Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola
2014-05-01
We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.
A brief review on quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Álvaro J.; Loura, Ricardo; Paunković, Nikola; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; Mateus, Paulo; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.
2014-08-01
In classical cryptography, the bit commitment scheme is one of the most important primitives. We review the state of the art of bit commitment protocols, emphasizing its main achievements and applications. Next, we present a practical quantum bit commitment scheme, whose security relies on current technological limitations, such as the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We demonstrate the feasibility of our practical quantum bit commitment protocol and that it can be securely implemented with nowadays technology.
Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2015-06-01
We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.
A practical quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.
Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2012-06-01
Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond. PMID:22273908
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
Classical teleportation of a quantum Bit
Cerf; Gisin; Massar
2000-03-13
Classical teleportation is defined as a scenario where the sender is given the classical description of an arbitrary quantum state while the receiver simulates any measurement on it. This scenario is shown to be achievable by transmitting only a few classical bits if the sender and receiver initially share local hidden variables. Specifically, a communication of 2.19 bits is sufficient on average for the classical teleportation of a qubit, when restricted to von Neumann measurements. The generalization to positive-operator-valued measurements is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
Fighting noise with noise in realistic quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2015-07-01
We investigate how the efficiency of the quantum teleportation protocol is affected when the qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. We study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, namely, the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase damping), depolarizing, and amplitude-damping noise. Several realistic scenarios are studied in which a part or all of the qubits employed in the execution of the quantum teleportation protocol are subjected to the same or different types of noise. We find noise scenarios not yet known in which more noise or less entanglement lead to more efficiency. Furthermore, we show that if noise is unavoidable it is better to subject the qubits to different noise channels in order to obtain an increase in the efficiency of the protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Decoherence Sources of a Superconducting Quantum Bit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ithier, G.; Boulant, N.; Collin, E.; Meeson, P. J.; Joyez, P.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Chiarello, F.; Shnirman, A.; Makhlin, Y.; Schön, G.
2006-09-01
The Quantronium, a superconducting circuit with Josephson Junctions, can be regarded as a solid state qubit prototype with a coupling to the environment over which some degree of control may be exercised. We have demonstrated experimentally that the quantum state of the circuit may be manipulated using pulse sequences derived from NMR and atomic physics and then readout. Measurements of the coherence time obtained in this way are analysed via a general theoretical framework to develop a simple model of the environmental noise sources. A complete picture of decoherence in this quantum electrical circuit can thus be provided.
Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping
Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter
2003-01-01
In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality.
Power of one bit of quantum information in quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cable, Hugo; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan
2016-04-01
We present a model of quantum metrology inspired by the computational model known as deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit (DQC1). Using only one pure qubit together with l fully mixed qubits we obtain measurement precision (defined as root-mean-square error for the parameter being estimated) at the standard quantum limit, which is typically obtained using the same number of uncorrelated qubits in fully pure states. In principle, the standard quantum limit can be exceeded using an additional qubit which adds only a small amount of purity. We show that the discord in the final state vanishes only in the limit of attaining infinite precision for the parameter being estimated.
Advanced quantum noise correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogl, Ulrich; Glasser, Ryan T.; Clark, Jeremy B.; Glorieux, Quentin; Li, Tian; Corzo, Neil V.; Lett, Paul D.
2014-01-01
We use the quantum correlations of twin beams of light to investigate the fundamental addition of noise when one of the beams propagates through a fast-light medium based on phase-insensitive gain. The experiment is based on two successive four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor, which allow for the generation of bright two-mode-squeezed twin beams followed by a controlled advancement while maintaining the shared quantum correlations between the beams. The demonstrated effect allows the study of irreversible decoherence in a medium exhibiting anomalous dispersion, and for the first time shows the advancement of a bright nonclassical state of light. The advancement and corresponding degradation of the quantum correlations are found to be operating near the fundamental quantum limit imposed by using a phase-insensitive amplifier.
Strong no-go theorem for Gaussian quantum bit commitment
Magnin, Loieck; Magniez, Frederic; Leverrier, Anthony
2010-01-15
Unconditionally secure bit commitment is forbidden by quantum mechanics. We extend this no-go theorem to continuous-variable protocols where both players are restricted to use Gaussian states and operations, which is a reasonable assumption in current-state optical implementations. Our Gaussian no-go theorem also provides a natural counter-example to a conjecture that quantum mechanics can be rederived from the assumption that key distribution is allowed while bit commitment is forbidden in Nature.
A noise immunity controlled quantum teleportation protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Baagyere, Edward; Qin, Zhen; Xiong, Hu; Zhan, Huayi
2016-08-01
With the advent of the Internet and information and communication technology, quantum teleportation has become an important field in information security and its application areas. This is because quantum teleportation has the ability to attain a timely secret information delivery and offers unconditional security. And as such, the field of quantum teleportation has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, noise has serious effect on the safety of quantum teleportation within the aspects of information fidelity, channel capacity and information transfer. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to address these problems of quantum teleportation. Firstly, in order to resist collective noise, we construct a decoherence-free subspace under different noise scenarios to establish a two-dimensional fidelity quantum teleportation models. And also create quantum teleportation of multiple degree of freedom, and these models ensure the accuracy and availability of the exchange of information and in multiple degree of freedom. Secondly, for easy preparation, measurement and implementation, we use super dense coding features to build an entangled quantum secret exchange channel. To improve the channel utilization and capacity, an efficient super dense coding method based on ultra-entanglement exchange is used. Thirdly, continuous variables of the controlled quantum key distribution were designed for quantum teleportation; in addition, we perform Bell-basis measurement under the collective noise and also prepare the storage technology of quantum states to achieve one-bit key by three-photon encoding to improve its security and efficiency. We use these two methods because they conceal information, resist a third party attack and can detect eavesdropping. Our proposed methods, according to the security analysis, are able to solve the problems associated with the quantum teleportation under various noise environments.
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented. PMID:24237497
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-03-15
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.
Quantum Dialogue Based on Hypertanglement Against Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhiguang; Baaguere, Edward; Zhan, Huayi
2016-08-01
The major problem faced by photons propagating through a physical channel is that of collective noise. This collective noise has the ability to reduce the number of quantum bits that are transmitted, thereby reduces the message fidelity. The traditional method of noise immunity is the use of entanglement purification, which consumes a lot of quantum resources in accomplishing the joint probability of noise immunity but does not guarantee accurate quantum dialog. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to quantum dialogue in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel. we constructs corresponding Decoherence Free Subspace(DFS), the quantum state after the change is in the maximally entangled state, so as to realize the fidelity of quantum dialogue model that can ensure the accuracy and noise resistance, and secret information exchange.
Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2004-04-01
It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-23
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-05-01
While unconditionally secure bit commitment (BC) is considered impossible within the quantum framework, it can be obtained under relativistic or experimental constraints. Here we study whether such BC can lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT). The answer is not completely negative. In one hand, we provide a detailed cheating strategy, showing that the "honest-but-curious adversaries" in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit. On the other hand, it is also found that some other no-go proofs claiming that a dishonest receiver can always decode all transferred bits simultaneously with reliability 100% become invalid in this scenario, because their models of cryptographic protocols are too ideal to cover such a BC-based QOT.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane scrambling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ri-Gui; Sun, Ya-Juan; Fan, Ping
2015-05-01
With the rapid development of multimedia technology, the image scrambling for information hiding and digital watermarking is crucial. But, in quantum image processing field, the study on image scrambling is still few. Several quantum image scrambling schemes are basically position space scrambling strategies; however, the quantum image scrambling focused on the color space does not exist. Therefore, in this paper, the quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane (GB) scrambling scheme, an entire color space scrambling strategy, is proposed boldly. On the strength of a quantum image representation NEQR, several different quantum scrambling methods using GB knowledge are designed. Not only can they change the histogram distribution of the image dramatically, some designed schemes can almost make the image histogram flush, enhance the anti-attack ability of digital image, but also their cost or complexity is very low. The simulation experiments result also shows a good performance and indicates the particular advantage of GB scrambling in quantum image processing field.
Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled
Fully distrustful quantum bit commitment and coin flipping.
Silman, J; Chailloux, A; Aharon, N; Kerenidis, I; Pironio, S; Massar, S
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them "fully" distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment-one of the most basic primitives within the model-the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and 3/4, which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.
Fully distrustful quantum bit commitment and coin flipping.
Silman, J; Chailloux, A; Aharon, N; Kerenidis, I; Pironio, S; Massar, S
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them "fully" distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment-one of the most basic primitives within the model-the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and 3/4, which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336. PMID:21702585
Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.
Feng, Hanlin; Xiao, Shilin; Fok, Mable P
2015-08-24
we propose a bit-rate transparent interferometric noise mitigation scheme utilizing the nonlinear modulation curve of electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Both the zero-slope region and the linear modulation region of the nonlinear modulation curve are utilized to suppress interferometric noise and enlarge noise margin of degraded eye diagrams. Using amplitude suppression effect of the zero-slope region, interferometric noise at low frequency range is suppressed successfully. Under different signal to noise ratio (SNR), we measured the power penalties at bit error rate (BER) of 10<(-9) with and without EAM interferometric noise suppression. By using our proposed scheme, power penalty improvement of 8.5 dB is achieved in a signal with signal-to-noise ratio of 12.5 dB. BER results at various bit rates are analyzed, error floors for each BER curves are removed, significantly improvement in receiver sensitivity and widely opened eye diagrams are resulted.
Coherent Transition Assisted Measurement on the Superconducting Persistent Current Quantum Bit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lin; Lloyd, Seth; Orlando, T. P.
2002-03-01
Measurement is a crucial step in quantum information processing. In the first experiments on the superconducting persistent-current qubit (pc-qubit), a dc SQUID magnetometer detects the flux of the qubit and the switching current histogram of the SQUID is analyzed to obtain the information about the qubit's state. The self-induced flux of the pc-qubit is 10-3 of a flux quantum, which is a amount of small flux compared with the quantum broadening of the SQUID. We prove that direct measurement of this small flux only provides limited information about the qubit. Instead, we construct a new measurement scheme that by entangling the qubit to an rf SQUID, substantially improves the measurement without bringing in additional noise. This idea can be applied to a wide variety of solid-state quantum bits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrist, Ruben S.; Wootton, James R.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-04-01
Current approaches for building quantum computing devices focus on two-level quantum systems which nicely mimic the concept of a classical bit, albeit enhanced with additional quantum properties. However, rather than artificially limiting the number of states to two, the use of d -level quantum systems (qudits) could provide advantages for quantum information processing. Among other merits, it has recently been shown that multilevel quantum systems can offer increased stability to external disturbances. In this study we demonstrate that topological quantum memories built from qudits, also known as Abelian quantum double models, exhibit a substantially increased resilience to noise. That is, even when taking into account the multitude of errors possible for multilevel quantum systems, topological quantum error-correction codes employing qudits can sustain a larger error rate than their two-level counterparts. In particular, we find strong numerical evidence that the thresholds of these error-correction codes are given by the hashing bound. Considering the significantly increased error thresholds attained, this might well outweigh the added complexity of engineering and controlling higher-dimensional quantum systems.
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2007-09-15
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory.
Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2014-10-01
We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.
Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2013-12-19
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.
Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2013-12-19
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation. PMID:24270806
Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2011-11-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.
1974-01-01
A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard
2013-06-01
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment-for each classical communication history, not in average-allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment-bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
Geometric quantum noise of spin.
Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Saha, Arijit; Burmistrov, Igor S; Kiselev, Mikhail N; Altland, Alexander
2015-05-01
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.
Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2012-01-01
We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Overcoming quantum noise in optical fibers
Wu Lianao; Lidar, Daniel A.
2004-12-01
Noise in optical telecommunication fibers is an important limitation on optical quantum data transmission. Unfortunately, the classically successful amplifiers cannot be used in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. We propose a simple method to reduce quantum noise: the insertion of phase shifters and/or beam splitters at regular distance intervals into a fiber. We analyze in detail the case of qubits encoded into polarization states of low-intensity light, which is of central importance to various quantum information tasks, such as quantum cryptography and communication. We discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme and propose a simple experiment to test our method.
Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong
2013-10-15
The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizutani, Tomoko; Saraya, Takuya; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro
2016-04-01
Bit failure events induced by random telegraph noise (RTN) for silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) static random access memory (SRAM) cells were characterized by directly monitoring the storage node voltage of individual cells, using a device-matrix-array (DMA) test element group (TEG). Correlating the cell-level RTN and failure waveforms with the RTN waveforms of individual transistors that constitute the same cell, RTN of a specific transistor that causes the cell failure was identified.
Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo
2016-07-01
We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.
Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.
2006-03-15
The problem of automatically protecting a quantum system against noise in a closed circuit is analyzed. A general scheme is developed built from two steps. First, a distillation step is induced in which undesired components are removed to another degree of freedom of the system. Later a recovering step is employed in which the system gains back its initial density. An optimal-control method is used to generate the distilling operator. The scheme is demonstrated by a simulation of a two-level bit influenced by white noise. Undesired deviations from the target were shown to be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude on average. The relations between the quantum version of the classical Watt's governor and the field of quantum information are also discussed.
Gain and noise characteristics of high-bit-rate silicon parametric amplifiers.
Sang, Xinzhu; Boyraz, Ozdal
2008-08-18
We report a numerical investigation on parametric amplification of high-bit-rate signals and related noise figure inside silicon waveguides in the presence of two-photon absorption (TPA), TPA-induced free-carrier absorption, free-carrier-induced dispersion and linear loss. Different pump parameters are considered to achieve net gain and low noise figure. We show that the net gain can only be achieved in the anomalous dispersion regime at the high-repetition-rate, if short pulses are used. An evaluation of noise properties of parametric amplification in silicon waveguides is presented. By choosing pulsed pump in suitably designed silicon waveguides, parametric amplification can be a chip-scale solution in the high-speed optical communication and optical signal processing systems.
Unforgeable Noise-Tolerant Quantum Tokens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman; Pastawski, Fernando; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail; Cirac, Ignacio
2012-06-01
The realization of devices which harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of ``quantum money.'' A dishonest holder of a quantum bank-note will invariably fail in any forging attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure ``quantum money''-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store and measure single qubit quantum memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Quantum limited heterodyne detection of spin noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.
2016-09-01
Spin noise spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying spin relaxation in semiconductors. In this article, we propose an extension of this technique based on optical heterodyne detection of spin noise, which provides several key advantages compared to conventional spin noise spectroscopy: detection of high frequency spin noise not limited by detector bandwidth or sampling rates of digitizers, quantum limited sensitivity even in case of very weak probe power, and possible amplification of the spin noise signal. Heterodyne detection of spin noise is demonstrated on insulating n-doped GaAs. From measurements of spin noise spectra up to 0.4 Tesla, we determined the distribution of g-factors, Δg/g = 0.49%.
Microscopic quantum dynamics study on the noise threshold of fault-tolerant quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Y. C.; Silbey, R. J.
2005-07-01
Quantum circuits implementing fault-tolerant quantum error correction (QEC) for the three-qubit bit-flip code and five-qubit code are studied. To describe the effect of noise, we apply a model based on a generalized effective Hamiltonian where the system-environment interactions are taken into account by including stochastic fluctuating terms in the system Hamiltonian. This noise model enables us to investigate the effect of noise in quantum circuits under realistic device conditions and avoid strong assumptions such as maximal parallelism and weak storage errors. Noise thresholds of the QEC codes are calculated. In addition, the effects of imprecision in projective measurements, collective bath, fault-tolerant repetition protocols, and level of parallelism in circuit constructions on the threshold values are also studied with emphasis on determining the optimal design for the fault-tolerant QEC circuit. These results provide insights into the fault-tolerant QEC process as well as useful information for designing the optimal fault-tolerant QEC circuit for particular physical implementation of quantum computer.
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values. PMID:23955230
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values.
Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Xiao, Yanhong
2015-05-01
Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements. We acknowledge the support from AFOSR (grant FA9550-13-1-0098), NSF (grant PHY-1308281), NBRPC(973 Program Grant 2012CB921604 and 2011CB921604), and NNSFC (Grants No. 11322436).
Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires
Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.
2009-04-23
The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<
Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.
Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger
2014-12-09
The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing.
Quantum coin flipping secure against channel noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yuexin
2015-08-01
So far, most existing single-shot quantum coin flipping (QCF) protocols have failed in a noisy quantum channel. Here, we present a nested-structure framework that makes it possible to achieve partially noise-tolerant QCF, due to a trade-off between the security and the justice correctness. It is showed that noise-tolerant single-shot QCF protocols can be produced by filling the presented framework up with existing or even future protocols. We also proved a lower bound of 0.25, with which a cheating Alice or Bob could bias the outcome.
Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.
Davies, P. C. W.
2001-09-01
The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779491
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-01-01
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-12-26
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giacobino, E.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Poizat, J. Ph.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Zhang, T.-C.
1996-01-01
We have investigated the intensity noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using different types of line narrowing techniques at room temperature. We have measured an intensity squeezing of 1.2 dB with grating-extended cavity lasers and 1.4 dB with injection locked lasers (respectively 1.6 dB and 2.3 dB inferred at the laser output). We have observed that the intensity noise of a free-running nominally single mode laser diode results from a cancellation effect between large anti-correlated fluctuations of the main mode and of weak longitudinal side modes. Reducing the side modes by line narrowing techniques results in intensity squeezing.
Information Flow in the Readout of a Superconducting Quantum Bit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddiqi, I.; Vijay, R.; Metcalfe, M.; Boaknin, E.; Rigetti, C.; Frunzio, L.; Shoelkopf, R.; Devoret, M. H.
2006-03-01
Quantum computation requires efficient and well controlled coupling between qubits. Superconducting qubits can be strongly coupled using passive electrical circuit elements, but one of the major remaining challenges is to eliminate uncontrolled coupling to parasitic degrees of freedom. I will present experimental results on charge qubits integrated with a novel readout device -- the Josephson bifurcation amplifier (JBA). New experiments using the improved readout fidelity and speed of the JBA quantify parasitic losses and shed light on their mechanism.
A New System Noise Measuring Method Using a 2-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatake, Aki; Kameno, Seiji; Takeda, Koji
2010-10-01
We propose a new measuring method for the system noise temperature, Tsys, using a 2-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Statistics of the digitized signal in a four-level quantization gives us information about the bias voltage and the variance, which reflects the power of the input signal. A comparison of the variances in hot and sky circumstances yields Tsys without a power meter. We performed experimental tests using the Kagoshima 6 m radio telescope and a 2-bit ADC. The linearity in the power-variance relation was better than 99% within the dynamic range of 10 dB. Digitally measured Tsys was in agreement with that of a conventional measurement with a power meter, although the temperatures differed by 1.8%, or less, for elevations of 10°-88°. No significant impact was found by the bias voltages within a range of -3.7% to +12.8% with respect to the threshold voltage. The proposed method is available for existing interferometers that have a multilevel ADC, and release us from troubles caused by power meters.
Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.
2016-10-01
Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.
Resonant Perturbation Theory of Decoherence and Relaxation of Quantum Bits
Merkli, M.; Berman, G. P.; Sigal, I. M.
2010-01-01
We describe our recenmore » t results on the resonant perturbation theory of decoherence and relaxation for quantum systems with many qubits. The approach represents a rigorous analysis of the phenomenon of decoherence and relaxation for general N -level systems coupled to reservoirs of bosonic fields. We derive a representation of the reduced dynamics valid for all times t ≥ 0 and for small but fixed interaction strength. Our approach does not involve master equation approximations and applies to a wide variety of systems which are not explicitly solvable.« less
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-08-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Joseph D.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios
2012-01-01
A method of determining the bit error rate (BER) of a digital circuit from the measurement of the analog S-parameters of the circuit has been developed. The method is based on the measurement of the noise and the standard deviation of the noise in the S-parameters. Once the standard deviation and the mean of the S-parameters are known, the BER of the circuit can be calculated using the normal Gaussian function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Zhi-Guo
2016-08-01
Quantum secure communication brings a new direction for information security. As an important component of quantum secure communication, deterministic joint remote state preparation (DJRSP) could securely transmit a quantum state with 100 % success probability. In this paper, we study how the efficiency of DJRSP is affected when qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. Taking a GHZ-based DJRSP scheme as an example, we study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, i.e., the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase-damping), depolarizing and amplitude-damping noise. Our study shows that the fidelity of the output state depends on the phase factor, the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the bit-flip noise, while the fidelity only depends on the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the other three types of noise. And the receiver will get different output states depending on the first preparer's measurement result in the amplitude-damping noise. Our results will be helpful for improving quantum secure communication in real implementation.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, Eduardo; Baranger, Harold
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroying quantum effects as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment (noise). The similarity to the two impurity Kondo model suggests that there will be a quantum phase transition between a Kondo phase and a local singlet phase. However, this transition is destabilized by charge tunneling between the two leads. Our main result is that sufficiently strong quantum noise suppresses this charge transfer and leads to stabilization of the quantum phase transition. We present the phase diagram, the ground state degeneracy at the four fixed points, and the leading temperature dependence of the conductance near these points. Partially supported by (1) the U.S. DOE, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DE-SC0005237 and (2) FAPESP (BRAZIL) under Grant 2014/26356-9.
Quantum noise and the threshold of hearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bialek, W.; Schweitzer, A.
1985-01-01
It is argued that the sensitivity of the ear reaches a limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. This is possible only if the receptor cell holds the detector elements in a special nonequilibrium state which has the same noise characteristics as a ground (T = 0 K) state. To accomplish this 'active cooling' the molecular dynamics of the system must maintain quantum mechanical coherence over the time scale of the measurement.
Eavesdropping on Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Fu, Fangbo
2016-09-01
In a recent paper, Xie et al. (Int. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, 2015) proposed a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme based on specific bits. In this paper, a simple attack strategy (intercept-resend attack) is shown to prove that the Xie et al.'s scheme is not secure for a dishonest participant, and an improved protocol based on GHZ state is proposed. The improved protocol is secure and improves the efficiency of the previous one.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time.
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.
2011-10-15
Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.
Quantum noise limits to terabaud communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corney, J. F.; Drummond, P. D.; Liebman, A.
1997-08-01
From a general model of fiber optics, we investigate the physical limits of soliton-based terabaud communication systems. In particular we consider Raman and initial quantum noise effects which are often neglected in fiber communications. Simulations of the position diffusion in dark and bright solitons show that these effects become increasingly important at short pulse durations, even over kilometer-scale distances. We also obtain an approximate analytic theory in agreement with numerical simulations, which shows that the Raman effects exceed the Gordon-Haus jitter for sub-picosecond pulses.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa; Davis, Peter; Tsuzuki, Ken; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Atsushi
2012-12-01
We present an experimental method for directly observing the amplification of microscopic intrinsic noise in a high-dimensional chaotic laser system, a laser with delayed feedback. In the experiment, the chaotic laser system is repeatedly switched from a stable lasing state to a chaotic state, and the time evolution of an ensemble of chaotic states starting from the same initial state is measured. It is experimentally demonstrated that intrinsic noises amplified by the chaotic dynamics are transformed into macroscopic fluctuating signals, and the probability density of the output light intensity actually converges to a natural invariant probability density in a strongly chaotic regime. Moreover, with the experimental method, we discuss the application of the chaotic laser systems to physical random bit generators. It is experimentally shown that the convergence to the invariant density plays an important role in nondeterministic random bit generation, which could be desirable for future ultimate secure communication systems.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-25
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
Low-frequency noise in transport through quantum point contacts
Li, Y.P.; Tsui, D.C.; Heremans, J.J.; Simmons, J.A. ); Weimann, G.W. )
1990-08-20
We report the noise characteristics of quantum point contacts between 100 Hz and 100 kHz at 4.2 K. The noise consists of a 1/{ital f} component on top of a white background. The 1/{ital f} noise increases as the contact width decreases and shows peaks between the quantized resistance plateaus. The white noise background increases with current but is much lower than the full shot noise level, suggesting that shot noise is not generated in an ideal quantum point contact, where the electrons do not suffer backscattering as they enter and traverse the contact.
Bit-string oblivious transfer based on quantum state computational distinguishability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souto, A.; Mateus, P.; Adão, P.; Paunković, N.
2015-04-01
Oblivious transfer protocol is a basic building block in cryptography and is used to transfer information from a sender to a receiver in such a way that, at the end of the protocol, the sender does not know if the receiver got the message or not. Since Shor's quantum algorithm appeared, the security of most of the classical cryptographic schemes has been compromised, as they rely on the fact that factoring is infeasible. To overcome this, quantum mechanics has been used intensively in the past decades, and alternatives resistant to quantum attacks have been developed in order to fulfill the (potential) lack of security of a significant number of classical schemes. In this paper, we present a quantum computationally secure protocol for bit-string oblivious transfer between two parties, under the assumption of quantum hardness of state distinguishability and the constraint of performing at most few-qubit measurements (leaving open the question of general attacks performed on all qubits involved). The protocol is feasible, in the sense that it is implementable in polynomial time.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B.; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond. PMID:24514488
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond.
Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment
Mochon, Carlos
2004-09-01
Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias.
Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen
2014-09-22
When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.
Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Á. J.; Stojanovic, A. D.; Paunković, N.; Loura, R.; Muga, N. J.; Silva, N. A.; Mateus, P.; André, P. S.; Pinto, A. N.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Enss, Christian
2016-10-01
The comprehensive analysis of low-frequency excess flux noise both in terms of magnetic flux noise S Φ , 1 / f and energy sensitivity ɛ1/f of 84 superconducting quantum devices studied at temperatures below 1 K reveals a universal behavior. When analyzing data in terms of ɛ1/f, we find that noise spectra of independent devices cross each other all at certain crossing frequencies fc. Besides this main result of our paper, we further show that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) arrays systematically feature higher noise exponents than single SQUIDs and give evidence for a material and device type dependence of low-frequency excess flux noise. The latter results facilitate to engineer the shape of magnetic flux noise spectra and thus to experimentally modify key properties such as coherence or measurement times of superconducting quantum devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Wang, Dong; Li, Wen-Qian
2014-06-01
The three-particle deterministic secure and high bit-rate direct quantum communication protocol and its improved version are analyzed. It shows that an eavesdropper can steal the sender's secret message by the intercept-resend attack and the entanglement attack. The original version is even fragile under denial-of-service attack. As a result, some suggestions to revise them are given.
A comparison of quantum limited dose and noise equivalent dose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Job, Isaias D.; Boyce, Sarah J.; Petrillo, Michael J.; Zhou, Kungang
2016-03-01
Quantum-limited-dose (QLD) and noise-equivalent-dose (NED) are performance metrics often used interchangeably. Although the metrics are related, they are not equivalent unless the treatment of electronic noise is carefully considered. These metrics are increasingly important to properly characterize the low-dose performance of flat panel detectors (FPDs). A system can be said to be quantum-limited when the Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is proportional to the square-root of x-ray exposure. Recent experiments utilizing three methods to determine the quantum-limited dose range yielded inconsistent results. To investigate the deviation in results, generalized analytical equations are developed to model the image processing and analysis of each method. We test the generalized expression for both radiographic and fluoroscopic detectors. The resulting analysis shows that total noise content of the images processed by each method are inherently different based on their readout scheme. Finally, it will be shown that the NED is equivalent to the instrumentation-noise-equivalent-exposure (INEE) and furthermore that the NED is derived from the quantum-noise-only method of determining QLD. Future investigations will measure quantum-limited performance of radiographic panels with a modified readout scheme to allow for noise improvements similar to measurements performed with fluoroscopic detectors.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.
2016-06-01
The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.
How discord underlies the noise resilience of quantum illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile
2016-04-01
The benefits of entanglement can outlast entanglement itself. In quantum illumination, entanglement is employed to better detect reflecting objects in environments so noisy that all entanglement is destroyed. Here, we show that quantum discord—a more resilient form of quantum correlations—explains the resilience of quantum illumination. We introduce a quantitative relation between the performance gain in quantum illumination and the amount of discord used to encode information about the presence or absence of a reflecting object. This highlights discords role preserving the benefits of entanglement in entanglement breaking noise.
Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.
