from thermochemical functionalization of carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednic, Monica I.; Lu, Zhuomin; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yun; Qian, Haijun; Terec, Anamaria; Veca, L. Monica; Lu, Fushen; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon 'quantum' dots are generally obtained by deliberate chemical functionalization of carbon nanoparticles or by 'one-pot' carbonization processing. For brightly fluorescent carbon dots with optoelectronic polymers, a hybrid approach was developed to use pre-processed and selected carbon nanoparticles as precursor for surface passivation by poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) in one-pot thermochemical processing, thus taking advantage of the more controllable feature from the deliberate functionalization and also the versatility associated with the one-pot synthesis. The PVK-carbon dots were characterized by optical spectroscopy, microscopy, and other techniques. The broad applicability of the hybrid approach is discussed.

  14. Optical Spectroscopy of Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Metal Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Optical studies of semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs), metal nanoparticles (MNPs), and their hybrid nanomaterials are...Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy of Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Metal Nanoparticles The views, opinions and/or findings...Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Metal Nanoparticles Report Title Optical studies of semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs), metal nanoparticles (MNPs), and their

  15. Facile Synthesis of Co9Se8 Quantum Dots as Charge Traps for Flexible Organic Resistive Switching Memory Device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Benhua; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Guilin; Gao, Meizhen

    2016-11-09

    Uniform Co9Se8 quantum dots (CSQDs) were successfully synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. The obtained CSQDs with average size of 3.2 ± 0.1 nm and thickness of 1.8 ± 0.2 nm were demonstrated good stability and strong fluorescence under UV light after being easily dispersed in both of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and deionized water. We demonstrated the flexible resistive switching memory device based on the hybridization of CSQDs and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CSQDs-PVP). The device with the Al/CSQDs-PVP/Pt/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) structure represented excellent switching parameters such as high ON/OFF current ratio, low operating voltages, good stability, and flexibility. The flexible resistive switching memory device based on hybridization of CSQDs and PVP has a great potential to be used in flexible and high-performance memory applications.

  16. Lossless synthesis of graphene nanosheets decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots with excellent nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Feng, Miao; Sun, Ruiqing; Zhan, Hongbing; Chen, Yu

    2010-02-19

    The implantation and growth of metal nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (GNS) leads directly to severe damage to the regular structure of the graphene sheets, which disrupts the extended pi conjugation, resulting in an impaired device performance. In this paper, we describe a facile approach for achieving the lossless formation of graphene composite decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) with excellent nonlinear optical properties by using benzyl mercaptan (BM) as the interlinker. The mercapto substituent of BM binds to the CdS QDs during their nucleation and growth process, and then the phenyl comes into contact with the GNS via the pi-pi stacking interaction. Using this strategy, CdS QDs with an average diameter of 3 nm are uniformly dispersed over the surface of graphene, and the resulting QD-graphene composite exhibits excellent optical limiting properties, mainly contributed by nonlinear scattering and nonlinear absorption, upon both 532 and 1064 nm excitations, in the nanosecond laser pulse regime.

  17. Synthesis of a Neutral Mixed-Valence Diferrocenyl Carborane for Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Applications.

    PubMed

    Christie, John A; Forrest, Ryan P; Corcelli, Steven A; Wasio, Natalie A; Quardokus, Rebecca C; Brown, Ryan; Kandel, S Alex; Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2015-12-14

    The preparation of 7-Fc(+) -8-Fc-7,8-nido-[C2 B9 H10 ](-) (Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) ) demonstrates the successful incorporation of a carborane cage as an internal counteranion bridging between ferrocene and ferrocenium units. This neutral mixed-valence Fe(II) /Fe(III) complex overcomes the proximal electronic bias imposed by external counterions, a practical limitation in the use of molecular switches. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT computational studies indicate that electron transfer within Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) is achieved through a bridge-mediated mechanism. This electronic framework therefore provides the possibility of an all-neutral null state, a key requirement for the implementation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) molecular computing. The adhesion, ordering, and characterization of Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) on Au(111) has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy.

  18. Facile Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Graphene Quantum Dots for the Determination of Dopamine with Affinity-Adjustable.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2015-06-10

    A facilely prepared fluorescence sensor was developed for dopamine (DA) determination based on polyindole/graphene quantum dots molecularly imprinted polymers (PIn/GQDs@MIPs). The proposed sensor exhibits a high sensitivity with a linear range of 5 × 10(-10) to 1.2 × 10(-6) M and the limit of detection as low as 1 × 10(-10) M in the determination of DA, which is probably due to the tailor-made imprinted cavities for binding DA thought hydrogen bonds between amine groups of DA and oxygen-containing groups of the novel composite. Furthermore, the prepared sensor can rebind DA in dual-type: a low affinity type (noncovalent interaction is off) and a high affinity type (noncovalent interaction is on), and the rebinding interaction can be adjusted by tuning the pH, which shows a unique potential for adjusting the binding interaction while keeping the specificity, allowing for wider applications.

  19. On-chip quantum optics with quantum dot microcavities.

    PubMed

    Stock, E; Albert, F; Hopfmann, C; Lermer, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Forchel, A; Kamp, M; Reitzenstein, S

    2013-02-06

    A novel concept for on-chip quantum optics using an internal electrically pumped microlaser is presented. The microlaser resonantly excites a quantum dot microcavity system operating in the weak coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. This work presents the first on-chip application of quantum dot microlasers, and also opens up new avenues for the integration of individual microcavity structures into larger photonic networks.

  20. One step, microwave assisted green synthesis of biocompatible carbon quantum dots and their composites with [α-PW12O403-] for visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Pant, Shashank; Chatti, Manjunath; Maiti, Binoy; De, Priyadarsi; Roy, Soumyajit

    2014-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and green route for synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) by microwave assisted pyrolysis method using polyleucine polymer (Boc-L-Leu-HEMA) as precursor and self-passivating agent. The as synthesized CQDs were found to possess low cytotoxicity, thus making them suitable candidates for bioimaging and bio-labelling. Moreover, nanocomposites of as prepared CQDs with [α-PW12O403-] polyoxometalate were synthesized and were shown to possess excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light towards degradation of organic dye pollutants. Based on the control experiments, a suitable mechanism has been proposed to explain the remarkable photoactivity of the CQD/[α-PW12O403-] composites.

  1. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-19

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change.

  2. Quantum dots with single-atom precision.

    PubMed

    Fölsch, Stefan; Martínez-Blanco, Jesús; Yang, Jianshu; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Quantum dots are often called artificial atoms because, like real atoms, they confine electrons to quantized states with discrete energies. However, although real atoms are identical, most quantum dots comprise hundreds or thousands of atoms, with inevitable variations in size and shape and, consequently, unavoidable variability in their wavefunctions and energies. Electrostatic gates can be used to mitigate these variations by adjusting the electron energy levels, but the more ambitious goal of creating quantum dots with intrinsically digital fidelity by eliminating statistical variations in their size, shape and arrangement remains elusive. We used a scanning tunnelling microscope to create quantum dots with identical, deterministic sizes. By using the lattice of a reconstructed semiconductor surface to fix the position of each atom, we controlled the shape and location of the dots with effectively zero error. This allowed us to construct quantum dot molecules whose coupling has no intrinsic variation but could nonetheless be tuned with arbitrary precision over a wide range. Digital fidelity opens the door to quantum dot architectures free of intrinsic broadening-an important goal for technologies from nanophotonics to quantum information processing as well as for fundamental studies of confined electrons.

  3. Layered double hydroxides as carriers for quantum dots@silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Georgiana; Castelló Serrano, Iván; Figuerola, Albert; Ugarte, Irati; Pacios, Roberto; Palomares, Emilio

    2012-09-07

    Quantum dot-hydrotalcite layered nanoplatforms were successfully prepared following a one-pot synthesis. The process is very fast and a priori delamination of hydrotalcite is not a prerequisite for the intercalation of quantum dots. The novel materials were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, true color fluorescence microscopy, photoluminescence, and nitrogen adsorption. The quantum dot-hydrotalcite nanomaterials display extremely high stability in mimicking physiological media such as saline serum (pH 5.5) and PBS (pH 7.2). Yet, quantum dot release from the solid structure is noted. In order to prevent the leaking of quantum dots we have developed a novel strategy which consists of using tailor made double layered hydrotalcites as protecting shells for quantum dots embedded into silica nanospheres without changing either the materials or the optical properties.

  4. Towards hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennot, Jérémie J.; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Baillergeau, Matthieu; Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis

    2016-08-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics allows one to study the interaction between light and matter at the most elementary level. The methods developed in this field have taught us how to probe and manipulate individual quantum systems like atoms and superconducting quantum bits with an exquisite accuracy. There is now a strong effort to extend further these methods to other quantum systems, and in particular hybrid quantum dot circuits. This could turn out to be instrumental for a noninvasive study of quantum dot circuits and a realization of scalable spin quantum bit architectures. It could also provide an interesting platform for quantum simulation of simple fermion-boson condensed matter systems. In this short review, we discuss the experimental state of the art for hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots, and we present a simple theoretical modeling of experiments.

  5. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change.To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00814j

  6. Charge transport and localization in atomically coherent quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.

  7. Aqueous synthesis of Ag and Mn co-doped In2S3/ZnS quantum dots with tunable emission for dual-modal targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pei-Yu; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present the microwave-assisted synthesis of In2S3/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) co-doped with Ag(+) and Mn(2+) (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS). Ag(+) altered the optical properties of the host QDs, whereas the spin magnetic moment (S=5/2) of Mn(2+) efficiently induced the longitudinal relaxation of water protons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the aqueous synthesis of color-tunable AgMn:In2S3/ZnS core/shell QDs with magnetic properties. The synthetic procedure is rapid, facile, reproducible, and scalable. The obtained QDs offered a satisfactory quantum yield (45%), high longitudinal relaxivity (6.84s(-1)mM(-1)), and robust photostability. In addition, they exhibited excellent stability over a wide pH range (5-12) and high ionic strength (0.15-2.0M NaCl). As seen by confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS conjugated to hyaluronic acid (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA) efficiently and specifically targeted cluster determinant 44, a receptor overexpressed on cancer cells. Moreover, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA showed negligible cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, rendering it a promising diagnostic probe for dual-modal imaging in clinical applications.

  8. Aqueous synthesis of nontoxic Ag2Se/ZnSe quantum dots designing as fluorescence sensors for detection of Ag(I) and Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    We reported the synthesis of water-soluble and nontoxic Ag(2)Se/ZnSe Quantum Dots (QDs) using for fluorescence sensors. The influences of various experimental conditions including the synthesis pH, types of ligand, feed ratios, and the refluxed time on the growth process and fluorescence of QDs were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, Ag(2)Se/ZnSe QDs show a single emission peak around 490 nm with the maximal photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QYs) of 13.7 %. As-prepared Ag(2)Se/ZnSe QDs can be used for detection of Ag(II) and Cu(II). The detection limits are 1 × 10(-6) mol/L to 5 × 10(-5) mol/L for Ag (I), and 2 × 10(-6) mol/L to 1.10 × 10(-4) mol/L for Cu(II).

  9. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  10. Electronic properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, P. Yu.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Kaputkina, N. E.

    2012-04-01

    The electronic spectral and transport properties of aperiodic quantum dot chains are investigated. The systems with singular continuous energy spectrum are considered: Thue-Morse chain, double-periodic chain, Rudin-Shapiro chain. The influence of electronic energy in quantum dot on the spectral properties, band structure, density of states and spectral resistivity, is discussed. Low resistivity regions correspond to delocalized states and these states could be current states. Also we discuss the magnetic field application as the way to tune electronic energy in quantum dot and to obtain metallic or insulating conducting states of the systems.

  11. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I.-Wen Peter

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization.

  12. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization. PMID:27452118

  13. Quantum dot-based theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yi-Ping; Leong, Kam W.

    2010-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), have advanced the fields of molecular diagnostics and nanotherapeutics. Much of the initial progress for QDs in biology and medicine has focused on developing new biosensing formats to push the limit of detection sensitivity. Nevertheless, QDs can be more than passive bio-probes or labels for biological imaging and cellular studies. The high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs enables the construction of a ``smart'' multifunctional nanoplatform, where the QDs serve not only as an imaging agent but also a nanoscaffold catering for therapeutic and diagnostic (theranostic) modalities. This mini review highlights the emerging applications of functionalized QDs as fluorescence contrast agents for imaging or as nanoscale vehicles for delivery of therapeutics, with special attention paid to the promise and challenges towards QD-based theranostics.

  14. Microwave assisted aqueous synthesis of core-shell CdSe(x)Te(1-x)-CdS quantum dots for high performance sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianheng; Wei, Huiyun; Li, Fan; Huang, Qingli; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-04-04

    A facile microwave assisted aqueous method has been developed to rapidly prepare stable CdSe(x)Te(1-x)-CdS quantum dots. Based on this material, core-shell type II CdSe(x)Te(1-x)-CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells have been assembled and a power conversion efficiency as high as 5.04% has been obtained.

  15. New Meta Nanomaterials Extension II of Optical Enhancement and Photorefractive Two-Beam Coupling - Synthesis and Fabrication of Quantum Dot NLO Polymer Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    of fluorescent quantum dot- polymer nanocomposites via frontal polymerization . Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry2010, 48, 2170. [2...of Quantum Dot NLO Polymer Composites Ronald Ziolo CIQA Final Report 07/09/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04-07-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3

  16. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of novel molecularly imprinted polymer - coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for specific fluorescent recognition of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chantada-Vázquez, María Pilar; Sánchez-González, Juan; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material selective toward cocaine and its metabolites have been prepared and applied to cocaine (COC) and metabolites assessment by spectrofluorimetry. Ultrasound irradiation (37kHz) was novelty used for performing the Mn-doped ZnS QDs synthesis as well as for preparing the QD based MIP-coated composite by precipitation polymerization (imprinting process). This fact allowed the synthesis to be accomplished in four hours. In addition, the use of ultrasound irradiation during MIP-QDs synthesis increased the homogeneity of the QDs size, and reduced nanoparticles agglomeration. MIP was synthesized using COC as a template molecule, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The fluorescence of MIP-coated QDs was quenched by the template (COC) and also by metabolites from COC such as benzoylecgonine (BZE), and ecgonine methyl ester (EME). Quenching was not observed when performing experiments with non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated QDs; and also, fluorescence quenching of MIP-coated QDs was not observed by other drugs of abuse and metabolites (heroin and cannabis abuse). This fact indicates that the prepared material recognize only COC (template) and metabolites.

  18. Synthesis of Monometallic (Au and Pd) and Bimetallic (AuPd) Nanoparticles Using Carbon Nitride (C3N4) Quantum Dots via the Photochemical Route for Nitrophenol Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fageria, Pragati; Uppala, Shravan; Nazir, Roshan; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Basu, Mrinmoyee; Pande, Surojit

    2016-10-04

    In this study, we report the synthesis of monometallic (Au and Pd) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles (NPs) using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) quantum dots (QDs) and photochemical routes. Eliminating the necessity of any extra stabilizer or reducing agent, the photochemical reactions have been carried out using a UV light source of 365 nm where C3N4 QD itself functions as a suitable stabilizer as well as a reducing agent. The g-C3N4 QDs are excited upon irradiation with UV light and produce photogenerated electrons, which further facilitate the reduction of metal ions. The successful formation of Au, Pd, and AuPd alloy nanoparticles is evidenced by UV-vis, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photon spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy techniques. The morphology and distribution of metal nanoparticles over the C3N4 QD surface has been systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and SAED analysis. To explore the catalytic activity of the as-prepared samples, the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol with excellent performance is also investigated. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of both monometallic and bimetallic NPs can be accomplished by using a very small amount of g-C3N4, which can be used as a promising photoreducing material as well as a stabilizer for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles.

  19. Spin Dynamics of Charged Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, N. P.

    2005-03-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are promising structures for controlling spin phenomena because of their highly size- tunable physical properties, ease of manufacture, and nanosecond-scale spin lifetimes at room temperature. Recent experiments have succeeded in controlling the charging of the lowest electronic state of colloidal quantum dots ootnotetextC. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, C. Y. Woo, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. Phys. Chem B 108, 9027 (2004).. Here we use time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements in the Voigt geometry to investigate the spin dynamics of colloidal CdSe quantum dot films in both a charged and uncharged state at room temperature. The charging of the film is controlled by applying a voltage in an electrochemical cell and is confirmed by absorbance measurements. Significant changes in the spin precession are observed upon charging, reflecting the voltage- controlled electron occupation of the quantum dot states and filling of surface states.

  20. Teleportation on a quantum dot array.

    PubMed

    de Pasquale, F; Giorgi, G; Paganelli, S

    2004-09-17

    We present a model of quantum teleportation protocol based on a double quantum dot array. The unknown qubit is encoded using a pair of quantum dots, with one excess electron, coupled by tunneling. It is shown how to create a maximally entangled state using an adiabatically increasing Coulomb repulsion between different dot pairs. This entangled state is exploited to perform teleportation again using an adiabatic coupling between itself and the incoming unknown state. Finally, a sudden separation of Bob's qubit allows a time evolution of Alice's, which amounts to a modified version of standard Bell measurement. A transmission over a long distance could be obtained by considering the entangled state of a chain of N coupled double quantum dots. The system is shown to be increasingly robust with N against decoherence due to phonons.

  1. Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurélie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice.The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities

  2. Synthesis and formation mechanistic investigation of nitrogen-doped carbon dots with high quantum yields and yellowish-green fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Tianyu; Wang, Bo; Li, Huiyu; Ding, Lan

    2016-05-01

    Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A possible formation mechanism has thus been proposed including dehydration, polymerization and carbonization. Furthermore, the N-CDs could serve as a facile and label-free probe for the detection of iron and fluorine ions with detection limits of 50 nmol L-1 and 75 nmol L-1, respectively.Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A

  3. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  4. First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo

    2004-03-30

    A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.

  5. Noninvasive detection of charge rearrangement in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, C.; Rogge, M. C.; Harke, B.; Reinwald, M.; Wegscheider, W.; Hohls, F.; Haug, R. J.

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate new results on electron redistribution on a single quantum dot caused by magnetic field. A quantum point contact is used to detect changes in the quantum dot charge. We are able to measure both the change of the quantum dot charge and also changes of the electron configuration at constant number of electrons on the quantum dot. These features are used to exploit the quantum dot in a high magnetic field where transport through the quantum dot displays the effects of Landau shells and spin blockade.