A 13-bit Noise Shaping SAR-ADC with Dual-Polarity Digital Calibration
Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2013-01-01
We present a new noise shaping method and a dual polarity calibration technique suited for successive approximation register type analog to digital converters (SAR-ADC). Noise is pushed to higher frequencies with the noise shaping by adding a switched capacitor. The SAR capacitor array mismatch has been compensated by the dual-polarity digital calibration with minimum circuit overhead. A proof-of-concept prototype SAR-ADC using the proposed techniques has been fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS technology. It achieves 67.7 dB SNDR at 62.5 kHz sampling frequency, while consuming 38.3μW power with 1.8 V supply. PMID:23682207
A 13-bit Noise Shaping SAR-ADC with Dual-Polarity Digital Calibration.
Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2013-06-01
We present a new noise shaping method and a dual polarity calibration technique suited for successive approximation register type analog to digital converters (SAR-ADC). Noise is pushed to higher frequencies with the noise shaping by adding a switched capacitor. The SAR capacitor array mismatch has been compensated by the dual-polarity digital calibration with minimum circuit overhead. A proof-of-concept prototype SAR-ADC using the proposed techniques has been fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS technology. It achieves 67.7 dB SNDR at 62.5 kHz sampling frequency, while consuming 38.3μW power with 1.8 V supply. PMID:23682207
Hondo, Toshinobu; Kawai, Yousuke; Toyoda, Michisato
2015-01-01
Rapid acquisition of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from fewer acquisitions on average was investigated using the newly introduced 12-bit digitizer, Keysight model U5303A. This is expected to achieve a spectrum acquisition 32 times faster than the commonly used 8-bit digitizer for an equal signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Averaging fewer pulses improves the detection speed and chromatographic separation performance. However, increasing the analog-to-digital converter bit resolution for a high-frequency signal, such as a TOF spectrum, increases the system noise and requires the timing jitter (aperture error) to be minimized. We studied the relationship between the S/N ratio and the average number of acquisitions using U5303A and compared this with an 8-bit digitizer. The results show that the noise, measured as root-mean-square, decreases linearly to the square root of the average number of acquisitions without background subtraction, which means that almost no systematic noise existed in our signal bandwidth of interest (a few hundreds megahertz). In comparison, 8-bit digitizers that are commonly used in the market require 32 times more pulses with background subtraction.
One-dimensional quantum walk with unitary noise
Shapira, Daniel; Biham, Ofer; Bracken, A.J.; Hackett, Michelle
2003-12-01
The effect of unitary noise on the discrete one-dimensional quantum walk is studied using computer simulations. For the noiseless quantum walk, starting at the origin (n=0) at time t=0, the position distribution P{sub t}(n) at time t is very different from the Gaussian distribution obtained for the classical random walk. Furthermore, its standard deviation, {sigma}(t) scales as {sigma}(t){approx}t, unlike the classical random walk for which {sigma}(t){approx}{radical}(t). It is shown that when the quantum walk is exposed to unitary noise, it exhibits a crossover from quantum behavior for short times to classical-like behavior for long times. The crossover time is found to be T{approx}{alpha}{sup -2}, where {alpha} is the standard deviation of the noise.
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Verdun, F. R.; Marshall, N. W.
2016-03-01
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF2. This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy.
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography.
Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W
2016-03-01
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF(2). This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy. PMID:26895467
Rapid single-flux-quantum circuits for low noise mK operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intiso, Samuel; Pekola, Jukka; Savin, Alexander; Devyatov, Ygor; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna
2006-05-01
Rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) technology has been proposed as control electronics for superconducting quantum bits because of the material and working temperature compatibility. In this work, we consider practical aspects of RSFQ circuit design for low noise low power operation. At the working temperature of 20 mK and operational frequency of 2 GHz, dissipated power per junction is reduced to 25 pW by using 6 µA critical current junctions available at the Hypres and VTT low Jc fabrication process. To limit phonon temperature to 30 mK, a maximum of 40 junctions can be placed on a 5 mm × 5 mm chip. Electron temperature in resistive shunts of Josephson junctions is minimized by use of cooling fins, giving minimum electron temperatures of about 150 mK for the Hypres process and 70 mK for the VTT process.
Noise and Controllability: Suppression of Controllability in Large Quantum Systems
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2011-03-25
A closed quantum system is defined as completely controllable if an arbitrary unitary transformation can be executed using the available controls. In practice, control fields are a source of unavoidable noise. Can one design control fields such that the effect of noise is negligible on the timescale of the transformation? Complete controllability in practice requires that the effect of noise can be suppressed for an arbitrary transformation. The present study considers a paradigm of control, where the Lie-algebraic structure of the control Hamiltonian is fixed, while the size of the system increases, determined by the dimension of the Hilbert space representation of the algebra. We show that for large quantum systems, generic noise in the controls dominates for a typical class of target transformation; i.e., complete controllability is destroyed by the noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Changyi; Jamieson, David N.; Pakes, Chris; Prawer, Steven; Dzurak, Andrew; Stanley, Fay; Spizziri, Paul; Macks, Linda; Gauja, Eric; Clark, Robert G.
2003-06-01
In the near future, devices that employ single atoms to store or manipulate information will be constructed. For example, a solid-state quantum computer has been proposed that encodes information in the nuclear spin of shallow arrays of single 31P atoms (quantum bits or qubits) in a matrix of pure silicon. Construction of these devices presents formidable challenges. One strategy is to use single ion implantation, with the energy range of 10 to 20 keV, to load the qubits into prefabricated cells of the device with a period of a few tens of nanometres. We have developed a method of single ion implantation that employs detector electrodes adjacent to the prefabricated qubit cells that can detect on-line single keV ion strikes appropriate for the fabrication of shallow arrays. Our method of the sub-20 keV single ion detection utilizes a pure silicon substrate with a very high resistivity, a thin (5 nm) SiO2 surface layer, biased electrodes applied to the surface and sensitive electronics that can detect the charge transient from single keV ion strikes. We show that our detectors have a near 100% efficiency for keV ions, extremely thin dead layer thickness (˜5 nm) and a wide sensitive region extending laterally from the electrodes (greater than 15 μm) where the nanometre cells can be constructed. We compare the method with the other methods, such as those of measuring the secondary electrons or phonons induced by single ion impacts.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-01
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Demonstration of Johnson noise thermometry with all-superconducting quantum voltage noise source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takahiro; Urano, Chiharu; Maezawa, Masaaki
2016-01-01
We present a Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) system based on an integrated quantum voltage noise source (IQVNS) that has been fully implemented using superconducting circuit technology. To enable precise measurement of Boltzmann's constant, an IQVNS chip was designed to produce intrinsically calculable pseudo-white noise to calibrate the JNT system. On-chip real-time generation of pseudo-random codes via simple circuits produced pseudo-voltage noise with a harmonic tone interval of less than 1 Hz, which was one order of magnitude finer than the harmonic tone interval of conventional quantum voltage noise sources. We estimated a value for Boltzmann's constant experimentally by performing JNT measurements at the temperature of the triple point of water using the IQVNS chip.
Microresonator based Optomechanical Cavity: Calibration of Quantum Noises for LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Robinjeet; Cole, Garrett; Corbitt, Thomas; LIGO Collaboration
2014-05-01
Recent improvements in the properties of micro-mechanical oscillators provide promising avenues towards -more sensitive interferometry measurements and hence observation of weaker forces. In an opto-mechanical system, radiation pressure noise is a quantum back-action effect on the mechanical oscillator, due to the intensity fluctuations of the driving laser field. We study the radiation pressure noise in a centimeter scale Fabry-Perot Cavity using a microresonator as the end mirror of the cavity. The micro-resonator is fabricated from a multilayer stack of Al0 . 92Ga0 . 08 As / GaAs forming a dielectric mirror pad with a mass of about 250 nanograms. This work is in effort towards developing a new quantum noise evading scheme for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO). Radiation pressure noise is expected to be one of the limiting noise sources in Advanced LIGO. Further, the microresonators that we have developed are promising candidates for testing other noise reduction schemes including quantum non-demolition schemes, speed meters, squeezing of radiation pressure noise, and variational-readout.
NMR-like Operation and Analysis of Decoherence of a Superconducting Quantum Bit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vion, Denis
2005-03-01
The Quantronium [1], a superconducting circuit with Josephson junctions, can be regarded as a solid state qubit prototype with built-in decoupling from its environment. We demonstrate that arbitrary operators can be applied to it using NMR-like and atomic physics-like techniques that involve quasi-resonant microwave or adiabatic DC pulses [2]. Then, we explain how the symmetry of the circuit limits decoherence of a superposition of states, at an optimal working point. Coherence time measurements, performed both during free and driven evolution of the qubit are presented and analyzed using a simple model involving different noise sources. A complete picture of decoherence in this quantum electrical circuit is thus provided. [1] D. Vion et al., Science 296 (2002). [2] E. Collin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 15, (2004).
Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang
2016-07-01
This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.
Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang
2016-10-01
This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.
Coping with noise in programmable quantum annealers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro
Solving real-world applications with quantum annealing algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language, to tuning several other parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. For example, in http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05679 we proposed an method to measure residual systematic biases in the programmable parameters of large-scale quantum annealers. Although the method described there works from a practical point of view, a few questions were left unanswered. One of these puzzles was the observation of a broad distribution in the estimated effective qubit temperatures throughout the device . In this talk, we will present our progress in understanding these puzzles and how these new insights allow for a more effective bias correction protocol. We will present the impact of these new parameter setting and bias correction protocols in the performance of hard discrete optimization problems and in the successful implementation of quantum-assisted machine-learning algorithms.
Partition noise and statistics in the fractional quantum hall effect.
Safi, I; Devillard, P; Martin, T
2001-05-14
A microscopic theory of current partition in fractional quantum Hall liquids, described by chiral Luttinger liquids, is developed to compute the noise correlations, using the Keldysh technique. In this Hanbury-Brown and Twiss geometry, at Laughlin filling factors nu = 1/3, the real time noise correlator exhibits oscillations which persist over larger time scales than that of an uncorrelated Hall fluid. The zero frequency noise correlations are negative at filling factor 1/3 as for bare electrons (antibunching), but are strongly reduced in amplitude. These correlations become positive (bunching) for nu < or = 1/5, suggesting a tendency towards bosonic behavior.
Noise and entanglement in quantum conductors
Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.
2009-05-14
In this article we discuss our two recent proposals on producing and detecting of entangled states in quantum conductors. First we analyze a setup where two electrons are scattered on a quantum dot with Coulomb repulsion and became orbitally entangled. Second, for identical noninteracting particles we suggest an operating scheme for the deliberate generation of spin-entangled electron pairs in a normal-metal mesoscopic structure with a fork geometry. The spin-entangled pair is created through a post-selection in the two branches of the fork. We also make comments on different ways of producing and quantifying the degree of entanglement.
On the Effect of Quantum Noise in a Quantum-Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-09-01
The disrupting effect of quantum noise on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.
Demonstration of quantum superiority in learning parity with noise with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus; Ryan, Colm; Cross, Andrew; Smolin, John; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry; Johnson, Blake
A problem in machine learning is to identify the function programmed in an unknown device, or oracle, having only access to its output. In particular, a parity function computes the parity of a subset of a bit register. We implement an oracle executing parity functions in a five-qubit superconducting processor and compare the performance of a classical and a quantum learner. The classical learner reads the output of multiple oracle calls and uses the results to infer the hidden function. In addition to querying the oracle, the quantum learner can apply coherent rotations on the output register before the readout. We show that, given a target success probability, the quantum approach outperforms the classical one in the number of queries needed. Moreover, this gap increases with readout noise and with the size of the qubit register. This result shows that quantum advantage can already emerge in current systems with a few, noisy qubits. We acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.
Optical spectrum analyzer with quantum-limited noise floor.
Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Martin, M J; Ye, Jun
2013-08-30
Interactions between atoms and lasers provide the potential for unprecedented control of quantum states. Fulfilling this potential requires detailed knowledge of frequency noise in optical oscillators with state-of-the-art stability. We demonstrate a technique that precisely measures the noise spectrum of an ultrastable laser using optical lattice-trapped 87Sr atoms as a quantum projection noise-limited reference. We determine the laser noise spectrum from near dc to 100 Hz via the measured fluctuations in atomic excitation, guided by a simple and robust theory model. The noise spectrum yields a 26(4) mHz linewidth at a central frequency of 429 THz, corresponding to an optical quality factor of 1.6×10(16). This approach improves upon optical heterodyne beats between two similar laser systems by providing information unique to a single laser and complements the traditionally used Allan deviation which evaluates laser performance at relatively long time scales. We use this technique to verify the reduction of resonant noise in our ultrastable laser via feedback from an optical heterodyne beat. Finally, we show that knowledge of our laser's spectrum allows us to accurately predict the laser-limited stability for optical atomic clocks. PMID:24033036
Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates
Parodi, Daniele; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Solinas, Paolo
2007-07-15
We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by a suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called stimulated raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) gates.
Blind quantum computation over a collective-noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Yuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2016-05-01
Blind quantum computation (BQC) allows a client (Alice), who only possesses relatively poor quantum devices, to delegate universal quantum computation to a server (Bob) in such a way that Bob cannot know Alice's inputs, algorithm, and outputs. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is noisy, and the loss over the long-distance quantum communication should also be taken into account. Here we propose to use decoherence-free subspace (DFS) to overcome the collective noise in the quantum channel for BQC, which we call DFS-BQC. We propose three variations of DFS-BQC protocols. One of them, a coherent-light-assisted DFS-BQC protocol, allows Alice to faithfully send the signal photons with a probability proportional to a transmission rate of the quantum channel. In all cases, we combine the ideas based on DFS and the Broadbent-Fitzsimons-Kashefi protocol, which is one of the BQC protocols, without degrading unconditional security. The proposed DFS-based schemes are generic and hence can be applied to other BQC protocols where Alice sends quantum states to Bob.
Quantum reading capacity under thermal and correlated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano
2013-06-01
Quantum communication theory sets the maximum rates at which information can be encoded and decoded reliably given the physical properties of the information carriers. Here we consider the problem of readout of a digital optical memory, where information is stored by means of the optical properties of the memory cells that are in turn probed by shining a laser beam on them. Interesting features arise in the regime in which the probing light has to be treated quantum mechanically. The maximum rate of reliable readout defines the quantum reading capacity, which is proven to overcome the classical reading capacity—obtained by probing with classical light—in several relevant settings. We consider a model of optical memory in which information is encoded in the (complex-valued) attenuation factor and study the effects on the reading rates of thermal and correlated noise. The latter type of noise arises when the effects of wave diffraction on the probing light beam are taken into account. We discuss the advantages of quantum reading over the classical one and show that the former is substantially more robust than the latter under thermal noise in the regime of low power per pulse.
Description of quantum noise by a Langevin equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metiu, H.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
General features of the quantum noise problem expressed as the equations of motion for a particle coupled to a set of oscillators are investigated analytically. Account is taken of the properties of the companion oscillators by formulating quantum statistical correlation Langevin equations (QSLE). The frequency of the oscillators is then retained as a natural cut-off for the quantum noise. The QSLE is further extended to encompass the particle trajectory and is bounded by initial and final states of the oscillator. The states are expressed as the probability of existence at the moment of particle collision that takes the oscillator into a final state. Two noise sources then exist: a statistical uncertainty of the initial state and the quantum dynamical uncertainty associated with a transition from the initial to final state. Feynman's path-integral formulation is used to characterize the functional of the particle trajectory, which slows the particle. It is shown that the energy loss may be attributed to friction, which satisfies energy conservation laws.
Intensity modulation and direct detection quantum key distribution based on quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikuta, Takuya; Inoue, Kyo
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been studied for achieving perfectly secure cryptography based on quantum mechanics. This paper presents a novel QKD scheme that is based on an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system. Two slightly intensity-modulated pulses are sent from a transmitter, and a receiver determines key bits from the directly detected intensity. We analyzed the system performance for two typical eavesdropping methods, a beam splitting attack and an intercept-resend attack, with an assumption that the transmitting and receiving devices are fully trusted. Our brief analysis showed that short- or middle-range QKD systems are achievable with a simple setup.
Gain and noise properties of InAs/InP quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilenca, A.; Hadass, D.; Alizon, R.; Dery, H.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.; Somers, A.; Kaiser, W.; Deubert, S.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Forchel, A.; Calligaro, M.; Bansropun, S.; Krakowski, M.
2005-10-01
Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on nanostructure gain media such as quantum dots (QD) and quantum dashes (QDASH) have several basic characteristics which offer significant performance improvements over commonly used quantum well (QW) or bulk amplifiers. Among these are broadband optical gain bandwidth (which is two to three times broader than that of QW/bulk gain media), fast gain dynamics, large saturation powers, and low α parameter and population inversion factor. Originally, these properties have been demonstrated for QD/QDASH SOAs operating at 1000 nm and 1300 nm. However, it is imperative that QD/QDASH SOAs operating at 1550 nm be materialized in order for them to have the expected impact on fiber-optic communication. Operation at 1550 nm has been achieved using InAs / InP QD and QDASH laser structures. In this paper the unique gain and noise properties of InAs / InP QDASH SOAs operating at 1550 nm will be presented. Specifically, cross-gain-modulation, four-wave-mixing and chirp measurements which explore the complex spectral cross relaxation dynamics of these SOAs will be described and highlighted in the context of simultaneous, distortionless, high bit-rate multiwavelength data amplification, as well as wideband / high-speed optical signal processing applications. Also, an experimental study of the gain and noise in saturated QDASH SOAs will be described together with a theoretical analysis comprising both coherent and incoherent gain phenomena. The impact of the partially inhomogeneously broadened gain spectrum, fast population pulsation dynamics, α parameter and wetting layer density of states on the noise characteristics will be discussed.
QED (quantum-electrodynamical) theory of excess spontaneous emission noise
Milonni, P.W.
1990-01-01
The results of a quantum-electrodynamical theory of excess spontaneous emission noise in lossy resonators will be presented. The Petermann K factor'' does not enter into the spontaneous emission rate of a single atom in the cavity. The QED theory allows different interpretations of the K factor, and we use this fact to justify semiclassical analyses and to provide in one example a simple derivation of K in terms of the amplification of the quantum vacuum field entering the resonator through its mirrors. 17 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Janzén, Erik; Bockstedte, Michel; Gali, Adam
2015-03-01
Silicon carbide with engineered point defects is considered as very promising material for the next generation devices, with applications ranging from electronics and photonics to quantum computing. In this context, we investigate the spin physics of the carbon antisite-vacancy pair that in its positive charge state enables a single photon source. We find by hybrid density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory that the neutral defect possesses a high spin ground state in 4 H silicon carbide and provide spin-resonance signatures for its experimental identification. Our results indicate the possibility for the coherent manipulation of the electron spin by optical excitation of this defect at telecom wavelengths, and suggest the defect as a candidate for an alternative solid state quantum bit.
Noise performance of high-efficiency germanium quantum dot photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siontas, Stylianos; Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico
2016-08-01
We report on the noise analysis of high performance germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜2 A/W and internal quantum efficiency up to ˜400%, over the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and at a reverse bias of -10 V. Photolithography was performed to define variable active-area devices that show suppressed dark current, leading to a higher signal-to-noise ratio, up to 105, and specific detectivity D * ≃ 6 × 10 12 cm Hz 1 / 2 W-1. These figures of merit suggest Ge QDs as a promising alternative material for high-performance photodetectors working in the visible to near-infrared spectral range.
Hawking Radiation and Nonequilibrium Quantum Critical Current Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonner, Julian; Green, A. G.
2012-08-01
The dynamical scaling of quantum critical systems in thermal equilibrium may be inherited in the driven steady state, leading to universal out-of-equilibrium behavior. This attractive notion has been demonstrated in just a few cases. We demonstrate how holography—a mapping between the quantum critical system and a gravity dual—provides an illuminating perspective and new results. Nontrivial out-of-equilibrium universality is particularly apparent in current noise, which is dual to Hawking radiation in the gravitational system. We calculate this in a two-dimensional system driven by a strong in-plane electric field and deduce a universal scaling function interpolating between previously established equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium current noise. Since this applies at all fields, out-of-equilibrium experiments no longer require very high fields for comparison with theory.
Hawking radiation and nonequilibrium quantum critical current noise.
Sonner, Julian; Green, A G
2012-08-31
The dynamical scaling of quantum critical systems in thermal equilibrium may be inherited in the driven steady state, leading to universal out-of-equilibrium behavior. This attractive notion has been demonstrated in just a few cases. We demonstrate how holography-a mapping between the quantum critical system and a gravity dual-provides an illuminating perspective and new results. Nontrivial out-of-equilibrium universality is particularly apparent in current noise, which is dual to Hawking radiation in the gravitational system. We calculate this in a two-dimensional system driven by a strong in-plane electric field and deduce a universal scaling function interpolating between previously established equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium current noise. Since this applies at all fields, out-of-equilibrium experiments no longer require very high fields for comparison with theory.
Noise gain and operating temperature of quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, H. C.
1992-11-01
The difference between the noise gain associated with dark current and the photoconductive gain in quantum well infrared photodetectors is discussed in light of recent experiments. The theoretical model is based on a single key parameter: the electron trapping probability. An empirical expression for the trapping probability or, alternatively, the electron escape probability is proposed. Using the dark current, the gain, the trapping probability expressions, and the device operating temperature for achieving background limited infrared performance is discussed.
Anomalous diffusion in quantum Brownian motion with colored noise
Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.
2006-03-15
Anomalous diffusion is discussed in the context of quantum Brownian motion with colored noise. It is shown that earlier results follow simply and directly from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The limits on the long-time dependence of anomalous diffusion are shown to be a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. The special case of an electron interacting with the radiation field is discussed in detail. We apply our results to wave-packet spreading.
Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation
Yeo Ye
2003-05-01
Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-06-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Coherent and conventional gravidynamic quantum 1/f noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.
2008-04-01
Quantum 1/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of currents, physical cross sections or process rates, caused by infrared coupling of the current carriers to very low frequency (soft) quanta, also known as infraquanta. The latter are soft gravitons in the gravidynamic case with the coupling constant g= pGM2/Nch considered here -- soft photons in the electrodynamic case and soft transversal piezo-phonons in the lattice-dynamical case. Here p=3.14 and F=psi. Quantum 1/f noise is a new aspect of quantum mechanics expressed mainly through the coherent quantum 1/f effect 2g/pf derived here for large systems, and mainly through the conventional quantum 1/f effect for small systems or individual particles. Both effects are present in general, and their effects are superposed in a first approximation with the help of a coherence (weight) parameter s" that will be derived elsewhere for the gravitational case. The spectral density of fractional fluctuations S(dj/j,f) for j=e(hk/2pm)|F|2 is S(F2,f)/<|F|2> = S(j,f)/
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom.
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network. PMID:26196608
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom.
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network.
High signal-to-noise ratio quantum well bolometer materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wissmar, Stanley; Höglund, Linda; Andersson, Jan; Vieider, Christian; Savage, Susan; Ericsson, Per
2006-09-01
Novel single crystalline high-performance temperature sensing materials (quantum well structures) have been developed for the manufacturing of uncooled infrared bolometers. SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells are grown epitaxially on standard Si and GaAs substrates respectively. The former use holes as charge carriers utilizing the discontinuities in the valence band structure, whereas the latter operate in a similar manner with electrons in the conduction band. By optimizing parameters such as the barrier height (by variation of the germanium/aluminium content respectively) and the fermi level E f (by variation of the quantum well width and doping level) these materials provide the potential to engineer layer structures with a very high temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR, as compared with conventional thin film materials such as vanadium oxide and amorphous silicon. In addition, the high quality crystalline material promises very low 1/f-noise characteristics promoting an outstanding signal to noise ratio and well defined and uniform material properties, A comparison between the two (SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs) quantum well structures and their fundamental theoretical limits are discussed and compared to experimental results. A TCR of 2.0%/K and 4.5%/K have been obtained experimentally for SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs respectively. The noise level for both materials is measured as being several orders of magnitude lower than that of a-Si and VOx. These uncooled thermistor materials can be hybridized with read out circuits by using conventional flip-chip assembly or wafer level adhesion bonding. The increased bolometer performance so obtained can either be exploited for increasing the imaging system performance, i. e. obtaining a low NETD, or to reduce the vacuum packaging requirements for low cost applications (e.g. automotive).
Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi
2014-08-01
The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are obtained, and the concept of collective tripartite quantum steering, recently introduced by He and Reid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 250403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.250403], is clearly explored. It is found that both bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are sensitive functions of the initial state of the modes and distinctly different steering behavior could be observed depending on whether the modes were initially in a thermal state or not. For the modes initially in a vacuum state, the bipartite and tripartite steering occur simultaneously over the entire interaction time. This indicates that collective tripartite steering cannot be achieved. The collective steering can be achieved for the modes initially prepared in a thermal state. We find that the initial thermal noise is more effective in destroying the bipartite rather than the tripartite steering which, on the other hand, can persist even for a large thermal noise. For the initial vacuum state of a steered mode, the tripartite steering exists over the entire interaction time even if the steering modes are in very noisy thermal states. When the steered mode is initially in a thermal state, it can be collectively steered by the other modes. There are thresholds for the average number of the thermal photons above which the existing tripartite steering appears as the collective steering. Finally, we point out that the collective steering may provide a resource in a hybrid quantum network for quantum secret sharing
Spatial quantum noise interferometry in expanding ultracold atom clouds.
Fölling, Simon; Gerbier, Fabrice; Widera, Artur; Mandel, Olaf; Gericke, Tatjana; Bloch, Immanuel
2005-03-24
In a pioneering experiment, Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) demonstrated that noise correlations could be used to probe the properties of a (bosonic) particle source through quantum statistics; the effect relies on quantum interference between possible detection paths for two indistinguishable particles. HBT correlations--together with their fermionic counterparts--find numerous applications, ranging from quantum optics to nuclear and elementary particle physics. Spatial HBT interferometry has been suggested as a means to probe hidden order in strongly correlated phases of ultracold atoms. Here we report such a measurement on the Mott insulator phase of a rubidium Bose gas as it is released from an optical lattice trap. We show that strong periodic quantum correlations exist between density fluctuations in the expanding atom cloud. These spatial correlations reflect the underlying ordering in the lattice, and find a natural interpretation in terms of a multiple-wave HBT interference effect. The method should provide a useful tool for identifying complex quantum phases of ultracold bosonic and fermionic atoms.
Probabilistic quantum teleportation in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2016-06-01
We extend the research program initiated in [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012338 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012338] from noisy deterministic teleportation protocols to noisy probabilistic (conditional) protocols. Our main goal now is to study how we can increase the fidelity of the teleported state in the presence of noise by working with probabilistic protocols. We work with several scenarios involving the most common types of noise in realistic implementations of quantum communication tasks and find many cases where adding more noise to the probabilistic protocol increases considerably the fidelity of the teleported state, without decreasing the probability of a successful run of the protocol. Also, there are cases where the entanglement of the channel connecting Alice and Bob leading to the greatest fidelity is not maximal. Moreover, there exist cases where the optimal fidelity for the probabilistic protocols are greater than the maximal fidelity (2 /3 ) achievable by using only classical resources, while the optimal ones for the deterministic protocols under the same conditions lie below this limit. This result clearly illustrates that in some cases we can only get a truly quantum teleportation if we use probabilistic instead of deterministic protocols.
Focus on quantum effects and noise in biomolecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, G. R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2011-11-01
The role of quantum mechanics in biological organisms has been a fundamental question of twentieth-century biology. It is only now, however, with modern experimental techniques, that it is possible to observe quantum mechanical effects in bio-molecular complexes directly. Indeed, recent experiments have provided evidence that quantum effects such as wave-like motion of excitonic energy flow, delocalization and entanglement can be seen even in complex and noisy biological environments (Engel et al 2007 Nature 446 782; Collini et al 2010 Nature 463 644; Panitchayangkoon et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 12766). Motivated by these observations, theoretical work has highlighted the importance of an interplay between environmental noise and quantum coherence in such systems (Mohseni et al 2008 J. Chem. Phys. 129 174106; Plenio and Huelga 2008 New J. Phys. 10 113019; Olaya-Castro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 085115; Rebentrost et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 033003; Caruso et al 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 105106; Ishizaki and Fleming 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 234111). All of this has led to a surge of interest in the exploration of quantum effects in biological systems in order to understand the possible relevance of non-trivial quantum features and to establish a potential link between quantum coherence and biological function. These studies include not only exciton transfer across light harvesting complexes, but also the avian compass (Ritz et al 2000 Biophys. J. 78 707), and the olfactory system (Turin 1996 Chem. Sens. 21 773; Chin et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 065002). These examples show that the full understanding of the dynamics at bio-molecular length (10 Å) and timescales (sub picosecond) in noisy biological systems can uncover novel phenomena and concepts and hence present a fertile ground for truly multidisciplinary research.
Dissipative Landau-Zener quantum dynamics with transversal and longitudinal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanbakht, S.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2015-05-01
We determine the Landau-Zener transition probability in a dissipative environment including both longitudinal as well as transversal quantum-mechanical noise originating from a single noise source. For this, we use the numerically exact quasiadiabatic path integral, as well as the approximative nonequilibrium Bloch equations. We find that transversal quantum noise in general influences the Landau-Zener probability much more strongly than longitudinal quantum noise does at a given temperature and system-bath coupling strength. In other words, transversal noise contributions become important even when the coupling strength of transversal noise is smaller than that of longitudinal noise. We furthermore reveal that transversal noise renormalizes the tunnel coupling independent of temperature. Finally, we show that the effect of mixed longitudinal and transversal noise originating from a single bath cannot be obtained from an incoherent sum of purely longitudinal and purely transversal noise.
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn
2015-12-07
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.
Two-party quantum key agreement against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-09-01
In this paper, two two-party quantum key agreement protocols are proposed with logical χ -states and logical Bell states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. They make full use of the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. This ensures that two participants can exchange the secret keys of each other and fairly establishes a shared key. There is no information leakage problem when establishing a shared key. The use of the delayed measurement technique and the decoy state technology makes the two protocols resist against both participant and outsider attacks. Furthermore, the two protocols are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks and have high qubit efficiency.
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico
Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2014-08-11
We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup −5} e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup −6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-03-01
Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-10
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.
Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-01
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-10
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878
Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel
2015-08-01
The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.
Quantum 1/f Noise in Resonant Tunneling Diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.
2001-03-01
Resonant tunneling diodes consist of two potential barriers enclosing a quantum well. If the electron energy is close to the energy level in the well, resonance occurs and a peak IP of the current occurs, for the voltage VP. If the voltage increases further, only a negligibly small non-resonant current trickle remains at the voltage V=VV. Scattering processes that reduce the energy of the carriers to a value close to eVP will always be present, generating a finite current minimum IV at VV. Between VP and VV there is a negative differential conductance G=-(IP-IV)/(VV-VP) on the I/V curve, that is used to generate oscillations. The 1/f noise in IV is given by the conventional quantum 1/f effect with (Dv/c)2=2eVV/m. This yields IV-2SIv(f) =2aA/f N. Here N is given by N =tIV/e, where t is the life time of the carriers. The quantum 1/f frequency fluctuations can be obtained from the formula Sdw/w =(1/4Q4)SdG/G ,which was derived in 1978. This yields Sdw/w =(1/4Q4)(4a/3p)(2eVV/mc2) for the fractional frequency fluctuation spectrum exhibited by the RTD if included in an RF circuit of quality factor Q.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-05-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Transitions between levels of a quantum bouncer induced by a noise-like perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codau, C.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Fertl, M.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K. V.
2012-06-01
The probability of transition between levels of a quantum bouncer, induced by a noise-like perturbation, is calculated. The results are applied to two sources of noise (vibrations and mirror surface waviness) which might play an important role in future GRANIT experiment, aiming at precision studies of/with the neutron quantum bouncer.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits.
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Jiang, L; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2016-08-25
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The 'break-even' point of QEC--at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system--has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0〉f and |1〉f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system. PMID:27437573
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, L.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2016-08-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The ‘break-even’ point of QEC—at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system—has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0>f and |1>f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Pengqin; Hu, Menghan; Ying, Yaofeng; Jin, Jinshuang
2016-09-01
Based on the time-nonlocal particle number-resolved master equation, we investigate the sequential electron transport through the interacting double quantum dots. Our calculations show that there exists the effect of energy renormalization in the dispersion of the bath interaction spectrum and it is sensitive to the the bandwidth of the bath. This effect would strongly affect the stationary current and its zero-frequency shot noise for weak inter-dot coherent coupling strength, but for strong inter-dot coupling regime, it is negligible due to the strong intrinsic Rabi coherent dynamics. Moreover, the possible observable effects of the energy renormalization in the noise spectrum are also investigated through the Rabi coherence signal. Finally, the non-Markovian effect is manifested in the finite-frequency noise spectrum with the appearance of quasisteps, and the magnitude of these quasisteps are modified by the dispersion function.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution in the presence of Raman noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution (OFDM-QKD) in an integrated quantum-classical wavelength-division-multiplexing system. The presence of an intense classical signal alongside the quantum one generates Raman background noise. Noise reduction techniques should, then, be carried out at the receiver to suppress this crosstalk noise. In this work, we show that OFDM-QKD enables eﬃcient filtering, in time and frequency domains, making it an attractive solution for the high-rate links at the core of quantum-classical networks.
Paired carriers as a way to reduce quantum noise of multicarrier gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobko, Mikhail; Voronchev, Nikita; Miao, Haixing; Khalili, Farid Ya.
2015-02-01
We explore new regimes of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors with multiple optical carriers which allow us to reduce the quantum noise of these detectors. In particular, we show that using two carriers with the opposite detunings, homodyne angles, and squeezing angles, but identical other parameters (the antisymmetric carriers), one can suppress the quantum noise in such a way that its spectrum follows the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) at low frequencies. Relaxing this antisymmetry condition, it is also possible to slightly overcome the SQL in broadband. Combining several such pairs in the xylophone configuration, it is possible to shape the quantum noise spectrum flexibly.
Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.
A computational approach to quantum noise in time-dependent nanoelectronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Waintal, Xavier
2016-01-01
We derive simple expressions that relate the noise and correlation properties of a general time-dependent quantum conductor to the wave functions of the system. The formalism provides a practical route for numerical calculations of quantum noise in an externally driven system. We illustrate the approach with numerical calculations of the noise properties associated to a voltage pulse applied on a one-dimensional conductor. The methodology is however fully general and can be used for a large class of mesoscopic conductors.
Reprint of : A computational approach to quantum noise in time-dependent nanoelectronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Waintal, Xavier
2016-08-01
We derive simple expressions that relate the noise and correlation properties of a general time-dependent quantum conductor to the wave functions of the system. The formalism provides a practical route for numerical calculations of quantum noise in an externally driven system. We illustrate the approach with numerical calculations of the noise properties associated to a voltage pulse applied on a one-dimensional conductor. The methodology is however fully general and can be used for a large class of mesoscopic conductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.
2011-03-01
Mu-bit is defined here as `multi-space bit'. It is different from the standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multispace theory (also spelt multi-space) the bit is created simultaneously in many subspaces (that form together a multi-space). This new `bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with `qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now, from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: `mu-bit' (from `multi-space bit).
Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung
2016-07-01
In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.
Error Sensitivity to Environmental Noise in Quantum Circuits for Chemical State Preparation.
Sawaya, Nicolas P D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; McClean, Jarrod R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-07-12
Calculating molecular energies is likely to be one of the first useful applications to achieve quantum supremacy, performing faster on a quantum than a classical computer. However, if future quantum devices are to produce accurate calculations, errors due to environmental noise and algorithmic approximations need to be characterized and reduced. In this study, we use the high performance qHiPSTER software to investigate the effects of environmental noise on the preparation of quantum chemistry states. We simulated 18 16-qubit quantum circuits under environmental noise, each corresponding to a unitary coupled cluster state preparation of a different molecule or molecular configuration. Additionally, we analyze the nature of simple gate errors in noise-free circuits of up to 40 qubits. We find that, in most cases, the Jordan-Wigner (JW) encoding produces smaller errors under a noisy environment as compared to the Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) encoding. For the JW encoding, pure dephasing noise is shown to produce substantially smaller errors than pure relaxation noise of the same magnitude. We report error trends in both molecular energy and electron particle number within a unitary coupled cluster state preparation scheme, against changes in nuclear charge, bond length, number of electrons, noise types, and noise magnitude. These trends may prove to be useful in making algorithmic and hardware-related choices for quantum simulation of molecular energies. PMID:27254482
Quantum 1/f noise in high technology applications including ultrasmall structures and devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.
1994-05-01
The present report brings a final answer to the question on the nature of fundamental 1/f noise and its ubiquity. A sufficient criterion for a 1/f spectrum in arbitrary chaotic nonlinear systems is derived for the first time. This criterion guarantees a 1/f spectrum for nonlinear systems which also satisfy a condition of mathematical homogeneity. Briefly stated, nonlinearity + homogeneity = 1/f noise. The criterion results because the 1/f spectrum reproduces itself in a self-convolution. Among the five examples to which the criterion is applied is also quantum electrodynamics (QED), resulting in quantum 1/f noise as a fundamental form of quantum chaos. Nonlinearity of the system of a charged particle and its field, plus the basic homogeneity of physical equations causes the criterion to predict the quantum 1/f effect. The simple universal quantum 1/f formula is applied to infrared detectors and yields quantum 1/f noise in the dark current, but not in the photogenerated current. The fractal dimension of quantum 1/f noise is determined on the basis of its quantum chaos definition and is obtained theoretically as a function of bandwidth in a simple model by applying the Grassberger-Procaccia-Takens algorithm to the quantum 1/f theory. The quantum 1/f effect is successfully applied to quartz resonators and bipolar junction transistors. Finally, the quantum 1/f mobility fluctuations are calculated in silicon and the coherent quantum 1/f effect is derived for the first time from a new QED propagator with branch-point singularity. This opens the way to better bridging the gap between coherent and conventional quantum 1/f noise in small and ultrasmall devices.
Truly random bit generation based on a novel random Brillouin fiber laser.
Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2015-11-15
We propose a novel dual-emission random Brillouin fiber laser (RBFL) with bidirectional pumping operation. Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the chaotic temporal and statistical properties of the RBFL are conducted, revealing intrinsic unpredictable intensity fluctuations and two completely uncorrelated laser outputs. A random bit generator based on quantum noise sources in the random Fabry-Perot resonator of the RBFL is realized at a bit rate of 5 Mbps with verified randomness.
Truly random bit generation based on a novel random Brillouin fiber laser.
Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2015-11-15
We propose a novel dual-emission random Brillouin fiber laser (RBFL) with bidirectional pumping operation. Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the chaotic temporal and statistical properties of the RBFL are conducted, revealing intrinsic unpredictable intensity fluctuations and two completely uncorrelated laser outputs. A random bit generator based on quantum noise sources in the random Fabry-Perot resonator of the RBFL is realized at a bit rate of 5 Mbps with verified randomness. PMID:26565888
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Shih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-09-01
This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.
Non-Markovian continuous-time quantum walks on lattices with dynamical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedetti, Claudia; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-04-01
We address the dynamics of continuous-time quantum walks on one-dimensional disordered lattices inducing dynamical noise in the system. Noise is described as time-dependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites, and attention is focused on non-Gaussian telegraph noise, going beyond the usual assumption of fast Gaussian noise. We observe the emergence of two different dynamical behaviors for the walker, corresponding to two opposite noise regimes: slow noise (i.e., strong coupling with the environment) confines the walker into few lattice nodes, while fast noise (weak coupling) induces a transition between quantum and classical diffusion over the lattice. A phase transition between the two dynamical regimes may be observed by tuning the ratio between the autocorrelation time of the noise and the coupling between the walker and the external environment generating the noise. We also address the non-Markovianity of the quantum map by assessing its memory effects, as well as evaluating the information backflow to the system. Our results suggest that the non-Markovian character of the evolution is linked to the dynamical behavior in the slow noise regime, and that fast noise induces a Markovian dynamics for the walker.
Effect of laser phase noise on the fidelity of optomechanical quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farman, F.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2015-03-01
Optomechanical and electromechanical cavities have been widely used in quantum memories and quantum transducers. We theoretically investigate the robustness of optomechanical and electromechanical quantum memories against the noise of the control laser. By solving the Langevin equations and using the covariance matrix formalism in the presence of laser noise, the storing fidelity of Gaussian states is obtained. It is shown that the destructive effect of phase noise is more significant in higher values of coupling laser amplitude and optomechanical coupling strength G . However, by further increasing the coupling coefficient, the interaction time between photons and phonons decreases below the coherence time of laser frequency noise and the destructive effect of laser phase noise on the storing fidelity drops as well.
Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.
2003-01-01
A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.
Noise and disturbance in quantum measurements: an information-theoretic approach.
Buscemi, Francesco; Hall, Michael J W; Ozawa, Masanao; Wilde, Mark M
2014-02-01
We introduce information-theoretic definitions for noise and disturbance in quantum measurements and prove a state-independent noise-disturbance tradeoff relation that these quantities have to satisfy in any conceivable setup. Contrary to previous approaches, the information-theoretic quantities we define are invariant under the relabelling of outcomes and allow for the possibility of using quantum or classical operations to "correct" for the disturbance. We also show how our bound implies strong tradeoff relations for mean square deviations.
Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno
2016-05-01
It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Sun-Kun
1996-01-01
The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.
Dynamical suppression of telegraph and 1/f noise due to quantum bistable fluctuators
Falci, G.; D'Arrigo, A.; Mastellone, A.; Paladino, E.
2004-10-01
We study dynamical decoupling of a qubit from non-Gaussian quantum noise due to discrete sources, as bistable fluctuators and 1/f noise. We obtain analytic and numerical results for generic operating points. For very large pulse frequency, where dynamic decoupling compensates decoherence, we found universal behavior. At intermediate frequencies noise can be compensated or enhanced, depending on the nature of the fluctuators and on the operating point. Our technique can be applied to a larger class of non-Gaussian environments.
Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2015-07-17
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.
Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit
Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P
2009-11-30
We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)
Noise in optical quantum memories based on dynamical decoupling of spin states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambrini Cruzeiro, Emmanuel; Fröwis, Florian; Timoney, Nuala; Afzelius, Mikael
2016-11-01
Long-lived optical quantum memories are of great importance for scalable distribution of entanglement over remote networks (e.g. quantum repeaters). Long-lived storage generally relies on storing the optical states as spin excitations since these often exhibit long coherence times. To extend the storage time beyond the intrinsic spin dephasing time one can use dynamical decoupling techniques. However, it has been shown that dynamical decoupling introduces noise in optical quantum memories based on ensembles of atoms. In this article, a simple model is proposed to calculate the resulting signal-to-noise ratio, based on intrinsic quantum memory parameters such as the optical depth of the ensemble. We also characterize several dynamical decoupling sequences that are efficient in reducing this particular noise. Our calculations indicate that it should be feasible to reach storage times well beyond one second under reasonable experimental conditions.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-07-26
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Squeezing of Quantum Noise of Motion in a Micromechanical Resonator.
Pirkkalainen, J-M; Damskägg, E; Brandt, M; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A
2015-12-11
A pair of conjugate observables, such as the quadrature amplitudes of harmonic motion, have fundamental fluctuations that are bound by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. However, in a squeezed quantum state, fluctuations of a quantity can be reduced below the standard quantum limit, at the cost of increased fluctuations of the conjugate variable. Here we prepare a nearly macroscopic moving body, realized as a micromechanical resonator, in a squeezed quantum state. We obtain squeezing of one quadrature amplitude 1.1±0.4 dB below the standard quantum limit, thus achieving a long-standing goal of obtaining motional squeezing in a macroscopic object. PMID:26705631
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto
2016-05-01
Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-01-01
We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.
Quantum noise of a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer with a translucent mechanical oscillator
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Friedrich, Daniel; Westphal, Tobias; Gossler, Stefan; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman; Somiya, Kentaro; Danilishin, Stefan L.
2010-03-15
Quantum fluctuations in the radiation pressure of light can excite stochastic motions of mechanical oscillators thereby realizing a linear quantum opto-mechanical coupling. When performing a precise measurement of the position of an oscillator, this coupling results in quantum radiation pressure noise. Up to now this effect has not been observed yet. Generally speaking, the strength of radiation pressure noise increases when the effective mass of the oscillator is decreased or when the power of the reflected light is increased. Recently, extremely light SiN membranes ({approx_equal}100 ng) with high mechanical Q values at room temperature ({>=}10{sup 6}) have attracted attention as low thermal noise mechanical oscillators. However, the power reflectance of these membranes is much lower than unity (<0.4 at a wavelength of 1064 nm) which makes the use of advanced interferometer recycling techniques to amplify the radiation pressure noise in a standard Michelson interferometer inefficient. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer that includes the membrane as a common end mirror for the Michelson interferometer part. In this topology, both power and signal recycling can be used even if the reflectance of the membrane is much lower than unity. In particular, signal recycling is a useful tool because it does not involve a power increase at the membrane. We derive the formulas for the quantum radiation pressure noise and the shot noise of an oscillator position measurement and compare them with theoretical models of the thermal noise of a SiN membrane with a fundamental resonant frequency of 75 kHz and an effective mass of125 ng. We find that quantum radiation pressure noise should be observable with a power of 1 W at the central beam splitter of the interferometer and a membrane temperature of 1 K.
Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan
2014-09-15
Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of these profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of several important quantities e.g. magnetic field strength, confinement frequency, dopant location, dopant potential, and aluminium concentration, both in presence and absence of noise. We have invariably envisaged noise-induced suppression of DMS. Moreover, the extent of suppression noticeably depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The said mode of application also plays a governing role in the onset of saturation of DMS values. The present study provides a deep insight into the promising role played by noise in controlling effective confinement imposed on the system which bears significant relevance.
Comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.
2010-11-15
We present a theoretical comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging. We first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of each process in terms of its controllable experimental conditions. We show that a key distinction is that a thermal ghost image always resides on top of a large background; the fluctuations in this background constitutes an intrinsic noise source for thermal ghost imaging. In contrast, there is a negligible intrinsic background to a quantum ghost image. However, for practical reasons involving achievable illumination levels, acquisition times for thermal ghost images are often much shorter than those for quantum ghost images. We provide quantitative predictions for the conditions under which each process provides superior performance. Our conclusion is that each process can provide useful functionality, although under complementary conditions.
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-11
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup −6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup −6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muro, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Norimoto, Shota; Ferrier, Meydi; Arakawa, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ihn, Thomas; Rössler, Clemens; Ensslin, Klaus; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner
2016-05-01
We report a precise experimental study on the shot noise of a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs based high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The combination of unprecedented cleanliness and very high measurement accuracy has enabled us to discuss the Fano factor to characterize the shot noise with a precision of 0.01. We observed that the shot noise at zero magnetic field exhibits a slight enhancement exceeding the single particle theoretical prediction, and that it gradually decreases as a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. We also confirmed that this additional noise completely vanishes in the quantum Hall regime. These phenomena can be explained by the electron heating effect near the QPC, which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field.
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-01
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10-6 from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10-6. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise.
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise.
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-13
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Charge-noise tolerant exchange gates of singlet-triplet qubits in asymmetric double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiltunen, Tuukka; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mehl, Sebastian; Harju, Ari
2015-02-01
In the semiconductor double quantum dot singlet-triplet qubit architecture, the decoherence caused by the qubit's charge environment poses a serious obstacle towards large scale quantum computing. The effects of the charge decoherence can be mitigated by operating the qubit in the so-called sweet spot regions where it is insensitive to electrical noise. In this paper, we propose singlet-triplet qubits based on two quantum dots of different sizes. Such asymmetric double quantum dot systems allow the implementation of exchange gates with controllable exchange splitting J operated in the doubly occupied charge region of the larger dot, where the qubit has high resilience to charge noise. In the larger dot, J can be quenched to a value smaller than the intradot tunneling using magnetic fields, while the smaller dot and its larger splitting can be used in the projective readout of the qubit.
Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise
Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric
2014-08-15
We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.
Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.
Non-classical light generated by quantum-noise-driven cavity optomechanics.
Brooks, Daniel W C; Botter, Thierry; Schreppler, Sydney; Purdy, Thomas P; Brahms, Nathan; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2012-08-23
Optomechanical systems, in which light drives and is affected by the motion of a massive object, will comprise a new framework for nonlinear quantum optics, with applications ranging from the storage and transduction of quantum information to enhanced detection sensitivity in gravitational wave detectors. However, quantum optical effects in optomechanical systems have remained obscure, because their detection requires the object’s motion to be dominated by vacuum fluctuations in the optical radiation pressure; so far, direct observations have been stymied by technical and thermal noise. Here we report an implementation of cavity optomechanics using ultracold atoms in which the collective atomic motion is dominantly driven by quantum fluctuations in radiation pressure. The back-action of this motion onto the cavity light field produces ponderomotive squeezing. We detect this quantum phenomenon by measuring sub-shot-noise optical squeezing. Furthermore, the system acts as a low-power, high-gain, nonlinear parametric amplifier for optical fluctuations, demonstrating a gain of 20 dB with a pump corresponding to an average of only seven intracavity photons. These findings may pave the way for low-power quantum optical devices, surpassing quantum limits on position and force sensing, and the control and measurement of motion in quantum gases.
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kołodyński, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-07-01
Quantum metrology offers enhanced performance in experiments on topics such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clock frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features, such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application, the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to place a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzański et al (2012 Nature Commun. 3 1063), so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for a small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models, including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
The effect of classical noise on a quantum two-level system
Aguilar, Jean-Philippe; Berglund, Nils
2008-10-15
We consider a quantum two-level system perturbed by classical noise. The noise is implemented as a stationary diffusion process in the off-diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, representing a transverse magnetic field. We determine the invariant measure of the system and prove its uniqueness. In the case of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise, we determine the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. Finally, we determine an approximate one-dimensional diffusion equation for the transition probabilities. The proofs use both spectral-theoretic and probabilistic methods.
Karman, G P; Lindberg, A M; Woerdman, J P
1998-11-01
When the eigenmodes of a laser cavity are nonorthogonal, the quantum-limited linewidth of the laser is larger by an excess-noise factor than the standard Schawlow-Townes expression. Mode nonorthogonality can exist in the spatial domain, as in unstable-cavity resonators, but also in the polarization domain when the two polarization eigenmodes are nonorthogonal. We show experimentally that these two contributions are independent of each other, i.e., that the excess-noise factor factorizes as a product of the spatial and polarization excess-noise factors. PMID:18091888
Low Noise Quantum Frequency Conversion from Rb Wavelengths to Telecom O-band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao; Solmeyer, Neal; Stack, Daniel; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-05-01
Ideal quantum repeaters would be composed of long-lived quantum memories entangled with flying qubits. They are becoming essential elements to achieve quantum communication over long distances in a quantum network. However, quantum memories based on neutral atoms operate at wavelengths in the near infrared, unsuitable for long distance communication. The ability to coherently convert photons entangled with quantum memories into telecom wavelengths reduces the transmission loss in optical fibers and therefore dramatically improves the range of a quantum repeater. Furthermore, quantum frequency conversion (QFC) can enable entanglement and communication between different types of quantum memories, thus creating a versatile hybrid quantum network. A recent experiment has shown the conversion of heralded photons from Rb-based memories to the telecom C-band. We implement a setup using a nonlinear PPLN waveguide for the QFC into a wavelength region where the noise-floor would be limited by dark counts rather than pump photons. Our approach uses a pump laser at a much longer wavelength. It has the advantage that the strong pump itself and the broad background in the PPLN can be nearly completely filtered from the converted signal. Such low background level allows for the conversion to be done on the heralding photon, which enables the generated entanglement to be used in a scalable way to multiple nodes remotely situated and to subsequent protocols.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-06-01
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (αxx and αyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features.
Suppression of quantum-radiation-pressure noise in an optical spring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korth, W. Zach; Miao, Haixing; Corbitt, Thomas; Cole, Garrett D.; Chen, Yanbei; Adhikari, Rana X.
2013-09-01
Recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication techniques have led to corresponding improvement in the performance of optomechanical systems, which provide a promising avenue towards quantum-limited metrology and the study of quantum behavior in macroscopic mechanical objects. One major impediment to reaching the quantum regime is thermal excitation, which can be overcome for a sufficiently high mechanical quality factor Q. Here, we propose a method for increasing the effective Q of a mechanical resonator by stiffening it via the optical spring effect exhibited by linear optomechanical systems and show how the associated quantum-radiation-pressure noise can be evaded by sensing and feedback control. In a parameter regime that is attainable with current technology, this method allows for realistic quantum cavity optomechanics in a frequency band well below that which has been realized thus far.
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M F; Spina, María E
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏ_{eff} values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏ_{eff} and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states. PMID:27176280
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlo, Gabriel G.; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Spina, María E.
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏeff values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏeff and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.
Photoexcited escape probability, optical gain, and noise in quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, B. F.; Zussman, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Asom, M. T.; Kuo, J. M.; Hobson, W. S.
1992-01-01
We present a detailed and thorough study of a wide variety of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), which were chosen to have large differences in their optical and transport properties. Both n- and p-doped QWIPs, as well as intersubband transitions based on photoexcitation from bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasi-continuum, and bound-to-continuum quantum well states were investigated. The measurements and theoretical analysis included optical absorption, responsivity, dark current, current noise, optical gain, hot carrier mean free path; net quantum efficiency, quantum well escape probability, quantum well escape time, as well as detectivity. These results allow a better understanding of the optical and transport physics and thus a better optimization of the QWIP performance.
Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki
2010-12-15
The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.
States that give the maximum signal-to-quantum noise ratio for a fixed energy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.
1976-01-01
Under a radiation power constraint, the maximum signal-to-quantum noise ratio obtainable for any state of a radiation field is found. This maximum value is achieved by the two-photon coherent states introduced previously to describe two-photon lasers.
Quantum-Noise Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleisher, Adam J.; Long, David A.; Liu, Qingnan; Hodges, Joseph
2015-06-01
We report a highly sensitive mid-infrared spectrometer capable of recording cavity ring-down events in the quantum (shot) noise limit. A linear optical cavity of finesse 31,000 was pumped by a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 4.5 μm until a cavity transmission threshold was reached. A fast optical switch then extinguished optical pumping and initiated a cavity decay which exhibited root-mean-square noise proportional to the square root of optical power (quantum noise) for several cavity time constants until a detector noise floor was reached. This spectrometer has achieved a noise-equivalent absorption of NEA = 2.6×10-11 wn Hz-1/2 and a minimum absorption coefficient of α = 2.3×10-11 wn in 3 seconds. Applications for such a highly sensitive spectrometer operating in the mid-infrared region, including ultra-trace molecular spectroscopy of CO_2 isotopologues and the direct interrogation of weak mirror birefringence and polarization-dependent losses, will be discussed.
MRT letter: Quantum noise removal and classification of breast mammogram images.
Naseem, M Talha; Sulong, Ghazali Bin; Jaffar, M Arfan
2012-12-01
Because of the limitations of the X-ray hardware systems in mammogram machines, the quality of the breast mammogram images may undergo from poor resolution or low contrast. Quantum noise occurs in the mammogram images during acquisition due to low-count X-ray photons. In this work, an adaptive frost filter has been used to remove quantum noise. Local binary patterns have been extracted to classify breast mammograms into benign and malignant using different classifiers. Results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Mammographic Institute Society Analysis database of mammography has been used for experimentation. Peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity index measure are used to test the validity of adaptive frost filter. Experiment results show that proposed technique produces better results. PMID:23034955
Extracting spatial information from noise measurements of multi-spatial-mode quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, A. M.; Clark, J. B.; Glorieux, Q.; Lett, P. D.
2012-11-01
We show that it is possible to use the spatial quantum correlations present in twin beams to extract information about the shape of a binary amplitude mask in the path of one of the beams. The scheme, based on noise measurements through homodyne detection, is useful in the regime where the number of photons is low enough that direct detection with a photodiode is difficult but high enough that photon counting is not an option. We find that under some conditions the use of quantum states of light leads to an enhancement of the sensitivity in the estimation of the shape of the mask over what can be achieved with a classical state with equivalent properties (mean photon flux and noise properties). In addition, we show that the level of enhancement that is obtained is a result of the quantum correlations and cannot be explained with only classical correlations.
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.
Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-29
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers
Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji
2014-05-15
We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.
Shot-Noise in a Quantum Dot as a Spin-current Diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, F. M.; Penteado, P. H.; Merchant, C. A.; Markovic, N.; Egues, J. C.