  6. Semiconductor Quantum Dots with Photoresponsive Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Lorenzo; Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Raymo, Françisco M; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    Photochromic or photocaged ligands can be anchored to the outer shell of semiconductor quantum dots in order to control the photophysical properties of these inorganic nanocrystals with optical stimulations. One of the two interconvertible states of the photoresponsive ligands can be designed to accept either an electron or energy from the excited quantum dots and quench their luminescence. Under these conditions, the reversible transformations of photochromic ligands or the irreversible cleavage of photocaged counterparts translates into the possibility to switch luminescence with external control. As an alternative to regulating the photophysics of a quantum dot via the photochemistry of its ligands, the photochemistry of the latter can be controlled by relying on the photophysics of the former. The transfer of excitation energy from a quantum dot to a photocaged ligand populates the excited state of the species adsorbed on the nanocrystal to induce a photochemical reaction. This mechanism, in conjunction with the large two-photon absorption cross section of quantum dots, can be exploited to release nitric oxide or to generate singlet oxygen under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and photoresponsive ligands offers the opportunity to assemble nanostructured constructs with specific functions on the basis of electron or energy transfer processes. The photoswitchable luminescence and ability to photoinduce the release of reactive chemicals, associated with the resulting systems, can be particularly valuable in biomedical research and can, ultimately, lead to the realization of imaging probes for diagnostic applications as well as to therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

  7. Positioning of quantum dots on metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R K; Pholchai, N; Sorger, V J; Yim, T J; Oulton, R; Zhang, X

    2010-04-09

    The capability to position individual emitters, such as quantum dots, near metallic nanostructures is highly desirable for constructing active optical devices that can manipulate light at the single photon level. The emergence of the field of plasmonics as a means to confine light now introduces a need for high precision and reliability in positioning any source of emission, which has thus far been elusive. Placing an emission source within the influence of plasmonic structures now requires accuracy approaching molecular length scales. In this paper we report the ability to reliably position nanoscale functional objects, specifically quantum dots, with sub-100-nm accuracy, which is several times smaller than the diffraction limit of a quantum dot's emission light. Electron beam lithography-defined masks on metallic surfaces and a series of surface chemical functionalization processes allow the programmed assembly of DNA-linked colloidal quantum dots. The quantum dots are successfully functionalized to areas as small as (100 nm)(2) using the specific binding of thiolated DNA to Au/Ag, and exploiting the streptavidin-biotin interaction. An analysis of the reproducibility of the process for various pattern sizes shows that this technique is potentially scalable to the single quantum dot level with 50 nm accuracy accompanied by a moderate reduction in yield.

  8. Delivering quantum dots to cells: bioconjugated quantum dots for targeted and nonspecific extracellular and intracellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Itoh, Tamitake; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Bioconjugated nanomaterials offer endless opportunities to advance both nanobiotechnology and biomedical technology. In this regard, semiconductor nanoparticles, also called quantum dots, are of particular interest for multimodal, multifunctional and multiplexed imaging of biomolecules, cells, tissues and animals. The unique optical properties, such as size-dependent tunable absorption and emission in the visible and NIR regions, narrow emission and broad absorption bands, high photoluminescence quantum yields, large one- and multi-photon absorption cross-sections, and exceptional photostability are the advantages of quantum dots. Multimodal imaging probes are developed by interfacing the unique optical properties of quantum dots with magnetic or radioactive materials. Besides, crystalline structure of quantum dots adds scope for high-contrast X-ray and TEM imaging. Yet another unique feature of a quantum dot is its spacious and flexible surface which is promising to integrate multiple ligands and antibodies and construct multi-functional probes for bioimaging. In this critical review, we will summarize recent advancements in the preparation of biocompatible quantum dots, bioconjugation of quantum dots, and applications of quantum dots and their bioconjugates for targeted and nonspecific imaging of extracellular and intracellular proteins, organelles and functions (181 references).

  9. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter; Bartl, Michael; Reimus, Paul; Williams, Mark; Mella, Mike

    2015-09-12

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  10. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using various long-chain fatty acids and their phase transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Yang, Ping; Shen, Jianxing

    2013-06-01

    Monodispersed colloidal photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via an organic approach by using cadmium oxide and elemental selenium as precursors, and long-chain fatty acids as surface ligands. The hydrocarbon chain length of the fatty acid was adjusted to investigate the effect on CdSe QDs. The fatty acid ligands with different hydrocarbon chain lengths showed an apparent effect on the nanocrystal nucleation and growth which is the key controlling the size, size distribution and crystal structure of resulting CdSe QDs. This effect was attributable to the steric hindrance of different hydrocarbon length of the fatty acids, which affected the reactivity of the monomers and nanocrystals during the nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The water-soluble CdSe QDs were obtained by encapsulating the CdSe ODs in oil phase with amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)-ethanolamine (EA) polymers, which made it possible for further applications of the CdSe QDs in aqueous environment such as surface functionalization for biological labeling and application in photocatalysis and photosensitization.

  11. CdS and CdTeS quantum dot decorated TiO2 nanowires. Synthesis and photoefficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Gonzalez, Yaocihuatl; Xu, William Z.; Chen, Bo; Farhanghi, Nasrin; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2011-02-01

    An easy process was developed to synthesize TiO2 nanowires sensitized with CdS and CdTeS quantum dots (QDs) requiring no pretreatment of the TiO2 nanowires prior to nanoparticle generation. CdS and CdTeS nanoparticles were firstly grown by an in situ colloidal method directly onto the TiO2 surface, hence not requiring subsequent functionalization of the QDs. The resulting nanostructure assembly and composition was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Successful decoration of the TiO2 nanowires by the QDs was observed by TEM, while XPS spectra provided clear evidence for the coexistence of CdS and CdTeS QDs and TiO2 nanowires. The electronic structure of the TiO2 nanowires was preserved as indicated by Raman spectroscopy. Preliminary photocurrent measurements showed that inclusion of Te in CdS QDs improved the photocurrent efficiency. Compared to bare TiO2 nanowires, CdS/TiO2 nanoassemblies showed an enhancement in photocurrent efficiency of 300% while CdTeS/TiO2 presented an improvement of 350%. This study indicates that the generation of strongly anchored CdS and CdTeS QDs on a TiO2 nanowire surface is achievable without introduction of a linker molecule, whose presence is known to decrease the electron injection efficiency.

  12. Synthesis of water-dispersible zinc oxide quantum dots with antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity for cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Lin, Ying Yi; Huang, Sherry; Lem, Kwok Wai; Huong Nguyen, Dinh; Lee, Dai Soo

    2013-11-01

    Typical photoluminescent semiconductor nanoparticles, called quantum dots (QDs), have potential applications in biological labeling. When used to label stem cells, QDs may impair the differentiation capacity of the stem cells. In this study, we synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) QDs in methanol with an average size of ∼2 nm. We then employed two different types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (SH-PEG-NH2 and NH2-PEG-NH2) to conjugate ZnO QDs and made them water-dispersible. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicated the attachment of PEG molecules on ZnO QDs. No obvious size alteration was observed for ZnO QDs after PEG conjugation. The water-dispersible ZnO QDs still retained the antibacterial activity and fluorescence intensity. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that ZnO QDs at higher concentrations decreased cell viability but were generally safe at 30 ppm or below. Cell lines of hepatocytes (HepG2), osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were successfully labeled by the water-dispersible ZnO QDs at 30 ppm. The ZnO QD-labeled MSCs maintained their stemness and differentiation capacity. Therefore, we conclude that the water-dispersible ZnO QDs developed in this study have antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, and proper labeling efficiency, and can be used to label a variety of cells including stem cells.

  13. Facile synthesis and step by step enhancement of blue photoluminescence from Ag-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Sonal; Husain, Mushahid; Shanker, Virendra; Singh, Nahar; Haranath, D

    2011-05-15

    Our results pertaining to the step by step enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) intensity from ZnS:Ag,Al quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Initially, these QDs were synthesized using a simple co-precipitation technique involving a surfactant, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), in de-ionised water. It was observed that the blue PL originated from ZnS:Ag,Al QDs was considerably weak and not suitable for any practical display application. Upon UV (365 nm) photolysis, the PL intensity augmented to ~170% and attained a saturation value after ~100 min of exposure. This is attributed to the photo-corrosion mechanism exerted by high-flux UV light on ZnS:Ag,Al QDs. Auxiliary enhancement of PL intensity to 250% has been evidenced by subjecting the QDs to high temperatures (200 °C) and pressures (~120 bars) in a sulphur-rich atmosphere, which is due to the improvement in crystallanity of ZnS QDs. The origin of the bright-blue PL has been discussed. The results were supported by X-ray phase analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy and compositional evaluation.

  14. Laser-assisted synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus protein-capped silicon quantum dots as bio-functional nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagga, K.; Barchanski, A.; Intartaglia, R.; Dante, S.; Marotta, R.; Diaspro, A.; Sajti, C. L.; Brandi, F.

    2013-06-01

    A novel approach for nanofabricating protein-functionalized luminescent silicon nanoparticles based on infrared ultrafast laser ablation of silicon in an aqueous solution of Staphylococcus aureus protein A is reported. It is demonstrated that 8 nm protein A-capped silicon quantum dots with blue-green photoemissive properties are generated. The conjugation efficiency studies reveal a high percentage of protein A attached to the Si nanoparticle surface through physical adsorption phenomena during the in situ laser process. The biological functionality of laser-generated Staphylococcus aureus protein A-capped Si nanoparticles is investigated. Confocal and electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis show that these Si-based bio-nanostructures selectively bind IgG in the cells. Cell viability studies reveal that these protein A-capped Si nanoparticles are suitable for biological applications, demonstrating their potential as universal secondary biomarkers for in vivo applications such as long-term, real-time cell labeling, cell staining and controlled drug delivery.

  15. One-pot carbonization synthesis of europium-doped carbon quantum dots for highly selective detection of tetracycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Liu, Meng; Chen, Bin Bin; Yang, Tong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xi Dong; Zhi Huang, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The detection of tetracycline is of great significance because of its damaging effects on human health, such as renal toxicity and hemolytic anemia. Any release of tetracycline into the surrounding environment can produce bacterial drug resistance. We develop a new sensitive and selective detection approach for tetracycline in complex water samples by preparing europium-doped carbon quantum dots (Eu-CQDs) through a simple and rapid carbonization method operating at 200 °C for 5 min. The Eu-CQDs are characterized by blue photoluminescence, excitation-wavelength-dependent emission and excellent stability. Importantly, the fluorescence of the Eu-CQDs can be quenched efficiently by tetracycline, based on the strong inner filter effect mechanism between Eu-CQDs and tetracycline, making the fluorescence intensity ratio (I 0/I) of the Eu-CQDs at 465 nm correlate linearly with the concentration of tetracycline in the range of 0.5–200 μM, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μM. This shows the broad applicability of the Eu-CQDs in pursuing the concepts of simplicity and specificity for analytical purposes.

  16. Bioinspired, direct synthesis of aqueous CdSe quantum dots for high-sensitive copper(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming; He, Man; Chen, Zhenjie; Zhang, Tao

    2013-11-21

    Luminescent CdSe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which are coated with a denatured bovine serum albumin (dBSA) shell, have been directly synthesized via a bioinspired approach. The dBSA coated CdSe QDs are ultrasmall (d < 2.0 nm) with a narrow size distribution and exhibit a strong green fluorescent emission at about 525 nm. They can be stored for months at room temperature and possess excellent stability against ultraviolet irradiation, high salt concentration, and a wide physiological range of pH. Systematic experimental investigations have shown the contribution of dBSA with free cysteine residues for both their effective ion chelating and surface passivating interactions during the formation and stabilization of CdSe QDs. The luminescent QDs are used for copper(II) ion detection due to their highly sensitive and selective fluorescence quenching response to Cu(2+). The concentration dependence of the quenching effect can be best described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation in a linearly proportional concentration of Cu(2+) ranging from 10 nM to 7.5 μM with a detection limit of 5 nM. As confirmed by various characterization results, a possible quenching mechanism is given: Cu(2+) ions are first reduced to Cu(+) by the dBSA shell and then chemical displacement between Cu(+) and Cd(2+) is performed at the surface of the ultrasmall metallic core to impact the fluorescence performance.

  17. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CdS Quantum Dots via Paraffin Liquid as Solvent and Oleic Acid as the Reacting Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjiang; Wang, Mingrui; Xie, Fei; Zhu, Sha; Zhao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals have been widely used as fluorescent materials in chemical sensors, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, biological imaging and many other fields. Compared to the conventional organic fluorophores, the inorganic quantum dots (QDs) have many advantages, including broad absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, good photostability and long fluorescent lifetime after excitation. Here, the high quality CdS QDs were synthesized directly from sulfur and CdO using the paraffin liquid as solvent and the oleic acid as the reacting media. The synthesized CdS QDs with a zinc blende (cubic) crystal structure were proved by X-ray diffraction. HRTEM observation revealed that the CdS QDs were uniform and the average grain size was about 4 nm. The optical properties of the CdS QDs were characterized by using photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrophotometer. The formation mechanism of CdS QDs in the paraffin liquid and oleic acid system was proposed.

  18. Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots Coated with Mercaptosuccinic Acid for Early Detection and Therapeutics of Oral Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocelin, G.; Arivarasan, A.; Ganesan, M.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are gaining widespread recognition for its luminescence behavior and unique photo physical properties as a bio-marker and inorganic fluorophore. In spite of such rampant advantages, its application is clinically hampered depending on the surface coating decreasing its luminescence efficiency. The present study reports preparation of CdTe QDs capped with biologically active thiol based material, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for diagnosis of oral cancer (KB) cells by acting as a fluorophore marking targeted tumor cells and at the same time exhibiting certain cytotoxic effects. Synthesized MSA coated CdTe QDs is spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3-5nm. In vitro, the rapid uptake of MSA CdTe QDs in oral cancer cell lines were assessed through fluorescence microscopy. Further, this study evaluates the therapeutic efficiency of MSA CdTe QDs in human oral cancer cell lines using MTT analysis. MSA CdTe QDs exhibit significant cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with low IC50 when compared with other raw CdTe QDs. MSA CdTe QDs were also treated with human lymphocytes (normal cells) to assess and compare the toxicity profile of QDs in normal and oral tumors. The results of our present study strengthen our hypothesis of using MSA CdTe QDs as detector for tracking and fluorescence imaging of oral cancer cells and exhibiting sufficient cytotoxicity in them.

  19. Single step synthesis of ZnS quantum dots and their microstructure characterization and electrical transport below room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, P. S.; Patra, S.; Chakraborty, G.; Pradhan, S. K.; Meikap, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Low dimensional cubic phase ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are formed by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of Zn and S powders at room temperature. During milling process the primary mixed phase ZnS is formed at about 3.5 h of milling and strain less single phase (cubic) ZnS QDs are formed with ∼4.5 nm in size after 20 h of milling. Detailed microstructure study has been done by both Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction pattern and high resolution transmission electron microscope images. Dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature which can be explained by three-dimensional hopping conduction mechanisms. Observed negative magnetoconductivity has been analyzed by wave function shrinkage model. Alternating current conductivity can be described by the correlated barrier hopping conduction mechanism. Analysis of complex impedance indicates that the grain boundary resistance is found to be dominating over the grain resistance. Relaxation behavior has been explained by the analysis of the electric modulus.

  20. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on carbon quantum dots for fluorescent sensing of tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Tianyu; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, selective and eco-friendly sensor for the detection of tetracycline was developed by grafting imprinted polymers onto the surface of carbon quantum dots. A simple microwave-assisted approach was utilized to fabricate the fluorescent imprinted composites rapidly for the first time, which could shorten the polymerization time and simplify the experimental procedure dramatically. The novel composites not only demonstrated excellent fluorescence stability and special binding sites, but also could selectively accumulate target analytes. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of the composites decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of tetracycline from 20 nM to 14 µM. The detection limit of tetracycline was 5.48 nM. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed sensor were also acceptable. Significantly, the practicality of this ultrasensitive sensor for tetracycline detection in milk was further validated, revealing the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, selectivity and low cost. This approach combines the high selective adsorption property of molecular imprinted polymers and the sensitivity of fluorescence detection. It is envisioned that the development of fluorescent molecularly imprinted composites will offer a new way of thinking for rapid analysis in complex samples.

  1. Zeeman transitions in spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakar, Y.; ćakır, B.; Yılmazer, F.; Özmen, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of external magnetic field on the energy states of a spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier have been investigated by using Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. Linear Zeeman states and Zeeman transition energies are calculated as a function of dot radius and magnetic field strength. We also carry out the effect of external magnetic field on the ground state binding energy. The results show that the impurity energy states, binding energy and Zeeman transition energies are strongly affected by magnetic field strength and dot radius.

  2. Synthesis and application of the reduction-sensitive drug delivery system based on water-soluble ZnInAgS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dawei; Zhang, Rong; Qu, Lingzhi; Bao, Fangjian; Wang, Jie; Deng, Tao

    2016-10-01

    High-quality water-soluble quantum dots had been synthesized following the one-step method. Furtherly, the impact factors on the optical properties of quantum dots, which were the feed ratio of S/In and the reflux time, had been concerned emphatically. By changing the reaction parameters, we made the fluorescence emission of ZnInAgS quantum dot tunable from green to orange, and the maximum fluorescence quantum efficiency was up to 30%. Then we modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surface of ZnInAgS quantum dot, which was conjugated with BSA-QDs through the linker of 3'3-dimercapto-diacetate DOX. Finally, the reduction-sensitive drug delivery system based on ZnInAgS quantum dots (QBSSD) was successfully constructed. The resultant QBSSD complex were observed to be significantly stable in aqueous solution. In addition, owing to their cellular reduction responsiveness at the cleavable disulfide linker, the QBSSD complex were able to release DOX rapidly. In vitro drug release and cell level release experiments proved that our QBSSD complexes could make a quick drug release in the environment with GSH. The efficacy experiments showed that our QBSSD complexes exhibited a strong killing effect to cancer cells, and low toxic to normal cells. All the results indicated that the reduction-sensitive drug delivery system was a promising model of administration.

  3. Tuning the emission of CdSe quantum dots by controlled trap enhancement.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Kamat, Prashant V

    2010-07-06

    Ligand exchange with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) has been successfully used to tune the emission intensity of trioctylphosphineoxide/dodecylamine-capped CdSe quantum dots. Addition of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to CdSe quantum dot suspension enhances the deep trap emission with concurrent quenching of the band edge emission. The smaller sized quantum dots, because of larger surface/volume ratio, create a brighter trap emission and are more easily tuned. An important observation is that the deep trap emission which is minimal after synthesis is brightened to have a quantum yield of 1-5% and can be tuned based on the concentration of MPA in solution with the quantum dots. Photoluminescence decay and transient absorption measurements reveal the role of surface bound MPA in altering the photophysical properties of CdSe quantum dots.

  4. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-09-15

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of high-quality type-II CdTe/CdSe quantum dots with near-infrared fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou

    2010-11-01

    A simple hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of high-quality, water-soluble, and near-infrared (NIR)-emitting type-II core/shell CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by employing thiol-capped CdTe QDs as core templates and CdCl(2) and Na(2)SeO(3) as shell precursors. Compared with the original CdTe core QDs, the core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs exhibit an obvious red-shifted emission, whose color can be tuned between visible and NIR regions (620-740 nm) by controlling the thickness of the CdSe shell. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of CdTe/CdSe QDs with an optimized thickness of the CdSe shell can reach up to 44.2% without any post-preparative treatment. Through a thorough study of the core/shell structure by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the as-prepared CdTe/CdSe QDs demonstrate good monodispersity, hardened lattice structure and excellent photostability, offering a great potential for biological application.

  6. Thermal Decomposition Based Synthesis of Ag-In-S/ZnS Quantum Dots and Their Chlorotoxin-Modified Micelles for Brain Tumor Cell Targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siqi; Ahmadiantehrani, Mojtaba; Publicover, Nelson G; Hunter, Kenneth W; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    Cadmium-free silver-indium-sulfide (Ag-In-S or AIS) chalcopyrite quantum dots (QDs) as well as their core-shell structures (AIS/ZnS QDs) are being paid significant attention in biomedical applications because of their low toxicity and excellent optical properties. Here we report a simple and safe synthetic system to prepare high quality AIS and AIS/ZnS QDs using thermal decomposition. The synthetic system simply involves heating a mixture of silver acetate, indium acetate, and oleic acid in dodecanethiol at 170 °C to produce AIS QDs with a 13% quantum yield (QY). After ZnS shell growth, the produced AIS/ZnS QDs achieve a 41% QY. To facilitate phase transfer and bioconjugation of AIS/ZnS QDs for cellular imaging, these QDs were loaded into the core of PLGA-PEG (5k:5k) based micelles to form AIS/ZnS QD-micelles. Cellular imaging studies showed that chlorotoxin-conjugated QD-micelles can be specifically internalized into U-87 brain tumor cells. This work discloses that the scalable synthesis of AIS/ZnS QDs and the facile surface/interface chemistry for phase transfer and bioconjugation of these QDs may open an avenue for the produced QD-micelles to be applied to the detection of endogenous targets expressed on brain tumor cells, or more broadly to cell- or tissue-based diagnosis and therapy.