2010-03-01
Shot-noise is an unavoidable non-equilibrium current fluctuation that arises from the granularity of the electron charge. In the present work, we investigate shot-noise for the recently proposed spin diode system (1,2). This consists of a quantum dot coupled to two metallic leads, one nonmagnetic (NM) and another ferromagnetic (FM). In the Coulomb blockade regime this system displays a spin-diode effect (1,2), which has recently been probed in a carbon nanotube based quantum dot (2). Our calculation shows that the shot-noise provides a robust signature for this spin-polarization rectification effect. In the bias range for which the current polarization is zero the shot-noise is super-Poissonian. In contrast, for voltages such that the current is spin polarized, the shot-noise becomes sub-Poissonian. Hence shot noise can provide an interesting additional tool to probe spin-polarized transport in these systems. We shall also discuss recent experimental progress in this direction (3). (1) F. M. Souza, J. C. Egues, and A. P. Jauho, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165303 (2007). (2) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156601 (2008). (3) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07C711 (2009).
An experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers of different designs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilt, Stéphane; Tombez, Lionel; Tardy, Camille; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Maulini, Richard; Terazzi, Romain; Rochat, Michel; Südmeyer, Thomas
2015-04-01
We present an experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) of different designs. By quantifying the high degree of correlation occurring between fluctuations of the optical frequency and voltage between the QCL terminals, we show that electrical noise is a powerful and simple mean to study noise in QCLs. Based on this outcome, we investigated the electrical noise in a large set of 22 QCLs emitting in the range of 7.6-8 μm and consisting of both ridge-waveguide and buried-heterostructure (BH) lasers with different geometrical designs and operation parameters. From a statistical data processing based on an analysis of variance, we assessed that ridge-waveguide lasers have a lower noise than BH lasers. Our physical interpretation is that additional current leakages or spare injection channels occur at the interface between the active region and the lateral insulator in the BH geometry, which induces some extra noise. In addition, Schottky-type contacts occurring at the interface between the n-doped regions and the lateral insulator, i.e., iron-doped InP, are also believed to be a potential source of additional noise in some BH lasers, as observed from the slight reduction in the integrated voltage noise observed at the laser threshold in several BH-QCLs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a broad exploration of profiles of third harmonic generation (THG) susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. A Gaussian impurity has been introduced into the QD. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The THG profiles have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the role of the pathway through which noise is applied (additive/multiplicative) on the THG profiles has also been deciphered. The THG profiles are found to be decorated with interesting observations such as shift of THG peak position and maximization/minimization of THG peak intensity. Presence of noise alters the characteristics of THG profiles and sometimes enhances the THG peak intensity. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) also regulates the THG profiles in a few occasions in contrasting manners. The observations highlight the possible scope of tuning the THG coefficient of doped QD systems in the presence of noise and bears tremendous technological importance.
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-06-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Herz, Markus; Bouvron, Samuel; Ćavar, Elizabeta; Fonin, Mikhail; Belzig, Wolfgang; Scheer, Elke
2013-10-21
We present a measurement scheme that enables quantitative detection of the shot noise in a scanning tunnelling microscope while scanning the sample. As test objects we study defect structures produced on an iridium single crystal at low temperatures. The defect structures appear in the constant current images as protrusions with curvature radii well below the atomic diameter. The measured power spectral density of the noise is very near to the quantum limit with Fano factor F = 1. While the constant current images show detailed structures expected for tunnelling involving d-atomic orbitals of Ir, we find the current noise to be without pronounced spatial variation as expected for shot noise arising from statistically independent events.
The effect of losses on the quantum-noise cancellation in the SU(1,1) interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Jing, Jietai
2016-08-01
Quantum-noise cancellation (QNC) is an effective method to control the noise of the quantum system, which reduces or even eliminates the noise of the quantum systems by utilizing destructive interference in the quantum system. However, QNC can be extremely dependent on the losses inside the system. In this letter, we experimentally and theoretically study how the losses can affect the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer. We find that losses in the different arms inside the SU(1,1) interferometer can have different effects on the QNC in the output fields from the SU(1,1) interferometer. And the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer can almost be insensitive to the losses in some cases. Our findings may find its potential applications in the quantum noise control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-02-01
We perform a rigorous analysis of the profiles of a few diagonal and off-diagonal components of linear ( α xx , α yy , α xy , and α yx ), first nonlinear ( β xxx , β yyy , β xyy , and β yxx ), and second nonlinear ( γ xxxx , γ yyyy , γ xxyy , and γ yyxx ) polarizabilities of quantum dots exposed to an external pulsed field. Simultaneous presence of multiplicative white noise has also been taken into account. The quantum dot contains a dopant represented by a Gaussian potential. The number of pulse and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the said profiles through their interplay. Moreover, a variation in the noise strength also contributes evidently in designing the profiles of above polarizability components. In general, the off-diagonal components have been found to be somewhat more responsive to a variation of noise strength. However, we have found some exception to the above fact for the off-diagonal β yxx component. The study projects some pathways of achieving stable, enhanced, and often maximized output of linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots driven by multiplicative noise.
Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, S. L.; Gräf, C.; Leavey, S. S.; Hennig, J.; Houston, E. A.; Pascucci, D.; Steinlechner, S.; Wright, J.; Hild, S.
2015-04-01
The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the standard quantum limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalized, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally, we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with metre- and kilometre-long baselines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2015-07-01
We investigate the modulation of diagonal components of static linear (αxx, αyy) and first nonlinear (βxxx, βyyy) polarizabilities of quantum dots by Gaussian white noise. Quantum dot is doped with impurity represented by a Gaussian potential and repulsive in nature. The study reveals the importance of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the polarizability components. The doped system is further exposed to a static external electric field of given intensity. As important observation we have found that the strength of additive noise becomes unable to influence the polarizability components. However, the multiplicative noise influences them conspicuously and gives rise to additional interesting features. Multiplicative noise even enhances the magnitude of the polarizability components immensely. The present investigation deems importance in view of the fact that noise seriously affects the optical properties of doped quantum dot devices.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source. PMID:26751056
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Kawamura, Seiji
2007-08-15
There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector due to two coupled resonators. The additional third dip makes it possible to decrease quantum noise at low frequencies, keeping the moderate sensitivity at high frequencies. Then, taking advantage of the third dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of {approx_equal}1.43 for neutron star binary, {approx_equal}2.28 for 50M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary, and {approx_equal}2.94 for 100M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.
Quantum noise in the position measurement of a cavity mirror undergoing Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, K.; Tittonen, I.; Wiseman, H. M.; Schiller, S.
1999-07-01
We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of the noise power spectrum for a phase measurement of the light output from a coherently driven optical cavity with a freely moving rear mirror. We examine how the noise resulting from the quantum back action appears among the various contributions from other noise sources. We do not assume an ideal (homodyne) phase measurement, but rather consider phase-modulation detection, which we show has a different shot noise level. We also take into account the effects of thermal damping of the mirror, losses within the cavity, and classical laser noise. We relate our theoretical results to experimental parameters, so as to make direct comparisons with current experiments simple. We also show that in this situation, the standard Brownian motion master equation is inadequate for describing the thermal damping of the mirror, as it produces a spurious term in the steady-state phase-fluctuation spectrum. The corrected Brownian motion master equation [L. Diosi, Europhys. Lett. 22, 1 (1993)] rectifies this inadequacy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Bi, Ya-Gang; Shang, Tao
2015-04-01
This study proposes two novel fault tolerant deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) schemes resistant to collective noise using logical Bell states. Either DSQC scheme is constructed based on a new coding function, which is designed by exploiting the property of the corresponding logical Bell states immune to collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. The secret message can be encoded by two simple unitary operations and decoded by merely performing Bell measurements, which can make the proposed scheme more convenient in practical applications. Moreover, the strategy of one-step quanta transmission, together with the technique of decoy logical qubits checking not only reduces the influence of other noise existing in a quantum channel, but also guarantees the security of the communication between two legitimate users. The final analysis shows that the proposed schemes are feasible and robust against various well-known attacks over the collective noise channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272501, 61272514, 61170272, 61472048, 61402058, 61121061, and 61411146001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0681), the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research (Grant No. MMJJ201401012), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation (Grant No. 131067), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (Grant Nos. 4132056 and 4152038), the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M561826), and the National Key Basic Research Program, China (Grant No. 2012CB315905)
Shot noise at the quantum point contact in InGaAs heterostructure
Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Shuji; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku
2013-12-04
We study the shot noise at a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in an InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructure, whose conductance can be electrically tuned by the gate voltages. Shot noise suppression is observed at the conductance plateau of N(2e{sup 2}/h) (N = 4,5,and 6), which indicates the coherent quantized channel formation in the QPC. The electron heating effect generated at the QPC explains the deviation of the observed Fano factor from the theory.
Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
Kamioka, J.; Oda, S.; Kodera, T.; Takeda, K.; Obata, T.; Tarucha, S.
2014-05-28
The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.
Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise
Heid, Matthias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2007-08-15
We investigate the security against collective attacks of a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme in the asymptotic key limit for a realistic setting. The quantum channel connecting the two honest parties is assumed to be lossy and imposes Gaussian noise on the observed quadrature distributions. Secret key rates are given for direct and reverse reconciliation schemes including post-selection in the collective attack scenario. The effect of a nonideal error correction and two-way communication in the classical post-processing step is also taken into account.
Quantum phase noise reduction in soliton collisions and application to nondemolition measurements
Rand, Darren; Prucnal, Paul R.; Steiglitz, Ken
2005-10-15
We show that soliton collisions can reduce propagation-induced quantum phase noise. This effect originates from a negative correlation between self- and cross-phase-modulation-induced phase fluctuations. Furthermore, we show how this effect can be applied directly to improve the quality of soliton-based quantum nondemolition measurements, simply by adjusting the parameter regime in which the measurement is performed. Optimal implementation, which we show to be technologically feasible, favors short propagation distances, small wavelength separation between solitons, and approximately equal soliton amplitudes.
A Novel LSB Based Quantum Watermarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Shahrokh; Naseri, Mosayeb
2016-06-01
Quantum watermarking is a technique which embeds the invisible quantum signal such as the owners identification into quantum multimedia data (such as audio, video and image) for copyright protection. In this paper, using a quantum representation of digital images a new quantum watermarking protocol including quantum image scrambling based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) is proposed. In this protocol, by using m-bit embedding key K 1 and m-bit extracting key K 2 a m-pixel gray scale image is watermarked in a m-pixel carrier image by the original owner of the carrier image. For validation of the presented scheme the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and histogram graphs of the images are analyzed.
A Novel LSB Based Quantum Watermarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Shahrokh; Naseri, Mosayeb
2016-10-01
Quantum watermarking is a technique which embeds the invisible quantum signal such as the owners identification into quantum multimedia data (such as audio, video and image) for copyright protection. In this paper, using a quantum representation of digital images a new quantum watermarking protocol including quantum image scrambling based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) is proposed. In this protocol, by using m-bit embedding key K 1 and m-bit extracting key K 2 a m-pixel gray scale image is watermarked in a m-pixel carrier image by the original owner of the carrier image. For validation of the presented scheme the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and histogram graphs of the images are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingfu; Suter, Dieter
2015-09-01
Hybrid systems consisting of different types of qubits are promising for building quantum computers if they combine useful properties of their constituent qubits. However, they also pose additional challenges if one type of qubits is more susceptible to environmental noise than the others. Dynamical decoupling can help to protect such systems by reducing the decoherence due to the environmental noise, but the protection must be designed such that it does not interfere with the control fields driving the logical operations. Here, we test such a protection scheme on a quantum register consisting of the electronic and nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. The results show that processing is compatible with protection: The dephasing time was extended almost to the limit given by the longitudinal relaxation time of the electron spin.
Robustness of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates against parametric noise
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-10-01
We present a numerical study of the robustness of a specific class of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates. We take into account the parametric noise due to stochastic fluctuations of the control fields which drive the time-dependent Hamiltonian along an adiabatic loop. The performance estimator used is the state fidelity between noiseless and noisy holonomic gates. We carry over our analysis with different correlation times and we find out that noisy holonomic gates seem to be close to the noiseless ones for 'short' and 'long' noise correlation times. This result can be interpreted as a consequence of the geometric nature of the holonomic operator. Our simulations have been performed by using parameters relevant to the excitonic proposal for the implementation of holonomic quantum computation [P. Solinas et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 121307 (2003)].
Finite-frequency noise in a non-interacting quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamoum, Redouane; Lavagna, Mireille; Crépieux, Adeline
2016-05-01
We calculate the non-symmetrized finite-frequency NS-FF noise for a single-level quantum dot connected to reservoirs in the spinless non-interacting case. The calculations are performed within the framework of the Keldysh Green’s function formalism in the wide band approximation limit. We establish the general formula for NS-FF noise for any values of temperature, frequency and bias voltage. The electron transfer processes from one to the other reservoir act via the transmission amplitude and transmission coefficient depending on the energy. By taking the symmetrized version of this expression, we show that our result coincides with the expression of the finite frequency noise obtained by Büttiker using the scattering theory. We also give the explicit analytical expression for the NS-FF noise in the zero temperature limit. Finally, by performing numerical calculations, we discuss the evolution of the NS-FF noise spectrum with varying temperature, dot energy level, and coupling strength to the reservoirs, revealing a large variety of behaviors such as different symmetry properties and changes of sign in the excess noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.
2016-07-01
We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.
Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
2016-05-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
2016-05-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson–Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
Low-Noise High-Performance Current Controllers for Quantum Cascade Lasers
Taubman, Matthew S.
2011-06-01
Quantum cascade lasers have ushered in a new era of enhanced capability for chemical sensing. The higher current and voltage demands of these devices over their laser diode counterparts has also ushered in the demand for more capable drive electronics. The current-sensitivity and high frequency response of these devices has continued the desire for low noise, stability and agility enjoyed by the laser diode community for many years. This article addresses the issue of maintaining these characteristics at the currents and voltages required, and presents example performance of current controllers developed by the author at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, achieving output currents up to two amperes and compliance voltages of 15 volts, with noise levels close to the Johnson noise of the internal resistors, typically a few nA/rt-Hz. Full current depth rapid modulation up to 100 kHz is also demonstrated.
Low-noise high-performance current controllers for quantum cascade lasers.
Taubman, Matthew S
2011-06-01
Quantum cascade lasers have ushered in a new era of enhanced capability for chemical sensing. The higher current and voltage demands of these devices over their laser diode counterparts have also ushered in the demand for more capable drive electronics. The current-sensitivity and high frequency response of these devices have continued the desire for low noise, stability, and agility enjoyed by the laser diode community for many years. This article addresses the issue of maintaining these characteristics at the currents and voltages required, and presents example performance of current controllers developed by the author at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, achieving output currents up to 2 A and compliance voltages of 15 V, with noise levels close to the Johnson noise of the internal resistors, typically a few nA/√Hz. Rapid full-depth current modulation up to 100 kHz is also demonstrated.
Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields
Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao
2014-09-07
We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.
Leggett-Garg inequalities for a quantum top affected by classical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dajka, Jerzy; Łobejko, Marcin; Łuczka, Jerzy
2016-08-01
The violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality is studied for a quantum top (with angular momentum J_z of integer or half-integer size), being driven by classical Gaussian white noise. The form of a longitudinal (J_z) or a transverse (J_x) coupling of noise to the angular momentum affects both (i) to what extent the Leggett-Garg inequality is violated and (ii) how this violation is influenced by the size j of the spinning top and direction of a coupling (transverse or longitudinal). We introduce j-independent method, using two- dimensional invariant subspace of the system Hilbert space, which allows us to find out strict analytical solution for a noise-free system and with longitudinal coupling and to extract from the whole dynamics effects purely induced by a noise. It is demonstrated that in the semi-classical limit of a large angular momentum j and for the transverse coupling, the Leggett-Garg inequalities become more strongly violated as compared to the deep quantum regime of small j.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandrà, Salvatore; Guerreschi, Gian Giacomo; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-12-01
Adiabatic quantum optimization is a procedure to solve a vast class of optimization problems by slowly changing the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. The evolution time necessary for the algorithm to be successful scales inversely with the minimum energy gap encountered during the dynamics. Unfortunately, the direct calculation of the gap is strongly limited by the exponential growth in the dimensionality of the Hilbert space associated to the quantum system. Although many special-purpose methods have been devised to reduce the effective dimensionality, they are strongly limited to particular classes of problems with evident symmetries. Moreover, little is known about the computational power of adiabatic quantum optimizers in real-world conditions. Here we propose and implement a general purposes reduction method that does not rely on any explicit symmetry and which requires, under certain general conditions, only a polynomial amount of classical resources. Thanks to this method, we are able to analyze the performance of "nonideal" quantum adiabatic optimizers to solve the well-known Grover problem, namely the search of target entries in an unsorted database, in the presence of discrete local defects. In this case, we show that adiabatic quantum optimization, even if affected by random noise, is still potentially faster than any classical algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei
2015-07-01
A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states.
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-01
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green's function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵ(M) increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions. PMID:25016999
Effects of quantum noises and noisy quantum operations on entanglement and special dense coding
Quek, Sylvanus; Li Ziang; Yeo Ye
2010-02-15
We show how noncommuting noises could cause a Bell state {chi}{sub 0} to suffer entanglement sudden death (ESD). ESD may similarly occur when a noisy operation acts, if the corresponding Hamiltonian and Lindblad operator do not commute. We study the implications of these in special dense coding S. When noises that cause ESD act, we show that {chi}{sub 0} may lose its capacity for S before ESD occurs. Similarly, {chi}{sub 0} may fail to yield information transfer better than classically possible when the encoding operations are noisy, though entanglement is not destroyed in the process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, A. S.; Barbosa, F. A. S.; Cassemiro, K. N.; Martinelli, M.; Villar, A. S.; Nussenzveig, P.
2015-07-01
Gaussian quantum states hold special importance in the continuous variable regime. In quantum information science, the understanding and characterization of central resources such as entanglement may strongly rely on the knowledge of the Gaussian or non-Gaussian character of the quantum state. However, the quantum measurement associated with the spectral photocurrent of light modes consists of a mixture of quadrature observables. Within the framework of two recent papers [Phys. Rev. A 88, 052113 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052113 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 200402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.200402], we address here how the statistics of the spectral photocurrent relates to the character of the Wigner function describing those modes. We show that a Gaussian state can be misidentified as non-Gaussian and vice versa, a conclusion that forces the adoption of tacit a priori assumptions to perform quantum state reconstruction. We experimentally analyze the light beams generated by the optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold to show that the data strongly supports the generation of Gaussian states of the field, validating the use of necessary and sufficient criteria to characterize entanglement in this system.
Reading boundless error-free bits using a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2013-06-01
We address the problem of how efficiently information can be encoded into and read out reliably from a passive reflective surface that encodes classical data by modulating the amplitude and phase of incident light. We show that nature imposes no fundamental upper limit to the number of bits that can be read per expended probe photon and demonstrate the quantum-information-theoretic trade-offs between the photon efficiency (bits per photon) and the encoding efficiency (bits per pixel) of optical reading. We show that with a coherent-state (ideal laser) source, an on-off (amplitude-modulation) pixel encoding, and shot-noise-limited direct detection (an overly optimistic model for commercial CD and DVD drives), the highest photon efficiency achievable in principle is about 0.5 bits read per transmitted photon. We then show that a coherent-state probe can read unlimited bits per photon when the receiver is allowed to make joint (inseparable) measurements on the reflected light from a large block of phase-modulated memory pixels. Finally, we show an example of a spatially entangled nonclassical light probe and a receiver design—constructible using a single-photon source, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors—that can in principle read any number of error-free bits of information. The probe is a single photon prepared in a uniform coherent superposition of multiple orthogonal spatial modes, i.e., a W state. The code and joint-detection receiver complexity required by a coherent-state transmitter to achieve comparable photon efficiency performance is shown to be much higher in comparison to that required by the W-state transceiver, although this advantage rapidly disappears with increasing loss in the system.
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
Effect of phase noise on quantum correlations in Bose-Josephson junctions
Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Spehner, D.
2011-10-15
In a two-mode Bose-Josephson junction the dynamics induced by a sudden quench of the tunnel amplitude leads to the periodic formation of entangled states. For instance, squeezed states are formed at short times and macroscopic superpositions of phase states at later times. In atom interferometry, the two modes of the junction play the role of the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer; use of multiparticle entangled states allows the enhancement of phase sensitivity with respect to that obtained from uncorrelated atoms. Decoherence due to the presence of noise degrades quantum correlations between atoms, thus reducing phase sensitivity. We consider decoherence due to stochastic fluctuations of the energies of the two modes of the junction. We analyze its effect on squeezed states and macroscopic superpositions and calculate the squeezing parameter and the quantum Fisher information during the quenched dynamics. The latter quantity measures the amount of quantum correlations useful in interferometry. For moderate noise intensities, we show that it increases on time scales beyond the squeezing regime. This suggests multicomponent superpositions of phase states as interesting candidates for high-precision atom interferometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-01
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-07
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
Intracavity Multi-Photon-Absorption and the Quantum Noise Spectrum of Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzog, Ulrike
The intensity noise spectrum is investigated quantum-mechanically for incident coherent light passing through a resonator which is filled with a k-photon-absorber. For k 2 the noise of the outgoing light is reduced below the shot noise level the reduction being maximal for frequencies that are small in comparison to the cavity bandwidth. It turns out that the highest possible value of this low-frequency noise reduction is obtained when the resonator losses due to transmission through the outcoupling mirror are 2k - 1 times as large as the k-photon absorption losses. In this case the noise at zero frequency is reduced with respect to the shot noise level by a factor of k/(2k - 1).Translated AbstractQuantenrauschen bei Mehrphotonenabsorption im ResonatorFür kohärent eingestrahltes Licht, das einen mit einem k-Photon-Absorber gefüllten Resonator durchläuft, wird das Intensitäts-Rauschspektrum quantenmechanisch unter-sucht. Für k 2 liegt das Rauschen des austretenden Lichtes unterhalb des Schrotrauschens, wobei die Rauschreduktion für Frequenzen, die klein im Vergleich zur Resonatorbandbreite sind, am größten ist. Es stellt sich heraus, daß diese niederfrequente Rauschunterdrückung ihren höchsten Wert erreicht, wenn die Resonatorverluste, die infolge der Transmission durch den Auskoppelspiegel entstehen, 2k - 1 mal so groß sind wie die k-Photonen-Absorptionsverluste. In diesem Fall reduziert sich das Rauschen bei der Frequenz Null im Vergleich zum Schrotrauschen um den Faktor k/2k - 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, N. T.; Xie, H. Q.; Xue, H. B.; Liang, J.-Q.
2014-05-01
By means of the Rate equation approach in sequential tunneling regime, we study spin-polarized transport through series double quantum dots (DQD) weakly coupled to collinear ferromagnetic leads with particular attention on the effect of interdot spin exchange interaction (SEI). For the asymmetric DQD giant negative differential conductance is realized, which depends on the energy-level spacing between two dots. It is demonstrated that the voltage dependencies of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and the shot noise are sensitive to the SEI, which leads to the additional imbalance between spin-polarized currents. The super-Poissonian statistics is enhanced in the parallel leads’ configuration by the ferromagnetic SEI, which favorites the spin bunching, while it is suppressed by stronger antiferromagnetic SEI in antiparallel configuration for a symmetric DQD. The voltage dependencies of the TMR and shot noise may be used to probe the SEI.
Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit.
Mizouri, Arin; Deng, L Z; Eardley, Jack S; Nahler, N Hendrik; Wrede, Eckart; Carty, David
2013-12-01
The absolute density of SD radicals in a supersonic jet has been measured down to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(5) cm(-3) in a modestly specified apparatus that uses a cross-correlated combination of cavity ring-down and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Such a density corresponds to 215 ± 21 molecules in the probe volume at any given time. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient was quantum-noise-limited and measured to be (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) cm(-1), in 200 s of acquisition time, corresponding to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity for the apparatus of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(-9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2).
Perfectly secure steganography: Hiding information in the quantum noise of a photograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanguinetti, Bruno; Traverso, Giulia; Lavoie, Jonathan; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-01-01
We show that it is possible to hide information perfectly within a photograph. The proposed protocol works by selecting each pixel value from two images that differ only by shot noise. Pixel values are never modified, but only selected, making the resulting stego image provably indistinguishable from an untampered image, and the protocol provably secure. We demonstrate that a perfect steganographic protocol is also a perfectly secure cryptographic protocol, and therefore has at least the same requirements: a truly random key as long as the message. In our system, we use a second image as the key, satisfying length requirements, and the randomness is provided by the naturally occurring quantum noise which is dominant in images taken with modern sensors. We conclude that, given a photograph, it is impossible to tell whether it contains any hidden information.
Spin dynamics of hopping electrons in quantum wires: Algebraic decay and noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shumilin, A. V.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Glazov, M. M.
2016-09-01
We study theoretically the spin decoherence and intrinsic spin noise in semiconductor quantum wires caused by an interplay of electrons hopping between the localized states and the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins. At a sufficiently low density of localization sites the hopping rates have an exponentially broad distribution. It allows the description of the spin dynamics in terms of closely situated "pairs" of sites and single "reaching" states, from which the series of hops result in electrons localized inside a "pair." The developed analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate disorder-dependent algebraic tails in the spin decay and power-law singularities features in the low-frequency part of the spin-noise spectrum.
Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons.
Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas Nils; Arend, Carsten; Lenhard, Andreas; Portalupi, Simone Luca; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph
2016-09-19
We present experimental results on quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable single photons emitted by an InAs/GaAs quantum dot at 904 nm to the telecom C-band at 1557 nm. Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference measurements are shown prior to and after the down-conversion step. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the HOM experiments taking into account the time delays of the different interferometers used and the signal-to-background ratio and further estimate the impact of spectral diffusion on the degree of indistinguishability. By that we conclude that the down-conversion step does not introduce any loss of HOM interference visibility. A noise-free conversion-process along with a high conversion-efficiency (> 30 %) emphasize that our scheme is a promising candidate for an efficient source of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths. PMID:27661959
Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme
2012-02-17
We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.
Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.
All-electrical frequency noise reduction and linewidth narrowing in quantum cascade lasers.
Sergachev, Ilia; Maulini, Richard; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Gresch, Tobias; Bidaux, Yves; Müller, Antoine; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas
2014-11-15
A novel all-electrical method of frequency noise reduction in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is proposed. Electrical current through the laser was continuously adjusted to compensate for fluctuations of the laser internal resistance, which led to an active stabilization of the optical emission frequency. A reduction of the linewidth from 1.7 MHz in the standard constant current mode of operation down to 480 kHz is demonstrated at 10-ms observation time when applying this method to a QCL emitting at 7.9 μm.
Quantum noise and squeezing in optical parametric oscillator with arbitrary output coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, Sudhakar
1993-01-01
The redistribution of intrinsic quantum noise in the quadratures of the field generated in a sub-threshold degenerate optical parametric oscillator exhibits interesting dependences on the individual output mirror transmittances, when they are included exactly. We present a physical picture of this problem, based on mirror boundary conditions, which is valid for arbitrary transmittances. Hence, our picture applies uniformly to all values of the cavity Q factor representing, in the opposite extremes, both perfect oscillator and amplifier configurations. Beginning with a classical second-harmonic pump, we shall generalize our analysis to the finite amplitude and phase fluctuations of the pump.
Investigations on the relative intensity noise of a two-state quantum dot laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlus, R.; Gioannini, M.; Virte, M.; Elsäßer, W.; Breuer, S.
2016-04-01
We investigate the spectrally-resolved relative intensity noise (RIN) of a dual state emitting quantum-dot (QD) laser in dependence on the laser biasing conditions. We study the RIN under free-running conditions as well as under external optical feedback (OFB). We find an improvement in RIN of the free-running laser when ground-state (GS) and excited-state (ES) emit simultaneously as compared to a single-state emission. Furthermore, we find an improvement in RIN under external OFB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying
2016-09-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g. superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this paper. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer, and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about a thousand normal qubits.
Yamanishi, Masamichi Hirohata, Tooru; Hayashi, Syohei; Fujita, Kazuue; Tanaka, Kazunori
2014-11-14
Free running line-widths (>100 kHz), much broader than intrinsic line-widths ∼100 Hz, of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by strong flicker frequency-noise originating from electrical flicker noise. Understanding of microscopic origins of the electrical flicker noises in quantum-cascade lasers is crucially important for the reduction of strength of flicker frequency-noise without assistances of any type of feedback schemes. In this article, an ad hoc model that is based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by electron trappings and de-trappings at indispensable impurity states in injector super-lattices of a quantum-cascade laser is proposed, developing theoretical framework based on the model. The validity of the present model is evaluated by comparing theoretical voltage-noise power spectral densities based on the model with experimental ones obtained by using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers with designed impurity-positioning. The obtained experimental results on flicker noises, in comparison with the theoretical ones, shed light on physical mechanisms, such as the inherent one due to impurity states in their injectors and extrinsic ones due to surface states on the ridge-walls and due to residual deep traps, for electrical flicker-noise generation in existing mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers. It is shown theoretically that quasi-delta doping of impurities in their injectors leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole length at a certain temperature, for instance ∼300 K and, in turn, is expected to result in substantial narrowing of the free running line-width down below 10 kHz.
Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser.
Guo, Hong; Tang, Wenzhuo; Liu, Yu; Wei, Wei
2010-05-01
We present a simple approach to realize truly random number generator based on measuring the phase noise of a single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The true randomness of the quantum phase noise originates from the spontaneous emission of photons and the random bit generation rate is ultimately limited only by the laser linewidth. With the final bit generation rate of 20 Mbit/s, the truly random bit sequence guaranteed by the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics passes the three standard randomness tests (ENT, Diehard, and NIST Statistical Test Suites). Moreover, a continuously generated random bit sequence, with length up to 14 Gbit, is verified by two additional criteria for its true randomness.
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho
2014-05-15
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
Ultralow-Noise Atomic-Scale Structures for Quantum Circuitry in Silicon.
Shamim, Saquib; Weber, Bent; Thompson, Daniel W; Simmons, Michelle Y; Ghosh, Arindam
2016-09-14
The atomically precise doping of silicon with phosphorus (Si:P) using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) promises ultimate miniaturization of field effect transistors. The one-dimensional (1D) Si:P nanowires are of particular interest, retaining exceptional conductivity down to the atomic scale, and are predicted as interconnects for a scalable silicon-based quantum computer. Here, we show that ultrathin Si:P nanowires form one of the most-stable electrical conductors, with the phenomenological Hooge parameter of low-frequency noise being as low as ≈10(-8) at 4.2 K, nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than even carbon-nanotube-based 1D conductors. A in-built isolation from the surface charge fluctuations due to encapsulation of the wires within the epitaxial Si matrix is the dominant cause for the observed suppression of noise. Apart from quantum information technology, our results confirm the promising prospects for precision-doped Si:P structures in atomic-scale circuitry for the 11 nm technology node and beyond. PMID:27525390
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; You, Zhicheng; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Chen, Lingyun; Han, Tao; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Geiser, William R.; Flores, David; Whitman, Gary J.; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.
2010-04-01
To study the effects of overlapping anatomy on microcalcification detection at various incident exposure levels. Images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom (RMI 169) overlapping with simulated microcalcifications ranging from 150 to 212 μm in size placed in two breast density regions, fatty and heterogeneously dense, were acquired with an a-Si/a-Se flat panel based digital mammography system (Selenia) operated with Mo-Mo target/filter combination at 28 kVp. The mammograms were exposed with 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, 160, 240 and 325 mAs for varying the exposure level. A 4-AFC study was performed for evaluation of the detection performance. Four 400×400-pixel images were displayed as 2×2 array on a LCD flat panel based review workstation. One of the four images contained a cluster of five microcalcifications and was randomly placed in one of the four quadrants. A physicist was asked to select the image containing the microcalcifications and to report the number of visible microcalcifications. The fraction of correct responses was computed with two different criteria: (1) the selected images contained one or more microcalcifications, and (2) the selected images contained 4 or 5 visible microcalcifications. The statistical significance of the differences in fractions for different exposure levels and regions was evaluated. The results showed that, if visibility of one or more microcalcifications is required, the fractions of correct responses were 1 for all size groups and most exposure levels in both fatty and heterogeneously dense regions. If a visibility of 80% or more of the microcalcifications was required, the fractions of correct responses significantly decreased in both regions. The results indicated that microcalcification detection in the fatty region appeared to be mainly limited by the quantum noise, and that in the heterogeneously dense region may be limited by both the anatomic noise and the quantum noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-02-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Quantum noise of a white-light cavity using a double-pumped gain medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yiqiu; Miao, Haixing; Zhao, Chunnong; Chen, Yanbei
2015-08-01
Laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors implement Fabry-Pérot cavities to increase their peak sensitivity. However, this is at the cost of reducing their detection bandwidth, which originates from the propagation phase delay of the light. The "white-light-cavity" idea, first proposed by Wicht et al. [Opt. Commun. 34, 431 (1997), 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00579-2], is to circumvent this limitation by introducing anomalous dispersion, using a double-pumped gain medium, to compensate for such a phase delay. In this article, starting from the Hamiltonian of the atom-light interaction, we apply an input-output formalism to evaluate the quantum noise of the system. We find that apart from the additional noise associated with the parametric amplification process noted by others, the stability condition for the entire system poses an additional constraint. By surveying the parameter regimes where the gain medium remains stable (not lasing) and stationary, we find that there is no net enhancement of the shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Therefore, other gain media or different parameter regimes should be explored for realizing the white-light cavity.
Hood, M.
1986-02-11
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face. 4 figs.
Hood, Michael
1986-01-01
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face.
Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence.
Scully, Marlan O; Chapin, Kimberly R; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly
2011-09-13
Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein's studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by "hot" thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature T(h) (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature T(c) (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser power
Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M
2013-02-01
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tombez, L.; Schilt, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Führer, T.; Rein, B.; Walther, T.; Di Domenico, G.; Hofstetter, D.; Thomann, P.
2012-11-01
We report on the measurement of the frequency noise properties of a 4.6-μm distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating in continuous wave near room temperature using a spectroscopic set-up. The flank of the R(14) ro-vibrational absorption line of carbon monoxide at 2196.6 cm-1 is used to convert the frequency fluctuations of the laser into intensity fluctuations that are spectrally analyzed. We evaluate the influence of the laser driver on the observed QCL frequency noise and show how only a low-noise driver with a current noise density below {≈} 1 nA/sqrt{}Hz allows observing the frequency noise of the laser itself, without any degradation induced by the current source. We also show how the laser FWHM linewidth, extracted from the frequency noise spectrum using a simple formula, can be drastically broadened at a rate of {≈} 1.6 MHz/(nA/sqrt{}Hz) for higher current noise densities of the driver. The current noise of commercial QCL drivers can reach several nA/sqrt{}Hz, leading to a broadening of the linewidth of our QCL of up to several megahertz. To remedy this limitation, we present a low-noise QCL driver with only 350 pA/sqrt{}Hz current noise, which is suitable to observe the ≈550 kHz linewidth of our QCL.
Manipulation of electrical flicker-noise and line narrowing in free-running quantum cascade-lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanishi, Masamichi; Hirohata, Toru
2015-01-01
Intrinsic linewidths of quantum-cascade lasers are found to be extremely narrow, ~100 Hz. However, the free running linewidths (usually ~1 MHz) of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by flicker frequency-noise that is identified to originate from electrical flicker-noise in the devices. Obviously, substantial suppression of the electrical flicker noise is required for substantial narrowing of free-running LWs. In this presentation, we show systematic experimental results of flicker voltage-noise power-spectral density obtained with mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers of designed positioning of impurities in injectors. The measured noise-levels depending strongly on impurity position as well as device-temperature are evaluated with an ad hoc model based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by trapping and de-trapping at impurity states in their injectors. It is shown that quasi-delta doping of impurities leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole-length at a certain temperature, for instance ~300 K and, in turn, is expected to narrow astonishingly the free-running line-width down below 10 kHz without assistances of any types of feedback schemes.
Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas; Arend, Carsten; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph
2016-04-01
telecom regime as a result of the small conversion bandwidth and using a high-performance fiber-Bragg-grating solely left the detector dark counts as the only noise source in our setup. Therefore, we could achieve conversion efficiencies of more than 20 %. In order to test the indistinguishability, sequentially emitted photons were fed into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatially as well as temporally overlapped at the output beam splitter. Cross-correlation measurements between both output-ports of the beam splitter exhibit two-photon interference contrasts of more than 40 % prior to and after the down-conversion step. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the process of quantum frequency conversion preserves photon indistinguishability and can be used to establish a versatile source of indistinguishable single photons at the telecom C-Band. Furthermore our scheme allows for converting photons in a wavelength band from 900 nm to 910 nm to the same telecom target wavelength. This enables us to test indistinguishability of frequency-converted photons, originally stemming from different sources with dinstinguishable wavelengths.
Tombez, L; Di Francesco, J; Schilt, S; Di Domenico, G; Faist, J; Thomann, P; Hofstetter, D
2011-08-15
The frequency noise properties of commercial distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting in the 4.6 μm range and operated in cw mode near room temperature (277 K) are presented. The measured frequency noise power spectral density reveals a flicker noise dropping down to the very low level of <100 Hz(2)/Hz at 10 MHz Fourier frequency and is globally a factor of 100 lower than data recently reported for a similar laser operated at cryogenic temperature. This makes our laser a good candidate for the realization of a mid-IR ultranarrow linewidth reference. PMID:21847176
Symul, Thomas; Alton, Daniel J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Lam, Ping Koy; Assad, Syed M.; Weedbrook, Christian; Ralph, Timothy C.
2007-09-15
In realistic continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols, an eavesdropper may exploit the additional Gaussian noise generated during transmission to mask her presence. We present a theoretical framework for a post-selection-based protocol which explicitly takes into account excess Gaussian noise. We derive a quantitative expression of the secret key rates based on the Levitin and Holevo bounds. We experimentally demonstrate that the post-selection-based scheme is still secure against both individual and collective Gaussian attacks in the presence of this excess noise.
Pfeffer, A. H.; Kaviraj, B.; Coupiac, O.; Lefloch, F.
2012-11-15
We have implemented a new experimental set-up for precise measurements of current fluctuations in three-terminal devices. The system operates at very low temperatures (30 mK) and is equipped with three superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as low noise current amplifiers. A SQUID input coil is connected to each terminal of a sample allowing the acquisition of time-dependent current everywhere in the circuit. From these traces, we can measure the current mean value, the noise, and cross-correlations between different branches of a device. In this paper, we present calibration results of noise and cross-correlations obtained using low impedance macroscopic resistors. From these results, we can extract the noise level of the set-up and show that there are no intrinsic correlations due to the measurement scheme. We also studied noise and correlations as a function of a dc current and estimated the electronic temperature of various macroscopic resistors.
Tombez, Lionel; Schilt, Stéphane; Di Francesco, Joab; Thomann, Pierre; Hofstetter, Daniel
2012-03-26
We report on the measurement of the frequency noise power spectral density in a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser over a wide temperature range, from 128 K to 303 K. As a function of the device temperature, we show that the frequency noise behavior is characterized by two different regimes separated by a steep transition at ≈200 K. While the frequency noise is nearly unchanged above 200 K, it drastically increases at lower temperature with an exponential dependence. We also show that this increase is entirely induced by current noise intrinsic to the device. In contrast to earlier publications, a single laser is used here in a wide temperature range allowing the direct assessment of the temperature dependence of the frequency noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hell, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; DiVincenzo, D. P.
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the backaction of a sensor quantum dot with strong local Coulomb repulsion on the transient dynamics of a qubit that is probed capacitively. We show that the measurement backaction induced by the noise of electron cotunneling through the sensor is surprisingly mitigated by the recently identified coherent backaction [M. Hell, M. R. Wegewijs, and D. P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 195405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195405] arising from quantum fluctuations. This indicates that a sensor with quantized states may be switched off better than naively expected. This renormalization effect is missing in semiclassical stochastic fluctuator models and typically also in Born-Markov approaches, which try to avoid the calculation of the nonstationary, nonequilibrium state of the qubit plus sensor. Technically, we integrate out the current-carrying electrodes to obtain kinetic equations for the joint, nonequilibrium detector-qubit dynamics. We show that the sensor current response, level renormalization, cotunneling broadening, and leading non-Markovian corrections always appear together and cannot be turned off individually in an experiment or ignored theoretically. We analyze the backaction on the reduced qubit state—capturing the full non-Markovian effects imposed by the sensor quantum dot on the qubit—by applying a Liouville-space decomposition into quasistationary and rapidly decaying modes. Importantly, the sensor cannot be eliminated completely even in the simplest high-temperature, weak-measurement limit since the qubit state experiences an initial slip depending on the initial preparation of qubit plus sensor quantum dot. The slip persists over many qubit cycles, i.e., also on the time scale of the qubit decoherence induced by the backaction. A quantum-dot sensor can thus not be modeled as usual as a "black box" without accounting for its dynamical variables; it is part of the quantum circuit. We furthermore find that the Bloch vector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.
Fast and noise-resistant ion-trap quantum computation with inherent dynamical decoupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2014-02-01
We propose a scheme for realizing quantum logic gates between any pair of ions confined in a linear trap with a pair of laser beams tuned to the carrier. The striking feature of the scheme is that the carrier excitation accompanying the spin-motion coupling does not affect the gate dynamics. As a consequence, the gate not only is much more insensitive to motional heating but also can operate at a higher speed compared to the previous schemes. The other important advantages are that the gate speed does not need to be inversely proportional to the number of ions in the chain, and the accompanying carrier drive results in dynamical decoupling, making the gate performance robust against dephasing noises. We show that for the same error sources the gate infidelity can be decreased by about ten times compared with previous schemes.
Quantum analysis of shot noise suppression in a series of tunnel barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marconcini, P.; Macucci, M.; Iannaccone, G.; Pellegrini, B.
2009-06-01
We report the results of an analysis, based on a straightforward quantum-mechanical model, of shot noise suppression in a structure containing cascaded tunneling barriers. Our results exhibit a behavior that is in sharp contrast with existing semiclassical models for this particular type of structure, which predict a limit of 1/3 for the Fano factor as the number of barriers is increased. The origin of this discrepancy is investigated and attributed to the presence of localization on the length scale of the mean free path, as a consequence of the strictly one-dimensional (1D) nature of disorder, which does not create mode mixing, while no localization appears in common semiclassical models. We expect localization to be indeed present in practical situations with prevalent 1D disorder, and the existing experimental evidence appears to be consistent with such a prediction.
Estimation of output-channel noise for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thearle, Oliver; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas
2016-04-01
Estimation of channel parameters is important for extending the range and increasing the key rate of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols. We propose an estimator for the channel noise parameter based on the method-of-moments. The method-of-moments finds an estimator from the moments of the output distribution of the protocol. This estimator has the advantage of being able to use all of the states shared between Alice and Bob. Other estimators are limited to a smaller publicly revealed subset of the states. The proposed estimator has a lower variance for the high-loss channel than what has previously been proposed. We show that the method-of-moments estimator increases the key rate by up to an order of magnitude at the maximum transmission of the protocol.
Classicalization of nonclassical quantum states in loss and noise: Some no-go theorems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuen, Horace P.; Nair, Ranjith
2009-08-01
The general problem of performance advantage obtainable by the use of nonclassical transmitted states over classical ones is considered. Attention is focused on the situation where system loss is significant and additive Gaussian noise may be present at the receiver. Under the assumption that the total received state is classical, rigorous output density operator representations and their trace distance bounds are developed for classical and nonclassical transmitted states. For applications with high loss in all modes, a practical no-go theorem is enunciated that rules out the possibility of significant advantage of nonclassical over classical states. The recent work on quantum illumination is discussed as an example of our no-go approach.
Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca
2016-01-01
A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon. PMID:27478293
Schrödinger problem, Lévy processes, and noise in relativistic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbaczewski, Piotr; Klauder, John R.; Olkiewicz, Robert
1995-05-01
The main purpose of the paper is an essentially probabilistic analysis of relativistic quantum mechanics. It is based on the assumption that whenever probability distributions arise, there exists a stochastic process that is either responsible for the temporal evolution of a given measure or preserves the measure in the stationary case. Our departure point is the so-called Schrödinger problem of probabilistic evolution, which provides for a unique Markov stochastic interpolation between any given pair of boundary probability densities for a process covering a fixed, finite duration of time, provided we have decided a priori what kind of primordial dynamical semigroup transition mechanism is involved. In the nonrelativistic theory, including quantum mechanics, Feynman-Kac-like kernels are the building blocks for suitable transition probability densities of the process. In the standard ``free'' case (Feynman-Kac potential equal to zero) the familiar Wiener noise is recovered. In the framework of the Schrödinger problem, the ``free noise'' can also be extended to any infinitely divisible probability law, as covered by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. Since the relativistic Hamiltonians ||∇|| and √-Δ+m2 -m are known to generate such laws, we focus on them for the analysis of probabilistic phenomena, which are shown to be associated with the relativistic wave (D'Alembert) and matter-wave (Klein-Gordon) equations, respectively. We show that such stochastic processes exist and are spatial jump processes. In general, in the presence of external potentials, they do not share the Markov property, except for stationary situations. A concrete example of the pseudodifferential Cauchy-Schrödinger evolution is analyzed in detail. The relativistic covariance of related wave equations is exploited to demonstrate how the associated stochastic jump processes comply with the principles of special relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-08-01
Higher channel capacity and security are difficult to reach in a noisy channel. The loss of photons and the distortion of the qubit state are caused by noise. To solve these problems, in our study, a hyperentangled Bell state is used to design faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol over collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noisy channel, which doubles the channel capacity compared with using an ordinary Bell state as a carrier; a logical hyperentangled Bell state immune to collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noise is constructed. The secret message is divided into several parts to transmit, however the identity strings of Alice and Bob are reused. Unitary operations are not used. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-01
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts
Kim, Jin-Mok Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-15
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Mingesz, Robert; Gingl, Zoltan
2007-06-01
Very recently, it has been shown that Gaussian thermal noise and its artificial versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as an information carrier with peculiar properties therefore it may be proper to call this topic Thermal Noise Informatics. Zero Power (Stealth) Communication, Thermal Noise Driven Computing, and Totally Secure Classical Communication are relevant examples. In this paper, while we will briefly describe the first and the second subjects, we shall focus on the third subject, the secure classical communication via wire. This way of secure telecommunication utilizes the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The communicator is unconditionally secure at the conceptual (circuit theoretical) level and this property is (so far) unique in communication systems based on classical physics. The communicator is superior to quantum alternatives in all known aspects, except the need of using a wire. In the idealized system, the eavesdropper can extract zero bit of information without getting uncovered. The scheme is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle attack. The communication can take place also via currently used power lines or phone (wire) lines and it is not only a point-to-point communication like quantum channels but network-ready. We report that a pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line with ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation/sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for copper wires with diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2005-04-01
We reexamine mass flow in a superfluid gyroscope containing a superfluid Josephson weak link. We introduce a frequency-dependent hydrodynamic inductance to account for an oscillatory flow of the normal fluid component in the sensing loop. With this hydrodynamic inductance, we derive the thermal phase noise, and hence the thermal rotational noise of the gyroscope. We examine the thermodynamic stability of the system based on an analysis of the free energy. We derive a quantum phase noise, which is analogous to the zero-point motion of a simple harmonic oscillator. The configuration of the studied gyroscope is analogous to a conventional superconducting RF SQUID. We show that the gyroscope has very low intrinsic noise (1.9x10{sup -13} rad s{sup -1}/{radical}(Hz)), and it can potentially be applied to study general relativity, Earth science, and to improve global positioning systems (GPS)
Experimental Quantum Error Detection
Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi
2012-01-01
Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047
Comparison of low frequency charge noise in identically patterned Si/SiO2 and Si/SiGe quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, Blake M.; Schoenfield, Joshua S.; Jiang, HongWen
2016-06-01
We investigate and compare the charge noise in Si/SiO2 and Si/SiGe gate defined quantum dots with identically patterned gates by measuring the low frequency 1/f current noise through the biased quantum dots in the coulomb blockade regime. The current noise is normalized and used to extract a measurement of the potential energy noise in the system. Additionally, the temperature dependence of this noise is investigated. The measured charge noise in Si/SiO2 compares favorably with that of the SiGe device as well as previous measurements made on other substrates suggesting Si/SiO2 is a potential candidate for spin based quantum computing.
Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Anderson, Gordon A.
2002-09-01
Optical feedback to the laser source in tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is known to create intensity modulation noise due to elatoning and optical feedback (i.e., multiplicative technical noise) that usually limits spectral signal-to-noise (S/N). The large technical noise often limits absorption spectroscopy to noise floors 100-fold greater than the Poisson shot noise limit due to fluctuations in the laser intensity. The high output powers generated from quantum cascade (QC) lasers, along with their high gain, makes these injection laser systems especially susceptible to technical noise. In this article we discuss a method of using optimal filtering to reduce technical noise. We have observed S/N enhancements ranging from {approx}20% to a factor of {approx}50. The degree to which optimal filtering will enhance S/N depends on the similarity between the Fourier components of the technical noise and those of the signal, with lower S/N enhancements observed for more similar Fourier decompositions of the signal and technical noise. We also examine the linearity of optimal filtered spectra for both time and intensity. This was accomplished by creating a synthetic spectrum for the species being studied (CH4, N2O, CO2, H2O in ambient air) utilizing line-positions and line-widths with an assumed Voight-profile from a previous database (HITRAN). Agreement better than 0.036% in wavenumber, and 1.64% in intensity (up to a 260-fold intensity ratio employed), was observed. Our results suggest that rapid ex post facto digital optimal filtering can be used to enhance S/N for routine trace gas detection.
Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P
2015-05-01
Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Jennifer; Teufel, John; Donner, Tobias; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Lehnert, Konrad
2010-03-01
Observing quantum behavior of mechanical motion is challenging because it is difficult both to prepare pure quantum states of motion and to detect those states with sufficient precision. We present displacement measurements of a nanomechanical oscillator with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit [1]. We infer the motion from the phase modulation imprinted on a microwave signal by that motion. The modulation is enhanced by embedding the oscillator in a high-Q microwave cavity. We achieve the low imprecision by reading out the modulation with a Josephson Parametric Amplifier, realizing a microwave interferometer that operates near the shot-noise limit. The apparent motion of the mechanical oscillator due the interferometer's noise is now substantially less than its zero-point motion, making future detection of quantum states feasible. In addition, the phase sensitivity of the demonstrated interferometer is 30 times higher than previous microwave interferometers, providing a critical piece of technology for many experiments investigating quantum information encoded in microwave fields. [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, K. W. Lehnert, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343, (2009).
The effect of bandlimiting of a PCM/NRZ signal on the bit-error probability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tu, K.; Shehadeh, N. M.
1971-01-01
The explicit expressions for the intersymbol interference as a function of bandwidth-bit duration product and bit positions for PCM/NRZ systems operating in the presence of Gaussian noise and in a bandlimited channel are determined. Two types of linear bit detectors are considered, integrate and dump, and bandlimit and sample. Restriction of bandwidth results in a performance degradation. The degradation of signal-to-noise ratio is presented as a function of bandwidth-bit duration product and bit patterns. The average probability of bit errors is computed for various bandwidths. The calculations of the upper bound and lower bound on the error probability are also presented.
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
Dokos, James A.
1997-01-01
A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.
Dokos, J.A.
1997-12-30
A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.
Quantum-noise-limited sensitivity enhancement of a passive optical cavity by a fast-light medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-08-01
We demonstrate that for a passive optical cavity containing a dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not canceled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature-tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte Carlo numerical simulations.
The operator-sum-difference representation of a quantum noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2015-06-01
When a model for quantum noise is exactly solvable, a Kraus (or operator-sum) representation can be derived from the spectral decomposition of the Choi matrix for the channel. More generally, a Kraus representation can be obtained from any positive-sum (or ensemble) decomposition of the matrix. Here we extend this idea to any Hermitian-sum decomposition. This yields what we call the "operator-sum-difference" (OSD) representation, in which the channel can be represented as the sum and difference of "subchannels." As one application, the subchannels can be chosen to be analytically diagonalizable, even if the parent channel is not (on account of the Abel-Galois irreducibility theorem), though in this case the number of the OSD representation operators may exceed the channel rank. Our procedure is applicable to general Hermitian (completely positive or non-completely positive) maps and can be extended to the more general, linear maps. As an illustration of the application, we derive an OSD representation for a two-qubit amplitude-damping channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2013-08-01
We point out that our previous work [Optics Communications 284 (2011) 3144] contains a mistake in the key updating equation. We correct the error to avoid an information leakage problem. We revisit our previous work entitled "New arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages against collective amplitude damping noise" [1] and discover a mistake in the key updating equation which could cause a key to reveal to a semi-honest arbitrator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2004-08-01
This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of fluctuational phenomena in photonics and quantum optics. The topics discussed in this issue extend from fundamental physics to applications of noise and fluctuational methods from quantum to classical systems, and include: bullet Quantum measurement bullet Quantum squeezing bullet Solitons and fibres bullet Gravitational wave inferometers bullet Fluorescence phenomena bullet Cavity QED bullet Photon statistics bullet Noise in lasers and laser systems bullet Quantum computing and information bullet Quantum lithography bullet Teleportation. This Special Issue is published in connection with the SPIE International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on 1-4 June 2003. The symposium contained six parallel conferences, and the papers in this Special Issue are connected to the conference entitled `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics'. This was the first in a series of symposia organized with the support of the SPIE that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The co-founders of the symposium series were Laszlo B Kish (Texas A&M University) and Derek Abbott (The University of Adelaide). The Chairs of the `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics' conference were Derek Abbott, Jeffrey H Shapiro and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Kristi Kelso and Marilyn Gorsuch of the SPIE, USA. Sadly, less than two weeks before the conference, Hermann A Haus passed away. Hermann Haus was a founding father of the field of noise in optics and quantum optics. He submitted three papers to the conference and was very excited to attend; as can be seen in the collection of papers, he was certainly present in spirit. In honour of his creativity and pioneering work in this field, we have
Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2015-03-01
Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems.
Microstrip Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices for Quantum Information Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Feo, Michael P.
Quantum-limited amplification in the microwave frequency range is of both practical and fundamental importance. The weak signals corresponding to single microwave photons require substantial amplification to resolve. When probing quantum excitations of the electromagnetic field, the substantial noise produced by standard amplifiers dominates the signal, therefore, several averages must be accumulated to achieve even a modest signal-to-noise ratio. Even worse, the back-action on the system due to amplifier noise can hasten the decay of the quantum state. In recent years, low-noise microwave-frequency amplification has been advancing rapidly and one field that would benefit greatly from this is circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). The development of circuit quantum electrodynamics—which implements techniques of quantum optics at microwave frequencies—has led to revolutionary progress in the field of quantum information science. cQED employs quantum bits (qubits) and superconducting microwave resonators in place of the atoms and cavities used in quantum optics permitting preparation and control of low energy photon states in macroscopic superconducting circuits at millikelvin temperatures. We have developed a microstrip superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier (MSA) to provide the first stage of amplification for these systems. Employing sub-micron Josephson tunnel junctions for enhanced gain, these MSAs operate at microwave frequencies and are optimized to perform with near quantum-limited noise characteristics. Our MSA is utilized as the first stage of amplification to probe the dynamics of a SQUID oscillator. The SQUID oscillator is a flux-tunable microwave resonator formed by a capacitively shunted dc SQUID. Josephson plasma oscillations are induced by pulsed microwave excitations at the resonant frequency of the oscillator. Once pulsed, decaying plasma oscillations are observed in the time domain. By measuring with pulse amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamerly, Ryan; Jamshidi, Kambiz; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-04-01
Due to their strong light confinement, waveguides with optical nonlinearities may be a promising platform for energy-eﬃcient optical computing. Slow light can enhance a waveguide's effective nonlinearity, which could result in devices that operate in low-power regimes where quantum fluctuations are important, and may also have quantum applications including squeezing and entanglement generation. In this manuscript, slow-light structures based on the Kerr (χ(3)) nonlinearity are analyzed using a semi-classical model to account for the quantum noise. We develop a hybrid split-step / Runge-Kutta numerical model to compute the mean field and squeezing spectrum for pulses propagating down a waveguide, and use this model to study squeezing produced in optical waveguides. Scaling relations are explored, and the benefits and limitations of slow light are discussed in the context of squeezing.
Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.