  7. A facile cation exchange-based aqueous synthesis of highly stable and biocompatible Ag₂S quantum dots emitting in the second near-infrared biological window.

    PubMed

    Gui, Rijun; Sun, Jie; Liu, Dexiu; Wang, Yanfeng; Jin, Hui

    2014-11-28

    Second near-infrared (NIR-II) emitting Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with high stability and biocompatibility were synthesized and developed toward an ideal nanoprobe. This study reports a facile synthesis of NIR-II Ag2S QDs on the basis of cation exchange between visible-emitting CdS QDs and Ag(+) ions in aqueous solution. Experimental data testified that the cation exchange was quick and complete and that the resultant products were single monoclinic Ag2S without CdS QDs. The prepared Ag2S QDs were systematically characterized, showed typical NIR-II emission and high PL stability, and had small diameters (~3.5 nm) and a quantum yield up to 2.3%. The results of cytotoxicity assay suggested that the Ag2S QDs produced negligible effects in altering the cell proliferation or in generating reactive oxygen species, indicating an ultralow cytotoxicity and an excellent biocompatibility. These properties have opened up the possibility of using Ag2S QDs for effective bioimaging applications.

  8. Cation-inverting-injection: a novel method for synthesis of aqueous ZnSe quantum dots with bright excitionic emission and suppressed trap emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2014-07-01

    In the conventional synthesis of aqueous ZnSe quantum dots (QDs), highly reactive Se monomers are rapidly injected into a Zn-thiol complexes solution at room temperature, resulting in a poor excitionic luminescence and a serious trap emission of as-prepared ZnSe QDs. In this paper, we develop a novel cation-inverting-injection method to prepare aqueous ZnSe QDs with a bright excitionic luminescence. In this method, highly reactive Se monomers are first diluted in the reaction solution, followed by low-reaction Zn-thiol complexes slowly dropped at a high reaction temperature (90 °C). The inverting monomer injection order, the suppressed monomer reactivity and the high nucleation temperature in the cation-inverting-injection method can contribute to low-concentration but high-quality ZnSe nuclei, thereby promoting the formation of ZnSe QDs with large-sized particles, a high excitionic emission and a weak trap emission. As-prepared ZnSe QDs exhibit an intense deep-blue excitionic emission, which is the first reported case of a visible excitionic emission instead of a trap emission resulting from ZnSe QDs that are directly synthesized in an aqueous media. Using three types of dyes, via two measuring methods, the accurate photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-prepared ZnSe QDs is measured as 15%, which is a new record for mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized ZnSe QDs synthesized in an aqueous media.

  9. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  10. Imaging Quantum Confinement in Multiple Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jairo; Lee, Juwon; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin; Kahn, Salman; Vo, Phong; Tsai, Hsinzon; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Levitov, Leonid; Crommie, Michael

    Quantum dots provide a useful means for controlling the electronic and spin degrees of freedom of mesoscale and nanoscale materials. Here we demonstrate a new method for fabricating interacting graphene quantum dots that is compatible with electrostatic gating and visualization by way of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using this new technique we have created and spatially characterized systems of two or more interacting quantum dots. Our results show that it is possible to engineer electronic wave functions in graphene with a high degree of spatial control.

  11. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-16

    Heteroepitaxy-atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate-is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  12. Simultaneous Synthesis of WO3-x Quantum Dots and Bundle-Like Nanowires Using a One-Pot Template-Free Solvothermal Strategy and Their Versatile Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yuanhong; Chen, Tao; Liu, Mengli; Niu, Fushuang; Wei, Shuang; Liu, Jingquan

    2017-04-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x ), a new alternative to conventional semiconductor material, has attracted numerous attentions owning to its widespread potential applications. Various methods have been reported for the synthesis of WO3-x nanostructures such as nanowires or nanodots. However, templates or surfactants are often required for the synthesis, which significantly complicate the process and hinder the broad applications. Herein, one-pot template/surfactant-free solvothermal method is proposed to synthesize the WO3-x nanostructures including fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) and bundle-like nanowires simultaneously. The as-prepared WO3-x QDs can be well dispersed in aqueous medium, exhibit excellent photoluminescent properties, and show an average size of 3.25 ± 0.25 nm as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the diameter of the WO3-x nanowires is found to be about 27.5 nm as manifested by the scanning electron microscope images. The generation mechanism for these two WO3-x nanostructures are systematically studied and proposed. The WO3-x QDs have been successfully applied in efficient fluorescent staining and specific ferric ion detection. Moreover, the WO3-x nanowires can be utilized as effective dielectric materials for electromagnetic wave absorption.

  13. (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Sapega, Victor; Nevedomskii, Vladimir; Khrebtov, Artem; Samsonenko, Yuriy; Cirlin, George

    2014-12-08

    (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dots structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a Mn selective doping of the central parts of quantum dots. The study of the structural and magneto-optical properties of the samples with three and five layers of (In,Mn)As quantum dots has shown that during the quantum dots assembly, the out-diffusion of Mn from the layers with (In,Mn)As quantum dots can occur resulting in the formation of the extended defects. To produce a high quality structures using the elaborated technique of selective doping, the number of (In,Mn)As quantum dot layers should not exceed three.

  14. SnO2 quantum dots and quantum wires: controllable synthesis, self-assembled 2D architectures, and gas-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangxing; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2008-09-17

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) and ultrathin nanowires (NWs) with diameters of approximately 0.5-2.5 and approximately 1.5-4.5 nm, respectively, were controllably synthesized in a simple solution system. They are supposed to be ideal models for studying the continuous evolution of the quantum-confinement effect in SnO2 1D --> 0D systems. The observed transition from strong to weak quantum confinement in SnO2 QDs and ultrathin NWs is interpreted through the use of the Brus effective-mass approximation and the Nosaka finite-depth well model. Photoluminescence properties that were coinfluenced by size effects, defects (oxygen vacancies), and surface capping are discussed in detail. With the SnO2 QDs as building blocks, various 2D porous structures with ordered hexagonal, distorted hexagonal, and square patterns were prepared on silicon-wafer surfaces and exhibited optical features of 2D photonic crystals and enhanced gas sensitivity.

  15. Quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers: comparison to quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2016-03-01

    We review a microscopic laser theory for quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers, in which carrier collisions are treated at the level of quantum kinetic equations. The computed characteristics of such a quantum-dot active material are compared to a state-of-the-art quantum-well quantum cascade laser. We find that the current requirement to achieve a comparable gain-length product is reduced compared to that of the quantum-well quantum cascade laser.

  16. "Green" synthesis of cadmium selenide nanocrystals: the scope of 1,2,3-selendiazoles in the synthesis of magic-size nanocrystals and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Beri, Rupinder K; Khanna, Pawan K

    2011-06-01

    A range of cadmium selenide nano-particles (the quantum dots (QDs), the magic-size nano-crystals (MSNCs) or the mixture of two) have been synthesized by the use of organoselenium reagents viz. 1,2,3-selenadiazole and metal salts in an appropriate choice of long chain fatty acids e.g., oleic acid with or without a solvent. These different types of nanocrystals can be easily obtained simply by variation in reaction temperature. The employed approach does not use any hazardous reagents and is typically non-aqueous and can be considered "green." The temperature at which the reaction is carried out along with the ratio of reactants and surfactant affect the nature of products and have led to understanding of some parameters affecting the formation of either "thermodynamic" or "kinetically" stabilized products. We have obtained sub-nanosized particles (magic-sized nanocrystals), zero-dimensional quantum dots and self-assembled structures by these methods. The materials have been studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  17. Quantum Dot Detector Enhancement for Narrow Band Multispectral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2013-0168 QUANTUM DOT DETECTOR ENHANCEMENT FOR NARROW BAND MULTISPECTRAL APPLICATIONS John Derov and Neda Mojaverian... QUANTUM DOT DETECTOR ENHANCEMENT FOR NARROW BAND MULTISPECTRAL APPLICATIONS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...enhancement of quantum dot photodetectors was also investigated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum dot, quantum well, photodetectors, plasmonics 16

  18. Electromechanical transition in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micchi, G.; Avriller, R.; Pistolesi, F.

    2016-09-01

    The strong coupling between electronic transport in a single-level quantum dot and a capacitively coupled nanomechanical oscillator may lead to a transition towards a mechanically bistable and blocked-current state. Its observation is at reach in carbon-nanotube state-of-art experiments. In a recent publication [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 206802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.206802] we have shown that this transition is characterized by pronounced signatures on the oscillator mechanical properties: the susceptibility, the displacement fluctuation spectrum, and the ring-down time. These properties are extracted from transport measurements, however the relation between the mechanical quantities and the electronic signal is not always straightforward. Moreover the dependence of the same quantities on temperature, bias or gate voltage, and external dissipation has not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap and provide a detailed description of the transition. Specifically we find (i) the relation between the current-noise and the displacement spectrum; (ii) the peculiar behavior of the gate-voltage dependence of these spectra at the transition; (iii) the robustness of the transition towards the effect of external fluctuations and dissipation.

  19. Quantum analysis of plasmonic coupling between quantum dots and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, SalmanOgli

    2016-10-01

    In this study, interaction between core-shells nanoparticles and quantum dots is discussed via the full-quantum-theory method. The electromagnetic field of the nanoparticles is derived by the quasistatic approximation method and the results for different regions of the nanoparticles are quantized from the time-harmonic to the wave equation. Utilizing the optical field quantization, the nanoparticles' and quantum dots' deriving amplitudes contributing to the excitation waves are determined. In the current model, two counterpropagating waves with two different frequencies are applied. We derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations from the Heisenberg-Langevin equations; thus the nanoparticles-quantum dots interaction is perused. Moreover, by full quantum analyzing of the analytical expression, the quantum-plasmonic coupling relation and the Purcell factor are achieved. We show that the spontaneous emission of quantum dots can be dramatically manipulated by engineering the plasmon-plasmon interaction in the core-shells nanoparticles. This issue is a very attractive point for designing a wide variety of quantum-plasmonic sensors. Through the investigation of the nanoparticle plasmonic interaction effects on absorbed power, the results show that the nanoparticles' and quantum dots' absorption saturation state can be switched to each other just by manipulation of their deriving amplitudes. In fact, we manage the interference between the two waves' deriving amplitudes just by the plasmonic interactions effect.

  20. Quantum dots for light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Khan; Lei, Wei; Li, Qing

    2013-05-01

    In this article we discuss the development and key advantages of quantum dot based light emitting diode (QD-LED) and other applications based on their color purity, stability, and solution processibility. Analysis of quantum dot based LEDs and the main challenges faced in this field, such as the QD luminescence quenching, QD charging in thin films, and external quantum efficiency are discussed in detail. The description about how different optical down-conversion and structures enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and to commercialize the products. The recent developments about how to overcome these difficulties have also been discussed in this article.

  1. Patterned semiconductor inverted quantum dot photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel inverted quantum dot structure is presented, which consists of an InGaAs quantum well that has been periodically perforated and then filled with the higher bandgap GaAs barrier material. This structure exhibits a unique quantized energy structure something like a planar atomic bond structure and formation of allowed and forbidden energy bands instead of highly localized, fully discrete states. We describe the growth, processing and characteristics of inverted quantum dot structures and outline interesting and potentially important effects arising from the introduction of nanoscale features (<50 nm) in the active medium.

  2. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  3. Quantum dot nanoscale heterostructures for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Selinsky, Rachel S; Ding, Qi; Faber, Matthew S; Wright, John C; Jin, Song

    2013-04-07

    Quantum dot nanoscale semiconductor heterostructures (QDHs) are a class of materials potentially useful for integration into solar energy conversion devices. However, realizing the potential of these heterostructured systems requires the ability to identify and synthesize heterostructures with suitably designed materials, controlled size and morphology of each component, and structural control over their shared interface. In this review, we will present the case for the utility and advantages of chemically synthesized QDHs for solar energy conversion, beginning with an overview of various methods of heterostructured material synthesis and a survey of heretofore reported materials systems. The fundamental charge transfer properties of the resulting materials combinations and their basic design principles will be outlined. Finally, we will discuss representative solar photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices employing QDHs (including quantum dot sensitized solar cells, or QDSSCs) and examine how QDH synthesis and design impacts their performance.

  4. Electrolyzing synthesis of boron-doped graphene quantum dots for fluorescence determination of Fe(3+) ions in water samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wu, Chuanli; Du, Pan; Feng, Xiaowei; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2017-03-01

    This work reports a facile electrolyzing method to synthesize boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) and uses the BGQDs as a fluorescent probe to determine Fe(3+) ion levels in water samples. The BGQDs were produced by oxidizing graphite in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The amount of the B in the BGQDs can be adjusted by changing the concentration of borax used for the electrolyte. The excitation wavelength- and B amount-dependent fluorescence characteristics of BQGDs were studied. The fluorescence intensity of the BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of Fe(3+) ions in the system but not to other possible coexisting metal ions. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of Fe(3+) ions to BGQDs is studied and explained based on electrochemical voltammetry and DFT simulations. The analytical signal, which is defined as F0/F, where F0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with Fe(3+) ions, respectively, displays a good linear relationship in the Fe(3+) ion concentration range of 0.01-100µm with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a limit of detection (LOD) of ~(0.005±0.001) μM. The LOD value is much lower than the water quality standards for Fe(3+) ions (0.3ppm, ~5.36µm) in drinking water suggested by the WHO (World Health Organization) and EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), implying that this method has great potential for applications in real sample assays. For example, the determination of the Fe(3+) ion levels in three water samples (tap water, groundwater, and lake water) gives approximately the same results as those determined by the EPA-recommended AAS (atomic adsorption spectroscopy) method.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and target protein binding of drug-conjugated quantum dots in vitro and in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youngseon; Kim, Minjung; Cho, Yoojin; Yun, Eunsuk; Song, Rita

    2013-02-01

    Elucidation of unknown target proteins of a drug is of great importance in understanding cell biology and drug discovery. There have been extensive studies to discover and identify target proteins in the cell. Visualization of targets using drug-conjugated probes has been an important approach to gathering mechanistic information of drug action at the cellular level. As quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals have attracted much attention as a fluorescent probe in the bioimaging area, we prepared drug-conjugated QD to explore the potential of target discovery. As a model drug, we selected a well-known anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), which has been known to target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) with high affinity binding (Kd = 0.54 nM). MTX molecules were covalently attached to amino-PEG-polymer-coated QDs. Specific interactions of MTX-conjugated QDs with DHFR were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy. Cellular uptake of the MTX-conjugated QDs in living CHO cells was investigated with regard to their localization and distribution pattern. MTX-QD was found to be internalized into the cells via caveolae-medicated endocytosis without significant sequestration in endosomes. A colocalization experiment of the MTX-QD conjugate with antiDHFR-TAT-QD also confirmed that MTX-QD binds to the target DHFR. This study showed the potential of the drug-QD conjugate to identify or visualize drug-target interactions in the cell, which is currently of great importance in the area of drug discovery and chemical biology.

  6. Colloidal quantum dot materials for infrared optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Cheng, Yan; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are an attractive material for optoelectronic applications because they combine flexible, low-cost solution-phase synthesis and processing with the potential for novel functionality arising from their nanostructure. Specifically, the bandgap of films composed of arrays of CQDs can be tuned via the quantum confinement effect for tailored spectral utilization. PbS-based CQDs can be tuned throughout the near and mid-infrared wavelengths and are a promising materials system for photovoltaic devices that harvest non-visible solar radiation. The performance of CQD solar cells is currently limited by an absorption-extraction compromise, whereby photon absorption lengths in the near infrared spectral regime exceed minority carrier diffusion lengths in the bulk films. Several light trapping strategies for overcoming this compromise and increasing the efficiency of infrared energy harvesting will be reviewed. A thin-film interference technique for creating multi-colored and transparent solar cells will be presented, and a discussion of designing plasmonic nanomaterials based on earth-abundant materials for integration into CQD solar cells is developed. The results indicate that it should be possible to achieve high absorption and color-tunability in a scalable nanomaterials system.

  7. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  8. Silica-coated nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong Kee; Selvan, S Tamil; Lee, Su Seong; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C; Kundaliya, Darshan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2005-04-13

    Quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) are of interest for biological imaging, drug targeting, and bioconjugation because of their unique optoelectronic and magnetic properties, respectively. To provide for water solubility and biocompatibility, QDs and MPs were encapsulated within a silica shell using a reverse microemulsion synthesis. The resulting SiO2/MP-QD nanocomposite particles present a unique combination of magnetic and optical properties. Their nonporous silica shell allows them to be surface modified for bioconjugation in various biomedical applications.

  9. Feature issue introduction: quantum dots for photonic applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Sup; Prasad, Paras N; Huyet, Guillaume; Tan, Chee Hing

    2012-05-07

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with peculiar optoelectronic properties. Their wide application in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and the medical and defense fields makes them a potential candidate in the area of photonics and biophotonics. In this feature issue of Optical Materials Express, together with Optics Express we focus on different aspects of semiconducting nanocrystals research, especially on the advances in the synthesis, physical properties, and application of QDs.

  10. Theoretical issues in silicon quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Teck Seng

    Electrically-gated quantum dots in semiconductors is an excellent architecture on which to make qubits for quantum information processing. Silicon is attractive because of the potential for excellent manipulability, scalability, and for integration with classical electronics. This thesis describes several aspects of the theoretical issues related to quantum dot qubits in silicon. It may be broadly divided into three parts — (1) the hybrid qubit and quantum gates, (2) decoherence and (3) charge transport. In the first part, we present a novel architecture for a double quantum dot spin qubit, which we term the hybrid qubit, and demonstrate that implementing this qubit in silicon is feasible. Next, we consider both AC and DC quantum gating protocols and compare the optimal fidelities for these protocols that can be achieved for both the hybrid qubit and the more traditional singlet-triplet qubit. In the second part, we present evidence that silicon offers superior coherence properties by analyzing experimental data from which charge dephasing and spin relaxation times are extracted. We show that the internal degrees of freedom of the hybrid qubit enhance charge coherence, and demonstrate tunable spin loading of a quantum dot. In the last part, we explain three key features of spin-dependent transport — spin blockade, lifetime-enhanced transport and spin-flip cotunneling. We explain how these features arise in the conventional two-electron as well as the unconventional three-electron regimes, using a theoretical model that captures the key characteristics observed in the data.

  11. Nanostructure assembly of indium sulphide quantum dots and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Vigneashwari, B; Ravichandran, V; Parameswaran, P; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K

    2008-02-01

    Nanocrystals (approximately 5 nm) of the semiconducting wide band gap material beta-In2S3 obtained by chemical synthesis through a hydrothermal route were characterized for phase and compositional purity. These nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement characteristics as revealed by a blue-shifted optical absorption. These quantum dots of beta-In2S3 were electrically driven from a monodisperse colloidal suspension on to conducting glass substrates by Electophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique and nanostructural thin films were obtained. The crystalline and morphological structures of these deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoscopic techniques. We report here that certain interesting nanostructural morphologies were observed in the two-dimensional quantum dot assemblies of beta-In2S3. The effect of the controlling parameters on the cluster growth and deposit integrity was also systematically studied through a series of experiments and the results are reported here.

  12. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  13. Quantum Hall ferrimagnetism in lateral quantum dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2006-11-03

    We demonstrate the existence of ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in a spin phase diagram of coupled lateral quantum dot molecules in the quantum Hall regime. The spin phase diagram is determined from the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction method as a function of electron number N and magnetic field B. The quantum Hall ferrimagnetic phase corresponds to spatially imbalanced spin droplets resulting from strong interdot coupling of identical dots. The quantum Hall ferromagnetic phases correspond to ferromagnetic coupling of spin polarization at filling factors between nu=2 and nu=1.

  14. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  15. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  16. Quantum-dot-based cell motility assay.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J; Boudreau, Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2005-06-28

    Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

  17. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using quantum dots: advances, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Heuff, Romey F; Swift, Jody L; Cramb, David T

    2007-04-28

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) have been increasingly employed in measuring the dynamic behavior of biomacromolecules using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. This poses a challenge, because quantum dots display their own dynamic behavior in the form of intermittent photoluminescence, also known as blinking. In this review, the manifestation of blinking in correlation spectroscopy will be explored, preceded by an examination of quantum dot blinking in general.

  18. Rapid and One-Pot Synthesis of Self-Assembled CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized with β-Cyclodextrin: Reduced Cytotoxicity and Band Gap Engineering.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Apurav; Rath, Madhab C; Singh, Ajay K; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple, rapid and one step method for the synthesis and in situ functionalization of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solution via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique. A probable mechanism has been elucidated for the formation of the QDs using pulse radiolysis technique. The average size of the QDs was found to be in the range of 2-3 nm with a size distribution of -14%. XPS measurements indicate that the -OH groups of the β-CD molecules binds predominantly with the Cd atoms present on the surface of the QDs. These QDs displayed broad photoluminescence (PL) with two emission peaks at 525 nm and 600 nm, which could be tuned by varying the experimental parameters. The broad PL spectrum has been attributed to the polydispersity in the density and the distribution of trap/defects states. Time resolved PL decay measurements further substantiated the domination of surface state originated carrier relaxation processes in the overall PL decay dynamics of QDs synthesized at higher doses and dose rates. The present study reveals that β-CD passivate the QDs by a non-inclusion complex, induces the self-assembling process into a networking architecture and simultaneously reduces their cytotoxicity as compared to the bare nanoparticles. The methodology described in this article may provide unique and interesting aspects to regulate and fine tune the formation of superstructures of nanomaterials vis-à-vis their optoelectronic properties.

  19. Gamma-radiation synthesis of silk fibroin coated CdSe quantum dots and their biocompatibility and photostability in living cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Quan; Dai, Yao-Dong; Kang, Bin; Han, Wei; Chen, Da

    2009-10-01

    Silk fibroin coated CdSe quantum dots (SF-CdSe QDs) were successfully synthesized via a one-step gamma-radiation route in an aqueous system at room temperature. The as prepared products were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersion spectrum (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectrum (PL). The SF-CdSe QDs were about 5 nm in diameter and exhibited excellent water-solubility and photoluminescence properties. The cellular distribution, photostability and cytotoxicity of SF-CdSe QDs with different amount of SF coatings were also investigated by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and MTT assays in human pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1) cells. All the results reveal that these QDs could be easily internalized by cells and localized in cytoplasm around nuclei. Moreover, SF-CdSe QDs were proved to be low cytotoxicity (the concentration of QDs < 5 microg mL(-1)) and high photostability (the illumination energy density < 2 x 10(-5) W microm(-2)) within PANC-1 cells, which was mainly due to the biocompatible silk fibroin. The resulted SF-CdSe QDs might have many potential applications in tumor imaging and therapy. And the synthesis strategy could be easily extended to fabrication of other nanoparticles coated with silk fibroin.

  20. Study on synthesis of ZnO nanorods and its UV-blocking properties on cotton fabrics coated with the ZnO quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Che, Jiangning; Zhang, Heng; He, Jinsong; Bahi, Addie; Ko, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Crystalline ZnO quantum dots have been synthesized by hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate with lithium hydroxide in ethanolic solution. The effects of different synthesis parameters on the structure and optical properties of ZnO QDs were investigated in detail. The UV-Vis optical spectra showed that the particle size is highly dependent on the precursor concentration and temperature, while the luminescence properties of as-prepared ZnO QDs depend on the both size and surface properties of particles. UV-blocking cotton fabrics were prepared by coated with ZnO nanorods. The preparation process was conducted in mild conditions, which involved the dip-coating ZnO QDs as crystal seeds, the dissolution-recrystallization of ZnO nanorods, and the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanorods covered the cotton fibers uniformly and densely. The treated cotton textile exhibited an excellent UV-blocking property with an ultrahigh UPF value of 118.12.

  1. The Synthesis and Structural Properties of Crystalline Silicon Quantum Dots upon Thermal Annealing of Hydrogenated Amorphous Si-Rich Silicon Carbide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guozhi; Zeng, Xiangbin; Li, Xianghu

    2016-08-01

    Silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in non-stoichiometric hydrogenated silicon carbide (SiC:H) thin films have been successfully synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and post-annealing. The chemical composition analyses have been carried out by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The bonding configurations have been deduced from Fourier transform infrared absorption measurements (FTIR). The evolution of microstructure with temperature has been characterized by glancing incident x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman diffraction spectroscopy. XPS and FTIR show that it is in Si-rich feature and there are a few hydrogenated silicon clusters in the as-grown sample. XRD and Raman diffraction spectroscopy show that it is in amorphous for the as-grown sample, while crystalline silicon QDs have been synthesized in the 900°C annealed sample. Silicon atoms precipitation from the SiC matrix or silicon phase transition from amorphous SiC is enhanced with annealing temperature increase. The average sizes of silicon QDs are about 5.1 nm and 5.6 nm, the number densities are as high as 1.7 × 1012 cm-2 and 3.2 × 1012 cm-2, and the crystalline volume fractions are about 58.3% and 61.3% for the 900°C and 1050°C annealed samples, respectively. These structural properties analyses provide an understanding about the synthesis of silicon QDs upon thermal annealing for applications in next generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  2. Graphene quantum dots decorated with magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis, electrodeposition, characterization and application as an electrochemical sensor towards determination of some amino acids at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Ayub; Shadjou, Nasrin; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Bageri, Leyla; Sadeghi, Sattar; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of a novel nano-composite, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles/graphene quantum dots (Fe3O4 MNP-GQDs), for sensing of some amino acids. For the first time, as-synthesized GQDs and Fe3O4 MNPs-GQDs was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) regime in the potential range from -1.0 to 1.0V. Fe3O4 MNP-GQDs is engineered to specifically and effectively capture and enhancement the electrochemical signals of some amino acids at physiological pH due to the synergy among GQDs and magnetic nanoparticles. We have illustrated that the obtained Fe3O4 MNPs-GQDs exhibited a much higher electroactivity individual GQDs and Fe3O4 MNPs for the electrooxidation and detection of amino acid which was about 10 fold higher than for GQDs. Magnetic and specific properties of the Fe3O4 MNP-GQDs can be exploited to capture and pre-concentration the amino acids onto its surface, which are important for detection of multi-amino acids.

  3. Synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-chitosan and using as ligand for fabrication of water-soluble quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenchao; Zhao, Chunbao; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2014-03-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble, stable and biocompatible quantum dots (QDs) is of crucial importance for nanobiotechnology. A chitosan derivative, poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-chitosan (PEG-g-CS), was successfully synthesized and employed as ligand for the growth of CdSe QDs in aqueous solution. The bivalent Cd(2+) ions can coordinate with multiple amino-groups, thus they act as both inter- and intramolecular cross-linking agents. When the concentration of Cd(2+) was 0.2 mmol/L, the CdSe/PEG-g-CS aggregates formed an irregular cross-linked network; when the concentration was 1 mmol/L, a phenomenon of micro-phase separation emerged as a result of enrichment of CS phase; when the concentration was 2 mmol/L, spherical nanohybrids with the size of 30-50 nm were obtained. Moreover, a possible mechanism was proposed for the formation of CdSe/PEG-g-CS aggregates. Meantime, in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity tests against HepG2 cells were carried out, the corresponding results suggested that the CdSe QDs prepared using PEG-g-CS as ligand displayed very low cytotoxicity. Therefore, these water-soluble QD-polymer hybrids are expected to find promising applications in medical field.

  4. Enhanced oxidation stability of quasi core-shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots prepared through aqueous microwave synthesis technique.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong-Ju; Zhou, Pei-Jiang; Ma, Rong; Liu, Xi-Jing; He, Yu-Ning; Zhou, Chuan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Quasi core shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared through a facile aqueous-phase route employing microwave irradiation technique. The optical spectroscopy and structure characterization evidenced the quasi core shell alloyed structures of CdSeS QDs. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained CdSeS QDs displayed peak positions very close to those of bulk cubic CdS crystal structures and the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data re-confirmed the thick CdS shell on the CdSe core. The TEM images and HRTEM images of the CdSeS QDs ascertained the well-defined spherical particles and a relatively narrow size distribution. On the basis, the stability of the obtained QDs in an oxidative environment was also discussed using etching reaction by H2O2. The experiments result showed the as-prepared QDs present high tolerance towards H2O2, obviously superior to the commonly used CdTe QDs and core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs, which was attributed to the unique quasi core-shell CdSeS crystal structure and the small lattice mismatch between CdSe and CdS semiconductor materials. This assay provided insight to obtain high stable crystal structured semiconductor nanocrystals in the design and synthesis process.

  5. Potential clinical applications of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Medintz, Igor L; Mattoussi, Hedi; Clapp, Aaron R

    2008-01-01

    The use of luminescent colloidal quantum dots in biological investigations has increased dramatically over the past several years due to their unique size-dependent optical properties and recent advances in biofunctionalization. In this review, we describe the methods for generating high-quality nanocrystals and report on current and potential uses of these versatile materials. Numerous examples are provided in several key areas including cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. We also explore toxicity issues surrounding these materials and speculate about the future uses of quantum dots in a clinical setting.

  6. Quantum Entanglement of Quantum Dot Spin Using Flying Qubits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE DIRECTOR: / S / PAUL ALSING Work Unit Manager / S / MARK H. LINDERMAN Technical Advisor...been to advance the frontier of quantum entangled semiconductor electrons using ultrafast optical techniques . The approach is based on...15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Dots, ultrafast optical techniques , Coulomb blockade, two-photon (Raman) transitions 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  7. Ligand exchange on the surface of cadmium telluride quantum dots with fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Hongxia; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) can provide high-intensity and photostable luminescent signals when they are used as labeling materials for sensing trace amounts of bioanalytes. However, a major concern is whether the capping ligands of CdTe QDs cause toxic effects in living systems. In the current study, we address this problem through the complete ligand transformation of CdTe QDs from toxic thiolglycolic acid (TGA) to green citrate, which is attributed to the Cd-S bond breaking and the Au-S bond formation. The highly efficient depletion of S atom from the surface of the CdTe QDs occurs after the addition of fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles into TGA-capped CdTe QDs, accompanying with the rapid aggregation of FSN-capped gold nanoparticles via noncrosslinking mechanism in the presence of high salt. After the ligand transformation, negligible differences are observed on both photoluminescence spectra and luminescent quantum yield. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the original and new-born CdTe QDs is detected by measuring cell viability after the nanoparticle treatment. In comparison with the original TGA-capped QDs, the new-born CdTe QDs can induce minimal cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells even at high dosages. Our study indicates that the extremely simple method herein opens up novel pathways for the synthesis of green CdTe QDs, and the as-prepared citrate-capped CdTe QDs might have great potential for biological labeling and imaging applications.

  8. Trapping of an electron in coupled quantum dots in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewageegana, Prabath; Apalkov, Vadym

    2009-03-01

    Due to Klein’s tunneling the electronic states of a quantum dot in graphene have finite widths and an electron in quantum dot has a finite trapping time. This property introduces a special type of interdot coupling in a system of many quantum dots in graphene. The interdot coupling is realized not as a direct tunneling between quantum dots but as coupling through the continuum states of graphene. As a result the interdot coupling modifies both the positions and the widths of the energy levels of the quantum dot system. We study the system of quantum dots in graphene theoretically by analyzing the complex energy spectra of the quantum dot system. We show that in a double-dot system some energy levels become strongly localized with an infinite trapping time. Such strongly localized states are achieved only at one value of the interdot separation. We also study a periodic array of quantum dots in graphene within a tight-binding mode for a quantum dot system. The values of the hopping integrals in the tight-binding model are found from the expression for the energy spectra of the double quantum dot system. In the array of quantum dots the states with infinitely large trapping time are realized at all values of interdot separation smaller than some critical value. Such states have nonzero wave vectors.

  9. Quantum criticality in a double-quantum-dot system.

    PubMed

    Zaránd, Gergely; Chung, Chung-Hou; Simon, Pascal; Vojta, Matthias

    2006-10-20

    We discuss the realization of the quantum-critical non-Fermi-liquid state, originally discovered within the two-impurity Kondo model, in double-quantum-dot systems. Contrary to common belief, the corresponding fixed point is robust against particle-hole and various other asymmetries and is unstable only to charge transfer between the two dots. We propose an experimental setup where such charge transfer processes are suppressed, allowing a controlled approach to the quantum-critical state. We also discuss transport and scaling properties in the vicinity of the critical point.

  10. Protein-directed synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots: a dual-channel biosensor for two proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Zhao, Ting; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Lan; Hou, Xiandeng

    2013-06-03

    Proteins typically have nanoscale dimensions and multiple binding sites with inorganic ions, which facilitates the templated synthesis of nanoparticles to yield nanoparticle-protein hybrids with tailored functionality, water solubility, and tunable frameworks with well-defined structure. In this work, we report a protein-templated synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) by exploring bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template. The obtained Mn-doped ZnS QDs give phosphorescence emission centered at 590 nm, with a decay time of about 1.9 ms. A dual-channel sensing system for two different proteins was developed through integration of the optical responses (phosphorescence emission and resonant light scattering (RLS)) of Mn-doped ZnS QDs and recognition of them by surface BSA phosphorescent sensing of trypsin and RLS sensing of lysozyme. Trypsin can digest BSA and remove BSA from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, thus quenching the phosphorescence of QDs, whereas lysozyme can assemble with BSA to lead to aggregation of QDs and enhanced RLS intensity. The detection limits for trypsin and lysozyme were 40 and 3 nM, respectively. The selectivity of the respective channel for trypsin and lysozyme was evaluated with a series of other proteins. Unlike other protein sensors based on nanobioconjugates, the proposed dual-channel sensor employs only one type of QDs but can detect two different proteins. Further, we found the RLS of QDs can also be useful for studying the BSA-lysozyme binding stoichiometry, which has not been reported in the literature. These successful biosensor applications clearly demonstrate that BSA not only serves as a template for growth of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, but also impacts the QDs for selective recognition of analyte proteins.

  11. Synthesis of optimized indium phosphide/zinc sulfide core/shell nanocrystals and titanium dioxide nanotubes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungyong

    Synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals and TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization study to couple them together were explored for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent. By varying the synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals with emission peaks ranging from 520 nm to 620 nm were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, a ZnS shell was grown. The ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline and monodisperse. Free-standing TiO2 nanotubes were produced by an anodization method using ammonium fluoride. The free-standing nanotubes were formed under the condition that the chemical dissolution speed associated with fluoride concentration was faster than the speed of Ti oxidation. Highly ordered free-standing anatase form TiO2 nanotubes, which are transformed by annealing at the optimized temperature, are expected to be ideal for coupling with the prepared InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Electrophoretic deposition was carried out to couple the InP/ZnS nanocrystals with the TiO2 nanotubes. Under the adjusted applied voltage condition, the current during the electrophoretic deposition decreased continuously with time. The amount of the deposited nanocrystals was estimated by calculation and the evenly deposited nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanotubes were observed by TEM.

  12. Highly photoluminescent MoO(x) quantum dots: Facile synthesis and application in off-on Pi sensing in lake water samples.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sai Jin; Zhao, Xiao Jing; Zuo, Jun; Huang, Hai Qing; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-04

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) is a well-studied transition-metal semiconductor material, and has a wider band gap than MoS2 which makes it become a promising versatile probe in a variety of fields, such as gas sensor, catalysis, energy storage ect. However, few MoOx nanomaterials possessing photoluminescence have been reported until now, not to mention the application as photoluminescent probes. Herein, a one-pot method is developed for facile synthesis of highly photoluminescent MoOx quantum dots (MoOx QDs) in which commercial molybdenum disulfide powder and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved as the precursor and oxidant, respectively. Compared with current synthesis methods, the proposed one has the advantages of rapid, one-pot, easily prepared, environment friendly as well as strong photoluminescence. The obtained MoOx QDs is further utilized as an efficient photoluminescent probe, and a new off-on sensor has been constructed for phosphate (Pi) determination in complicated lake water samples, attributed to the fact that the binding affinity of Eu(3+) ions to the oxygen atoms from Pi is much higher than that from the surface of MoOx QDs. Under the optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was found between the enhanced photoluminescence intensity and Pi concentration in the range of 0.1-160.0 μM with the detection limit of 56 nM (3σ/k). The first application of the photoluminescent MoOx nanomaterials for ion photochemical sensing will open the gate of employing MoOx nanomaterials as versatile probes in a variety of fields, such as chemi-/bio-sensor, cell imaging, biomedical and so on.

  13. Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, G. W.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Chen, Z.

    1995-08-01

    Quantum-confined Stark effects (QCSE) on excitons, i.e., the influence of a uniform electric field on the confined excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (QD's), have been studied by using a numerical matrix-diagonalization scheme. The energy levels and the wave functions of the ground and several excited states of excitons in CdS and CdS1-xSex quantum dots as functions of the size of the quantum dot and the applied electric field have been obtained. The electron and hole distributions and wave function overlap inside the QD's have also been calculated for different QD sizes and electric fields. It is found that the electron and hole wave function overlap decreases under an electric field, which implies an increased exciton recombination lifetime due to QCSE. The energy level redshift and the enhancement of the exciton recombination lifetime are due to the polarization of the electron-hole pair under the applied electric field.

  14. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  15. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-01

    Semiconducting quantum dots - more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms - are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement - or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) - in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen

  16. Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Jin; Chae, Jungseok; Kim, Jung Woo; Kim, Do Hwan; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Amaratunga, Gehan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Lyong; Kuk, Young; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Kinam

    2011-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes with quantum dot luminophores show promise in the development of next-generation displays, because quantum dot luminophores demonstrate high quantum yields, extremely narrow emission, spectral tunability and high stability, among other beneficial characteristics. However, the inability to achieve size-selective quantum dot patterning by conventional methods hinders the realization of full-colour quantum dot displays. Here, we report the first demonstration of a large-area, full-colour quantum dot display, including in flexible form, using optimized quantum dot films, and with control of the nano-interfaces and carrier behaviour. Printed quantum dot films exhibit excellent morphology, well-ordered quantum dot structure and clearly defined interfaces. These characteristics are achieved through the solvent-free transfer of quantum dot films and the compact structure of the quantum dot networks. Significant enhancements in charge transport/balance in the quantum dot layer improve electroluminescent performance. A method using plasmonic coupling is also suggested to further enhance luminous efficiency. The results suggest routes towards creating large-scale optoelectronic devices in displays, solid-state lighting and photovoltaics.

  17. Magnetic control of dipolaritons in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Arias, J S; Rodríguez, B A; Vinck-Posada, H

    2016-12-21

    Dipolaritons are quasiparticles that arise in coupled quantum wells embedded in a microcavity, they are a superposition of a photon, a direct exciton and an indirect exciton. We propose the existence of dipolaritons in a system of two coupled quantum dots inside a microcavity in direct analogy with the quantum well case and find that, despite some similarities, dipolaritons in quantum dots have different properties and can lead to true dark polariton states. We use a finite system theory to study the effects of the magnetic field on the system, including the emission, and find that it can be used as a control parameter of the properties of excitons and dipolaritons, and the overall magnetic behaviour of the structure.

  18. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  19. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD.

  20. Theory of a double-quantum-dot spaser

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, E S; Pukhov, A A; Dorofeenko, A V; Vinogradov, A P; Lisyansky, A A

    2015-03-31

    We consider the influence of the number of quantum dots on spaser operation. It is shown that even in the presence of only two quantum dots, the spaser behaviour is qualitatively different from that of the previously studied spaser consisting of a nanoparticle and a single quantum dot. In particular, for nonzero detuning of resonant frequencies of a nanoparticle and quantum dots, an increase in the interaction constant between quantum dots first leads to a decrease in the spasing threshold and then to its growth and even the spasing breakdown. (nanostructures)

  1. Slow Electron Cooling in Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Anshu; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Hot electrons in semiconductors lose their energy very quickly (within picoseconds) to lattice vibrations. Slowing this energy loss could prove useful for more efficient photovoltaic or infrared devices. With their well-separated electronic states, quantum dots should display slow relaxation, but other mechanisms have made it difficult to observe. We report slow intraband relaxation (>1 nanosecond) in colloidal quantum dots. The small cadmium selenide (CdSe) dots, with an intraband energy separation of ~0.25 electron volts, are capped by an epitaxial zinc selenide (ZnSe) shell. The shell is terminated by a CdSe passivating layer to remove electron traps and is covered by ligands of low infrared absorbance (alkane thiols) at the intraband energy. We found that relaxation is markedly slowed with increasing ZnSe shell thickness.

  2. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  3. Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2009-04-01

    Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are positioned to become an important technology in the field of infrared (IR) detection, particularly for high-temperature, low-cost, high-yield detector arrays required for military applications. High-operating temperature (>=150 K) photodetectors reduce the cost of IR imaging systems by enabling cryogenic dewars and Stirling cooling systems to be replaced by thermo-electric coolers. QDIPs are well-suited for detecting mid-IR light at elevated temperatures, an application that could prove to be the next commercial market for quantum dots. While quantum dot epitaxial growth and intraband absorption of IR radiation are well established, quantum dot non-uniformity remains as a significant challenge. Nonetheless, state-of-the-art mid-IR detection at 150 K has been demonstrated using 70-layer InAs/GaAs QDIPs, and QDIP focal plane arrays are approaching performance comparable to HgCdTe at 77 K. By addressing critical challenges inherent to epitaxial QD material systems (e.g., controlling dopant incorporation), exploring alternative QD systems (e.g., colloidal QDs), and using bandgap engineering to reduce dark current and enhance multi-spectral detection (e.g. resonant tunneling QDIPs), the performance and applicability of QDIPs will continue to improve.

  4. New small quantum dots for neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.

  5. Nanocomposites of POC and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, C.; Concilio, S.; Minarini, C.; Iannelli, P.; Di Luccio, T.

    2012-07-01

    New luminescent polymer nanocomposites were synthesized combining carbazole/oxadiazole copolymer (POC) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) surface passivated by ionic liquids. Ionic liquid ligands improve the photostability of QDs and their compatibility with polymer allowing the deposition of homogeneous nanocomposites films. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  6. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, C.; Li, J.J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO. PMID:25392711

  7. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberle, C.; Li, J. J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2013-10-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO.

  8. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators.

    PubMed

    Aberle, C; Li, J J; Weiss, S; Winslow, L

    2013-10-14

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO.

  9. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  10. Ultrasonic irradiation-promoted one-pot synthesis of CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots without using flammable CH3NH2 precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Chunlei; Lv, Changgui; Xu, Shuhong; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Ruohu; Cui, Yiping

    2017-02-01

    At present, the CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) reported in the literature usually contain two synthesis steps: the initial preparation of CH3NH3Br via the reaction of flammable CH3NH2 and HBr, together with the subsequent formation of CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs. To avoid the use of dangerous CH3NH2, this work develops a novel one-pot method for synthesizing CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs using safe and commercially available reactants (CH3NH3Cl, KBr and PbCl2). It is found that ultrasonic treatment plays a key role during the synthesis of CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs. Without ultrasonic irradiation, it is not possible to synthesize CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs under heating or vigorous stirring. Aliquots of samples taken at different ultrasonic irradiation time intervals show a time-dependent redshift in the emission wavelength. This suggests the formation of CH3NH3PbCl3 QDs first, followed by the formation of CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs through ultrasonically promoted halide exchange. Moreover, mixed CH3NH3PbCl x Br3‑x QDs with a tunable emission wavelength can also be prepared through this one-pot method by controlling the ultrasonic irradiation time. In comparison to the previous two-step method, the current one-pot method is simpler, less time-consuming and does not use flammable CH3NH2. The as-prepared CH3NH3PbBr3 QDs show a comparable photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) to that of the literature. What is more, the ultrasonic time-controlled emission wavelength of CH3NH3PbCl x Br3‑x QDs also provides an alternative way of tuning QD emission to the traditional way of controlling the halide ratios.

  11. Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing/Metrology Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-20

    QDs of desired size with high addressability In order to fully exert quantum mechanics effects arising from zero-dimensional quantum -dot structures...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 20140507 - 20150506 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Innovative Ge Quantum Dot Functional Sensing/Metrology...distinctive Coulomb blockade and quantum confinement effects onto nanometer-scaled QD structures, inducing size-tunable electronic structure

  12. Mercaptoethanol capped CdSe quantum dots and CdSe/ZnS core/shell: synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Painuly, Diksha; Bhatt, Anugya; Krishnan, V Kalliyana

    2013-02-01

    CdSe Quantum dots (Q-dots) and CdSe/ZnS core/shell have been synthesized by wet chemical route using mercaptoethanol (ME) as cappant. The synthesized Q-dots and core/shell were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The core/shell formation was confirmed by both XRD and TEM analysis. The luminescence was shown to be considerably enhanced in the core/shell sample. Effect of dialysis process on the optical properties of the Q-dots and core/shell has also been discussed. Cytotoxicity studies have been carried out for Q-dots and core/shell. CdSe/ZnS core/shell was found to be non-cytotoxic as compared to CdSe Q-dots up to a certain concentration range. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating enhances the non-cytotoxic nature of CdSe/ZnS core/shell when compared with bare core/shell.

  13. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-18

    Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  14. Study of the self-organization processes in lead sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, S. A. Aleksandrova, O. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Men’kovich, E. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Musikhin, S. F.

    2014-12-15

    A procedure is described for the synthesis of nanoparticles based on lead chalcogenides. The procedure combines the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions with simultaneous organization of the QDs into ordered arrays. The processes of the self-organization of QDs are analyzed at the nano- and microscopic levels by the photoluminescence method, atomic-force microscopy, and optical microscopy.

  15. Purification non-aqueous solution of quantum dots CdSe- CdS-ZnS from excess organic substance-stabilizer by use PE- HD membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosolapova, K.; Al-Alwani, A.; Gorbachev, I.; Glukhovskoy, E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a new simple method for the purification of CdSe-CdS-ZnS quantum dots by using membrane filtration, the filtration process, successfully separated the oleic acid from quantum dots through membranes purification after synthesis; purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of post synthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. We explore the possibilities of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to make such layers, using quantum dots as a model system. The Langmuir monolayer of quantum dots were then investigated the surface pressure-area isotherm. From isotherm, we found the surface pressure monolayer changed with time.

  16. Sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Uskov, A V

    2004-05-15

    The sensitivity of quantum-dot semiconductor lasers to optical feedback is analyzed with a Lang-Kobayashi approach applied to a standard quantum-dot laser model. The carriers are injected into a quantum well and are captured by, or escape from, the quantum dots through either carrier-carrier or phonon-carrier interaction. Because of Pauli blocking, the capture rate into the dots depends on the carrier occupancy level in the dots. Here we show that different carrier capture dynamics lead to a strong modification of the damping of the relaxation oscillations. Regions of increased damping display reduced sensitivity to optical feedback even for a relatively large alpha factor.

  17. Functional surface engineering of quantum dot hydrogels for selective fluorescence imaging of extracellular lactate release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ding, Shushu; Cao, Sumei; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-06-15

    Selective and sensitive detection of extracellular lactate is of fundamental significance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. Here we report the rational design and synthesis of a quantum-dot-hydrogel-based fluorescent probe for biosensing and bioimaging the extracellular lactate. By surface engineering the destabilized quantum dot sol with Nile Blue, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dot sol cannot only self-assemble forming quantum dot hydrogel but also monitor lactate in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and lactate dehydrogenase through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Notably, the surface engineered quantum dot hydrogel show high selectivity toward lactate over common metal ions, amino acids and other small molecules that widely coexist in biological system. Moreover, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dots can encapsulate isolated cancer cells when self-assembled into a hydrogel and thus specifically detect and image the extracellular lactate metabolism. By virtue of these properties, the functionalized quantum dot hydrogel was further successfully applied to monitor the effect of metabolic agents.

  18. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  19. Entrapment in phospholipid vesicles quenches photoactivity of quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Generalov, Roman; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Westrøm, Sara; Chen, Wei; Kristensen, Solveig; Juzenas, Petras

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots have emerged with great promise for biological applications as fluorescent markers for immunostaining, labels for intracellular trafficking, and photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. However, upon entry into a cell, quantum dots are trapped and their fluorescence is quenched in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, the photophysical properties of quantum dots were investigated in liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of quantum dots in liposomes decreases their fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Generation of free radicals by liposomal quantum dots is inhibited compared to that of free quantum dots. Nevertheless, quantum dot fluorescence lifetime and intensity increases due to photolysis of liposomes during irradiation. In addition, protein adsorption on the quantum dot surface and the acidic environment of vesicles also lead to quenching of quantum dot fluorescence, which reappears during irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro model of phospholipid vesicles has demonstrated that those quantum dots that are fated to be entrapped in endocytic vesicles lose their fluorescence and ability to act as photosensitizers. PMID:21931483

  20. Studies of silicon quantum dots prepared at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agel, Faisal A.; Suleiman, Jamal; Khan, Shamshad A.

    2017-03-01

    In this research work, we have synthesized silicon quantum dots at different substrate temperatures 193, 153 and 123 K at a fixed working pressure 5 Torr. of Argon gas. The structural studies of these silicon quantum dots have been undertaken using X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The optical and electrical properties have been studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy and I-V measurement system. X-ray diffraction pattern of Si quantum dots prepared at different temperatures show the amorphous nature except for the quantum dots synthesized at 193 K which shows polycrystalline nature. FESEM images of samples suggest that the size of quantum dots varies from 2 to 8 nm. On the basis of UV-visible spectroscopy measurements, a direct band gap has been observed for Si quantum dots. FTIR spectra suggest that as-grown Si quantum dots are partially oxidized which is due exposure of as-prepared samples to air after taking out from the chamber. PL spectra of the synthesized silicon quantum dots show an intense peak at 444 nm, which may be attributed to the formation of Si quantum dots. Temperature dependence of dc conductivity suggests that the dc conductivity enhances exponentially by raising the temperature. On the basis above properties i.e. direct band gap, high absorption coefficient and high conductivity, these silicon quantum dots will be useful for the fabrication of solar cells.

  1. Entrapment in phospholipid vesicles quenches photoactivity of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Generalov, Roman; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Westrøm, Sara; Chen, Wei; Kristensen, Solveig; Juzenas, Petras

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots have emerged with great promise for biological applications as fluorescent markers for immunostaining, labels for intracellular trafficking, and photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. However, upon entry into a cell, quantum dots are trapped and their fluorescence is quenched in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, the photophysical properties of quantum dots were investigated in liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of quantum dots in liposomes decreases their fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Generation of free radicals by liposomal quantum dots is inhibited compared to that of free quantum dots. Nevertheless, quantum dot fluorescence lifetime and intensity increases due to photolysis of liposomes during irradiation. In addition, protein adsorption on the quantum dot surface and the acidic environment of vesicles also lead to quenching of quantum dot fluorescence, which reappears during irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro model of phospholipid vesicles has demonstrated that those quantum dots that are fated to be entrapped in endocytic vesicles lose their fluorescence and ability to act as photosensitizers.

  2. Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein-quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.

  3. Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C W

    2011-12-09

    The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein-quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.

  4. Silicon Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Systems relaxes through SOC [40, 41, 42]. With the combination of SOC and the Zeeman effect , the typical dependency of a spin lifetime can be expressed as...diagram showing the effect of the 3-level pulse sequence on the electro-chemical potential of the dot. Energy levels in the QD are Zeeman split according...dependent on the valley splitting energy, with a dramatic rate enhancement (or hot-spot) when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincided, a process

  5. Large scale synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from waste biomass and their use as an efficient and selective photoluminescence on-off-on probe for Ag(+) ions.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Biswal, Mandakini; Mhamane, Dattakumar; Gokhale, Rohan; Patil, Shankar; Guin, Debanjan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-10-21

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized from bio-waste and are further modified to produce amine-terminated GQDs (Am-GQDs) which have higher dispersibility and photoluminescence intensity than those of GQDs. A strong fluorescence quenching of Am-GQDs (switch-off) is observed for a number of metal ions, but only for the Ag(+) ions is the original fluorescence regenerated (switch-on) upon addition of L-cysteine.

  6. Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot solar sells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanshu; Sergeev, Andrei; Vagidov, Nizami; Mitin, Vladimir; Sablon, Kimberly; State Univ of NY-Buffalo Team; Army Research Laboratory Team

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) offer possibilities for nanoscale control of photoelectron processes via engineering the band structure and potential profile. Nanoscale potential profile (potential barriers) and nanoscale band engineering (AlGaAs atomically thin barriers) effectively suppress the photoelectron capture to QDs. QDs also increase conversion efficiency of the above-bandgap photons due to extraction of electrons from QDs via Coulomb interaction with hot electrons that excited by high-energy photons. To study the effects of the band structure engineering and nanoscale potential barriers on the photovoltaic performance we fabricated 3- μm base GaAs devices with various InAs quantum dot media and selective doping. All quantum dot devices show improvement in conversion efficiency compared with the reference cell. Quantum efficiency measurements allow us to associate the spectral characteristics of photoresponse enhancement with nanoscale structure of QD media. The dark current analysis provides valuable information about recombination in QD solar cells. The two-diode model well fit the scope of data and recovers the measured open circuit voltage.

  7. Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Müller, André; Stampfer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60–100 ns. PMID:23612294

  8. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm.

    PubMed

    Stürzenbaum, S R; Höckner, M; Panneerselvam, A; Levitt, J; Bouillard, J-S; Taniguchi, S; Dailey, L-A; Ahmad Khanbeigi, R; Rosca, E V; Thanou, M; Suhling, K; Zayats, A V; Green, M

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4)) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl(2) and Na(2)TeO(3) salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  9. A facile in situ synthesis route for CuInS(2) quantum-dots/In(2)S(3) co-sensitized photoanodes with high photoelectric performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Qiang; Rui, Yi-Chuan; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Li, Yao-Gang; Wang, Hong-Zhi

    2013-11-27

    CuInS2 quantum-dot sensitized TiO2 photoanodes with In2S3 buffer layer were in situ prepared via chemical bath deposition of In2S3, where the Cd-free In2S3 layer then reacted with TiO2/CuxS which employed a facile SILAR process to deposit CuxS quantum dots on TiO2 film, followed by a covering process with ZnS layer. Polysulfide electrolyte and Cu2S on FTO glass counter electrode were used to provide higher photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the quantum dots sensitized solar cells were studied in more detail by optical measurements, photocurrent-voltage performance measurements, and impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of optimal CuxS SILAR cycles, the best photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.62% (Jsc = 6.49 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.50 V, FF = 0.50) under full one-sun illumination was achieved by using Cu2S counter electrode. Cu2S-FTO electrode exhibits superior electrocatalytic ability for the polysulfide redox reactions relative to that of Pt-FTO electrode.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: can the electromagnetic field influence the formation and quality of the resulting nanocrystals?

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mojtaba Mirhosseini; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Keilbach, Andreas; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-12-07

    Microwave-assisted syntheses of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs), in particular CdSe quantum dots (QDs), have gained considerable attention due to unique opportunities provided by microwave dielectric heating. The extensive use of microwave heating and the frequently suggested specific microwave effects, however, pose questions about the role of the electromagnetic field in both the formation and quality of the produced QDs. In this work a one-pot protocol for the tunable synthesis of monodisperse colloidal CdSe NCs using microwave dielectric heating under carefully controlled conditions is introduced. CdSe QDs are fabricated using selenium dioxide as a selenium precursor, 1-octadecene as a solvent and reducing agent, cadmium alkyl carboxylates or alkyl phosphonates as cadmium sources, 1,2-hexadecanediol to stabilize the cadmium complex and oleic acid to stabilize the resulting CdSe QDs. Utilizing the possibilities of microwave heating technology in combination with accurate online temperature control the influence of different reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, ramp and hold times, and the timing and duration of oleic acid addition have been carefully investigated. Optimum results were obtained by performing the reaction at 240 °C applying a 5 min ramp time, 2 min hold time before oleic acid addition, 90 s for oleic acid addition, and a 5 min hold time after oleic acid addition (8.5 min overall holding at 240 °C). By using different cadmium complexes in the microwave protocol CdSe QDs with a narrow size distribution can be obtained in different sizes ranging from 0.5-4 nm by simply changing the cadmium source. The QDs were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, UV-Vis, and photoluminescence methods and the size distribution was monitored by SAXS. Control experiments involving conventional conductive heating under otherwise identical conditions ensuring the same heating and cooling profiles, stirring rates, and reactor geometries demonstrate that the

  11. Biosynthesis of luminescent CdS quantum dots using plant hairy root culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovaya, Mariya N.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Matvieieva, Nadia A.; Blume, Yaroslav B.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2014-12-01

    CdS nanoparticles have a great potential for application in chemical research, bioscience and medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and environmentally-friendly method of plant-based biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots using hairy root culture of Linaria maroccana L. By incubating Linaria root extract with inorganic cadmium sulfate and sodium sulfide we synthesized stable luminescent CdS nanocrystals with absorption peaks for UV-visible spectrometry at 362 nm, 398 nm and 464 nm, and luminescent peaks at 425, 462, 500 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of produced quantum dots revealed their spherical shape with a size predominantly from 5 to 7 nm. Electron diffraction pattern confirmed the wurtzite crystalline structure of synthesized cadmium sulfide quantum dots. These results describe the first successful attempt of quantum dots synthesis using plant extract.

  12. Parallelizing quantum circuit synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Olivia; Mosca, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Quantum circuit synthesis is the process in which an arbitrary unitary operation is decomposed into a sequence of gates from a universal set, typically one which a quantum computer can implement both efficiently and fault-tolerantly. As physical implementations of quantum computers improve, the need is growing for tools that can effectively synthesize components of the circuits and algorithms they will run. Existing algorithms for exact, multi-qubit circuit synthesis scale exponentially in the number of qubits and circuit depth, leaving synthesis intractable for circuits on more than a handful of qubits. Even modest improvements in circuit synthesis procedures may lead to significant advances, pushing forward the boundaries of not only the size of solvable circuit synthesis problems, but also in what can be realized physically as a result of having more efficient circuits. We present a method for quantum circuit synthesis using deterministic walks. Also termed pseudorandom walks, these are walks in which once a starting point is chosen, its path is completely determined. We apply our method to construct a parallel framework for circuit synthesis, and implement one such version performing optimal T-count synthesis over the Clifford+T gate set. We use our software to present examples where parallelization offers a significant speedup on the runtime, as well as directly confirm that the 4-qubit 1-bit full adder has optimal T-count 7 and T-depth 3.

  13. The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.

    2015-08-28

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.

  14. Spin thermopower in interacting quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejec, Tomaž; Žitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Ramšak, Anton

    2012-02-01

    Using analytical arguments and the numerical renormalization group method, we investigate the spin thermopower of a quantum dot in a magnetic field. In the particle-hole-symmetric situation, the temperature difference applied across the dot drives a pure spin current without accompanying charge current. For temperatures and fields at or above the Kondo temperature, but of the same order of magnitude, the spin-Seebeck coefficient is large, of the order of kB/|e|. Via a mapping, we relate the spin-Seebeck coefficient to the charge-Seebeck coefficient of a negative-U quantum dot where the corresponding result was recently reported by Andergassen [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.84.241107 84, 241107 (2011)]. For several regimes, we provide simplified analytical expressions. In the Kondo regime, the dependence of the spin-Seebeck coefficient on the temperature and the magnetic field is explained in terms of the shift of the Kondo resonance due to the field and its broadening with the temperature and the field. We also consider the influence of breaking the particle-hole symmetry and show that a pure spin current can still be realized, provided a suitable electric voltage is applied across the dot. Then, except for large asymmetries, the behavior of the spin-Seebeck coefficient remains similar to that found in the particle-hole-symmetric point.

  15. Planar Dirac electrons in magnetic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Zhu, Jia-Lin

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we explore the size- and mass-dependent energy spectra and the electronic correlation of two- and three-electron graphene magnetic quantum dots. It is found that only the magnetic dots with large size can well confine the electrons. For large graphene magnetic dots with massless (ultra-relativity) electrons, the energy level structures of two Dirac electrons and even the ground state spin and angular momentum of three electrons are quite different from those of the usual semiconductor quantum dots. Also we reveal that such differences are not due to the magnetic confinement but originate from the character of the Coulomb interaction of two-component electronic wavefunctions in graphene. We reveal that the increase of the mass leads to both the crossover of the energy spectrum structures from the ultra-relativity to non-relativity ones and the increasing of the crystallization. The results are helpful for the understanding of the mass and size effects and may be useful in controlling the few-electron states in graphene-based nanodevices.

  16. Optically injected quantum-dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Erneux, T; Viktorov, E A; Kelleher, B; Goulding, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G

    2010-04-01

    The response of an optically injected quantum-dot semiconductor laser (SL) is studied both experimentally and theoretically. In particular, the nature of the locking boundaries is investigated, revealing features more commonly associated with Class A lasers rather than conventional Class B SLs. Experimentally, two features stand out; the first is an absence of instabilities resulting from relaxation oscillations, and the second is the observation of a region of bistability between two locked solutions. Using rate equations appropriate for quantum-dot lasers, we analytically determine the stability diagram in terms of the injection rate and frequency detuning. Of particular interest are the Hopf and saddle-node locking boundaries that explain how the experimentally observed phenomena appear.

  17. Examination of the stability of hydrophobic (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in the digestive tract of rats.

    PubMed

    Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Zakarevicius, Eugenijus; Sukackaite, Angele; Streckyte, Giedre; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2008-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labelling because of their bright and stable photoluminescence. The typical quantum dots is CdSe because colloidal synthesis for nanocrystals of this semiconductor is well established. CdSe is usually passivated with zinc sulfide. While the cytotoxicity of bulk CdSe is well documented, questions about (CdSe)ZnS potential toxicity and behaviour in vivo remain unanswered. The distribution and stability of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in Wistar line rats' digestive tract were investigated. Hydrophobic quantum dots were mixed with fat or sonificated in water and administered orally. The distribution and stability of quantum dots moving through the digestive system of rats was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In both ways prepared quantum dots were degraded in the digestive tract of animals. Quantum dots mixed with fat were more stable and degraded more slowly than quantum dots sonificated in water. The data obtained suggest possible toxicity of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots due to the liberation of Cd(2+).

  18. Ultralow Noise Monolithic Quantum Dot Photonic Oscillators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-28

    HBCU/MI) ULTRALOW NOISE MONOLITHIC QUANTUM DOT PHOTONIC OSCILLATORS LUKE LESTER UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO 10/28/2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A...New Mexico , Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 Air Force Office of Scientific Research 875 N. Randolph St., Rm 3112 Arlington, VA 22203-1954 patricia.bell...Report 06/01/2010 - 05/31/2013 Professor Luke F. Lester, PI, University of New Mexico Contact address: Center for High Technology Materials

  19. Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots as THz Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    devices that are viable for wafer -scale production. We recently started testing fabrication processes using epitaxial graphene on SiC in collaboration... laser sources at four different Fig. 4 Top: Drain current versus the gate voltage for different THz field intensities. Bottom: Temperature dependence...research. The first was the small coupling between the quantum dot and the powerful (10 mW) laser source. The second was the difficulty to reproduce the

  20. Nanoscale Imaging with a Single Quantum Dot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-19

    not require the use of macroscopic manipulators. We use this technique to image the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode of a silver nanowire with...technique to image the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode of a silver nanowire with resolution as fine as 10 nm by monitoring the coupling...a single quantum dot (QD) by utilizing the enhanced electromagnetic interactions between the QD and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode of a

  1. Multifunctional magnetic quantum dots for cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder P

    2011-02-01

    The development of an innovative platform for cancer theranostics that will be capable of noninvasive imaging and treatment of cancerous tumors using biocompatible and multifunctional Fe3O4-ZnO core-shell magnetic quantum dots (M-QDs) is being explored. This multi-functional approach will facilitate deep tumor targeting using a combination of a specific cancer marker and an external magnetic field will simultaneously provide therapy that may evolve as a new paradigm in cancer theranostics.

  2. Intrinsic spin dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valín-Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the characteristic spin dynamics corresponding to semiconductor quantum dots within the multiband envelope function approximation (EFA). By numerically solving an 8 × 8 k·p Hamiltonian we treat systems based on different III-V semiconductor materials. It is shown that, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field, these systems show intrinsic spin dynamics governed by intraband and interband transitions leading to characteristic spin frequencies ranging from THz to optical frequencies.

  3. Single molecule study of silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Woong Young; Li, Qi; Jin, Rongchao; Peteanu, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Recently, fluorescent Silicon (Si) Quantum Dots (QDs) have attracted much interest due to their high quantum yield, use of non-toxic and environmentally-benign chemicals, and water-solubility. However, more research is necessary to understand the energy level characteristics and single molecule behavior to enable their development for imaging applications. Therefore, single molecule time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of fluorescent Si QDs (cyan, green, and yellow) is needed. A rigorous analysis of time-resolved photon correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime data on single Si QDs at room temperature is presented.

  4. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  5. Near-field magnetoabsorption of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simserides, Constantinos; Zora, Anna; Triberis, Georgios

    2006-04-01

    We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field of variable orientation and magnitude (up to 20T ) on the linear near-field optical absorption spectra of single and coupled III-V semiconductor quantum dots. We focus on the spatial as well as on the magnetic confinement, varying the dimensions of the quantum dots and the magnetic field. We show that the ground-state exciton binding energy can be manipulated utilizing the spatial and magnetic confinement. The effect of the magnetic field on the absorption spectra, increasing the near-field illumination spot, is also investigated. The zero-magnetic-field “structural” symmetry can be destroyed varying the magnetic field orientation and this affects the near-field spectra. The asymmetry induced (except for specific orientations along symmetry axes) by the magnetic field can be revealed in the near-field but not in the far-field spectra. We predict that near-field magnetoabsorption experiments, of realistic spatial resolution, will be in the position to bring to light the quantum dot symmetry. This exceptional symmetry-resolving power of the near-field magnetoabsorption is lost in the far field. The influence of the Coulomb interactions on the absorption spectra is also discussed. Finally, we show that certain modifications of the magnetoexcitonic structure can be uncovered using a realistically acute near-field probe of ≈20nm .

  6. Mid-Infrared Quantum-Dot Quantum Cascade Laser: A Theoretical Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng; Schneider, Hans

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of a microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures we investigate electrically pumped quantum-dots as active material for a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser. Our previous calculations have indicated that these structures could operate with reduced threshold current densities while also achieving a modal gain comparable to that of quantum well active materials. We study the influence of two important quantum-dot material parameters, here, namely inhomogeneous broadening and quantum-dot sheet density, on the performance of a proposed quantum cascade laser design. In terms of achieving a positive modal net gain, a high quantum-dot density can compensate for moderately high inhomogeneous broadening, but at a cost of increased threshold current density. By minimizing quantum-dot density with presently achievable inhomogeneous broadening and total losses, significantly lower threshold densities than those reported in quantum-well quantum-cascade lasers are predicted by our theory.

  7. Silicon quantum dots for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeslin J.

    Luminescent silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) are emerging as attractive materials for optoelectronic devices, third generation photovoltaics, and bioimaging. Their applicability in the real world is contingent on their optical properties and long-term environmental stability; and in biological applications, factors such as water solubility and toxicity must also be taken into consideration. The aforementioned properties are highly dependent on the QDs' surface chemistry. In this work, SiQDs were engineered for the respective applications using liquid-phase and gas-phase functionalization techniques. Preliminary work in luminescent downshifting for photovoltaic systems are also reported. Highly luminescent SiQDs were fabricated by grafting unsaturated hydrocarbons onto the surface of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs via thermal and photochemical hydrosilylation. An industrially attractive, all gas-phase, nonthermal plasma synthesis, passivation (aided by photochemical reactions), and deposition process was also developed to reduce solvent waste. With photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) nearing 60 %, the alkyl-terminated QDs are attractive materials for optical applications. The functionalized SiQDs also exhibited enhanced thermal stability as compared to their unfunctionalized counterparts, and the photochemically-hydrosilylated QDs further displayed photostability under UV irradiation. These environmentally-stable SiQDs were used as luminescent downshifting layers in photovoltaic systems, which led to enhancements in the blue photoresponse of heterojunction solar cells. Furthermore, the QD films demonstrated antireflective properties, improving the coupling efficiency of sunlight into the cell. For biological applications, oxide, amine, or hydroxyl groups were grafted onto the surface to create water-soluble SiQDs. Luminescent, water-soluble SiQDs were produced in by microplasma treating the QDs in water. Stable QYs exceeding 50 % were obtained. Radical-based and

  8. UV Nano-Lights: Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11-Mar-2013 to 10-Mar-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano-Lights: Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon ...Nonlinear Quantum Dot- Plasmon Coupling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4016 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric...nonlinear emission from Quantum Dots through Plasmon Coupling PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE 11 March 2013 - 11 March 2014 RECIPIENT PRINCIPAL

  9. Molecular Profiling of Prostate Cancer Specimens Using Multicolor Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    0117 TITLE: Molecular profiling of prostate cancer specimens using Multicolor Quantum Dots PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiaohu Gao...profiling of prostate cancer specimens using Multicolor Quantum Dots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0117 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC061345 5c...based on the biology of their tumors. We proposed to develop oligonucleotide tagged quantum dots and antibodies for multiplexed imaging of prostate

  10. Quantum transport through an array of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuguang; Xie, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiaodong; Chen, Guanhua

    2013-01-07

    The transient current through an array of as many as 1000 quantum dots is simulated with two newly developed quantum mechanical methods. To our surprise, upon switching on the bias voltage, the current increases linearly with time before reaching its steady state value. And the time required for the current to reach its steady state value is proportional to the length of the array, and more interestingly, is exactly the time for a conducting electron to travel through the array at the Fermi velocity. These quantum phenomena can be understood by a simple analysis on the energetics of an equivalent classical circuit. An experimental design is proposed to confirm the numerical findings.

  11. Quantum interface between light and nuclear spins in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwager, Heike; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Giedke, Géza

    2010-01-01

    The coherent coupling of flying photonic qubits to stationary matter-based qubits is an essential building block for quantum-communication networks. We show how such a quantum interface can be realized between a traveling-wave optical field and the polarized nuclear spins in a singly charged quantum dot strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. By adiabatically eliminating the electron a direct effective coupling is achieved. Depending on the laser field applied, interactions that enable either write-in or read-out are obtained.

  12. Quantum transport through an array of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuguang; Xie, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiaodong; Chen, Guanhua

    2012-12-01

    The transient current through an array of as many as 1000 quantum dots is simulated with two newly developed quantum mechanical methods. To our surprise, upon switching on the bias voltage, the current increases linearly with time before reaching its steady state value. And the time required for the current to reach its steady state value is proportional to the length of the array, and more interestingly, is exactly the time for a conducting electron to travel through the array at the Fermi velocity. These quantum phenomena can be understood by a simple analysis on the energetics of an equivalent classical circuit. An experimental design is proposed to confirm the numerical findings.

  13. Tuning the quantum critical crossover in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dots with large Thouless number g embody a regime where both disorder and interactions can be treated nonperturbatively using large-N techniques (with N=g) and quantum phase transitions can be studied. Here we focus on dots where the noninteracting Hamiltonian is drawn from a crossover ensemble between two symmetry classes, where the crossover parameter introduces a new, tunable energy scale independent of and much smaller than the Thouless energy. We show that the quantum critical regime, dominated by collective critical fluctuations, can be accessed at the new energy scale. The nonperturbative physics of this regime can only be described by the large-N approach, as we illustrate with two experimentally relevant examples. G. Murthy, PRB 70, 153304 (2004). G. Murthy, R. Shankar, D. Herman, and H. Mathur, PRB 69, 075321 (2004)

  14. Tolerance of Intrinsic Defects in PbS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Zhang, Yingjie; Salmeron, Miquel; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-12-03

    Colloidal quantum dots exhibit various defects and deviations from ideal structures due to kinetic processes, although their band gap frequently remains open and clean. In this Letter, we computationally investigate intrinsic defects in a real-size PbS quantum dot passivated with realistic Cl-ligands. We show that the colloidal intrinsic defects are ionic in nature. Unlike previous computational results, we find that even nonideal, atomically nonstoichiometric quantum dots have a clean band gap without in-gap-states provided that quantum dots satisfy electronic stoichiometry.

  15. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  16. Realizing Rec. 2020 color gamut with quantum dot displays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Luo, Zhenyue; Chen, Haiwei; Dong, Yajie; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-09-07

    We analyze how to realize Rec. 2020 wide color gamut with quantum dots. For photoluminescence, our simulation indicates that we are able to achieve over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard with quantum dots by optimizing the emission spectra and redesigning the color filters. For electroluminescence, by optimizing the emission spectra of quantum dots is adequate to render over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard. We also analyze the efficiency and angular performance of these devices, and then compare results with LCDs using green and red phosphors-based LED backlight. Our results indicate that quantum dot display is an outstanding candidate for achieving wide color gamut and high optical efficiency.

  17. Terahertz transmission through rings of quantum dots-nanogap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Laxmi-Narayan; Bahk, Young-Mi; Choi, Geunchang; Han, Sanghoon; Park, Namkyoo; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-03-01

    We report resonant funneling of terahertz (THz) waves through (9 ± 1) nm wide quantum dots-nanogap of cadmium selenide quantum dots silver nanogap metamaterials. We observed a giant THz intensity enhancement (∼104) through the quantum dots-nanogap at the resonant frequency. We, further report the experimentally measured effective mode indices for these metamaterials. A finite difference time domain simulation of the nanogap enabled by the quantum dots supports the experimentally measured THz intensity enhancement across the nanogap. We propose that these low effective mode index terahertz resonators will be useful as bio/chemical sensors, gain-enhanced antennas, and wave guides.

  18. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  19. Advanced Architecture for Colloidal PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells Exploiting a CdSe Quantum Dot Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianshuo; Goodwin, Earl D; Guo, Jiacen; Wang, Han; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2016-09-22

    Advanced architectures are required to further improve the performance of colloidal PbS heterojunction quantum dot solar cells. Here, we introduce a CdI2-treated CdSe quantum dot buffer layer at the junction between ZnO nanoparticles and PbS quantum dots in the solar cells. We exploit the surface- and size-tunable electronic properties of the CdSe quantum dots to optimize its carrier concentration and energy band alignment in the heterojunction. We combine optical, electrical, and analytical measurements to show that the CdSe quantum dot buffer layer suppresses interface recombination and contributes additional photogenerated carriers, increasing the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of PbS quantum dot solar cells, leading to a 25% increase in solar power conversion efficiency.

  20. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity.

    PubMed

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-18

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  1. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  2. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  3. Fabrication of centimeter-scale light-emitting diode with improved performance based on graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Siwei; Tian, Linfan; Guo, Tianqi; Ding, Guqiao; Zhao, Jianwei; Sun, Jing; Lu, Jian; Wang, Zhongyang

    2017-03-01

    The low solubility of graphene quantum dots in organic solvents limits their application in optoelectronic devices. We propose a bottom-up synthesis approach that yields graphene quantum dots that can be dissolved in organic solvents, and we apply this approach to construct new devices. Further, by using the newly designed structure described here, a centimeter-scale emitting area and a maximum external quantum efficiency of approximately 1.2% are achieved. The method we propose provides a feasible way to develop light-emitting diodes based on graphene quantum dots for practical application.

  4. One-pot aqueous synthesis of gadolinium doped CdTe quantum dots with dual imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunli; Shen, Zhitao; Luo, Chunhua; Lin, Hechun; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yiting; Peng, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A facile one-pot strategy has been developed for the aqueous synthesis of Gd doped CdTe (Gd:CdTe) QDs as fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal agent. The prepared Gd:CdTe QDs showed narrow size distribution and the average size was less than 5nm. The amount of Gd(3+) dopant in Gd:CdTe QDs significantly affected the optical properties of obtained QDs. The highest PL QY for the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs was up to 42.5%. The QDs showed the weak toxicity and significant enhancement in MRI signal. The specific relaxivity value (r1) was determined to be 4.22mM(-1)s(-1). These properties make the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs be an effective dual-modal imaging agent and have great potential applications in biomedical field.

  5. Nanoscale patterning of colloidal quantum dots for surface plasmon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, Dae-Young; Suh, Hwansoo; Kim, Jineun; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Jaesoong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-03-01

    The patterning of colloidal quantum dots with nanometer resolution is essential for their application in photonics and plasmonics. Several patterning approaches, such as the use of polymer composites, molecular lock-and-key methods, inkjet printing, and microcontact printing of quantum dots, have limits in fabrication resolution, positioning and the variation of structural shapes. Herein, we present an adaptation of a conventional liftoff method for patterning colloidal quantum dots. This simple method is easy and requires no complicated processes. Using this method, we formed straight lines, rings, and dot patterns of colloidal quantum dots on metallic substrates. Notably, patterned lines approximately 10 nm wide were fabricated. The patterned structures display high resolution, accurate positioning, and well-defined sidewall profiles. To demonstrate the applicability of our method, we present a surface plasmon generator elaborated from quantum dots.

  6. Optophononics with Coupled Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    the molecular polaron can be used as an efficient and tunable coherent coupler for quantum states in spatially separated low-dimensional structures...The molecular polaron’s power as a tunable coherent coupler can be seen as follows. In Fig. 4d–f we compare the two tunnel QDM Electric field 21 Ω Ω v...full sequence of layers deposited on top of the GaAs substrate was 500 nm nþ -GaAs buffer , 80 nm i-GaAs, 2.5 nm InAs QDs, 4 nm GaAs barrier, 2.5 nm

  7. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  8. Thermoelectrics with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierschmann, Holger; Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2016-12-01

    In this article we review the thermoelectric properties of three terminal devices with Coulomb-coupled quantum dots (QDs) as observed in recent experiments [1,2]. The system we consider consists of two Coulomb-blockade QDs, one of which can exchange electrons with only a single reservoir (heat reservoir), while the other dot is tunnel coupled with two reservoirs at a lower temperature (conductor). The heat reservoir and the conductor interact only via the Coulomb coupling of the quantum dots. It has been found that two regimes have to be considered. In the first one, the heat flow between the two systems is small. In this regime, thermally driven occupation fluctuations of the hot QD modify the transport properties of the conductor system. This leads to an effect called thermal gating. Experiments have shown how this can be used to control charge flow in the conductor by means of temperature in a remote reservoir. We further substantiate the observations with model calculations, and implications for the realisation of an all-thermal transistor are discussed. In the second regime, the heat flow between the two systems is relevant. Here the system works as a nanoscale heat engine, as proposed recently (Sánchez and Büttiker [3]). We review the conceptual idea, its experimental realisation and the novel features arising in this new kind of thermoelectric device such as decoupling of heat and charge flow. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Adiabatic Spin Pumping with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciolo, Eduardo R.

    Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems has been intensively studied for more the last three decades. While there is a substantial understanding of the stationary regime, much less is know about phase-coherent nonequilibrium transport when pulses or ac perturbations are used to drive electrons at low temperatures and at small length scales. However, about 20 years ago Thouless proposed to drive nondissipative currents in quantum systems by applying simultaneously two phase-locked external perturbations. The so-called adiabatic pumping mechanism has been revived in the last few years, both theoretically and experimentally, in part because of the development of lateral semiconductor quantum dots. Here we will explain how open dots can be used to create spin-polarized currents with little or no net charge transfer. The pure spin pump we propose is the analog of a charge battery in conventional electronics and may provide a needed circuit element for spin-based electronics. We will also discuss other relevant issues such as rectification and decoherence and point out possible extensions of the mechanism to closed dots.

  10. Nonrenewal statistics in transport through quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of waiting times between successive tunneling events is an already established method to characterize current fluctuations in mesoscopic systems. Here, I investigate mechanisms generating correlations between subsequent waiting times in two model systems, a pair of capacitively coupled quantum dots and a single-level dot attached to spin-polarized leads. Waiting time correlations are shown to give insight into the internal dynamics of the system; for example they allow distinction between different mechanisms of the noise enhancement. Moreover, the presence of correlations breaks the validity of the renewal theory. This increases the number of independent cumulants of current fluctuation statistics, thus providing additional sources of information about the transport mechanism. I also propose a method for inferring the presence of waiting time correlations based on low-order current correlation functions. This method gives a way to extend the analysis of nonrenewal current fluctuations to the systems for which single-electron counting is not experimentally feasible. The experimental relevance of the findings is also discussed; for example reanalysis of previous results concerning transport in quantum dots is suggested.

  11. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  12. Facile synthesis of anatase TiO(2) quantum-dot/graphene-nanosheet composites with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Lei, Zhengyu; Sun, Kening; Rooney, David

    2014-04-02

    A facile method to synthesize well-dispersed TiO2 quantum dots on graphene nanosheets (TiO2 -QDs/GNs) in a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion system is reported. The TiO2 /graphene composites display high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), such as having high reversible lithium storage capacity, high Coulombic efficiency, excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance and special structure of the composites thus offer a way to prepare novel graphene-based electrode materials for high-energy-density and high-power LIBs.

  13. Aqueous synthesis of multidentate-polymer-capping Ag2Se quantum dots with bright photoluminescence tunable in a second near-infrared biological window.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lianjiang; Wan, Ajun; Zhao, Tingting; Huang, Ran; Li, Huili

    2014-05-14

    A new strategy for fabricating water-dispersible Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) is presented. A multidentate polymer (MDP) was synthesized and used as a capping agent for Ag2Se QDs. The MDP-capping Ag2Se QDs were synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature, which are highly photoluminescent in a second near-infrared (NIR-II) biological window and possess good photostability. These readily prepared NIR-II fluorescent nanoprobes have great potential for biomedical applications, especially useful for in vivo imaging.

  14. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  15. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  16. Cadmium-containing quantum dots: properties, applications, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dan; Hu, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Wan, Jia; Yu, Zhigang; Huang, Zhenzhen; He, Kai; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-04-01

    The marriage of biology with nanomaterials has significantly accelerated advancement of biological techniques, profoundly facilitating practical applications in biomedical fields. With unique optical properties (e.g., tunable broad excitation, narrow emission spectra, robust photostability, and high quantum yield), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have been reasonably functionalized with controllable interfaces and extensively used as a new class of optical probe in biological researches. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in synthesis and properties of QDs. Moreover, we provide an overview of the outstanding potential of QDs for biomedical research and innovative methods of drug delivery. Specifically, the applications of QDs as novel fluorescent nanomaterials for biomedical sensing and imaging have been detailedly highlighted and discussed. In addition, recent concerns on potential toxicity of QDs are also introduced, ranging from cell researches to animal models.

  17. In situ synthesis of binary cobalt-ruthenium nanofiber alloy counter electrode for electrolyte-free cadmium sulfide quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Nan; Ren, Lei; Sun, Weifu; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Qing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Taihuei; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    A facile, low-cost and low-temperature fabrication approach of counter electrode is essential for pursuing robust photovoltaic devices. Herein, we develop a hydrothermal in situ growth of Cobalt-Ruthenium (Co-Ru) alloy nanofiber electrode for quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) applications. Colloidal CdS QDs with tunable absorption band edge are synthesized and used as light absorber. After optimizing the QDs with the highest photoluminescence quantum yield accompanied by considerable solar light absorption ability, QDSC based on Co-Ru alloy electrode delivers a much higher power conversion efficiency than its counterparts, i.e., either pure Co or Ru metal electrodes. In detail, Co-Ru alloy electrode exhibits high specific area, excellent electrical behavior, intimate interface contact, and good stability, thus leading to notable improved device performances. The impressive robust function of Co-Ru alloy with simple manufacturing procedure highlights its potential applications in robust QDSCs.

  18. Site-selective ion beam synthesis and optical properties of individual CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots in a SiO₂ matrix.

    PubMed

    Mangold, H Moritz; Karl, Helmut; Krenner, Hubert J

    2014-02-12

    Cadmium selenide nanocrystal quantum dots (NC-QDs) are site-selectively synthesized by sequential ion beam implantation of selenium and cadmium ions in a SiO2 matrix through submicrometer apertures followed by a rapid thermal annealing step. The structural and optical properties of the NC-QDs are controlled by the ion fluence during implantation and the diameter of the implantation aperture. For low fluences and small apertures the emission of these optically active emitters is blue-shifted compared to that of the bulk material by >100 meV due to quantum confinement. The emission exhibits spectral diffusion and blinking on a second time scales as established also for solution-synthesized NC-QDs.

  19. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  20. Performance analysis of quantum dots infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Jianqi; He, Guojing

    2011-08-01

    Performance analysis of the quantum dots infrared photodetector(QDIP), which can provide device designers with theoretical guidance and experimental verification, arouses a wide interest and becomes a hot research topic in the recent years. In the paper, in comparison with quantum well infrared photodetector(QWIP) characteristic, the performance of QDIP is mainly discussed and summarized by analyzing the special properties of quantum dots material. To be specific, the dark current density and the detectivity in the normalized incident phenomenon are obtained from Phillip performance model, the carrier lifetime and the dark current of QDIP are studied by combing with the "photon bottleneck" effect, and the detectivity of QDIP is theoretically derived from considering photoconduction gain under the influence of the capture probability. From the experimental results, a conclusion is made that QDIP can not only receive the normal incidence light, but also has the advantages of the long carrier life, the big photoconductive gain, the low dark current and so on, and it further illustrates a anticipated superiority of QDIP in performance and a wide use of QDIP in many engineering fields in the future.

  1. Bioinspired inimitable cadmium telluride quantum dots for bioimaging purposes.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vinay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita; Gosavi, Suresh

    2013-06-01

    Synthesis of quantum nanoparticles of specific size, shape and composition are an aspect important in nanotechnology research. Although these nanostructures are routinely synthesized by chemical routes, the use of microorganisms has emerged as a promising option. The synthesis of cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots by two hitherto unreported marine bacteria (Bacillus pumilus and Serratia marcescens) is reported here. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy indicated the synthesis of CdTe nanoparticles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns implicated their crystalline face-centered cubic nature. The size of the synthesized CdTe nanostructures estimated by XRD and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis was found to be approximately 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were used to confirm the fluorescence properties of these semi-conducting nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed the presence of well-defined nanostructures and energy dispersive spectra (EDS) confirmed the microbial synthesis of these nanoparticles. These bio-inspired CdTe nanostructures could be effectively used in imaging of yeast and animal cells. This work thus describes a cost-effective green method for synthesizing highly fluorescent biocompatible CdTe nanoparticles suitable for bio-labeling purposes.

  2. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  3. Energy transfer in hybrid systems quantum dot-plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplik, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Radiationless relaxation in hybrid systems quantum dot (QD)-plasmonic nanostructure is considered. For the system QD-2D plasma the relaxation rate extremely steeply depends on the radius of quantum dot while in the pair QD-cylindrical wire contacting each other this dependence is logarithmic weak.

  4. A Nanowire-Based Plasmonic Quantum Dot Laser.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jinfa; Tatebayashi, Jun; Sergent, Sylvain; Fong, Chee Fai; Ota, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-13

    Quantum dots enable strong carrier confinement and exhibit a delta-function like density of states, offering significant improvements to laser performance and high-temperature stability when used as a gain medium. However, quantum dot lasers have been limited to photonic cavities that are diffraction-limited and further miniaturization to meet the demands of nanophotonic-electronic integration applications is challenging based on existing designs. Here we introduce the first quantum dot-based plasmonic laser to reduce the cross-sectional area of nanowire quantum dot lasers below the cutoff limit of photonic modes while maintaining the length in the order of the lasing wavelength. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires containing InGaAs quantum dot stacks are placed directly on a silver film, and lasing was observed from single nanowires originating from the InGaAs quantum dot emission into the low-loss higher order plasmonic mode. Lasing threshold pump fluences as low as ∼120 μJ/cm(2) was observed at 7 K, and lasing was observed up to 125 K. Temperature stability from the quantum dot gain, leading to a high characteristic temperature was demonstrated. These results indicate that high-performance, miniaturized quantum dot lasers can be realized with plasmonics.

  5. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots.

  6. Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy

    2005-08-15

    A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection.

  7. Quantum model for mode locking in pulsed semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beugeling, W.; Uhrig, Götz S.; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots in GaAs/InGaAs structures have been proposed as a candidate system for realizing quantum computing. The short coherence time of the electronic quantum state that arises from coupling to the nuclei of the substrate is dramatically increased if the system is subjected to a magnetic field and to repeated optical pulsing. This enhancement is due to mode locking: oscillation frequencies resonant with the pulsing frequencies are enhanced, while off-resonant oscillations eventually die out. Because the resonant frequencies are determined by the pulsing frequency only, the system becomes immune to frequency shifts caused by the nuclear coupling and by slight variations between individual quantum dots. The effects remain even after the optical pulsing is terminated. In this work, we explore the phenomenon of mode locking from a quantum mechanical perspective. We treat the dynamics using the central-spin model, which includes coupling to 10-20 nuclei and incoherent decay of the excited electronic state, in a perturbative framework. Using scaling arguments, we extrapolate our results to realistic system parameters. We estimate that the synchronization to the pulsing frequency needs time scales in the order of 1 s .

  8. CdTe/CdS-MPA quantum dots as fluorescent probes to label yeast cells: synthesis, characterization and conjugation with Concanavalin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ilka T.; Santos, Camila C.; Benetti, Endi; Tenório, Denise P. L. A.; Cabral Filho, Paulo E.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate S.; Prates, Renato A.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2012-03-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent human opportunistic pathogenic fungus and one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. In fact, diagnosis of invasive candidiasis presents unique problems. The aim of this work was to evaluate, by fluorescence image analysis, cellular labeling of C. albicans with CdTe/CdS quantum dots conjugated or not to concanavalin A (ConA). Yeast cells were incubated with CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QD) stabilized with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (emission peak at 530 nm) for 1 hour. In the overall study we observed no morphological alterations. The fluorescence microscopic analysis of the yeast cells showed that the non-functionalized QDs do not label C. albicans cells, while for the QD conjugated to ConA the cells showed a fluorescence profile indicating that the membrane was preferentially marked. This profile was expected since Concanavalin A is a protein that binds specifically to terminal carbohydrate residues at the membrane cell surface. The results suggest that the QD-labeled Candida cells represent a promising tool to open new possibilities for a precise evaluation of fungal infections in pathological conditions.

  9. Mesoscopic admittance of a double quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Cottet, Audrey; Mora, Christophe; Kontos, Takis

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the mesoscopic admittance G({omega}) of a double quantum dot (DQD), which can be measured directly using microwave techniques. This quantity reveals spectroscopic information on the DQD and is also directly sensitive to a Pauli spin blockade effect. We then discuss the problem of a DQD coupled to a high quality photonic resonator. When the photon correlation functions can be developed along a random-phase-approximation-like scheme, the response of the resonator gives an access to G({omega}).

  10. Electron scattering in intrananotube quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Buchs, G; Bercioux, D; Ruffieux, P; Gröning, P; Grabert, H; Gröning, O

    2009-06-19

    Intratube quantum dots showing particle-in-a-box-like states with level spacings up to 200 meV are realized in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes by means of low dose medium energy Ar(+) irradiation. Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy compared to results of a Fabry-Perot electron resonator model yields clear signatures for inter- and intravalley scattering of electrons confined between consecutive irradiation-induced defects (interdefects distance

  11. Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Djie, H. S.; Ooi, B. S; Gunawan, O.

    2006-08-21

    The authors report a spatial control of the band gap in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) using the combined effects of pulsed excimer laser irradiation and impurity-free dielectric cap induced intermixing technique. A large band gap shift of up to 180 meV has been obtained under laser irradiation of 480 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 150 pulses to the SiO{sub 2} capped shallow QD structure, while the nonirradiated SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub x}N{sub y} capped QDs only exhibit band gap shifts of 18 and 91 meV, respectively.

  12. Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imagingin vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to clinically promote QD, and we indicate innovative approaches to oncology which are implementable using QD. PMID:22649672

  13. Trion decay in colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jha, Praket P; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2009-04-28

    Using charged films of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots of approximately 3.5 to 4.5 nm core diameters and 0.6 to 1.2 nm thick CdS shells, the radiative and nonradiative decay of the negatively charged exciton, the trion T-, are measured. The T- radiative rate is faster than the exciton by a factor of 2.2 +/- 0.4 and estimated at approximately 10 ns. The T- lifetime is approximately 0.7-1.5 ns for the samples measured and is longer than the biexciton lifetime by a factor or 7.5 +/- 1.7.

  14. A hybrid silicon evanescent quantum dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bongyong; Tanabe, Katsuaki; Kako, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Hatori, Nobuaki; Noguchi, Masataka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takemasa, Keizo; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We report the first demonstration of a hybrid silicon quantum dot (QD) laser, evanescently coupled to a silicon waveguide. InAs/GaAs QD laser structures with thin AlGaAs lower cladding layers were transferred by direct wafer bonding onto silicon waveguides defining cavities with adiabatic taper structures and distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser operates at temperatures up to 115 °C under pulsed current conditions, with a characteristic temperature T 0 of 303 K near room temperature. Furthermore, by reducing the width of the GaAs/AlGaAs mesa down to 8 µm, continuous-wave operation is realized at 25 °C.

  15. Luminescence studies of individual quantum dot photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Amirav, Lilac; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-09-04

    Using far-field optical microscopy we report the first measurements of photoluminescence from single nanoparticle photocatalysts. Fluence-dependent luminescence is investigated from metal-semiconductor heterojunction quantum dot catalysts exposed to a variety of environments, ranging from gaseous argon to liquid water containing a selection of hole scavengers. The catalysts each exhibit characteristic nonlinear fluence dependence. From these structurally and environmentally sensitive trends, we disentangle the separate rate-determining steps in each particle across the very wide range of time scales, which follow the initial light absorption process. This information will significantly benefit the design of effective artificial photocatalytic systems for renewable direct solar-to-fuel energy conversion.

  16. Quantum dots confined in nanoporous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Xia, Jianfeng; Wang, Jun; Shinar, Joseph; Lin, Zhiqun

    2006-09-01

    CdSe /ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) were filled into porous alumina membranes (PAMs) by dip coating. The deposition of QDs induced changes in the refractive index of the PAMs. The amount of absorbed QDs was quantified by fitting the reflection and transmission spectra observed experimentally with one side open and freestanding (i.e., with two sides open) PAMs employed, respectively. The fluorescence of the QDs was found to be retained within the cylindrical nanopores of the PAMs.

  17. Spin-dependent shot noise enhancement in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbelohde, Niels; Fricke, Christian; Hohls, Frank; Haug, Rolf J.

    2013-07-01

    The spin-dependent dynamical blockade was investigated in a lateral quantum dot in a magnetic field. Spin-polarized edge channels in the two-dimensional leads and the spatial distribution of Landau orbitals in the dot modulate the tunnel coupling of the quantum dot level spectrum. In a measurement of the electron shot noise we observe a pattern of super-Poissonian noise which is correlated to the spin-dependent competition between different transport channels.

  18. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF. PMID:24721781

  19. Quantum Dots in Diagnostics and Detection: Principles and Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Pisanic, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit exceptional optical and electrical behaviors not found in their bulk counterparts. Following seminal work in the development of water-soluble quantum dots in the late 1990's, researchers have sought to develop interesting and novel ways of exploiting the extraordinary properties of quantum dots for biomedical applications. Since that time, over 10,000 articles have been published related to the use of quantum dots in biomedicine, many of which regard their use in detection and diagnostic bioassays. This review presents a didactic overview of fundamental physical phenomena associated with quantum dots and paradigm examples of how these phenomena can and have been readily exploited for manifold uses in nanobiotechnology with a specific focus on their implementation in in vitro diagnostic assays and biodetection. PMID:24770716

  20. Quantum dots in diagnostics and detection: principles and paradigms.

    PubMed

    Pisanic, T R; Zhang, Y; Wang, T H

    2014-06-21

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit exceptional optical and electrical behaviors not found in their bulk counterparts. Following seminal work in the development of water-soluble quantum dots in the late 1990's, researchers have sought to develop interesting and novel ways of exploiting the extraordinary properties of quantum dots for biomedical applications. Since that time, over 10,000 articles have been published related to the use of quantum dots in biomedicine, many of which regard their use in detection and diagnostic bioassays. This review presents a didactic overview of fundamental physical phenomena associated with quantum dots and paradigm examples of how these phenomena can and have been readily exploited for manifold uses in nanobiotechnology with a specific focus on their implementation in in vitro diagnostic assays and biodetection.

  1. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Liu, Zhongxin; Ma, Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen, Wei

    2011-05-13

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  2. Combinatorial Approach to Studying Metal Enhanced Fluorescence from Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nguyet; Corrigan, Timothy; Norton, Michael; Neff, David

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence is extensively used in biochemistry for determining the concentration or purity of molecules in a biological environment. In metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), the fluorescence molecules separated from a metal surface by several nanometers can be enhanced. The fluorescent enhancement is dependent on the size and spacing of the nanoparticles, as has been shown previously for a number of fluorophore molecules. Fluorescence from quantum dots is of particular interest because the quantum dots do not lose fluorescence ability when exposed to light and they have higher intensity of fluorescence. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of size and spacing on fluorescence intensity when coupling gold nano-particles with quantum dots. We employ a combinatorial approach, depositing gold particles ranging in diameter from 30 nm to 130 nm with varied spacings onto the substrate, followed by a protein spacer-layer and quantum dots. The fluorescence signal from the metal enhanced quantum dots were determined by confocal microscopy.

  3. Quantum dots find their stride in single molecule tracking

    PubMed Central

    Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen years after the demonstration of quantum dots as biological imaging agents, and nine years after the initial commercial introduction of bioconjugated quantum dots, the brightness and photostability of the quantum dots has enabled a range of investigations using single molecule tracking. These materials are being routinely utilized by a number of groups to track the dynamics of single molecules in reconstituted biophysical systems and on living cells, and are especially powerful for investigations of single molecules over long timescales with short exposure times and high pointing accuracy. New approaches are emerging where the quantum dots are used as “hard-sphere” probes for intracellular compartments. Innovations in quantum dot surface modification are poised to substantially expand the utility of these materials. PMID:22055494

  4. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  5. Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif; Al-Obaidi, Sabri J.

    2012-02-15

    We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.

  6. Cation exchange-based facile aqueous synthesis of small, stable, and nontoxic near-infrared Ag₂Te/ZnS core/shell quantum dots emitting in the second biological window.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi; He, Xuewen; Gao, Li; Ma, Nan

    2013-02-01

    Facile aqueous synthesis of near-infrared Ag(2)Te quantum dots (QDs) and Ag(2)Te/ZnS core/shell QDs emitting in the second biological window is reported. The QD synthesis is based on a straightforward cation exchange process between CdTe QDs and Ag(+) ions conducted in aqueous solution. The prepared Ag(2)Te QDs possess near-infrared emission ranging from 900 to 1300 nm and a quantum yield up to 2.1%. A ZnS shell was grown on the Ag(2)Te QD to further enhance the photoluminescence intensity with a quantum yield of 5.6%. These Ag(2)Te/ZnS core/shell QDs possess robust colloidal stability and photostability with minimum photoluminescence fluctuation upon incubation for 72 h in biological buffer or continuous laser excitation for 120 min. Also, These QDs possess small hydrodynamic size (∼7.6 nm) and are non-cytotoxic to human cells, which is ideal for optical bioimaging in the second biological window.

  7. Capping biological quantum dots with the peptide CLPFFD to increase stability and to reduce effects on cell viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, A. L.; Astudillo, J.; Vásquez, C. C.; Jara, Danilo H.; Guerrero, Ariel R.; Guzman, F.; Osorio-Roman, I. O.; Kogan, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Highly fluorescent nanoparticles, or quantum dots, have multiple applications in biology and biomedicine; however, in most cases, it is necessary to functionalize them to enhance their biocompatibility and selectivity. Generally, functionalization is performed after nanoparticle synthesis and involves the use of molecules or macromolecules having two important traits: specific biological activity and functional groups that facilitate nanoparticle capping (i.e. atom-atom interaction). For this reason, we carried out a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum dots capped with glutathione, and we then functionalized these nanoparticles with the amphipathic peptide CLPFFD. This peptide attaches selectively to β-Amyloid fibres, which are involved in Alzheimer's disease. Our results show that the optical properties of the quantum dots are not affected by functionalization with this peptide. Infrared spectra showed that cadmium telluride quantum dots were functionalized with the peptide CLPFFD. In addition, no significant differences were observed between the surface charge of the quantum dots with or without CLPFFD and the nanocrystal size calculated for HR-TEM was 4.2 nm. Finally, our results show that quantum dots with CLPFFD are stable and that they resulted in a significantly reduced cytotoxicity with respect to that induced by quantum dots not conjugated with the peptide. Moreover, the results show that the CLPFFD-functionalized nanoparticles bind to β-Amyloid fibres.

  8. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for several predominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, as generalized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when working with QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s) and appropriate strategies for attaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  9. Silicon quantum dots for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Chen, Song; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (or quantum dots, QDs) exhibit unique optical and electronic properties such as size-controlled fluorescence, high quantum yields, and stability against photobleaching. These properties allow QDs to be used as optical labels for multiplexed imaging and in drug delivery detection systems. Luminescent silicon QDs and surface-modified silicon QDs have also been developed as potential minimally toxic fluorescent probes for bioapplications. Silicon, a well-known power electronic semiconductor material, is considered an extremely biocompatible material, in particular with respect to blood. This review article summarizes existing knowledge related to and recent research progress made in the methods for synthesizing silicon QDs, as well as their optical properties and surface-modification processes. In addition, drug delivery systems and in vitro and in vivo imaging applications that use silicon QDs are also discussed.

  10. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  11. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  12. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  13. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively.

  14. Cadmium-free aqueous synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe@ZnS core-shell quantum dots and their differential bioanalyte sensing potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Irshad Ahmad; Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H. B.

    2016-10-01

    Herein we report a facile and cadmium-free approach to prepare water-soluble fluorescent ZnSe@ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs), using thioglycolic acid (TGA) ligand as a stabilizer and thiourea as a sulfur source. The optical properties and morphology of the obtained core-shell QDs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. TEM analysis, and electrophoresis data showed that ZnSe core had an average size of 3.60 ± 0.12 nm and zeta potential of -38 mV; and for ZnSe@ZnS QDs, the mean size was 4.80 ± 0.20 nm and zeta potential was -45 mV. Compared to the core ZnSe QDs, the quantum yield of these core-shell structures was higher (13% versus 32%). These were interacted with five common bioanalytes such as, ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, glucose and cholesterol which revealed fluorescence quenching due to concentration dependent binding of analytes to the core only, and core-shell QDs. The binding pattern followed the sequence: cholesterol < glucose < ascorbic acid < oxalic acid < citric acid for ZnSe, and cholesterol < glucose < oxalic acid < ascorbic acid < citric acid for core-shell QDs. Thus, enhanced binding was noticed for the analyte citric acid which may facilitate development of a fluorescence-based sensor based on the ZnSe core-only quantum dot platform. Further, the hydrophilic core-shell structure may find use in cell imaging applications.

  15. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  16. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Vanessa; Bulović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI). We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs) in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs - optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection - that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt). We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  17. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.

  18. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE PAGES

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; ...

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions atmore » longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.« less

  19. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xinzheng; Masala, Silvia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-03-01

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p- and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction.

  20. Open quantum dots in graphene: Scaling relativistic pointer states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.; Huang, L.; Yang, R.; Lai, Y.-C.; Akis, R.

    2010-04-01

    Open quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly through the decoherence theory, in which an important set of quantum states are not "washed out" through interaction with the environment-the pointer states provide connection to trapped classical orbits which remain stable in the dots. Graphene is a recently discovered material with highly unusual properties. This single layer, one atom thick, sheet of carbon has a unique bandstructure, governed by the Dirac equation, in which charge carriers imitate relativistic particles with zero rest mass. Here, an atomic orbital-based recursive Green's function method is used for studying the quantum transport. We study quantum fluctuations in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine the scaling of the domiant fluctuation frequency with dot size.

  1. Leveraging Crystal Anisotropy for Deterministic Growth of InAs Quantum Dots with Narrow Optical Linewidths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-29

    spin qubit for quantum information. KEYWORDS: Quantum dot , InAs, molecular beam epitaxy, site...removes a major obstacle toward sophisticated quantum dot complexes such as a quantum network of spin qubits . Methods. Substrate Patterning. Lines and...controlled, quantum information, single photon source Epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) have atom-like electronicproperties, including long coherence

  2. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  3. Luminescent properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots in fluorophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatova, Zh. O.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Babkina, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    The optical properties of fluorophosphate glasses with CdSe quantum dots are studied. Secondary heat treatment at a temperature exceeding the glass transition temperature resulted in the formation of quantum dots with sizes of 3.7-6.2 nm. The influence of the semiconductor component concentration on the spectral-luminescent characteristics of glasses is shown. It is experimentally demonstrated that glasses with a lower CdSe concentration have a higher absolute luminescence quantum yield.

  4. Size controlled near-infrared high-quality PbSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kalasad, M. N.; Rabinal, M. K.; Mulimani, B. G.; Greenham, N. C.

    2015-06-24

    Herein, we report the size controlled preparation of PbSe quantum dots (QDs) by non coordinating solvent route using oleic acid as surfactant molecules. The particles size is controlled by varying temperature and time of reaction. The present method of synthesis gives highly stable colloids, spherical in shape, better size tunability, narrow size distribution, extremely small size, monodisperse and exhibit strong near-infrared emission. The estimated particles sizes are in the range of 2 to 8 nm. These PbSe quantum dots are used for applications in optoelectronics and biological imaging.

  5. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xin, Xukai; Lin, Zhiqun

    2011-08-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots exhibit great potential for applications in next generation high efficiency, low cost solar cells because of their unique optoelectronic properties. Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have recently received much attention as building blocks for use in solar energy conversion due to their outstanding properties and advantageous characteristics, including high optical absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and earth abundant chemical composition. In this Feature Article, recent advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics are highlighted, followed by an outlook on the future research efforts in these areas.

  6. Diffusion doping in quantum dots: bond strength and diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Saha, Avijit; Makkar, Mahima; Shetty, Amitha; Gahlot, Kushagra; A R, Pavan; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-02-23

    Semiconducting materials uniformly doped with optical or magnetic impurities have been useful in a number of potential applications. However, clustering or phase separation during synthesis has made this job challenging. Recently the "inside out" diffusion doping was proposed to be successful in obtaining large sized quantum dots (QDs) uniformly doped with a dilute percentage of dopant atoms. Herein, we demonstrate the use of basic physical chemistry of diffusion to control the size and concentration of the dopants within the QDs for a given transition metal ion. We have studied three parameters; the bond strength of the core molecules and the diffusion coefficient of the diffusing metal ion are found to be important while the ease of cation exchange was not highly influential in the control of size and concentration of the single domain dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (DMSQDs) with diverse dopant ions M(2+) (Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+)). Steady state optical emission spectra reveal that the dopants are incorporated inside the semiconducting CdS and the emission can be tuned during shell growth. We have shown that this method enables control over doping percentage and the QDs show a superior ferromagnetic response at room temperature as compared to previously reported systems.

  7. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped CdTe/CdSe Near-Infrared Quantum Dots for Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-05-19

    These glutathione (GSH)-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Results revealed that the QD nanoparticles exhibited good dispersity, a uniform size distribution and tunable fluorescence emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In addition, these nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and photoluminescence in cell imaging. In particular, this type of core/shell NIR QDs may have potential applications in molecular imaging.

  8. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with η = 1.61% power conversion efficiency.

  9. Nucleation temperature-controlled synthesis and in vitro toxicity evaluation of L-cysteine-capped Mn:ZnS quantum dots for intracellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Pandey, Gajanan; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Yadav, Sapna; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), one of the fastest developing and most exciting fluorescent materials, have attracted increasing interest in bioimaging and biomedical applications. The long-term stability and emission in the visible region of QDs have proved their applicability as a significant fluorophore in cell labelling. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore the efficacy of L-cysteine as a capping agent for Mn-doped ZnS QD for intracellular imaging. A room temperature nucleation strategy was adopted to prepare non-toxic, water-dispersible and biocompatible Mn:ZnS QDs. Aqueous and room temperature QDs with L-cysteine as a capping agent were found to be non-toxic even at a concentration of 1500 µg/mL and have wide applications in intracellular imaging.

  10. Solid-phase synthesis of graphene quantum dots from the food additive citric acid under microwave irradiation and their use in live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qianfen; Wang, Yong; Ni, Yongnian

    2016-05-01

    The work demonstrated that solid citric acid, one of the most common food additives, can be converted to graphene quantum dots (GQDs) under microwave heating. The as-prepared GQDs were further characterized by various analytical techniques like transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the GQDs was evaluated using HeLa cells. The result showed that the GQDs almost did not exhibit cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 1000 µg mL(-1). In addition, it was found that the GQDs showed good solubility, excellent photostability, and excitation-dependent multicolor photoluminescence. Subsequently, the multicolor GQDs were successfully used as a fluorescence light-up probe for live-cell imaging.

  11. On-chip quantum optics with quantum dots and superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Guo, Guo-Ping; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-11-01

    Benefit from the recent nanotechnology process, people can integrate different nanostructures on a single chip. Particularly, quantum dots (QD), which behave as artificial atoms, have been shown to couple with a superconducting resonator, indicating that quantum-dot based quantum chip has a highly scalable possibility. Here we show a quantum chip architecture by combining graphene quantum dots and superconducting resonators together. A double quantum dot (DQD) and a microwave hybrid system can be described by the Jaynes-Cummings model, while a multi-quantum-dots system is conformed to the Tavis-Cummings model. These simple quantum optics models are experimentally realized in our device, providing a compelling platform for both graphene study and potential applications.

  12. Seed-mediated synthesis, properties and application of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CdSe magnetic quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alex W.H.; Ang, Chung Yen; Patra, Pranab K.; Han Yu; Gu Hongwei; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Juraszek, Jean; Chiron, Hubert; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2011-08-15

    Seed-mediated growth of fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) around {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic cores was performed at high temperature (300 deg. C) in the presence of organic surfactants. Bi-functional magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) with tunable emission properties were successfully prepared. The as-synthesized MQDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which confirmed the assembly of heterodimers. When a longer growth period was employed, a homogeneous dispersion of QDs around a magnetic nanoparticle was obtained. The magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were examined. The MQDs were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 0.40 emu/g and a coercivity of 138 Oe at 5 K. To demonstrate their potential application in bio-labeling, these MQDs were coated with a thin silica shell, and functionalized with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative. The functionalized MQDs were effectively used for the labeling of live cell membranes of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. - Graphical abstract: (a) HRTEM image of oleic acid capped MPs. The size of MPs ranges from 8 to 10 nm. (b) XRD pattern of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MPs. Highlights: > The fabrication of MQDs through a seed-mediated approach has been demonstrated. > The formation and assembly of these bi-functional nanocomposites have been elucidated. > The MQDs exhibit superparamagnetism and tunable emissions characteristic of the components. > MQDs with thin silica coating were successfully employed in the labeling of cancer cell membranes.

  13. One step, microwave assisted green synthesis of biocompatible carbon quantum dots and their composites with [α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] for visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahasrabudhe, Atharva Pant, Shashank Chatti, Manjunath Maiti, Binoy De, Priyadarsi Roy, Soumyajit

    2014-04-24

    We report a simple, rapid and green route for synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) by microwave assisted pyrolysis method using polyleucine polymer (Boc-L-Leu-HEMA) as precursor and self-passivating agent. The as synthesized CQDs were found to possess low cytotoxicity, thus making them suitable candidates for bioimaging and bio-labelling. Moreover, nanocomposites of as prepared CQDs with [α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] polyoxometalate were synthesized and were shown to possess excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light towards degradation of organic dye pollutants. Based on the control experiments, a suitable mechanism has been proposed to explain the remarkable photoactivity of the CQD/[α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] composites.

  14. Optimization of conditions for cadmium selenide quantum dot biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jordan; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2017-04-01

    The biosynthesis of quantum dots has been explored as an alternative to traditional physicochemical methods; however, relatively few studies have determined optimal synthesis parameters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequentially treated with sodium selenite and cadmium chloride synthesized CdSe quantum dots in the cytoplasm. These nanoparticles displayed a prominent yellow fluorescence, with an emission maximum of approximately 540 nm. The requirement for glutathione in the biosynthetic mechanism was explored by depleting its intracellular content through cellular treatments with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and buthionine sulfoximine. Synthesis was significantly inhibited by both of these reagents when they were applied after selenite treatment prior to the addition of cadmium, thereby indicating that glutathione contributes to the biosynthetic process. Determining the optimum conditions for biosynthesis revealed that quantum dots were produced most efficiently at entry into stationary phase followed by direct addition of 1 mM selenite for only 6 h and then immediately incubating these cells in fresh growth medium containing 3 mM Cd (II). Synthesis of quantum dots reached a maximum at 84 h of reaction time. Biosynthesis of 800-μg g(-1) fresh weight cells was achieved. For the first time, significant efforts have been undertaken to optimize each aspect of the CdSe biosynthetic procedure in S. cerevisiae, resulting in a 70% increased production.

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo finite temperature electronic structure of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2002-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We test the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in one and three dimensional harmonic oscillator potentials and apply it in evaluation of finite temperature effects of single and coupled quantum dots. Our simulations show the correct finite temperature excited state populations including degeneracy in cases of one and three dimensional harmonic oscillators. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and coupled quantum dots are compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Distributions are shown to agree and the finite temperature effects are discussed. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. Other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).

  16. Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Smita

    Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to

  17. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  18. The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2016-07-01

    We adapt the transfer matrix (T-matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T-matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T-matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons.

  19. Gate-controlled electromechanical backaction induced by a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yuma; Mahboob, Imran; Onomitsu, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-11

    Semiconductor-based quantum structures integrated into mechanical resonators have emerged as a unique platform for generating entanglement between macroscopic phononic and mesocopic electronic degrees of freedom. A key challenge to realizing this is the ability to create and control the coupling between two vastly dissimilar systems. Here, such coupling is demonstrated in a hybrid device composed of a gate-defined quantum dot integrated into a piezoelectricity-based mechanical resonator enabling milli-Kelvin phonon states to be detected via charge fluctuations in the quantum dot. Conversely, the single electron transport in the quantum dot can induce a backaction onto the mechanics where appropriate bias of the quantum dot can enable damping and even current-driven amplification of the mechanical motion. Such electron transport induced control of the mechanical resonator dynamics paves the way towards a new class of hybrid semiconductor devices including a current injected phonon laser and an on-demand single phonon emitter.

  20. Gate-controlled electromechanical backaction induced by a quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yuma; Mahboob, Imran; Onomitsu, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-based quantum structures integrated into mechanical resonators have emerged as a unique platform for generating entanglement between macroscopic phononic and mesocopic electronic degrees of freedom. A key challenge to realizing this is the ability to create and control the coupling between two vastly dissimilar systems. Here, such coupling is demonstrated in a hybrid device composed of a gate-defined quantum dot integrated into a piezoelectricity-based mechanical resonator enabling milli-Kelvin phonon states to be detected via charge fluctuations in the quantum dot. Conversely, the single electron transport in the quantum dot can induce a backaction onto the mechanics where appropriate bias of the quantum dot can enable damping and even current-driven amplification of the mechanical motion. Such electron transport induced control of the mechanical resonator dynamics paves the way towards a new class of hybrid semiconductor devices including a current injected phonon laser and an on-demand single phonon emitter. PMID:27063939