1994-01-01
A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levi, Emanuele; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-09-01
In the presence of strong dephasing noise the dynamics of Rydberg gases becomes effectively classical, due to the rapid decay of quantum superpositions between atomic levels. Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the stochastic dynamics that emerges in that limit, revealing several interesting features, including kinetically constrained glassy behaviour, self-similarity and aggregation effects. However, the non-equilibrium physics of these systems, in particular in the regime where coherent and dissipative processes contribute on equal footing, is yet far from being understood. To explore this we study the dynamics of a small one-dimensional Rydberg lattice gas subject to dephasing noise by numerically integrating the quantum master equation. We interpolate between the coherent and the strongly dephased regime by defining a generalised concept of a blockade length. We find indications that the main features observed in the strongly dissipative limit persist when the dissipation is not strong enough to annihilate quantum coherences at the dynamically relevant time scales. These features include the existence of a time-dependent Rydberg blockade radius, and a growth of the density of excitations which is compatible with the power-law behaviour expected in the classical limit.
Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.
2016-01-01
We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.
Fernandes, F. M.; Silva, E. C. F. da; Quivy, A. A.
2015-11-28
We propose a new way to assess the output signal of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Instead of measuring the photocurrent produced by the device, as usually done, we show that the noise induced by the absorption process can be used to generate a useful detection signal. We built a simple electronic circuit able to quantify the noise of an AlGaAs/GaAs QWIP that was intentionally designed to produce no photocurrent at all, and we demonstrated that such a circuit was able to generate a strong output signal whenever an infrared radiation of a specific wavelength was shed on the detector. This concept opens new possibilities for the design of novel types of photodetection systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures
Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.
2007-09-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n{sup +}-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4 {mu}m thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C for 60 s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51 eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.
MgB{sub 2} tunnel junctions and 19 K low-noise dc superconducting quantum interference devices.
Zhang, Y.; Kinion, D.; Chen, J.; Clarke, J.; Hinks, D. G.; Crabtree, G. W.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Berkeley
2001-01-01
Point contact junctions made from two pieces of MgB{sub 2} can be adjusted to exhibit either superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) or superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) current-voltage characteristics. The SIS characteristics are in good agreement with the standard tunneling model for s-wave superconductors, and yield an energy gap of (2.02{+-}0.08) meV. The SNS characteristics are in good agreement with the predictions of the resistively-shunted junction model. DC superconducting quantum interference devices made from two SNS junctions yield magnetic flux and field noise as low as 4 {mu}{Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} and 35 fT Hz{sup -1/2} at 19 K; {Phi}{sub 0} is the flux quantum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le
2016-05-01
Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le
2016-10-01
Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.
Probing Spatial Spin Correlations of Ultracold Gases by Quantum Noise Spectroscopy
Bruun, G. M.; Andersen, Brian M.; Demler, Eugene; Soerensen, Anders S.
2009-01-23
Spin noise spectroscopy with a single laser beam is demonstrated theoretically to provide a direct probe of the spatial correlations of cold fermionic gases. We show how the generic many-body phenomena of antibunching, pairing, antiferromagnetic, and algebraic spin liquid correlations can be revealed by measuring the spin noise as a function of laser width, temperature, and frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravaro, Marco; Jagtap, Vishal; Manquest, Christophe; Gellie, Pierre; Santarelli, Giorgio; Sirtori, Carlo; Khanna, Suraj P.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Barbieri, Stefano
2013-06-01
Quantum cascade lasers combine desirable features, namely high optical power and compactness, as no other coherent source in the field of THz generation. While their maximum operating temperature is progressively increasing, getting close to the range accessible by Peltier cooling, their range of application is expanding into new fields, such us molecular spectroscopy and their use as local oscillators. These applications would benefit from the investigation and improvement of the laser coherence properties. In this contribution we report the exploitation of electro-optic coherent detection based on a near-IR frequency comb to measure the frequency noise of a free running 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser. An intrinsic linewidth quantum limit of ~230 Hz has been measured, in good agreement with the Schawlow-Townes theoretical prediction. The same detection scheme is then exploited to phase-lock the quantum cascade laser line to a multiple of the comb tooth spacing, while a second comb allows to precisely measure the THz frequency. Such a dual frequency comb experimental setup thus yields a narrow line THz emission traceable to a microwave frequency standard.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Bezrukov, S. M.; Khatri, S. P.; Gingl, Z.; Sethuraman, S.
When noise dominates an information system, like in nano-electronic systems of the foreseeable future, a natural question occurs: Can we perhaps utilize the noise as information carrier? Another question is: Can a deterministic logic scheme be constructed that may explain how the brain efficiently processes information, with random neural spike trains of less than 100 Hz frequency, and with a similar number of human brain neurons as the number of transistors in a 16 GB Flash dive? The answers to these questions are yes. Related developments indicate reduced power consumption with noise-based deterministic Boolean logic gates and the more powerful multivalued logic versions with an arbitrary number of logic values. Similar schemes as the Hilbert space of quantum informatics can also be constructed with noise-based logic by utilizing the noise-bits and their multidimensional hyperspace without the limitations of quantum-collapse of wavefunctions. A noise-based string search algorithm faster than Grover's quantum search algorithm can be obtained, with the same hardware complexity class as the quantum engine. This logic hyperspace scheme has also been utilized to construct the noise-based neuro-bits and a deterministic multivalued logic scheme for the brain. Some of the corresponding circuitry of neurons is shown. Some questions and answers about a chip realization of such a random spike based deterministic multivalued logic scheme are presented.
Flexible bit: A new anti-vibration PDC bit concept
Defourny, P.; Abbassian, F.
1995-12-31
This paper introduces the novel concept of a {open_quotes}flexible{close_quotes} polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, and its capability to reduce detrimental vibration associated with drag bits. The tilt flexibility, introduced at the bit, decouples the dynamic motion of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) from that of the bit, thus providing a dynamically more stable bit. The paper describes the details of a prototype 8-1/2 inch flexible bit design together with laboratory experiments and field tests which verify the concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratim Ghosh, Arghya; Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Manas
2016-05-01
We examine the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The said properties include total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG). The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. The profiles of above NLO properties have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profiles exhibit considerable departure from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). Presence of noise almost invariably amplifies the NLO properties with a few exceptions. A change in the mode of application of noise also sometimes affects the above profiles. The investigation furnishes us with a detailed picture of the subtle interplay between noise and PDEM through which the said NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.
Lossy cardiac x-ray image compression based on acquisition noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Bruijn, Frederik J.; Slump, Cornelis H.
1997-05-01
In lossy medical image compression, the requirements for the preservation of diagnostic integrity cannot be easily formulated in terms of a perceptual model. Especially since, in reality, human visual perception is dependent on numerous factors such as the viewing conditions and psycho-visual factors. Therefore, we investigate the possibility to develop alternative measures for data loss, based on the characteristics of the acquisition system, in our case, a digital cardiac imaging system. In general, due to the low exposure, cardiac x-ray images tend to be relatively noisy. The main noise contributions are quantum noise and electrical noise. The electrical noise is not correlated with the signal. In addition, the signal can be transformed such that the correlated Poisson-distributed quantum noise is transformed into an additional zero-mean Gaussian noise source which is uncorrelated with the signal. Furthermore, the systems modulation transfer function imposes a known spatial-frequency limitation to the output signal. In the assumption that noise which is not correlated with the signal contains no diagnostic information, we have derived a compression measure based on the acquisition parameters of a digital cardiac imaging system. The measure is used for bit- assignment and quantization of transform coefficients. We present a blockwise-DCT compression algorithm which is based on the conventional JPEG-standard. However, the bit- assignment to the transform coefficients is now determined by an assumed noise variance for each coefficient, for a given set of acquisition parameters. Experiments with the algorithm indicate that a bit rate of 0.6 bit/pixel is feasible, without apparent loss of clinical information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2004-08-01
This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of fluctuational phenomena in photonics and quantum optics. The topics discussed in this issue extend from fundamental physics to applications of noise and fluctuational methods from quantum to classical systems, and include: bullet Quantum measurement bullet Quantum squeezing bullet Solitons and fibres bullet Gravitational wave inferometers bullet Fluorescence phenomena bullet Cavity QED bullet Photon statistics bullet Noise in lasers and laser systems bullet Quantum computing and information bullet Quantum lithography bullet Teleportation. This Special Issue is published in connection with the SPIE International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on 1-4 June 2003. The symposium contained six parallel conferences, and the papers in this Special Issue are connected to the conference entitled `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics'. This was the first in a series of symposia organized with the support of the SPIE that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The co-founders of the symposium series were Laszlo B Kish (Texas A&M University) and Derek Abbott (The University of Adelaide). The Chairs of the `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics' conference were Derek Abbott, Jeffrey H Shapiro and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Kristi Kelso and Marilyn Gorsuch of the SPIE, USA. Sadly, less than two weeks before the conference, Hermann A Haus passed away. Hermann Haus was a founding father of the field of noise in optics and quantum optics. He submitted three papers to the conference and was very excited to attend; as can be seen in the collection of papers, he was certainly present in spirit. In honour of his creativity and pioneering work in this field, we have
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-08-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-09-01
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Nitzan, Abraham
2015-03-01
We develop a theoretical framework for the description of light emission from plasmonic contacts based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism. Our theory establishes a fundamental link between the finite-frequency quantum noise and ac conductance of the contact and the light emission. Calculating the quantum noise to higher orders in the electron-plasmon interaction, we identify a plasmon-induced electron-electron interaction as the source of experimentally observed above-threshold light emission from biased STM contacts. Our findings provide important insight into the effect of interactions on the light emission from atomic-scale contacts.
Quantum Measurement of Two-Qubit System in Damping Noise Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-03-01
It is known that the inevitable interaction of the entangled qubits with their environments may result in the degradation of quantum correlation. We study the decoherence of two remote qubits under general local single- and two-sided amplitude-damping channel (ADC). By using concurrence, quantum discord and Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality, we find that the relation between the residual quantum correlations and the initial ones are different. Recently, Wang et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54 (2015) 5] showed that there exist a set of partially entangled states that are more robust than maximally entangled states in terms of the residual quantum correlation measured by concurrence, fully entangled fraction and quantum discord, respectively. Here we find that both in single- and two-sided ADC, only the evolution of CHSH inequality with the initial parameter is proportional to that of the initial nonlocality. That means the initial state with maximally nonlocality will retain its role in the evolution. It implies that the evolution of nonlocality may reveal the characteristics of quantum state better. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutions of the three different quantum measurements with the initial parameter under generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) and find that they are all proportional to that of the initial state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204002, 11274010, 61073048, 11005029, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123401120003, 20113401110002), the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Nos. 211080, 210092), the Key Program of the Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No. KJ2012A020, the “211” Project of Anhui University, the Talent Foundation of Anhui University, the personnel department of Anhui province
1995-11-01
Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits Diamond-cutter drill bits cut through tough rock quicker, reducing the cost of drilling for energy resources The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contributed markedly to the geothermal, oil, and gas industries through the development of the advanced polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit. Introduced in the 1970s by General Electric Company (GE), the PDC bit uses thin, diamond layers bonded to t
An Efficient Quantum Private Comparison of Equality over Collective-Noise Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
2016-04-01
This article proposes a collective-noise resistant QPC protocol with the help of an almostdishonest third party (TP) who may try to perform any sort of attacks to derive participants' private secrets except colluding with any participant. The proposed scheme has some considerable advantages over the state-of-the-art QPC protocols over collective-noise channels, where it does not require any pre-shared key between the participants (Alice and Bob). Nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist Trojan horse attacks without consuming half of the transmitted qubits and any additional equipment (wavelength filter and PNS) support. As a consequence, the proposed QPC protocol can guarantee higher qubit efficiency as compared to the others over collective noise channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We inspect the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. The TONOS profiles have been followed as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profile considerably deviates from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). However, a switch from one mode of application of noise to another primarily alters the TONOS peak intensity. The observations highlight the possibility of tuning the TONOS profiles of doped QD systems exploiting noise and PDEM.
Noise-resilient quantum metrology for single-molecule spectroscopy with low light levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Felipe; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2015-03-01
Continuous observation of biological processes over long timescales exceeding seconds is challenging using standard fluorescence techniques due to technical issues such as photodamage. Current photonic technology can be exploited to overcome those challenges while preserving sensitivity at the single molecule level. We show that using a simple quantum metrology scheme involving periodic driving for optical state preparation, it is possible to perform spectroscopy of a single chiral molecule in a condensed phase environment, with low photon fluxes. We show that for certain non-classical optical probes and measurement settings, it is possible to exceed the standard quantum limit of precision for a range of driving parameters, even in the presence of high transmission losses due to background absorption. We compare the proposed scheme with fluorescence spectroscopy for single molecule detection, and discuss possible applications of quantum metrology in systems biology. Now at Department of Physics, Universidad de Santiago de Chile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suelzer, Joseph S.; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Rupamanjari; Vemuri, Gautam
2016-07-01
We report on a theoretical and computational investigation of the complex dynamics that arise in a semiconductor laser that is subject to two external, time-delayed, filtered optical feedbacks with special attention to the effect of quantum noise. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of the instantaneous optical frequency (wavelength) and its behavior for a wide range of feedback strengths and filter parameters. In the case of two intermediate filter bandwidths, the most significant results are that in the presence of noise, the feedback strengths required for the onset of chaos in a period doubling route are higher than in the absence of noise. We find that the inclusion of noise changes the dominant frequency of the wavelength oscillations, and that certain attractors do not survive in the presence of noise for a range of filter parameters. The results are interpreted by use of a combination of phase portraits, rf spectra, and first return maps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-08-01
We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.
The Wonders of Supersymmetry: From Quantum Mechanics, Topology, and Noise, to (maybe) the LHC
Poppitz, Erich [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2016-07-12
Supersymmetry, relating bosons and fermions was discovered almost 40 years ago in string theory and in quantum field theory, but the seeds of its 'miraculous' properties could have been seen already in quantum mechanics - which is also where it has found some of its more important applications. This talk introduces supersymmetry via the supersymmetric anharmonic oscillator. We shall see that this seemingly trivial example is sufficiently rich, allowing us to illustrate the uses of supersymmetric concepts in a variety of fields: mathematics, elementary particle physics, critical phenomena, and stochastic dynamics.
Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise
Ralph, T. C.
2011-08-15
We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capocasa, Eleonora; Barsuglia, Matteo; Degallaix, Jérôme; Pinard, Laurent; Straniero, Nicolas; Schnabel, Roman; Somiya, Kentaro; Aso, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Flaminio, Raffaele
2016-04-01
The sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detector KAGRA, presently under construction, will be limited by quantum noise in a large fraction of its spectrum. The most promising technique to increase the detector sensitivity is the injection of squeezed states of light, where the squeezing angle is dynamically rotated by a Fabry-Pérot filter cavity. One of the main issues in the filter cavity design and realization is the optical losses due to the mirror surface imperfections. In this work we present a study of the specifications for the mirrors to be used in a 300 m filter cavity for the KAGRA detector. A prototype of the cavity will be constructed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, inside the infrastructure of the former TAMA interferometer. We also discuss the potential improvement of the KAGRA sensitivity, based on a model of various realistic sources of losses and their influence on the squeezing amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamoum, R.; Lavagna, M.; Crépieux, A.
2016-06-01
We calculate the nonsymmetrized current noise in a quantum dot connected to two reservoirs by using the nonequilibrium Green function technique. We show that both the current autocorrelator (inside a single reservoir) and the current cross-correlator (between the two reservoirs) are expressed in terms of transmission amplitude and coefficient through the barriers. We identify the different energy-transfer processes involved in each contribution to the autocorrelator, and we highlight the fact that when there are several physical processes, the contribution results from a coherent superposition of scattering paths. Varying the gate and bias voltages, we discuss the profile of the differential Fano factor in light of recent experiments, and we identify the conditions for having a distinct value for the autocorrelator in the left and right reservoirs.
Error correction for encoded quantum annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John
2016-05-01
Recently, W. Lechner, P. Hauke, and P. Zoller [Sci. Adv. 1, e1500838 (2015), 10.1126/sciadv.1500838] have proposed a quantum annealing architecture, in which a classical spin glass with all-to-all pairwise connectivity is simulated by a spin glass with geometrically local interactions. We interpret this architecture as a classical error-correcting code, which is highly robust against weakly correlated bit-flip noise, and we analyze the code's performance using a belief-propagation decoding algorithm. Our observations may also apply to more general encoding schemes and noise models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Hai-Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang; Ren, Wei
2015-03-01
We have theoretically studied the full counting statistics of electron transport through a single quantum dot (QD) weakly coupled to two noncollinearly polarized ferromagnetic leads. We found a strong robust bias-voltage-tunable negative differential conductance (NDC) region, in which the shot noise is dramatically enhanced and reaches up to a super-Poissonian value. In particular, the formed super-Poissonian shot noise can still occur in a wide bias voltage region where only the singly-occupied electronic states entering the bias voltage window. The underlying mechanisms of the observed NDC and super-Poissonian shot noise originate from the quantum coherence between the two singly-occupied electronic states. In addition, the skewness in the NDC regime can be significantly increased up to a large positive value, which is also attributed to the quantum coherence of the QD system, and the variation of the skewness value is more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the shot noise. Our findings suggest a QD-based tunable NDC device, and the predicted properties of high-order current cumulants can provide a deeper understanding of electron transport through the single QD.
Kopnin, N. B.; Galperin, Y. M.; Vinokur, V.; Materials Science Division; Helsinki Univ. Tech.; L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Oslo; A.F. Ioffe Physico-Tech. Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences
2007-01-01
The current noise in long superconductor/insulator/normal-metal/insulator/superconductor junctions at low temperatures is sensitive to the population of the subgap states, which is far from equilibrium even at low bias voltages. A nonequilibrium distribution is established due to an interplay between voltage-driven interlevel Landau-Zener transitions and intralevel inelastic relaxation. The Fano factor (the ratio of the zero-frequency noise to the dc current) is enhanced drastically, being proportional to the number of times which a particle flies along the Andreev trajectory before it escapes from the level due to inelastic scattering. For weak Landau-Zener transitions, the enhancement is even larger due to a smaller dc current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Zou, Jian; Yang, Zi-Yi; Li, Longwu; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin
2016-08-01
The dynamics of N-qubit GHZ state quantum Fisher information (QFI) under phase noise lasers (PNLs) driving is investigated in terms of non-Markovian master equation. We first investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of the QFI of N-qubit GHZ state and show that when the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength is very small, the oscillations of the QFIs decay slower which corresponds to the non-Markovian region; yet when it becomes large, the QFIs monotonously decay which corresponds to the Markovian region. When the atom number N increases, QFIs in both regions decay faster. We further find that the QFI flow disappears suddenly followed by a sudden birth depending on the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength and the atom number N, which unveil a fundamental connection between the non-Markovian behaviors and the parameters of system-environment couplings. We discuss two optimal positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) for two different strategies of our model and find the condition of the optimal measurement. At last, we consider the QFI of two atoms with qubit-qubit interaction under random telegraph noises (RTNs).
Lossless quantum prefix compression for communication channels that are always open
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Markus; Rogers, Caroline; Nagarajan, Rajagopal
2009-01-01
We describe a method for lossless quantum compression if the output of the information source is not known. We compute the best possible compression rate, minimizing the expected base length of the output quantum bit string (the base length of a quantum string is the maximal length in the superposition). This complements work by Schumacher and Westmoreland who calculated the corresponding rate for minimizing the output’s average length. Our compressed code words are prefix-free indeterminate-length quantum bit strings which can be concatenated in the case of multiple sources. Therefore, we generalize the known theory of prefix-free quantum codes to the case where strings have indeterminate length. Moreover, we describe a communication model which allows the lossless transmission of the compressed code words. The benefit of compression is then the reduction of transmission errors in the presence of noise.
Spin noise of electrons and holes in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasenapp, Ph.; Smirnov, D. S.; Greilich, A.; Hackmann, J.; Glazov, M. M.; Anders, F. B.; Bayer, M.
2016-05-01
The spin fluctuations of electron and hole doped self-assembled quantum dot ensembles are measured optically in the low-intensity limit of a probe laser for absence and presence of longitudinal or transverse magnetic fields. The experimental results are modeled by two complementary approaches based either on a semiclassical or quantum mechanical description. This allows us to characterize the hyperfine interaction of electron and hole spins with the surrounding bath of nuclei on time scales covering several orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrate (i) the intrinsic precession of the electron spin fluctuations around the effective Overhauser field caused by the host lattice nuclear spins, (ii) the comparably long time scales for electron and hole spin decoherence, as well as (iii) the dramatic enhancement of the spin lifetimes induced by a longitudinal magnetic field due to the decoupling of nuclear and charge carrier spins.
32-Bit-Wide Memory Tolerates Failures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buskirk, Glenn A.
1990-01-01
Electronic memory system of 32-bit words corrects bit errors caused by some common type of failures - even failure of entire 4-bit-wide random-access-memory (RAM) chip. Detects failure of two such chips, so user warned that ouput of memory may contain errors. Includes eight 4-bit-wide DRAM's configured so each bit of each DRAM assigned to different one of four parallel 8-bit words. Each DRAM contributes only 1 bit to each 8-bit word.
Positional information, in bits
Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William
2013-01-01
Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448
Quantum noise, scaling, and domain formation in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
Mias, George I.; Girvin, S. M.; Cooper, Nigel R.
2008-02-15
In this paper we discuss Bose-Einstein spinor condensates for F=1 atoms in the context of {sup 87}Rb, as studied experimentally by the Stamper-Kurn group [L. E. Sadler et al., Nature (London) 443, 312 (2006)]. The dynamical quantum fluctuations of a sample that starts as a condensate of N atoms in a pure F=1, m{sub F}=0 state are described in analogy to the two-mode squeezing of quantum optics in terms of an su(1,1) algebra. In this system the initial m{sub F}=0 condensate acts as a source (pump) for the creation pairs of m{sub F}=1,-1 atoms. We show that even though the system as a whole is described by a pure state with zero entropy, the reduced density matrix for the m{sub F}=+1 degree of freedom, obtained by tracing out the m{sub F}=-1,0 degrees of freedom, corresponds to a thermal state. Furthermore, these quantum fluctuations of the initial dynamics of the system provide the seeds for the formation of domains of ferromagnetically aligned spins.
Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin
Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )
1989-07-31
Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.
Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.
Slepoy, Alexander
2006-07-01
Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, Alexander A.
2003-04-01
Why there is Something rather than Nothing? From Pythagoras ("everything is number") to Wheeler ("it from bit") theme of ultimate origin stresses primordiality of Ideal Platonic World (IPW) of mathematics. Even popular "quantum tunnelling out of nothing" can specify "nothing" only as (essentially) IPW. IPW exists everywhere (but nowhere in particular) and logically precedes space, time, matter or any "physics" in any conceivable universe. This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers acts as engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: cosmogenesis is driven by the very fact of IPW inexhaustibility. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse)can be(arbitrary) different from ours, number theory (and rest of IPW)is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Let (infinite) totality of microstates ("its") of entire Megaverse form countable set. Since countable sets are hierarchically inexhaustible (Cantor's "fractal branching"), each single "it" still has infinite tail of non-overlapping IPW-based "personal labels". Thus, each "bit" ("it") is infinitely and uniquely resourceful: possible venue of elimination ergodicity basis for eternal return cosmological argument. Physics (in any subuniverse) may be limited only by inherent impossibilities residing in IPW, e.g. insolvability of Continuum Problem may be IPW foundation of quantum indeterminicity.
Capacity of optical communication in loss and noise with general quantum Gaussian receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat
2014-04-01
Laser-light (coherent-state) modulation is sufficient to achieve the ultimate (Holevo) capacity of classical communication over a lossy and noisy optical channel, but requires a receiver that jointly detects long modulated code words with highly nonlinear quantum operations, which are near-impossible to realize using current technology. We analyze the capacity of the lossy-noisy optical channel when the transmitter uses coherent-state modulation but the receiver is restricted to a general quantum-limited Gaussian receiver, i.e., one that may involve arbitrary combinations of Gaussian operations [passive linear optics: beam splitters and phase shifters; second-order nonlinear optics (or active linear optics): squeezers, along with homodyne or heterodyne detection measurements] and any amount of classical feedforward within the receiver. Under these assumptions, we show that the Gaussian receiver that attains the maximum mutual information is either homodyne detection, heterodyne detection, or time sharing between the two, depending upon the received power level. In other words, our result shows that to exceed the theoretical limit of conventional coherent optical communication, one has to incorporate non-Gaussian, i.e., third- or higher-order nonlinear operations in the receiver. Finally we compare our Gaussian receiver limit with experimentally feasible non-Gaussian receivers and show that in the regime of low received photon flux, it is possible to overcome the Gaussian receiver limit by relatively simple non-Gaussian receivers based on photon counting.
Quantum image coding with a reference-frame-independent scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Belin, Etienne
2016-07-01
For binary images, or bit planes of non-binary images, we investigate the possibility of a quantum coding decodable by a receiver in the absence of reference frames shared with the emitter. Direct image coding with one qubit per pixel and non-aligned frames leads to decoding errors equivalent to a quantum bit-flip noise increasing with the misalignment. We show the feasibility of frame-invariant coding by using for each pixel a qubit pair prepared in one of two controlled entangled states. With just one common axis shared between the emitter and receiver, exact decoding for each pixel can be obtained by means of two two-outcome projective measurements operating separately on each qubit of the pair. With strictly no alignment information between the emitter and receiver, exact decoding can be obtained by means of a two-outcome projective measurement operating jointly on the qubit pair. In addition, the frame-invariant coding is shown much more resistant to quantum bit-flip noise compared to the direct non-invariant coding. For a cost per pixel of two (entangled) qubits instead of one, complete frame-invariant image coding and enhanced noise resistance are thus obtained.
Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter
Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.
2002-01-01
A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.
Characterization of a 16-Bit Digitizer for Lidar Data Acquisition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williamson, Cynthia K.; DeYoung, Russell J.
2000-01-01
A 6-MHz 16-bit waveform digitizer was evaluated for use in atmospheric differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of ozone. The digitizer noise characteristics were evaluated, and actual ozone DIAL atmospheric returns were digitized. This digitizer could replace computer-automated measurement and control (CAMAC)-based commercial digitizers and improve voltage accuracy.
Arias, A; Shlyagin, M G; Miridonov, S V; Manuel, Rodolfo Martinez
2015-11-16
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple approach to realize a phase-sensitive correlation optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) suitable for detection and localization of dynamic perturbations along a single-mode optical fiber. It is based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a coherent light emitted by a telecom DFB diode laser. Truly random probe signals are generated by an interferometer with the optical path difference exceeding the coherence length of the laser light. Speckle-like OTDR traces were obtained by calculating cross-correlation functions between the probe light and the light intensity signals returned back from the sensing fiber. Perturbations are detected and localized by monitoring time variations of correlation amplitude along the fiber length. Results of proof-of-concept experimental testing are presented using an array of ultra-low-reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings as weak reflectors. PMID:26698514
New arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages against collective amplitude damping noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Tzonelih; Chong, Song-Kong; Luo, Yi-Ping; Wei, Tong-Xuan
2011-06-01
Recently, Chong et al. [Opt. Comm. 284, (2011) 893-895] pointed out that a dishonest party in Yang and Wen's arbitrated quantum signature scheme [Opt. Comm. 283, (2010) 3198-3201] is able to reveal the other party's secret key without being detected by using the Trojan-horse attacks. However, the solution to avoid the attack still remains open. This work further points out that in Yang and Wen's scheme, the arbitrator is unable to arbitrate the dispute between two users. Consequently, a user can deny that he/she has signed or verified a signature without performing a Trojan-horse attack. A solution is proposed to solve this problem as well as the open problem mentioned earlier.
Arpaia, R.; Arzeo, M.; Nawaz, S.; Charpentier, S.; Lombardi, F.; Bauch, T.
2014-02-17
We present results on ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7–δ} (YBCO) nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (nanoSQUIDs). To realize such devices, we implemented high quality YBCO nanowires, working as weak links between two electrodes. We observe critical current modulation as a function of an externally applied magnetic field in the full temperature range below the transition temperature T{sub C}. The white flux noise below 1μΦ{sub 0}/√(Hz) at T=8 K makes our nanoSQUIDs very attractive for the detection of small spin systems.
Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.
Kent, Adrian
2012-09-28
We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling. PMID:23030073
Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement
Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.
2011-08-15
We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Shih-Ming J.; Das, Mukunda B.; Peng, Chin-Kun; Klem, John; Henderson, Timothy S.
1986-01-01
Equivalent gate noise voltage spectra of 1-micron gate-length modulation-doped FET's with pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum-well structure have been measured for the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 100 MHz and commpared with the noise spectra of conventional AlGaAs/GaAs MODFET's and GaAs MESFET's. The prominent generation-recombination (g-r) noise bulge commonly observed in the vicinity of 10 kHz in conventional MODFET's at 300 K does not appear in the case of the new InGaAs quantum-well MODFET. Instead, its noise spectra indicate the presence of low-intensity multiple g-r noise components superimposed on a reduced 1/f noise. The LF noise intensity in the new device appears to be the lowest among those observed in any MODFET or MESFET. The noise spectra at 82 K in the new device represent nearly true 1/f noise. This unusual low-noise behavior of the new structure suggests the effectiveness of electron confinement in the quantum well that significantaly reduces electron trapping in the n-AlGaAs, and thus eliminates the g-r noise bulge observed in conventional MODFET's.
Positional Information, in bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas
2010-03-01
Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caucci, Luca; Myers, Kyle J.; Barrett, Harrison H.
2016-01-01
The statistics of detector outputs produced by an imaging system are derived from basic radiometric concepts and definitions. We show that a fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular, and wavelength variables. We begin the paper by recalling the concept of radiance in geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics, and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Building upon these concepts, we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors (capable of measuring radiance on a photon-by-photon basis). This allows us to rigorously show how the concept of radiance is related to the statistical properties of detector outputs and to the information content of a single detected photon. A Monte-Carlo technique, which is derived from the Boltzmann transport equation, is presented as a way to estimate probability density functions to be used in reconstruction from photon-processing data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Branislav K.; Dragomirova, Ralitsa L.
2005-01-01
We investigate quantum transport through strongly disordered barriers, made of a material with exceptionally high resistivity that behaves as an Anderson insulator or a “bad metal” in the bulk, by analyzing the distribution of Landauer transmission eigenvalues for a junction where such barrier is attached to two clean metallic leads. We find that scaling of the transmission eigenvalue distribution with the junction thickness (starting from the single interface limit) always predicts a nonzero probability to find high transmission channels even in relatively thick barriers. Using this distribution, we compute the zero frequency shot noise power (as well as its sample-to-sample fluctuations) and demonstrate how it provides a single number characterization of nontrivial transmission properties of different types of disordered barriers. The appearance of open conducting channels, whose transmission eigenvalue is close to one, and corresponding violent mesoscopic fluctuations of transport quantities explain at least some of the peculiar zero-bias anomalies in the Anderson-insulator/superconductor junctions observed in recent experiments [A. Vaknin, A. Frydman, and Z. Ovadyahu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 13037 (2000)]. Our findings are also relevant for the understanding of the role of defects that can undermine quality of thin tunnel barriers made of conventional band insulators.
Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.
2014-04-15
Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an
Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving
Zhang, J.; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-01-01
A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer. PMID:26687580
Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving.
Zhang, J; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-12-21
A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montina, Alberto
2012-04-01
So far it has been shown that the quantum dynamics cannot be described as a classical Markov process unless the number of classical states is uncountably infinite. In this Letter, we present a stochastic model with time-correlated noise that exactly reproduces any unitary evolution of a qubit and requires just four classical states. The invasive updating of only 1 bit during a measurement accounts for the quantum violation of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. Unlike in a pilot-wave theory, the stochastic forces governing the jumps among the four states do not depend on the quantum state but only on the unitary evolution. This model is used to derive a local hidden variable model, augmented by 1 bit of classical communication, for simulating entangled Bell states.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, J.; Kalb, N.; Rol, M. A.; Hensen, B.; Blok, M. S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.; Taminiau, T. H.
2016-05-01
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
A low cost alternative to high performance PCM bit synchronizers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshong, Bruce
1993-01-01
The Code Converter/Clock Regenerator (CCCR) provides a low-cost alternative to high-performance Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) bit synchronizers in environments with a large Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). In many applications, the CCCR can be used in place of PCM bit synchronizers at about one fifth the cost. The CCCR operates at rates from 10 bps to 2.5 Mbps and performs PCM code conversion and clock regeneration. The CCCR has been integrated into a stand-alone system configurable from one to six channels and has also been designed for use in VMEbus compatible systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yanbei
2003-12-01
This thesis deals with the planning for advanced interferometeric gravitational-wave detectors, as well as the detection of inspiral waves using first-generation interferometers. In Chapters 2 4 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno), the signal recycling interferometer proposed for LIGO-II is studied in the two-photon formalism. This study reveals the optical spring effect, which allows the interferometer to beat the standard quantum limit, while in the same time introduces a dynamical instability. A classical control system is designed to suppress this instability. In Chapter 5 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Nergis Mavalvala), the quantum noise in heterodyne readout schemes for advanced interferometers is studied. In Chapter 6 (in collaboration with Patricia Purdue), a QND Speed-Meter interferometer with Michelson topology is proposed, analyzed and shown to be a promising candidate for third-generation interferometers (LIGO-III or EURO). This design requires adding a kilometer-scale cavity into the interferometer. In Chapter 7, Sagnac interferometers are analyzed and shown to exhibit a similar broadband QND performance without the need of additional cavity—as expected since these interferometers are sensitive only to time-dependent mirror displacement, and are automatic speed meters. In Chapter 8 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), the Post-Newtonian (PN) breakdown at late-stage inspirals of non-spinning binary black holes (with 5 M⊙ < m1, m2 < 20 M⊙ ) is studied. We propose the use of Detection Template Families (DTFs)—extensions of ordinary PN templates that can mimic all different PN waveforms and hence are plausible to catch the real waveform, yet do not provide straightforward parameter estimation. In Chapter 9 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), binaries carrying spins are studied using an adiabatic PN model. Based on features of the precession dynamics, we
String bit models for superstring
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-12-31
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo
2014-06-14
White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 10{sup 4} ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 10{sup 4} and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √S{sub I} = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S{sub 21} enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers P{sub MR} make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √S{sub I} is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of P{sub MR}) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of P{sub MR}). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo
2014-06-01
White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 104 ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 104 and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √SI = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S21 enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers PMR make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √SI is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of PMR) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of PMR). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the microwave RF-SQUID multiplexer can exhibit √SI ≤ 5 pA/√Hz, i.e., close to √SI of
High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.
2008-04-01
There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-10-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.
Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels.
Lamoureux, L-P; Brainis, E; Cerf, N J; Emplit, Ph; Haelterman, M; Massar, S
2005-06-17
Error filtration is a method for encoding the quantum state of a single particle into a higher dimensional Hilbert space in such a way that it becomes less sensitive to noise. We have realized a fiber optics demonstration of this method and illustrated its potentialities by carrying out the optical part of a quantum key distribution scheme over a line whose phase noise is too high for a standard implementation of BB84 to be secure. By filtering out the noise, a bit error rate of 15.3% +/- 0.1%, which is beyond the security limit, can be reduced to 10.6% +/- 0.1%, thereby guaranteeing the cryptographic security. PMID:16090449
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels.
Bash, Boulat A; Gheorghe, Andrei H; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth—that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary—for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation—the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels.
Bash, Boulat A; Gheorghe, Andrei H; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.
De Groot, A.J.
1989-01-01
In this dissertation the author considered the design of bit - level systolic arrays where the basic computational unit consists of a simple one - bit logic unit, so that the systolic process is carried out at the level of individual bits. In order to pursue the foregoing research, several areas have been studied. First, the concept of systolic processing has been investigated. Several important algorithms were investigated and put into systolic form using graph-theoretic methods. The bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays which have been designed for these algorithms exhibit linear speedup with respect to the number of processors and exhibit efficiency close to 100%, even with low interprocessor communication bandwidth. Block-level systolic arrays deal with blocks of data with block-level operations and communications. Block-level systolic arrays improve cell efficiency and are more efficient than their word-level counterparts. A comparison of bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays was performed. In order to verify the foregoing theory and analysis a systolic processor called the SPRINT was developed to provide and environment where bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic algorithms could be confirmed by direct implementation rather than by computer simulation. The SPRINT is a supercomputer class, 64-element multiprocessor with a reconfigurable interconnection network. The theory has been confirmed by the execution on the SPRINT of the bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic algorithms presented in the dissertation.
Drill bit method and apparatus
Davis, K.
1986-08-19
This patent describes a drill bit having a lower cutting face which includes a plurality of stud assemblies radially spaced from a longitudinal axial centerline of the bit, each stud assembly being mounted within a stud receiving socket which is formed in the bit cutting face. The method of removing the stud assemblies from the sockets of the bit face consists of: forming a socket passageway along the longitudinal axial centerline of the stud receiving socket and extending the passageway rearwardly of the socket; forming a blind passageway which extends from the bit cutting face into the bit body, and into intersecting relationship respective to the socket passageway; while arranging the socket passageway and the blind passageway laterally respective to one another; forming a wedge face on one side of a tool, forming a support post which has one side inclined to receive the wedge face of the tool thereagainst; forcing a ball to move from the cutting face of the bit, into the blind passageway, onto the support post, then into the socket passageway, and into abutting engagement with a rear end portion of the stud assembly; placing the wedge face against the side of the ball which is opposed to the stud assembly; forcing the tool to move into the blind passageway while part of the tool engages the blind passageway and the wedge face engages the ball and thereby forces the ball to move in a direction away from the blind passageway; applying sufficient force to the tool to cause the ball to engage the stud assembly with sufficient force to be moved outwardly in a direction away from the socket, thereby releasing the stud assembly from the socket.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran, Rolando Silvano
Electronic noise has been investigated in AlxGa1-x N/GaN Modulation-Doped Field Effect Transistors (MODFETs) of submicron dimensions, grown for us by MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) techniques at Virginia Commonwealth University by Dr. H. Morkoc and coworkers. Some 20 devices were grown on a GaN substrate, four of which have leads bonded to source (S), drain (D), and gate (G) pads, respectively. Conduction takes place in the quasi-2D layer of the junction (xy plane) which is perpendicular to the quantum well (z-direction) of average triangular width ˜3 nm. A non-doped intrinsic buffer layer of ˜5 nm separates the Si-doped donors in the AlxGa1-xN layer from the 2D-transistor plane, which affords a very high electron mobility, thus enabling high-speed devices. Since all contacts (S, D, and G) must reach through the AlxGa1-xN layer to connect internally to the 2D plane, parallel conduction through this layer is a feature of all modulation-doped devices. While the shunting effect may account for no more than a few percent of the current IDS, it is responsible for most excess noise, over and above thermal noise of the device. The excess noise has been analyzed as a sum of Lorentzian spectra and 1/f noise. The Lorentzian noise has been ascribed to trapping of the carriers in the AlxGa1-xN layer. A detailed, multitrapping generation-recombination noise theory is presented, which shows that an exponential relationship exists for the time constants obtained from the spectral components as a function of 1/kT. The trap depths have been obtained from Arrhenius plots of log (tauT2) vs. 1000/T. Comparison with previous noise results for GaAs devices shows that: (a) many more trapping levels are present in these nitride-based devices; (b) the traps are deeper (farther below the conduction band) than for GaAs. Furthermore, the magnitude of the noise is strongly dependent on the level of depletion of the AlxGa1-xN donor layer, which can be altered by a negative or positive gate bias
Drill bit and method of renewing drill bit cutting face
Davis, K.
1987-04-07
This patent describes a drill bit having a lower formation engaging face which includes sockets formed therein, a stud assembly mounted in each socket. The method is described of removing the stud assemblies from the bit face comprises: placing a seal means about each stud assembly so that a stud assembly can sealingly reciprocate within a socket with a piston-like action; forming a reduced diameter passageway which extends rearwardly from communication with each socket to the exterior of the bit; flowing fluid into the passageway, thereby exerting fluid pressure against the rear end of the stud assembly; applying sufficient pressure to the fluid within the passageway to produce a pressure differential across the stud assembly to force the stud assembly to move outwardly in a direction away from the socket, thereby releasing the stud assembly from the socket.
Object tracking based on bit-planes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng
2016-01-01
Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.
Markov speckle for efficient random bit generation.
Horstmeyer, Roarke; Chen, Richard Y; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei
2012-11-19
Optical speckle is commonly observed in measurements using coherent radiation. While lacking experimental validation, previous work has often assumed that speckle's random spatial pattern follows a Markov process. Here, we present a derivation and experimental confirmation of conditions under which this assumption holds true. We demonstrate that a detected speckle field can be designed to obey the first-order Markov property by using a Cauchy attenuation mask to modulate scattered light. Creating Markov speckle enables the development of more accurate and efficient image post-processing algorithms, with applications including improved de-noising, segmentation and super-resolution. To show its versatility, we use the Cauchy mask to maximize the entropy of a detected speckle field with fixed average speckle size, allowing cryptographic applications to extract a maximum number of useful random bits from speckle images.
Bit by bit: the Darwinian basis of life.
Joyce, Gerald F
2012-01-01
All known examples of life belong to the same biology, but there is increasing enthusiasm among astronomers, astrobiologists, and synthetic biologists that other forms of life may soon be discovered or synthesized. This enthusiasm should be tempered by the fact that the probability for life to originate is not known. As a guiding principle in parsing potential examples of alternative life, one should ask: How many heritable "bits" of information are involved, and where did they come from? A genetic system that contains more bits than the number that were required to initiate its operation might reasonably be considered a new form of life.
Bit by bit: the Darwinian basis of life.
Joyce, Gerald F
2012-01-01
All known examples of life belong to the same biology, but there is increasing enthusiasm among astronomers, astrobiologists, and synthetic biologists that other forms of life may soon be discovered or synthesized. This enthusiasm should be tempered by the fact that the probability for life to originate is not known. As a guiding principle in parsing potential examples of alternative life, one should ask: How many heritable "bits" of information are involved, and where did they come from? A genetic system that contains more bits than the number that were required to initiate its operation might reasonably be considered a new form of life. PMID:22589698
Enhanced autocompensating quantum cryptography system.
Bethune, Donald S; Navarro, Martha; Risk, William P
2002-03-20
We have improved the hardware and software of our autocompensating system for quantum key distribution by replacing bulk optical components at the end stations with fiber-optic equivalents and implementing software that synchronizes end-station activities, communicates basis choices, corrects errors, and performs privacy amplification over a local area network. The all-fiber-optic arrangement provides stable, efficient, and high-contrast routing of the photons. The low-bit error rate leads to high error-correction efficiency and minimizes data sacrifice during privacy amplification. Characterization measurements made on a number of commercial avalanche photodiodes are presented that highlight the need for improved devices tailored specifically for quantum information applications. A scheme for frequency shifting the photons returning from Alice's station to allow them to be distinguished from backscattered noise photons is also described.
Dwyer, Sheila
2014-11-01
You can’t beat the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, but you can engineer systems so that most of the uncertainty is in the variable of your choice. Doing so can improve the precision of delicate measurements.
A bit serial sequential circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.
1990-01-01
Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.
A Complete Graphical Calculus for Spekkens' Toy Bit Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backens, Miriam; Duman, Ali Nabi
2016-01-01
While quantum theory cannot be described by a local hidden variable model, it is nevertheless possible to construct such models that exhibit features commonly associated with quantum mechanics. These models are also used to explore the question of ψ -ontic versus ψ -epistemic theories for quantum mechanics. Spekkens' toy theory is one such model. It arises from classical probabilistic mechanics via a limit on the knowledge an observer may have about the state of a system. The toy theory for the simplest possible underlying system closely resembles stabilizer quantum mechanics, a fragment of quantum theory which is efficiently classically simulable but also non-local. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between those two theories can thus yield new insights into what distinguishes quantum theory from classical theories, and ψ -ontic from ψ -epistemic theories. In this paper, we develop a graphical language for Spekkens' toy theory. Graphical languages offer intuitive and rigorous formalisms for the analysis of quantum mechanics and similar theories. To compare quantum mechanics and a toy model, it is useful to have similar formalisms for both. We show that our language fully describes Spekkens' toy theory and in particular, that it is complete: meaning any equality that can be derived using other formalisms can also be derived entirely graphically. Our language is inspired by a similar graphical language for quantum mechanics called the ZX-calculus. Thus Spekkens' toy bit theory and stabilizer quantum mechanics can be analysed and compared using analogous graphical formalisms.
Hou, Chang-Yu; Chamon, Claudio
2006-10-01
We study a tunneling geometry defined by a single point-contact constriction that brings to close vicinity two points sitting at the same edge of a quantum Hall liquid, shortening the trip between the otherwise spatially separated points along the normal chiral edge path. This wormhole-like geometry allows for entrapping bulk quasiparticles between the edge path and the tunnel junction, possibly realizing a topologically protected qubit if the quasiparticles have non-Abelian statistics. We show how either noise or simpler voltage measurements along the edge can probe the non-Abelian nature of the trapped quasiparticles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yu Min; Wu, San Lein; Chang, Shoou Jinn; Chen, Pang Shiu; Liu, Chee Wee
2006-05-01
A working p-type SiGe double-quantum-well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (DQW-pMOSFETs) has been fabricated and characterized. The upper quantum well with 15%-Ge acts as an induced-carrier buffer to slow holes into the Si surface channel and increases the number of high-mobility holes in the 30%-Ge well at the bottom under high gate voltage by improving carrier confinement. DQW devices with a thinner Si-spacer layer between the two SiGe quantum wells exhibit an improved effective hole mobility and wider gate voltage swings but also reduced 1/ f noise levels than Si-controlled pMOSFETs. The DQW has an enhanced carrier confinement compared to a single quantum-well (SQW) device; however, the degradation of mobility and transconductance observed in a sample DQW indicates that this poor transport mechanism may result from an additional hole scattering effect at the Si/SiGe interface.
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Forgy, Charles C.; Mazziotti, David A.
2014-12-14
Recent studies have indicated that environmental noise may increase energy-transfer efficiency in quantum systems. For homogeneous networks of chromophores previous studies have primarily considered excitonic transport in one-dimensional (linear) networks. In our study, we expand previous research to a two-dimensional fully coupled topology of chromophore molecules. We demonstrate that not only does an optimal dephasing rate exist in both one- and two-dimensional networks but also that it increases in magnitude with increasing coupling strength between chromophores. Optimal transport occurs when the noise quenches the entanglement between local modes that prevent the exciton from moving efficiently to the target site. We find that these results are insensitive to minor site defects such as those found in realistic systems. We contrast these findings to systems with a high degree of inhomogeneity, in which the optimal dephasing rate is largely set by the system topology and does not vary significantly with respect to coupling strength. Our findings have potential applications to systems such as quantum dot arrays and carbon nanotube structures.
Zhu, Rui Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong
2015-04-28
Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained with transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.
Forgy, Charles C; Mazziotti, David A
2014-12-14
Recent studies have indicated that environmental noise may increase energy-transfer efficiency in quantum systems. For homogeneous networks of chromophores previous studies have primarily considered excitonic transport in one-dimensional (linear) networks. In our study, we expand previous research to a two-dimensional fully coupled topology of chromophore molecules. We demonstrate that not only does an optimal dephasing rate exist in both one- and two-dimensional networks but also that it increases in magnitude with increasing coupling strength between chromophores. Optimal transport occurs when the noise quenches the entanglement between local modes that prevent the exciton from moving efficiently to the target site. We find that these results are insensitive to minor site defects such as those found in realistic systems. We contrast these findings to systems with a high degree of inhomogeneity, in which the optimal dephasing rate is largely set by the system topology and does not vary significantly with respect to coupling strength. Our findings have potential applications to systems such as quantum dot arrays and carbon nanotube structures.
Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-10-01
We examine the profiles of optical rectification (OR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped QDs under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In order to study the above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties the doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is nicely reflected through alteration of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/decrease) of above NLO properties as temperature and pressure are varied. All such changes again sensitively depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The remarkable influence of interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said profiles has also been addressed. The findings illuminate fascinating role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the active presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delhôtel, Jean-Michel
'Information is physical': the popular slogan (Landauer, 1991) recalls the fact that information, if it is to be stored, processed or communicated, must have a physical embodiment. Until recently, the physical systems used for representing information were all within the jurisdiction of classical laws. Since the early 1980s however, a growing band of theorists have been toying with the idea of extending such representations to the quantum realm. The computational or cryptographical advantages afforded by linear combinations of quantum states have been unveiled and quantified. Renewed interest in Hilbert space structure and properties of 'entangled' quantum systems have become cornerstones of a new discipline: 'quantum information theory' (QIT), to which we owe some of the most significant and intriguing results in mathematical physics over the last decade.
Melezhik, E O; Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J V; Sizov, F F
2016-12-01
Noise characteristics and resistance of semimetal-type mercury-cadmium-telluride quantum wells (QWs) at the liquid nitrogen temperature are studied numerically, and their dependence on the QW parameters and on the electron concentration is established. The QW band structure calculations are based on the full 8-band k.p Hamiltonian. The electron mobility is simulated by the direct iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, which allows us to include correctly all the principal scattering mechanisms, elastic as well as inelastic.We find that the generation-recombination noise is strongly suppressed due to the very fast recombination processes in semimetal QWs. Hence, the thermal noise should be considered as a main THz sensitivity-limiting mechanism in those structures. Optimization of a semimetal Hg1-xCdxTe QW to make it an efficient THz bolometer channel should include the increase of electron concentration in the well and tuning the molar composition x close to the gapless regime.
An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.
Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2013-12-12
Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution. PMID:24240277
An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.
Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2013-12-12
Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution.
Modification of error reconciliation scheme for quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuritsyn, Konstantin
2003-07-01
Quantum cryptography is essentially the quantum key distribution (QKD). In the context of QKD, one from two partners (Alice) generates and sends a sequence of qubits through a private quantum channel to another partner (Bob) and Bob receives the sequence and measures the state of each qubit. After the quantum transmission stage, Alice and Bob have almost identical qubit sequences. The erros are due to physical imperfections in the channel and presence of an eavesdropper. The next stage in QKD is key reconciliation (i.e. finding and correcting discrepancies between Alice's string and that of Bob). This reconciliation can be done by public discussion. Let us suppose there is a secret quantum channel between Alice and Bob through which Alice transmits a n-bit string A=(A1, A2,...,An)ɛ{0,1}n. Then Bob receives a n-bit string B=(B1, B2,...,Bn)ɛ{0,1)n. The string B differs from A due to the presence of noise and eavesdropper in the channel. One can estimate the bit error probability in the channel. For example, Bob can choose a random subset from his string and send it to Alice in public. Then Alice compares the received string with her corresponding subset and calculates the total number of protocol steps. The cascade scheme uses the interaction over the public channel to correct the secret strings by dividing them into the blocks of a fixed length. The length is determined from the bit error probability. A simple interactive routine is applied in each of these blocks. An error found in some block results in some action with other blocks. It is important to optimize the error-finding routines in standalone blocks as well as to organize the effective constrution of blocks with the object of protocol benchmark, information leakage and number of interactions between partners.
Stability of single skyrmionic bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagemeister, J.; Romming, N.; von Bergmann, K.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.
2015-10-01
The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data.
Fast nondeterministic random-bit generation using on-chip chaos lasers
Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter; Tsuzuki, Ken; Uchida, Atsushi
2011-03-15
It is shown that broadband chaos suitable for fast nondeterministic random-bit generation in small devices can be achieved in a semiconductor laser with a short external cavity. The design of the device is based on a theoretical model for nondeterministic random-bit generation by amplification of microscopic noise. Moreover, it is demonstrated that bit sequences passing common tests of statistical randomness at rates up to 2.08 Gbits/s can be generated using on-chip lasers with a monolithically integrated external cavity, amplifiers, and a photodetector.
Xavier, G B; Vilela de Faria, G; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P
2008-02-01
A real-time polarization control system employing two non-orthogonal reference signals multiplexed in either time or wavelength with the data signal is presented. It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that complete control of multiple polarization states can be attained employing polarization controllers in closed-loop configuration. Experimental results on the wavelength multiplexing setup show that negligible added penalties, corresponding to an average added optical Quantum Bit Error Rate of 0.044%, can be achieved with response times smaller than 10 ms, without significant introduction of noise counts in the quantum channel.
Panel focuses on diamond shear bit care
Park, A.
1982-10-04
This article examines drilling parameters and marketability of Stratapax bits. Finds that core bits drill from 2 to 3 times faster than conventional diamond bits, thereby reducing filtrate invasion. Predicts that high speed drilling, downhole motors, deeper wells and slim hole drilling will mean greater Stratapax use.
Development of PDC Bits for Downhole Motors
Karasawa, H.; Ohno, T.
1995-01-01
To develop polycrystalline hamond compact (PDC) bits of the full-face type which can be applied to downhole motor drilling, drilling tests for granite and two types of andesite were conducted using bits with 98.43 and 142.88 mm diameters. The bits successfully drilled these types of rock at rotary speeds from 300 to 400 rpm.
Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao
2015-01-01
We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.
High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata
2016-03-01
A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design.
BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi
2008-01-01
BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…
Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanter, Yaroslav M.
This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry
Bit by Bit: The Darwinian Basis of Life
Joyce, Gerald F.
2012-01-01
All known examples of life belong to the same biology, but there is increasing enthusiasm among astronomers, astrobiologists, and synthetic biologists that other forms of life may soon be discovered or synthesized. This enthusiasm should be tempered by the fact that the probability for life to originate is not known. As a guiding principle in parsing potential examples of alternative life, one should ask: How many heritable “bits” of information are involved, and where did they come from? A genetic system that contains more bits than the number that were required to initiate its operation might reasonably be considered a new form of life. PMID:22589698
Compensation of decoherence from telegraph noise by means of an open-loop quantum-control technique
Gutmann, Henryk; Wilhelm, Frank K.; Kaminsky, William M.; Lloyd, Seth
2005-02-01
With the growing efforts in isolating solid-state qubits from external decoherence sources, the origins of noise inherent to the material start to play a relevant role. One representative example is charged impurities in the device material or substrate, which typically produce telegraph noise and can hence be modeled as bistable fluctuators. In order to demonstrate the possibility of the active suppression of the disturbance from a single fluctuator, we theoretically implement an elementary bang-bang control protocol, a protocol based on sudden pulses. We numerically simulate the random walk of the qubit state on the Bloch sphere with and without bang-bang compensation by means of a stochastic Schroedinger equation and compare it with an analytical saddle-point solution of the corresponding Langevin equation in the long-time limit. We find that the deviation with respect to the noiseless case is significantly reduced when bang-bang pulses are applied, being scaled down approximately by the ratio of the bang-bang period to the typical flipping time of the bistable fluctuation. Our analysis gives not only the effect of bang-bang control on the variance of these deviations, but also their entire distribution. As a result, we expect that bang-bang control works as a high-pass filter on the spectrum of noise sources. This indicates how the influence of 1/f noise ubiquitous to the solid-state world can be reduced.
Proper nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement affect PDC-bit performance significantly
Garcia-Gavito, D.; Azar, J.J.
1994-09-01
During the past 20 years, the drilling industry has looked to new technology to halt the exponentially increasing costs of drilling oil, gas, and geothermal wells. This technology includes bit design innovations to improve overall drilling performance and reduce drilling costs. These innovations include development of drag bits that use PDC cutters, also called PDC bits, to drill long, continuous intervals of soft to medium-hard formations more economically than conventional three-cone roller-cone bits. The cost advantage is the result of higher rates of penetration (ROP's) and longer bit life obtained with the PDC bits. An experimental study comparing the effects of polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit design features on the dynamic pressure distribution at the bit/rock interface was conducted on a full-scale drilling rig. Results showed that nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement are significant factors in PDC-bit performance.
Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) for high data rate satellite communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanderaar, Mark; Wagner, Paul; Budinger, James
1992-01-01
An analysis and discussion of a bandwidth efficient multi-level/multi-stage block coded modulation technique called Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) is presented. LRBC uses simple multi-level component codes that provide increased error protection on increasingly unreliable modulated bits in order to maintain an overall high code rate that increases spectral efficiency. Further, soft-decision multi-stage decoding is used to make decisions on unprotected bits through corrections made on more protected bits. Using analytical expressions and tight performance bounds it is shown that LRBC can achieve increased spectral efficiency and maintain equivalent or better power efficiency compared to that of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Bit error rates (BER) vs. channel bit energy with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) are given for a set of LRB Reed-Solomon (RS) encoded 8PSK modulation formats with an ensemble rate of 8/9. All formats exhibit a spectral efficiency of 2.67 = (log2(8))(8/9) information bps/Hz. Bit by bit coded and uncoded error probabilities with soft-decision information are determined. These are traded with with code rate to determine parameters that achieve good performance. The relative simplicity of Galois field algebra vs. the Viterbi algorithm and the availability of high speed commercial Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) for block codes indicates that LRBC using block codes is a desirable method for high data rate implementations.
Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging.
Goldberg, Brian D; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Suter, Melissa J; Waxman, Sergio; Freilich, Mark I; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J
2009-09-14
High-speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) has enabled practical wide-field microscopic imaging in the biological laboratory and clinical medicine. The imaging speed of OFDI, and therefore the field of view, of current systems is limited by the rate at which data can be digitized and archived rather than the system sensitivity or laser performance. One solution to this bottleneck is to natively digitize OFDI signals at reduced bit depths, e.g., at 8-bit depth rather than the conventional 12-14 bit depth, thereby reducing overall bandwidth. However, the implications of reduced bit-depth acquisition on image quality have not been studied. In this paper, we use simulations and empirical studies to evaluate the effects of reduced depth acquisition on OFDI image quality. We show that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth systems. Images of a human coronary artery acquired in vivo at 8-bit depth are presented and compared with images at higher bit-depth acquisition.
Single photon quantum cryptography.
Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe
2002-10-28
We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.
Griffiths, Robert B.
2007-12-15
Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of 'classical information.' Various examples (some updating earlier work) are given of theorems which relate different incompatible kinds of information, and thus have no counterparts in classical information theory.
Instantaneous bit-error-rate meter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slack, Robert A.
1995-06-01
An instantaneous bit error rate meter provides an instantaneous, real time reading of bit error rate for digital communications data. Bit error pulses are input into the meter and are first filtered in a buffer stage to provide input impedance matching and desensitization to pulse variations in amplitude, rise time and pulse width. The bit error pulses are transformed into trigger signals for a timing pulse generator. The timing pulse generator generates timing pulses for each transformed bit error pulse, and is calibrated to generate timing pulses having a preselected pulse width corresponding to the baud rate of the communications data. An integrator generates a voltage from the timing pulses that is representative of the bit error rate as a function of the data transmission rate. The integrated voltage is then displayed on a meter to indicate the bit error rate.
Corrected RMS Error and Effective Number of Bits for Sinewave ADC Tests
Jerome J. Blair
2002-03-01
A new definition is proposed for the effective number of bits of an ADC. This definition removes the variation in the calculated effective bits when the amplitude and offset of the sinewave test signal is slightly varied. This variation is most pronounced when test signals with amplitudes of a small number of code bin widths are applied to very low noise ADC's. The effectiveness of the proposed definition is compared with that of other proposed definitions over a range of signal amplitudes and noise levels.
Bit timing with pulse distortion and intersymbol interference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gagliardi, R. M.
1977-01-01
Pulse distortion and intersymbol interference due to insufficient filtering in PCM and PSK channels cause performance degradation in terms of both bit error probabilities and timing errors. This paper reports the results of a study analyzing these effects on bit timing subsystems. Consideration is given to both the filter-rectifier and transition tracking type of timing subsystem. Although both these systems perform similarly in high SNR and ideal pulse models, pulse distortion and intersymbol affects each differently. The primary effects in both systems is to cause the presence of an irreducible mean squared timing error due to the intersymbol which limits the ultimate performance. Design procedures to minimize the anomalies of both systems are presented, and indicate modifications of the standard timing subsystems. It is found that specific design directions depend on whether the intersymbol or the receiver noise tends to dominate.
Brida, G.; Fornaro, G. A.; Genovese, M.; Berchera, I. Ruo; Chekhova, M. V.; Lopaeva, E. D.
2011-06-15
We present a complete and exhaustive theory of signal-to-noiseratio in bipartite ghost imaging with classical (thermal) and quantum (twin beams) light. The theory is compared with experiment for both twin beams and thermal light in a certain regime of interest.
Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.
Olejniczak, Lukasz; Panajotov, Krassimir; Thienpont, Hugo; Sciamanna, Marc
2010-08-15
We study the dynamics of an optically injected quantum-dot laser accounting for excited states. Mapping of the bifurcations in the plane frequency detuning vs. injection strength shows that the relaxation rate scales the regions of locking and single- and double-period solutions, while the capture rate has a minor effect. Within the regions of time-periodic solutions, close to the saddle-node bifurcation boundary, we identify subregions where the output signal resembles excitable pulses as a result of the bottleneck phenomenon. We show that such emission is determined mainly by fluctuations in the occupation of the excited states. The interpulse time follows an inverse square root scaling law as a function of the detuning. In a deterministic system the pulses are periodic regardless of the detuning, but in the presence of noise, close to the locking region, the interpulse time follows a positively skewed normal distribution. For a fixed frequency detuning, increasing the noise strength can shift the mean of the interpulse time distribution and make the pulsations more periodic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olejniczak, Lukasz; Panajotov, Krassimir; Thienpont, Hugo; Sciamanna, Marc
2010-08-01
We study the dynamics of an optically injected quantum-dot laser accounting for excited states. Mapping of the bifurcations in the plane frequency detuning vs. injection strength shows that the relaxation rate scales the regions of locking and single- and double-period solutions, while the capture rate has a minor effect. Within the regions of time-periodic solutions, close to the saddle-node bifurcation boundary, we identify subregions where the output signal resembles excitable pulses as a result of the bottleneck phenomenon. We show that such emission is determined mainly by fluctuations in the occupation of the excited states. The interpulse time follows an inverse square root scaling law as a function of the detuning. In a deterministic system the pulses are periodic regardless of the detuning, but in the presence of noise, close to the locking region, the interpulse time follows a positively skewed normal distribution. For a fixed frequency detuning, increasing the noise strength can shift the mean of the interpulse time distribution and make the pulsations more periodic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landahl, E. C.; Bennett, C. V.; Laurent, L. L.; van Meter, J. R.; Troha, A. L.; Kolner, B. H.; Heritage Luhmann, J. P., Jr.; Hartemann, F. V.; Le Sage, G. P.
1997-11-01
Detailed experimental measurements of jitter and phase noise have been performed on the UC Davis/ILSA (Institute for Laser Science and Applications) Advanced X-Band photoinjector Facility (AXF), which is dedicated to experiments relevant to high-energy physics, including vacuum laser acceleration and nonlinear electron-photon scattering processes. In particular, the phase stability of an externally modelocked Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator is compared to that of a synchronously modelocked quantum well semiconductor laser (AlGaAs). The phase noise produced by the 20 MW SLAC X-band klystron used to energize the rf gun has also been characterized, and found to be 5 degrees/kV. The gun rf phase is measured in situ by means of calibrated pickup probes, and it is found that the high-Q rf structure efficiently suppresses rnoise. The cavity fields are then used to directly drive the quantm well semiconductor laser, within a 1 μs klystron pulse, thus providing the first demonstration of direct synchronous modelocking using an rf photoinjector as the system clock. The potential impact of such a novel approach on advanced photoinjector technology will be discussed.
Stability of single skyrmionic bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vedmedenko, Olena; Hagemeister, Julian; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland
The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. Financial support from the DFG in the framework of the SFB668 is acknowledged.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.
Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-05-15
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
Device-independent bit commitment based on the CHSH inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharon, N.; Massar, S.; Pironio, S.; Silman, J.
2016-02-01
Bit commitment and coin flipping occupy a unique place in the device-independent landscape, as the only device-independent protocols thus far suggested for these tasks are reliant on tripartite GHZ correlations. Indeed, we know of no other bipartite tasks, which admit a device-independent formulation, but which are not known to be implementable using only bipartite nonlocality. Another interesting feature of these protocols is that the pseudo-telepathic nature of GHZ correlations—in contrast to the generally statistical character of nonlocal correlations, such as those arising in the violation of the CHSH inequality—is essential to their formulation and analysis. In this work, we present a device-independent bit commitment protocol based on CHSH testing, which achieves the same security as the optimal GHZ-based protocol, albeit at the price of fixing the time at which Alice reveals her commitment. The protocol is analyzed in the most general settings, where the devices are used repeatedly and may have long-term quantum memory. We also recast the protocol in a post-quantum setting where both honest and dishonest parties are restricted only by the impossibility of signaling, and find that overall the supra-quantum structure allows for greater security.
Error-thresholds for qudit-based topological quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrist, Ruben S.; Wootton, James R.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-03-01
Extending the quantum computing paradigm from qubits to higher-dimensional quantum systems allows for increased channel capacity and a more efficient implementation of quantum gates. However, to perform reliable computations an efficient error-correction scheme adapted for these multi-level quantum systems is needed. A promising approach is via topological quantum error correction, where stability to external noise is achieved by encoding quantum information in non-local degrees of freedom. A key figure of merit is the error threshold which quantifies the fraction of physical qudits that can be damaged before logical information is lost. Here we analyze the resilience of generalized topological memories built from d-level quantum systems (qudits) to bit-flip errors. The error threshold is determined by mapping the quantum setup to a classical Potts-like model with bond disorder, which is then investigated numerically using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that topological error correction with qutrits exhibits an improved error threshold in comparison to qubit-based systems.
Towards hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, Jérémie J.; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Baillergeau, Matthieu; Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2016-08-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics allows one to study the interaction between light and matter at the most elementary level. The methods developed in this field have taught us how to probe and manipulate individual quantum systems like atoms and superconducting quantum bits with an exquisite accuracy. There is now a strong effort to extend further these methods to other quantum systems, and in particular hybrid quantum dot circuits. This could turn out to be instrumental for a noninvasive study of quantum dot circuits and a realization of scalable spin quantum bit architectures. It could also provide an interesting platform for quantum simulation of simple fermion-boson condensed matter systems. In this short review, we discuss the experimental state of the art for hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots, and we present a simple theoretical modeling of experiments.
Wu, Kesheng
2007-08-02
An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.
Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS
Durrand, Christopher J.; Skeem, Marcus R.; Crockett, Ron B.; Hall, David R.
2013-04-29
The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.
Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.
Multiscale quantum optical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaroszkiewicz, George
2007-04-01
Quantum experiments are described in terms of time-dependent networks of quantum bits, each qubit representing an elementary information gateway. The emphasis is on the signal properties of apparatus rather than on systems under observation (SUOs), with the quantum states of the theory (the labstates) representing the observer's information about the state of their apparatus, rather than of any SUO. The formalism gives an efficient quantum register description related to the formalism of quantum computation. Experiments conventionally described by the PVM and POVM formalisms are treated in identical terms, the formalism providing an efficient modular approach to quantum optics experiments of arbitrary complexity.
A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyake, S.; Nakamae, K.
2016-05-01
A new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme by using simple and small-scale quantum circuits is proposed. The NEQR representation for quantum images is used. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be 2n × 2n and n × n, respectively. At first, a classical watermark with n × n image size and 8 bits gray scale is expanded to an image with 2n × 2n image size and 2 bits gray scale. Then the expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image by the SWAP gates that controlled by the keys only known to the operator. The scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the CNOT gates (XOR operation). The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that our proposed scheme is excellent in terms of three items, visual quality, robustness performance under noises, and computational complexity.
Are 16 bits really needed in CCDs and infrared detectors for astronomy?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gago, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Gigante, José V.; López-Arozena, D.
2004-09-01
One of the problems found in the design of the electronics for astronomical instruments is the difficulty to find precise digitizers (16 bits) at high speed. In fact, most of the chips which claim to have 16-bit actually have a lower ENOB (Effective Number Of Bits), normally around 14, when considering their noise effects. In this paper, a technique based in auto-adjustable gain amplifiers is proposed as a way to relax the A/D requirements for astronomical CCDs and infrared detectors. The amplifiers will automatically toggle between 2 different gains depending on the pixel value. The technique is based on the fact that, due to the shot (photon) noise of the detectors, the maximum signal to noise ratio achievable in most of these devices is relatively low, allowing the use of A/D converters with an ENOB of only 14 (or even 12) bits when combined with auto-adjustable gain amplifiers. It will be shown that the lower resolution of the A/D converters will not affect the accuracy of the science data, even when many images are averaged out to compensate the effects of the shot noise. Furthermore, given that many real A/D converters do not reach an ENOB of 16, for low level signals the accuracy can be even slightly improved with the technique described in this paper. On the other hand, this relaxing of the A/D requirements can allow the use of off-the-shelf boards for the acquisition systems.
Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB.
Mehmet, Moritz; Ast, Stefan; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Schnabel, Roman
2011-12-01
Continuous-wave squeezed states of light at the wavelength of 1550 nm have recently been demonstrated, but so far the obtained factors of noise suppression still lag behind today's best squeezing values demonstrated at 1064 nm. Here we report on the realization of a half-monolithic nonlinear resonator based on periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate which enabled the direct detection of up to 12.3 dB of squeezing at 5 MHz. Squeezing was observed down to a frequency of 2 kHz which is well within the detection band of gravitational wave interferometers. Our results suggest that a long-term stable 1550 nm squeezed light source can be realized with strong squeezing covering the entire detection band of a 3rd generation gravitational-wave detector such as the Einstein Telescope.
Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard
2011-03-01
One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.
REVERSIBLE N-BIT TO N-BIT INTEGER HAAR-LIKE TRANSFORMS
Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I; Senecal, J
2004-02-14
We introduce TLHaar, an n-bit to n-bit reversible transform similar to the Haar IntegerWavelet Transform (IWT). TLHaar uses lookup tables that approximate the Haar IWT, but reorder the coefficients so they fit into n bits. TLHaar is suited for lossless compression in fixed-width channels, such as digital video channels and graphics hardware frame buffers.
Experimental implementation of bit commitment in the noisy-storage model.
Ng, Nelly Huei Ying; Joshi, Siddarth K; Ming, Chia Chen; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Wehner, Stephanie
2012-01-01
Fundamental primitives such as bit commitment and oblivious transfer serve as building blocks for many other two-party protocols. Hence, the secure implementation of such primitives is important in modern cryptography. Here we present a bit commitment protocol that is secure as long as the attacker's quantum memory device is imperfect. The latter assumption is known as the noisy-storage model. We experimentally executed this protocol by performing measurements on polarization-entangled photon pairs. Our work includes a full security analysis, accounting for all experimental error rates and finite size effects. This demonstrates the feasibility of two-party protocols in this model using real-world quantum devices. Finally, we provide a general analysis of our bit commitment protocol for a range of experimental parameters. PMID:23271659
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W.
2012-03-01
Effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) and effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ) were recently introduced to broaden the notion of DQE and NEQ by including system parameters such as focus blurring and system scatter rejection methods. This work investigates eDQE and eNEQ normalized for mean glandular dose (eNEQMGD) as a means to characterize and select optimal exposure parameters for a digital mammographic system. The eDQE was measured for three anode/filter combinations, with and without anti-scatter grid and for four thicknesses of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). The modulation transfer function used to calculate eDQE and eNEQ was measured from an edge positioned at 20,40,60,70 mm above the table top without scattering material in the beam. The grid-in eDQE results for all A/F settings were generally larger than those for grid-out. Contrarily, the eNEQMGD results were higher for grid-out than gridin, with a maximum difference of 61% among all A/F combinations and PMMA thicknesses. The W/Rh combination gave the highest eNEQMGD for all PMMA thicknesses compared to the other A/F combinations (for grid-in and grid-out), supporting the results of alternative methods (e.g. the signal difference to noise ratio method). The eNEQMGD was then multiplied with the contrast obtained from a 0.2mm Al square, resulting in a normalized quantity that was higher for the W/Rh combination than for the other A/F combinations. In particular, the results for the W/Rh combination were greater for the grid-in case. Furthermore, these results showed close agreement with a non-prewhitened match filter with eye response model observer (d') normalized for MGD.
Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!
... putting them on. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: April 2013 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Camping and Woods Safety ...
Drill bit with suction jet means
Castel, Y.; Cholet, H.
1980-12-16
This drill bit comprises a plurality of rollers provided with cutting teeth or inserts. At least one upwardly directed eduction jet is created and the bit comprises at least one nozzle located between two adjacent rollers and creating at least two fluid jets respectively directed towards these two adjacent rollers.
Low-noise four-wavelength simultaneous oscillation of a 1.3-μm external-cavity quantum-dot laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yausoka, N.; Ishida, M.; Takada, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, Y.
2015-02-01
An external-cavity laser with a quantum-dot (QD) gain medium is attractive because it combines the advantages of both QDs and the external-cavity configuration. Investigations of external-cavity QD lasers have revealed that these lasers demonstrate good performance with features such as a wide wavelength tuning range, stable lasing oscillation, and highspeed transmission. In this study, we employed an 800-GHz etalon filter inserted into an external cavity and obtained a four-channel oscillation spectrum that coincided with the local area network (LAN)-WDM grid. Each mode of the four channels oscillated stably at the single longitudinal mode defined by the external-cavity length. We sliced the four channels into a single channel using an inline band-pass filter. The filtered single channel has a high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 43.9 dB and a low relative intensity noise (RIN) of -137.9 dB/Hz in the frequency range of 0.5-20 GHz. For comparison with a multi-quantum well (MQW) gain medium, we obtained the four-channel spectrum using the same setup. However, each channel was multi-mode, and the four-channel simultaneous oscillation could not be maintained for a few dozen minutes. Furthermore, when we sliced the four-channels into a single channel, the spectrum intensity became changing; therefore, we could not measure the RIN. These results show that both the stable single longitude modes and the low RIN spectrum of the filtered mode are inherent in the QD medium, indicating that the external-cavity comb laser with the QD gain medium is promising as a light source for WDM transmission.
Not Available
1993-05-24
A new measurement-while-drilling (MWD) system takes resistivity and directional measurements directly at the bit, allowing drillers and geologists to 'see' the true direction and inclination of the bit with respect to the formation drilled. With real-time resistivity measurements at the bit (RAB), the formation is logged before fluid invasion occurs and the driller can steer directional wells more accurately than with conventional MWD tools. The MWD tools comprise an instrumented steerable motor and an instrumented near-bit stabilizer for rotary drilling. The tools have sensors for resistivity, gamma ray, and inclination located in a sub just behind the bit. The integrated steerable system was successfully tested in the Barbara 79 D well offshore Italy and in the Cortemaggiore 134 D well in northern Italy in November, 1992. This paper describes the system and its advantages over conventional MWD tools.
Novel Parity-Preserving Designs of Reversible 4-Bit Comparator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Xue-mei; Chen, Fu-long; Wang, Hong-tao; Sun, Yun-xiang; Guo, Liang-min
2014-04-01
Reversible logic has attracted much attention in recent years especially when the calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. This paper presents two novel approaches for designing reversible 4-bit comparator based on parity-preserving gates, which can detect any fault that affects no more than a single logic signal. In order to construct the comparator, three variable EX-OR gate (TVG), comparator gate (CPG), four variable EX-OR gate block (FVGB) and comparator gate block (CPGB) are designed, and they are parity-preserving and reversible. Their quantum equivalent implementations are also proposed. The design of two comparator circuits is completed by using existing reversible gates and the above new reversible circuits. All these comparators have been modeled and verified in Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL). The Quartus II simulation results indicate that their circuits' logic structures are correct. The comparative results are presented in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs.
Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything
Noyes, H.P.
1994-08-01
We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``
An Improved N-Bit to N-Bit Reversible Haar-Like Transform
Senecal, J G; Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I
2004-07-26
We introduce the Piecewise-Linear Haar (PLHaar) transform, a reversible n-bit to n-bit transform that is based on the Haar wavelet transform. PLHaar is continuous, while all current n-bit to n-bit methods are not, and is therefore uniquely usable with both lossy and lossless methods (e.g. image compression). PLHaar has both integer and continuous (i.e. non-discrete) forms. By keeping the coefficients to n bits PLHaar is particularly suited for use in hardware environments where channel width is limited, such as digital video channels and graphics hardware.
Lu, Zenghai; Kasaragod, Deepa K; Matcher, Stephen J
2011-03-04
Recently the effects of reduced bit-depth acquisition on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) image quality have been evaluated by using simulations and empirical studies, showing that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth systems. However, in these studies the 8-bit data is actually 12- or 14-bit ADC data numerically truncated to 8 bits. In practice, a native 8-bit ADC could actually possess a true bit resolution lower than this due to the electronic jitter in the converter etc. We compare true 8- and 14-bit-depth imaging of SS-OCT and polarization-sensitive SS-OCT (PS-SS-OCT) by using two hardware-synchronized high-speed data acquisition (DAQ) boards. The two DAQ boards read exactly the same imaging data for comparison. The measured system sensitivity at 8-bit depth is comparable to that for 14-bit acquisition when using the more sensitive of the available full analog input voltage ranges of the ADC. Ex-vivo structural and birefringence images of equine tendon indicate no significant differences between images acquired by the two DAQ boards suggesting that 8-bit DAQ boards can be employed to increase imaging speeds and reduce storage in clinical SS-OCT/PS-SS-OCT systems. One possible disadvantage is a reduced imaging dynamic range which can manifest itself as an increase in image artifacts due to strong Fresnel reflection.
Evaluations of a noise control for roof bolting machines
Azman, A.S.; Yantek, D.S.; Alcorn, L.A.
2015-01-01
In collaboration with Kennametal Inc. and Corry Rubber Corporation, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a drill bit isolator to address noise overexposures associated with roof bolting machines in underground coal mines. NIOSH laboratory studies confirmed that the drill bit isolator reduces noise during drilling. Field studies were needed to confirm that a noise reduction could be obtained under working conditions and that the device was sufficiently durable. This paper reports results of field tests of the device conducted at five underground coal mines. Noise reduction was assessed by comparing the operator’s noise exposure during drilling with and without the drill bit isolator. Durability was assessed by recording the number of holes and total feet drilled with each bit isolator until either the test period ended or the device failed. The results from these tests showed that the device is an effective noise control in a mine environment. The field-tested drill bit isolators provided a noise reduction of 3–5 dB(A). Of nine devices tested for durability, five exceeded 610 m (2,000 ft) drilled and two exceeded 762 m (2,500 ft) drilled before failure. Durability issues found in the field tests led to final production optimizations that have resulted in a commercially available product for drilling with 35-mm- (1.3-in.-) diameter roof bits and hexagonal drill steels. PMID:26251555
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-01-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-04-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-01-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302
Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.
Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko
2014-09-01
Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.
1994-01-01
In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.
Noyes, H.P.
1990-01-29
We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalili, Farid Ya.; Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman
2016-07-01
We analyze the radiation-pressure-induced interaction of mirror motion and light fields in Michelson-type interferometers used for the detection of gravitational waves and for fundamental research in tabletop quantum optomechanical experiments, focusing on the asymmetric regime with a (slightly) unbalanced beam splitter and a (small) offset from the dark port. This regime, as it was shown recently, provides new interesting features, in particular a stable optical spring and optical cooling on cavity resonance. We show that, generally, the nature of optomechanical coupling in Michelson-type interferometers does not fit into the standard dispersive-dissipative dichotomy. In particular, a symmetric Michelson interferometer with signal-recycling but without power-recycling cavity is characterized by a purely dissipative optomechanical coupling; only in the presence of asymmetry, additional dispersive coupling arises. In gravitational waves detectors possessing signal- and power-recycling cavities, yet another coherent type of optomechanical coupling takes place. We develop here a generalized framework for the analysis of asymmetric Michelson-type interferometers, which also covers the possibility of the injection of carrier light into both ports of the interferometer. Using this framework, we analyze in depth the anomalous features of the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which have been discussed and observed experimentally previously [A. Xuereb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213604 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.213604; S. P. Tarabrin et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 023809 (2013);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023809 A. Sawadsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 043601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.043601].
Reproduced waveform and bit error rate analysis of a patterned perpendicular medium R/W channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Saito, H.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.
2005-05-01
Patterned media were investigated as candidates for 1Tb/in.2 recording. In the case of recording with a patterned medium, the noise due to the irregularity of the pattern has to be taken into account instead of the medium noise due to grains. The bit error rate was studied for both continuous and patterned media to evaluate the advantages of patterning. The bit aspect ratio (BPI/TPI) was set to two for the patterned media and four for the continuous medium. The bit error rate (BER), calculated with a PR(1,1) channel simulator, indicated that for both double layered and single layered patterned media an improvement of the BER over conventional continuous media is expected when the patterning jitter is controlled to within 8%. When the system noise is large the BER of single layered patterned media deteriorates more rapidly than that of double layered media, due to the higher boost in the PR(1,1) channel. It was found that making the land length to bit length ratio large was quite effective at improving BER.
Hirota, Osamu; Sohma, Masaki; Fuse, Masaru; Kato, Kentaro
2005-08-15
We investigate the Yuen 2000 (so-called Y-00)-protocol, which can realize a randomized stream cipher with high bit rate (Gbit/s) for long distances (several hundreds km). The randomized stream cipher with randomization by quantum noise based on the Y-00 protocol is called a quantum stream cipher in this paper, and it may have security against known plaintext attacks which has no analog with any conventional symmetric key ciphers. We present a simple cryptanalysis based on an attacker's heterodyne measurement and a quantum unambiguous measurement to make clear the strength of the Y-00 protocol in real communication. In addition, we give a design for the implementation of an intensity-modulation scheme and report an experimental demonstration of 1 Gbit/s quantum stream cipher through a 20-km-long transmission line.
PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling
Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.
1983-02-01
Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.
28-Bit serial word simulator/monitor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, J. W.
1979-01-01
Modular interface unit transfers data at high speeds along four channels. Device expedites variable-word-length communication between computers. Operation eases exchange of bit information by automatically reformatting coded input data and status information to match requirements of output.
FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data
Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming
2009-06-23
As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.
Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruneisen, Mark T.; Sickmiller, Brett A.; Flanagan, Michael B.; Black, James P.; Stoltenberg, Kurt E.; Duchane, Alexander W.
2014-11-01
The rate of secure key generation (SKG) in quantum key distribution (QKD) is adversely affected by optical noise and loss in the quantum channel. In a free-space atmospheric channel, the scattering of sunlight into the channel can lead to quantum bit error ratios (QBERs) sufficiently large to preclude SKG. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence limits the degree to which spatial filtering can reduce sky noise without introducing signal losses. A system simulation quantifies the potential benefit of tracking and higher-order adaptive optics (AO) technologies to SKG rates in a daytime satellite engagement scenario. The simulations are performed assuming propagation from a low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite to a terrestrial receiver that includes an AO system comprised of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (SHWFS) and a continuous-face-sheet deformable mirror (DM). The effects of atmospheric turbulence, tracking, and higher-order AO on the photon capture efficiency are simulated using statistical representations of turbulence and a time-domain waveoptics hardware emulator. Secure key generation rates are then calculated for the decoy state QKD protocol as a function of the receiver field of view (FOV) for various pointing angles. The results show that at FOVs smaller than previously considered, AO technologies can enhance SKG rates in daylight and even enable SKG where it would otherwise be prohibited as a consequence of either background optical noise or signal loss due to turbulence effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huston, R. J. (Compiler)
1982-01-01
The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.
Impact of measurement precision and noise on superresolution image reconstruction.
Wood, Sally L; Lee, Shu-Ting; Yang, Gao; Christensen, Marc P; Rajan, Dinesh
2008-04-01
The performance of uniform and nonuniform detector arrays for application to the PANOPTES (processing arrays of Nyquist-limited observations to produce a thin electro-optic sensor) flat camera design is analyzed for measurement noise environments including quantization noise and Gaussian and Poisson processes. Image data acquired from a commercial camera with 8 bit and 14 bit output options are analyzed, and estimated noise levels are computed. Noise variances estimated from the measurement values are used in the optimal linear estimators for superresolution image reconstruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKinley, Richard L.; Moore, Thomas J.
1987-02-01
The effects of audio bandwidth and bit error rate on speech intelligibility of voice coders in noise are described and quantified. Three different speech coding techniques were investigated, pulse code modulation (PCM), adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM), and linear predictive coding (LPC). Speech intelligibility was measured in realistic acoustic noise environs by a panel of 10 subjects performing the Modified Rhyme Test. Summary data is presented along with planned future research in optimization of audio bandwidth vs bit error rate tradeoff for best speech intelligibility.
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro
2012-05-01
A new algorithm is developed for reconstructing the high-resolution three-dimensional diffraction intensity function of a globular biological macromolecule from many quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The structural resolution is expressed as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ∼0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule.