Measurement of the Magnetic Flux Noise Spectrum in Superconducting Xmon Transmon Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaro, Ben; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Z.; Campbell, B.; Dunsworth, A.; O'Malley, P.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Migrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Roushan, P.; White, T.; Martinis, J. M.
Dephasing induced by magnetic flux noise limits the performance of modern superconducting quantum processors. We measure the flux noise power spectrum in planar, frequency-tunable, Xmon transmon quantum bits (qubits), with several SQUID loop geometries. We extend the Ramsey Tomography Oscilloscope (RTO) technique by rapid sampling up to 1 MHz, without state reset, to measure the flux noise power spectrum between 10-2 and 105 Hz. The RTO measurements are combined with idle gate randomized benchmarking and Ramsey decay to give a more complete picture of dephasing in SQUID-based devices.
Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola
2014-05-01
We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trabesinger, Andreas
2017-03-01
The promises of quantum computation are unique -- and so are the challenges. Progress in physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering have brought quantum computers to a point where they start to challenge their classical counterparts. By Andreas Trabesinger; illustration by Visual Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortlepp, Thomas; Toepfer, Hannes; Uhlmann, Hermann F.
2001-02-01
The thermally induced bit error rate of a rapid single flux quantum logic circuit is theoretically examined using the Fokker-Planck equation. The error rate versus design parameters of a high Tc dc/single flux quantum converter is derived. In comparison with other design methodologies, a vanishingly small error rate at optimal parameters can be achieved.
Optimal encryption of quantum bits
Boykin, P. Oscar; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2003-04-01
We show that 2n random classical bits are both necessary and sufficient for encrypting any unknown state of n quantum bits in an informationally secure manner. We also characterize the complete set of optimal protocols in terms of a set of unitary operations that comprise an orthonormal basis in a canonical inner product space. Moreover, a connection is made between quantum encryption and quantum teleportation that allows for a different proof of optimality of teleportation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-08-01
Can excitons be used to achieve scalable control of quantum light? Steffen Michaelis de Vasconcellos explained to Nature Photonics that the optoelectrical control of exciton qubits in quantum dots offers great promise.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
2004-04-16
We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.
Complex Noise-Bits and Large-Scale Instantaneous Parallel Operations with Low Complexity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, He; Kish, Laszlo B.; Klappenecker, Andreas
We introduce the complex noise-bit as information carrier, which requires noise signals in two parallel wires instead of the single-wire representations of noise-based logic discussed so far. The immediate advantage of this new scheme is that, when we use random telegraph waves as noise carrier, the superposition of the first 2N integer numbers (obtained by the Achilles heel operation) yields nonzero values. We introduce basic instantaneous operations, with O(20) time and hardware complexity, including bit-value measurements in product states, single-bit and two-bit noise-gates (universality exists) that can instantaneously operate over large superpositions with full parallelism. We envision the possibility of implementing instantaneously running quantum algorithms on classical computers while using similar number of classical bits as the number of quantum bits emulated without the necessity of error corrections. Mathematical analysis and proofs are given.
A practical quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.
Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2012-06-01
Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.
Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises
He Guangping
2006-08-15
The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-05
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
Quantum learning robust against noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Andrew W.; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.
2015-07-01
Noise is often regarded as anathema to quantum computation, but in some settings it can be an unlikely ally. We consider the problem of learning the class of n -bit parity functions by making queries to a quantum example oracle. In the absence of noise, quantum and classical parity learning are easy and almost equally powerful, both information-theoretically and computationally. We show that in the presence of noise this story changes dramatically. Indeed, the classical learning problem is believed to be intractable, while the quantum version remains efficient. Depolarizing the qubits at the oracle's output at any constant nonzero rate does not increase the computational (or query) complexity of quantum learning more than logarithmically. However, the problem of learning from corresponding classical examples is the learning parity with noise problem, for which the best known algorithms have superpolynomial complexity. This creates the possibility of observing a quantum advantage with a few hundred noisy qubits. The presence of noise is essential for creating this quantum-classical separation.
Quantum learning robust to noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolin, John; Cross, Andrew; Smith, Graeme
2015-03-01
Noise is often regarded as anathema to quantum computation, but in some settings it can be an unlikely ally. We consider the problem of learning the class of n-bit parity functions by making queries to a quantum example oracle. In the absence of noise, quantum and classical parity learning are easy and almost equally powerful, both information-theoretically and computationally. We show that in the presence of noise this story changes dramatically. Indeed, the classical learning problem is believed to be intractable, while the quantum version remains efficient. Depolarizing the qubits at the oracle's output at any constant nonzero rate does not increase the computational (or query) complexity of quantum learning more than logarithmically. However, the problem of learning from corresponding classical examples is the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem, for which the best known algorithms have superpolynomial complexity. This creates the possibility of observing a quantum advantage with a few hundred noisy qubits. The presence of noise is essential for creating this quantum-classical separation. AWC and JAS acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
Classical teleportation of a quantum Bit
Cerf; Gisin; Massar
2000-03-13
Classical teleportation is defined as a scenario where the sender is given the classical description of an arbitrary quantum state while the receiver simulates any measurement on it. This scenario is shown to be achievable by transmitting only a few classical bits if the sender and receiver initially share local hidden variables. Specifically, a communication of 2.19 bits is sufficient on average for the classical teleportation of a qubit, when restricted to von Neumann measurements. The generalization to positive-operator-valued measurements is also discussed.
Quantum Bit Commitment with a Composite Evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srikanth, R.
2004-01-01
Entanglement-based attacks, which are subtle and powerful, are usually believed to render quantum bit commitment insecure. We point out that the no-go argument leading to this view implicitly assumes the evidence-of-commitment to be a monolithic quantum system. We argue that more general evidence structures, allowing for a composite, hybrid (classical quantum) evidence, conduce to improved security. In particular, we present and prove the security of the following protocol Bob sends Alice an anonymous state. She inscribes her commitment b by measuring part of it in the + (for b = 0) or × (for b = 1) basis. She then communicates to him the (classical) measurement outcome Rx and the partmeasured anonymous state interpolated into other, randomly prepared qubits as her evidence-of-commitment.
Tunable electromagnetic environment for superconducting quantum bits
Jones, P. J.; Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Salmilehto, J.; Tan, K. Y.; Möttönen, M.
2013-01-01
We introduce a setup which realises a tunable engineered environment for experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We illustrate this concept with the specific example of a quantum bit, qubit, in a high-quality-factor cavity which is capacitively coupled to another cavity including a resistor. The temperature of the resistor, which acts as the dissipative environment, can be controlled in a well defined manner in order to provide a hot or cold environment for the qubit, as desired. Furthermore, introducing superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) into the cavity containing the resistor, provides control of the coupling strength between this artificial environment and the qubit. We demonstrate that our scheme allows us to couple strongly to the environment enabling rapid initialization of the system, and by subsequent tuning of the magnetic flux of the SQUIDs we may greatly reduce the resistor-qubit coupling, allowing the qubit to evolve unhindered. PMID:23759710
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.
A noise immunity controlled quantum teleportation protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Baagyere, Edward; Qin, Zhen; Xiong, Hu; Zhan, Huayi
2016-11-01
With the advent of the Internet and information and communication technology, quantum teleportation has become an important field in information security and its application areas. This is because quantum teleportation has the ability to attain a timely secret information delivery and offers unconditional security. And as such, the field of quantum teleportation has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, noise has serious effect on the safety of quantum teleportation within the aspects of information fidelity, channel capacity and information transfer. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to address these problems of quantum teleportation. Firstly, in order to resist collective noise, we construct a decoherence-free subspace under different noise scenarios to establish a two-dimensional fidelity quantum teleportation models. And also create quantum teleportation of multiple degree of freedom, and these models ensure the accuracy and availability of the exchange of information and in multiple degree of freedom. Secondly, for easy preparation, measurement and implementation, we use super dense coding features to build an entangled quantum secret exchange channel. To improve the channel utilization and capacity, an efficient super dense coding method based on ultra-entanglement exchange is used. Thirdly, continuous variables of the controlled quantum key distribution were designed for quantum teleportation; in addition, we perform Bell-basis measurement under the collective noise and also prepare the storage technology of quantum states to achieve one-bit key by three-photon encoding to improve its security and efficiency. We use these two methods because they conceal information, resist a third party attack and can detect eavesdropping. Our proposed methods, according to the security analysis, are able to solve the problems associated with the quantum teleportation under various noise environments.
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-03-15
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
2016-01-01
Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.
Quantum Dialogue Based on Hypertanglement Against Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhiguang; Baaguere, Edward; Zhan, Huayi
2016-08-01
The major problem faced by photons propagating through a physical channel is that of collective noise. This collective noise has the ability to reduce the number of quantum bits that are transmitted, thereby reduces the message fidelity. The traditional method of noise immunity is the use of entanglement purification, which consumes a lot of quantum resources in accomplishing the joint probability of noise immunity but does not guarantee accurate quantum dialog. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to quantum dialogue in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel. we constructs corresponding Decoherence Free Subspace(DFS), the quantum state after the change is in the maximally entangled state, so as to realize the fidelity of quantum dialogue model that can ensure the accuracy and noise resistance, and secret information exchange.
Experimental study of entanglement evolution in the presence of bit-flip and phase-shift noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xia; Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Yang, Yang; Lu, Huai-Xin
2017-10-01
Because of its important role both in fundamental theory and applications in quantum information, evolution of entanglement in a quantum system under decoherence has attracted wide attention in recent years. In this paper, we experimentally generate a high-fidelity maximum entangled two-qubit state and present an experimental study of the decoherence properties of entangled pair of qubits at collective (non-collective) bit-flip and phase-shift noises. The results shown that entanglement decreasing depends on the type of the noises (collective or non-collective and bit-flip or phase-shift) and the number of qubits which are subject to the noise. When two qubits are depolarized passing through non-collective noisy channel, the decay rate is larger than that depicted for the collective noise. When two qubits passing through depolarized noisy channel, the decay rate is larger than that depicted for one qubit.
Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J
2015-03-01
Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Quantum Noise from Reduced Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacchini, Bassano
2016-07-01
We consider the description of quantum noise within the framework of the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to a composite system environment setting. Averaging over the environmental degrees of freedom leads to a stochastic quantum dynamics, described by equations complying with the constraints arising from the statistical structure of quantum mechanics. Simple examples are considered in the framework of open system dynamics described within a master equation approach, pointing in particular to the appearance of the phenomenon of decoherence and to the relevance of quantum correlation functions of the environment in the determination of the action of quantum noise.
Quantum Trajectories and Their Statistics for Remotely Entangled Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantasri, Areeya; Kimchi-Schwartz, Mollie E.; Roch, Nicolas; Siddiqi, Irfan; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-10-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigate the quantum trajectories of jointly monitored transmon qubits embedded in spatially separated microwave cavities. Using nearly quantum-noise-limited superconducting amplifiers and an optimized setup to reduce signal loss between cavities, we can efficiently track measurement-induced entanglement generation as a continuous process for single realizations of the experiment. The quantum trajectories of transmon qubits naturally split into low and high entanglement classes. The distribution of concurrence is found at any given time, and we explore the dynamics of entanglement creation in the state space. The distribution exhibits a sharp cutoff in the high concurrence limit, defining a maximal concurrence boundary. The most-likely paths of the qubits' trajectories are also investigated, resulting in three probable paths, gradually projecting the system to two even subspaces and an odd subspace, conforming to a "half-parity" measurement. We also investigate the most-likely time for the individual trajectories to reach their most entangled state, and we find that there are two solutions for the local maximum, corresponding to the low and high entanglement routes. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental entangled-qubit trajectory data.
Spin Quantum Bit with Ferromagnetic Contacts for Circuit QED
Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2010-10-15
We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.
Bit-Oriented Quantum Public Key Probabilistic Encryption Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shihui; Gu, Lize; Xiao, Da
2014-01-01
Quantum public-key encryption system provides information confidentiality using quantum mechanics. In this paper, two bit-oriented public key probabilistic encryption schemes are constructed based on a new randomizing method combined with single-qubit rotation. They are strong enough to resist forward search attack and have private key secrecy. Moreover, the ciphertext expansion of the second scheme is low and the number of public key qubits used to encrypt is small under the condition that decryption error is negligible.
Spin quantum bit with ferromagnetic contacts for circuit QED.
Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2010-10-15
We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-05-01
While unconditionally secure bit commitment (BC) is considered impossible within the quantum framework, it can be obtained under relativistic or experimental constraints. Here we study whether such BC can lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT). The answer is not completely negative. In one hand, we provide a detailed cheating strategy, showing that the "honest-but-curious adversaries" in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit. On the other hand, it is also found that some other no-go proofs claiming that a dishonest receiver can always decode all transferred bits simultaneously with reliability 100% become invalid in this scenario, because their models of cryptographic protocols are too ideal to cover such a BC-based QOT.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-23
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Engineering Dissipation to Generate Entanglement Between Remote Superconducting Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Mollie Elisheva
Superconducting quantum circuits provide a promising avenue for scalable quantum computation and simulation. Their chief advantage is that, unlike physical atoms or electrons, these ''artificial atoms'' can be designed with nearly-arbitrarily large coupling to one another and to their electromagnetic environment. This strong coupling allows for fast quantum bit (qubit) operations, and for efficient readout. However, strong coupling comes at a price: a qubit that is strongly coupled to its environment is also strongly susceptible to losses and dissipation, as coherent information leaks from the quantum system under study into inaccessible ''bath'' modes. Extensive work in the field is dedicated to engineering away these losses to the extent possible, and to using error correction to undo the effects of losses that are unavoidable. This dissertation explores an alternate approach to dissipation: we study avenues by which dissipation itself can be used to generate, rather than destroy, quantum resources. We do so specifically in the context of quantum entanglement, one of the most important and most counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics. Entanglement generation and stabilization is critical to most non-trivial implementations of quantum computing and quantum simulation, as it is the property that distinguishes a multi-qubit quantum system from a string of classical bits. The ability to harness dissipation to generate, purify, and stabilize entanglement is therefore highly desirable. We begin with an overview of quantum dissipation and measurement, followed by an introduction to entanglement and to the superconducting quantum information architecture. We then discuss three sets of experiments that highlight and explore the powerful uses of dissipation in quantum systems. First, we use an entangling measurement to probabilistically generate entanglement between two qubits separated by more than one meter of ordinary cable. This represents the first achievement
Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens
Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman Y.; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2012-01-01
The realization of devices that harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of “quantum money” [Wiesner S (1983) ACM SIGACT News 15:78–88]. A dishonest holder of a quantum bank note will invariably fail in any counterfeiting attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence, and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store, and measure single quantum bit memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled
Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.
Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Younge, K. C.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.
2007-09-01
Quantum information science involves the storage, manipulation and communication of information encoded in quantum systems, where the phenomena of superposition and entanglement can provide enhancements over what is possible classically. Large-scale quantum information processors require stable and addressable quantum memories, usually in the form of fixed quantum bits (qubits), and a means of transferring and entangling the quantum information between memories that may be separated by macroscopic or even geographic distances. Atomic systems are excellent quantum memories, because appropriate internal electronic states can coherently store qubits over very long timescales. Photons, on the other hand, are the natural platform for the distribution of quantum information between remote qubits, given their ability to traverse large distances with little perturbation. Recently, there has been considerable progress in coupling small samples of atomic gases through photonic channels, including the entanglement between light and atoms and the observation of entanglement signatures between remotely located atomic ensembles. In contrast to atomic ensembles, single-atom quantum memories allow the implementation of conditional quantum gates through photonic channels, a key requirement for quantum computing. Along these lines, individual atoms have been coupled to photons in cavities, and trapped atoms have been linked to emitted photons in free space. Here we demonstrate the entanglement of two fixed single-atom quantum memories separated by one metre. Two remotely located trapped atomic ions each emit a single photon, and the interference and detection of these photons signals the entanglement of the atomic qubits. We characterize the entangled pair by directly measuring qubit correlations with near-perfect detection efficiency. Although this entanglement method is probabilistic, it is still in principle useful for subsequent quantum operations and scalable quantum
Quantum noise in optical interferometers
Voronov, Volodymyr G.; Weyrauch, Michael
2010-05-15
We study the photon counting noise in optical interferometers used for gravitational wave detection. In order to reduce quantum noise, a squeezed vacuum is injected into the usually unused input port. It is investigated under which conditions the gravitational wave signal may be amplified without increasing counting noise concurrently. Such a possibility was suggested as a consequence of the entanglement of the two output ports of a beam splitter. We find that amplification without concurrent increase of noise is not possible for reasonable squeezing parameters. Photon distributions for various beam splitter angles and squeezing parameters are calculated.
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2007-09-15
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory.
Multi-bit dark state memory: Double quantum dot as an electronic quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharon, Eran; Pozner, Roni; Lifshitz, Efrat; Peskin, Uri
2016-12-01
Quantum dot clusters enable the creation of dark states which preserve electrons or holes in a coherent superposition of dot states for a long time. Various quantum logic devices can be envisioned to arise from the possibility of storing such trapped particles for future release on demand. In this work, we consider a double quantum dot memory device, which enables the preservation of a coherent state to be released as multiple classical bits. Our unique device architecture uses an external gating for storing (writing) the coherent state and for retrieving (reading) the classical bits, in addition to exploiting an internal gating effect for the preservation of the coherent state.
Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2014-10-01
We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.
Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2013-12-19
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.
Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits.
Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Leghtas, Z; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Vool, U; Girvin, S M; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H
2013-12-19
Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard
2013-06-01
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment-for each classical communication history, not in average-allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment-bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
All-optical quantum random bit generation from intrinsically binary phase of parametric oscillators.
Marandi, Alireza; Leindecker, Nick C; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L
2012-08-13
We demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum random number generator (RNG) based on above-threshold binary phase state selection in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We show that the outcome is statistically random with 99% confidence, and verify that the randomness is due to the phase of initiating photons generated through spontaneous parametric down conversion of the pump, with negligible contribution of classical noise sources. With the use of micro- and nanoscale OPO resonators, this technique offers a promise for simple, robust, and high-speed on-chip all-optical quantum RNGs.
Security of quantum bit string commitment depends on the information measure.
Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Hayden, Patrick; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Wehner, Stephanie
2006-12-22
Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum world. However, when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this Letter, we introduce a framework of quantum schemes where Alice commits a string of n bits to Bob, in such a way that she can only cheat on a bits and Bob can learn at most b bits of information before the reveal phase. Our results are twofold: we show by an explicit construction that in the traditional approach, where the reveal and guess probabilities form the security criteria, no good schemes can exist: a + b is at least n. If, however, we use a more liberal criterion of security, the accessible information, we construct schemes where a = 4log2(n) + O(1) and b = 4, which is impossible classically. Our findings significantly extend known no-go results for quantum bit commitment.
Geometric Quantum Noise of Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Saha, Arijit; Burmistrov, Igor S.; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Altland, Alexander
2015-05-01
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, E.; Baranger, Harold U.
2017-02-01
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise. For strong noise, it is similar to the intermediate fixed point of the two-impurity Kondo model.
Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2012-01-01
We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Two-bit quantum random number generator based on photon-number-resolving detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Yi; Ren, Min; Wu, E.; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping
2011-07-01
Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the coherent light source guaranteed the complete randomness of the bit sequences. Multi-bit true random numbers were generated for the first time based on the multi-photon events from a coherent light source.
Restoration for Noise Removal in Quantum Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping
2017-09-01
Quantum computation has become increasingly attractive in the past few decades due to its extraordinary performance. As a result, some studies focusing on image representation and processing via quantum mechanics have been done. However, few of them have considered the quantum operations for images restoration. To address this problem, three noise removal algorithms are proposed in this paper based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model, oriented to two kinds of noise pollution (Salt-and-Pepper noise and Gaussian noise). For the first algorithm Q-Mean, it is designed to remove the Salt-and-Pepper noise. The noise points are extracted through comparisons with the adjacent pixel values, after which the restoration operation is finished by mean filtering. As for the second method Q-Gauss, a special mask is applied to weaken the Gaussian noise pollution. The third algorithm Q-Adapt is effective for the source image containing unknown noise. The type of noise can be judged through the quantum statistic operations for the color value of the whole image, and then different noise removal algorithms are used to conduct image restoration respectively. Performance analysis reveals that our methods can offer high restoration quality and achieve significant speedup through inherent parallelism of quantum computation.
Restoration for Noise Removal in Quantum Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping
2017-06-01
Quantum computation has become increasingly attractive in the past few decades due to its extraordinary performance. As a result, some studies focusing on image representation and processing via quantum mechanics have been done. However, few of them have considered the quantum operations for images restoration. To address this problem, three noise removal algorithms are proposed in this paper based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model, oriented to two kinds of noise pollution (Salt-and-Pepper noise and Gaussian noise). For the first algorithm Q-Mean, it is designed to remove the Salt-and-Pepper noise. The noise points are extracted through comparisons with the adjacent pixel values, after which the restoration operation is finished by mean filtering. As for the second method Q-Gauss, a special mask is applied to weaken the Gaussian noise pollution. The third algorithm Q-Adapt is effective for the source image containing unknown noise. The type of noise can be judged through the quantum statistic operations for the color value of the whole image, and then different noise removal algorithms are used to conduct image restoration respectively. Performance analysis reveals that our methods can offer high restoration quality and achieve significant speedup through inherent parallelism of quantum computation.
Quantum-noise randomized ciphers
Nair, Ranjith; Yuen, Horace P.; Kumar, Prem; Corndorf, Eric; Eguchi, Takami
2006-11-15
We review the notion of a classical random cipher and its advantages. We sharpen the usual description of random ciphers to a particular mathematical characterization suggested by the salient feature responsible for their increased security. We describe a concrete system known as {alpha}{eta} and show that it is equivalent to a random cipher in which the required randomization is affected by coherent-state quantum noise. We describe the currently known security features of {alpha}{eta} and similar systems, including lower bounds on the unicity distances against ciphertext-only and known-plaintext attacks. We show how {alpha}{eta} used in conjunction with any standard stream cipher such as the Advanced Encryption Standard provides an additional, qualitatively different layer of security from physical encryption against known-plaintext attacks on the key. We refute some claims in the literature that {alpha}{eta} is equivalent to a nonrandom stream cipher.
Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong
2013-10-15
The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.
Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo
2016-07-01
We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.
Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.
2006-03-15
The problem of automatically protecting a quantum system against noise in a closed circuit is analyzed. A general scheme is developed built from two steps. First, a distillation step is induced in which undesired components are removed to another degree of freedom of the system. Later a recovering step is employed in which the system gains back its initial density. An optimal-control method is used to generate the distilling operator. The scheme is demonstrated by a simulation of a two-level bit influenced by white noise. Undesired deviations from the target were shown to be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude on average. The relations between the quantum version of the classical Watt's governor and the field of quantum information are also discussed.
Using entanglement against noise in quantum metrology.
Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafal; Maccone, Lorenzo
2014-12-19
We analyze the role of entanglement among probes and with external ancillas in quantum metrology. In the absence of noise, it is known that unentangled sequential strategies can achieve the same Heisenberg scaling of entangled strategies and that external ancillas are useless. This changes in the presence of noise; here we prove that entangled strategies can have higher precision than unentangled ones and that the addition of passive external ancillas can also increase the precision. We analyze some specific noise models and use the results to conjecture a general hierarchy for quantum metrology strategies in the presence of noise.
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung
2014-10-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tur, Moshe; Carmeli, Ran
1993-08-01
A Lyot depolarizer is used in a bit-rate-limiter of the Mach-Zehnder type in order to reduce the phase induced intensity noise, which otherwise, sets a floor on the bit error ratio. Results show an improvement of 3 dB, at the expense of longer arms and a more complicated design.
Noise suppression by quantum control before and after the noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakamura, Hiroaki; Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko
2017-02-01
We discuss the possibility of protecting the state of a quantum system that goes through noise by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. The aim is to seek the optimal protocol that makes the input and output states as close as possible and to clarify the role of the measurements therein. We consider two cases: one can perform quantum measurements and operations (i) only after the noise process and (ii) both before and after. We prove in a two-dimensional Hilbert space that, in case (i), the noise suppression is essentially impossible for all types of noise and, in case (ii), the optimal protocol for the depolarizing noise is either the "do nothing" protocol or the "discriminate and reprepare" protocol. These protocols are not "truly quantum" and can be considered as classical. They involve no measurement or only use the measurement outcomes. These results describe the fundamental limitations in quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of control theory. Finally, we conjecture that a statement similar to case (ii) holds for higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces and present some numerical evidence.
Gain and noise characteristics of high-bit-rate silicon parametric amplifiers.
Sang, Xinzhu; Boyraz, Ozdal
2008-08-18
We report a numerical investigation on parametric amplification of high-bit-rate signals and related noise figure inside silicon waveguides in the presence of two-photon absorption (TPA), TPA-induced free-carrier absorption, free-carrier-induced dispersion and linear loss. Different pump parameters are considered to achieve net gain and low noise figure. We show that the net gain can only be achieved in the anomalous dispersion regime at the high-repetition-rate, if short pulses are used. An evaluation of noise properties of parametric amplification in silicon waveguides is presented. By choosing pulsed pump in suitably designed silicon waveguides, parametric amplification can be a chip-scale solution in the high-speed optical communication and optical signal processing systems.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Unforgeable Noise-Tolerant Quantum Tokens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman; Pastawski, Fernando; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail; Cirac, Ignacio
2012-06-01
The realization of devices which harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of ``quantum money.'' A dishonest holder of a quantum bank-note will invariably fail in any forging attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure ``quantum money''-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store and measure single qubit quantum memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values.
Quantum limited heterodyne detection of spin noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.
2016-09-01
Spin noise spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying spin relaxation in semiconductors. In this article, we propose an extension of this technique based on optical heterodyne detection of spin noise, which provides several key advantages compared to conventional spin noise spectroscopy: detection of high frequency spin noise not limited by detector bandwidth or sampling rates of digitizers, quantum limited sensitivity even in case of very weak probe power, and possible amplification of the spin noise signal. Heterodyne detection of spin noise is demonstrated on insulating n-doped GaAs. From measurements of spin noise spectra up to 0.4 Tesla, we determined the distribution of g-factors, Δg/g = 0.49%.
Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.
Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger
2014-12-09
The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.
Colloquium: Trapped ions as quantum bits: Essential numerical tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, Kilian; Poschinger, Ulrich; Murphy, Michael; Ivanov, Peter; Ziesel, Frank; Calarco, Tommaso; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand
2010-07-01
Trapped laser-cooled atoms and ions are quantum systems which can be experimentally controlled with an as yet unmatched degree of precision. Due to the control of the motion and the internal degrees of freedom, these quantum systems can be adequately described by a well-known Hamiltonian. In this colloquium, powerful numerical tools for the optimization of the external control of the motional and internal states of trapped neutral atoms, explicitly applied to the case of trapped laser-cooled ions in a segmented ion-trap are presented. Inverse problems when optimizing trapping potentials for ions, are solved. The presentation is complemented by a quantum-mechanical treatment of the wave-packet dynamics of a trapped ion. Efficient numerical solvers for both time-independent and time-dependent problems are provided. Shaping the motional wave functions and optimizing a quantum gate is realized by the application of quantum optimal control techniques. The numerical methods presented can also be used to gain an intuitive understanding of quantum experiments with trapped ions by performing virtual simulated experiments on a personal computer. Code and executables are supplied as supplementary online material.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Carty, Paul; Cooper, Michael R; Barr, Alan; Neitzel, Richard L; Balmes, John; Rempel, David
2017-07-01
Hammer drills are used extensively in commercial construction for drilling into concrete for tasks including rebar installation for structural upgrades and anchor bolt installation. This drilling task can expose workers to respirable silica dust and noise. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of bit wear on respirable silica dust, noise, and drilling productivity. Test bits were worn to three states by drilling consecutive holes to different cumulative drilling depths: 0, 780, and 1560 cm. Each state of bit wear was evaluated by three trials (nine trials total). For each trial, an automated laboratory test bench system drilled 41 holes 1.3 cm diameter, and 10 cm deep into concrete block at a rate of one hole per minute using a commercially available hammer drill and masonry bits. During each trial, dust was continuously captured by two respirable and one inhalable sampling trains and noise was sampled with a noise dosimeter. The room was thoroughly cleaned between trials. When comparing results for the sharp (0 cm) versus dull bit (1560 cm), the mean respirable silica increased from 0.41 to 0.74 mg m-3 in sampler 1 (P = 0.012) and from 0.41 to 0.89 mg m-3 in sampler 2 (P = 0.024); levels above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg m-3. Likewise, mean noise levels increased from 112.8 to 114.4 dBA (P < 0.00001). Drilling productivity declined with increasing wear from 10.16 to 7.76 mm s-1 (P < 0.00001). Increasing bit wear was associated with increasing respirable silica dust and noise and reduced drilling productivity. The levels of dust and noise produced by these experimental conditions would require dust capture, hearing protection, and possibly respiratory protection. The findings support the adoption of a bit replacement program by construction contractors.
A Novel Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Chen; Li, Lvzhou; Qiu, Daowen
2015-10-01
This paper proposes a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme where a quantum participant Alice can share a specific message with several classical participants, Bobs. Semi-quantumness means that Alice can perform any quantum operation on her qubits and Bobs can choose to either (1) let the received qubits go back to Alice without disturbance, or (2) measure the qubits in the basis {|0>, |1>} and then resend the result state to Alice. In this scheme, Alice encodes her messages in two entangled states and . The present scheme differs from the existing ones in that the present scheme can share a specific bit string between Alice and Bobs, whereas only a random bit string is shared in most of the existing ones.
Optimized measurement strategy for persistent current quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, F. K.; van der Wal, C. H.; Harmans, C. J. P. M.; Mooij, J. E.; Grifoni, M.
2001-03-01
A key issue in the design of macroscopically quantum coherent systems, such as persistent current qubits, is the optimization of the measurement device. In order to read-out maximum information, a quantum measurements has to destroy the quantum state. Consequently, the measuring device device is a strong source of decoherence and an ill-designed meter may prohibit the detection of all quantum-coherent effects. We also want measurements to be efficient, in the sense that the experiment does not have to be repeated too often. This is opposing weakly-invasive measuring techniques. We are going to discuss a particular example, the read-out of a flux qubit by a SQUID through an inductance bridge. The measurement adresses the resonance frequency of a classical, weakly damped oscillator coupled to the quantum system. We show, that this scheme in principle allows high resolution with relatively slow relaxation. The measurement can be either weakly or strongly invasive depending on measuring conditions, which can be changed in situ. The theoretical discussion of this system is based on the spin-boson model. To correctly describe decoherence and dephasing, we cannot use the widely used, with relatively little structure, ohmic spectrum. In fact, the external resonance introduces renormalization effects to the effective tunnel splitting and frequency which become more drastic for a sharp oscillator resonance line. The decoherence and dephasing rates are obtained within the framework of a self-consistent generalized master-equation approach.
Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires
Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.
2009-04-23
The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<
Optimized 4-bit Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayyoub, Slimani; Achour, Benslama
2017-08-01
Reversible logic has received a great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of central processing unit (CPU) as the execution unit. This paper presents a complete design of a new reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The proposed ALU based on a reversible low power control unit and small performance parameters full adder named double Peres gates. The presented ALU can produce the largest number (28) of arithmetic and logic functions and have the smallest number of quantum cost and delay compared with existing designs.
Quantum coin flipping secure against channel noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yuexin
2015-08-01
So far, most existing single-shot quantum coin flipping (QCF) protocols have failed in a noisy quantum channel. Here, we present a nested-structure framework that makes it possible to achieve partially noise-tolerant QCF, due to a trade-off between the security and the justice correctness. It is showed that noise-tolerant single-shot QCF protocols can be produced by filling the presented framework up with existing or even future protocols. We also proved a lower bound of 0.25, with which a cheating Alice or Bob could bias the outcome.
How noise affects quantum detector tomography
Wang, Q. Renema, J. J.; Exter, M. P.van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.
2015-10-07
We determine the full photon number response of a NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector via quantum detector tomography, and the results show the separation of linear, effective absorption efficiency from the internal detection efficiencies. In addition, we demonstrate an error budget for the complete quantum characterization of the detector. We find that for short times, the dominant noise source is shot noise, while laser power fluctuations limit the accuracy for longer timescales. The combined standard uncertainty of the internal detection efficiency derived from our measurements is about 2%.
Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.
Davies, P. C. W.
2001-09-01
The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits.
Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Ya-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2017-03-15
The calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution. A continuously working polarization-basis tracking scheme (PBTS) will effectively promote the efficiency of the system and reduce the potential security risk when switching between the transmission and calibration modes. Here, we proposed a single-photon level continuously working PBTS using only sifted key bits revealed during an error correction procedure, without introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. We applied the scheme to a polarization-encoding BB84 QKD system in a 50 km fiber channel, and obtained an average quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% during 24 h of continuous operation. The stable and relatively low QBER validates the effectiveness of the scheme.
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-12-26
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.
Resonant Perturbation Theory of Decoherence and Relaxation of Quantum Bits
Merkli, M.; Berman, G. P.; Sigal, I. M.
2010-01-01
We describe our recenmore » t results on the resonant perturbation theory of decoherence and relaxation for quantum systems with many qubits. The approach represents a rigorous analysis of the phenomenon of decoherence and relaxation for general N -level systems coupled to reservoirs of bosonic fields. We derive a representation of the reduced dynamics valid for all times t ≥ 0 and for small but fixed interaction strength. Our approach does not involve master equation approximations and applies to a wide variety of systems which are not explicitly solvable.« less
Multiqubit spectroscopy of Gaussian quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Norris, Leigh M.; Viola, Lorenza
2017-02-01
We introduce multipulse quantum noise spectroscopy protocols for spectral estimation of the noise affecting multiple qubits coupled to Gaussian dephasing environments including both classical and quantum sources. Our protocols are capable of reconstructing all the noise auto- and cross-correlation spectra entering the multiqubit dynamics, providing access, in particular, to the asymmetric spectra associated with nonclassical environments. Our result relies on (i) an exact analytic solution for the reduced multiqubit dynamics that holds in the presence of an arbitrary Gaussian environment and dephasing-preserving control; (ii) the use of specific timing symmetries, which allow for a frequency comb to be engineered for all filter functions of interest, and for the spectra to be related to experimentally accessible observables. We show that quantum spectra have distinctive dynamical signatures, which we explore in two paradigmatic open-system models describing spin and charge qubits coupled to bosonic environments. Complete noise spectroscopy is demonstrated numerically in a realistic setting consisting of two-exciton qubits coupled to a phonon bath. The estimated spectra allow us to accurately predict the exciton dynamics as well as extract the temperature and spectral density of the quantum environment.
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-11-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giacobino, E.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Poizat, J. Ph.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Zhang, T.-C.
1996-01-01
We have investigated the intensity noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using different types of line narrowing techniques at room temperature. We have measured an intensity squeezing of 1.2 dB with grating-extended cavity lasers and 1.4 dB with injection locked lasers (respectively 1.6 dB and 2.3 dB inferred at the laser output). We have observed that the intensity noise of a free-running nominally single mode laser diode results from a cancellation effect between large anti-correlated fluctuations of the main mode and of weak longitudinal side modes. Reducing the side modes by line narrowing techniques results in intensity squeezing.
Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.
2016-10-01
Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.
Efficient bit sifting scheme of post-processing in quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiong; Le, Dan; Wu, Xianyan; Niu, Xiamu; Guo, Hong
2015-10-01
Bit sifting is an important step in the post-processing of quantum key distribution (QKD). Its function is to sift out the undetected original keys. The communication traffic of bit sifting has essential impact on the net secure key rate of a practical QKD system. In this paper, an efficient bit sifting scheme is presented, of which the core is a lossless source coding algorithm. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the scheme is approaching the Shannon limit. The proposed scheme can greatly decrease the communication traffic of the post-processing of a QKD system, which means the proposed scheme can decrease the secure key consumption for classical channel authentication and increase the net secure key rate of the QKD system, as demonstrated by analyzing the improvement on the net secure key rate. Meanwhile, some recommendations on the application of the proposed scheme to some representative practical QKD systems are also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Joseph D.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios
2012-01-01
A method of determining the bit error rate (BER) of a digital circuit from the measurement of the analog S-parameters of the circuit has been developed. The method is based on the measurement of the noise and the standard deviation of the noise in the S-parameters. Once the standard deviation and the mean of the S-parameters are known, the BER of the circuit can be calculated using the normal Gaussian function.
Eavesdropping on Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Fu, Fangbo
2016-09-01
In a recent paper, Xie et al. (Int. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, 2015) proposed a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme based on specific bits. In this paper, a simple attack strategy (intercept-resend attack) is shown to prove that the Xie et al.'s scheme is not secure for a dishonest participant, and an improved protocol based on GHZ state is proposed. The improved protocol is secure and improves the efficiency of the previous one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Zhi-Guo
2016-11-01
Quantum secure communication brings a new direction for information security. As an important component of quantum secure communication, deterministic joint remote state preparation (DJRSP) could securely transmit a quantum state with 100 % success probability. In this paper, we study how the efficiency of DJRSP is affected when qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. Taking a GHZ-based DJRSP scheme as an example, we study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, i.e., the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase-damping), depolarizing and amplitude-damping noise. Our study shows that the fidelity of the output state depends on the phase factor, the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the bit-flip noise, while the fidelity only depends on the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the other three types of noise. And the receiver will get different output states depending on the first preparer's measurement result in the amplitude-damping noise. Our results will be helpful for improving quantum secure communication in real implementation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2017-03-01
The objective, classical world emerges from the underlying quantum substrate via the proliferation of redundant copies of selected information into the environment, which acts as a communication channel, transmitting that information to observers. These copies are independently accessible, allowing many observers to reach consensus about the state of a quantum system via its imprints in the environment. Quantum Darwinism recognizes that the redundancy of information is thus central to the emergence of objective reality in the quantum world. However, in addition to the "quantum system of interest," there are many other systems "of no interest" in the Universe that can imprint information on the common environment. There is therefore a danger that the information of interest will be diluted with irrelevant bits, suppressing the redundancy responsible for objectivity. We show that mixing of the relevant (the "wheat") and irrelevant (the "chaff") bits of information makes little quantitative difference to the redundancy of the information of interest. Thus, we demonstrate that it does not matter whether one separates the wheat (relevant information) from the (irrelevant) chaff: The large redundancy of the relevant information survives dilution, providing evidence of the objective, effectively classical world.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, Eduardo; Baranger, Harold
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroying quantum effects as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment (noise). The similarity to the two impurity Kondo model suggests that there will be a quantum phase transition between a Kondo phase and a local singlet phase. However, this transition is destabilized by charge tunneling between the two leads. Our main result is that sufficiently strong quantum noise suppresses this charge transfer and leads to stabilization of the quantum phase transition. We present the phase diagram, the ground state degeneracy at the four fixed points, and the leading temperature dependence of the conductance near these points. Partially supported by (1) the U.S. DOE, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DE-SC0005237 and (2) FAPESP (BRAZIL) under Grant 2014/26356-9.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2005-12-01
An alternative physical way of communication, communication by the inherent background noise, is proposed which does not need net energy transfer in the information channel. The communicator devices do dissipate energy; however, they do not emit net energy into the channel, instead of that, they modulate the parameters of inherent spontaneous fluctuations in the channel. The method can use two different mechanisms, thermal noise (Johnson-Nyquist noise) for classical communication, and vacuum fluctuations/zero-point energy (quantum uncertainty noise) for quantum communication. The strongest advantage of the method is that it is apparently the most hidden (stealth) way of communication, because it is using the inherent background noise for communication. Therefore, it is extremely difficult or impossible to discover its presence. With proper wave-based arrangements and specific conditions, the sender and the receiver can easily detect eavesdropper activities, so that the eavesdropper is detected as soon as she extracts a single bit of information, thus the security of the method is comparable to the security of quantum communication/quantum key distribution schemes. Finally, concerning practical applications, environmental noise, out of the fundamental/inherent fluctuations, can also be used for this kind of communication provided that is sufficiently stationary.
Quantum noise and the threshold of hearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bialek, W.; Schweitzer, A.
1985-01-01
It is argued that the sensitivity of the ear reaches a limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. This is possible only if the receptor cell holds the detector elements in a special nonequilibrium state which has the same noise characteristics as a ground (T = 0 K) state. To accomplish this 'active cooling' the molecular dynamics of the system must maintain quantum mechanical coherence over the time scale of the measurement.
Reducing noise in a Raman quantum memory.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Heshami, Khabat; Kupchak, Connor; Sussman, Benjamin J
2016-11-01
Optical quantum memories are an important component of future optical and hybrid quantum technologies. Raman schemes are strong candidates for use with ultrashort optical pulses due to their broad bandwidth; however, the elimination of deleterious four-wave mixing noise from Raman memories is critical for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a quantum memory using the rotational states of hydrogen molecules at room temperature. Polarization selection rules prohibit four-wave mixing, allowing the storage and retrieval of attenuated coherent states with a mean photon number 0.9 and a pulse duration 175 fs. The 1/e memory lifetime is 85.5 ps, demonstrating a time-bandwidth product of ≈480 in a memory that is well suited for use with broadband heralded down-conversion and fiber-based photon sources.
Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, X.; Nori, F.
1996-03-01
We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time.
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.
2011-10-15
Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.
Resilience to Time-Correlated Noise in Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombín, Héctor
2016-10-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computation techniques rely on weakly correlated noise. Here, I show that it is enough to assume weak spatial correlations: Time correlations can take any form. In particular, single-shot error-correction techniques exhibit a noise threshold for quantum memories under spatially local stochastic noise.
Quantum Markov semigroups constructed from quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Chen, Jinshu
2016-02-15
Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBNs) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which can describe a two-level quantum system with infinitely many sites. In this paper, we consider the problem to construct quantum Markov semigroups (QMSs) directly from QBNs. We first establish several new theorems concerning QBNs. In particular, we define the number operator acting on Bernoulli functionals by using the canonical orthonormal basis, prove its self-adjoint property, and describe precisely its connections with QBN in a mathematically rigorous way. We then show the possibility to construct QMS directly from QBN. This is done by combining the general results on QMS with our new results on QBN obtained here. Finally, we examine some properties of QMS constructed from QBN.
Noise effects on conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Situ, Haozhen; Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai
2016-09-01
Noise effects can be harmful to quantum information systems. In the present paper, we study noise effects in the context of quantum games with incomplete information, which have more complicated structure than quantum games with complete information. The effects of several paradigmatic noises on three newly proposed conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information are studied using numerical optimization method. Intuitively noises will bring down the payoffs. However, we find that in some situations the outcome of the games under the influence of noise effects are counter-intuitive. Sometimes stronger noise may lead to higher payoffs. Some properties of the game, like quantum advantage, fairness and equilibrium, are invulnerable to some kinds of noises.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Quantum Samaritan's Dilemma Under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2017-03-01
We study how quantum noise affects the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma. Serval most common dissipative and nondissipative noise channels are considered as the model of the decoherence process. We find that the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma is stable under the influence of the amplitude damping, the bit flip and the bit-phase flip channel.
Quantum Samaritan's Dilemma Under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-12-01
We study how quantum noise affects the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma. Serval most common dissipative and nondissipative noise channels are considered as the model of the decoherence process. We find that the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma is stable under the influence of the amplitude damping, the bit flip and the bit-phase flip channel.
1983-12-01
Environment 52 34. Comparison of Regression Lines Estimating Scores for the Sustention Intelligibility Feature vs Bit Error Rate for the DOD LPC-10 Vocoder in...both conditions, the feature "sibilation" obtained the highest scores, and the features "graveness" and " sustention " received the poorest scores, but...were under much greater impairment in the noise environment. Details of the variations in scores for sustention are shown in Figure 34, and, for
Noise-enhanced classical and quantum capacities in communication networks.
Caruso, Filippo; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2010-11-05
The unavoidable presence of noise is thought to be one of the major problems to solve in order to pave the way for implementing quantum information technologies in realistic physical platforms. However, here we show a clear example in which noise, in terms of dephasing, may enhance the capability of transmitting not only classical but also quantum information, encoded in quantum systems, through communication networks. In particular, we find analytically and numerically the quantum and classical capacities for a large family of quantum channels and show that these information transmission rates can be strongly enhanced by introducing dephasing noise in the complex network dynamics.
Bit-string oblivious transfer based on quantum state computational distinguishability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souto, A.; Mateus, P.; Adão, P.; Paunković, N.
2015-04-01
Oblivious transfer protocol is a basic building block in cryptography and is used to transfer information from a sender to a receiver in such a way that, at the end of the protocol, the sender does not know if the receiver got the message or not. Since Shor's quantum algorithm appeared, the security of most of the classical cryptographic schemes has been compromised, as they rely on the fact that factoring is infeasible. To overcome this, quantum mechanics has been used intensively in the past decades, and alternatives resistant to quantum attacks have been developed in order to fulfill the (potential) lack of security of a significant number of classical schemes. In this paper, we present a quantum computationally secure protocol for bit-string oblivious transfer between two parties, under the assumption of quantum hardness of state distinguishability and the constraint of performing at most few-qubit measurements (leaving open the question of general attacks performed on all qubits involved). The protocol is feasible, in the sense that it is implementable in polynomial time.
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-02
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond.
Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment
Mochon, Carlos
2004-09-01
Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias.
Security of two-state and four-state practical quantum bit-commitment protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Arsenović, Dušan; Paunković, Nikola; Popović, Duška B.; Prvanović, Slobodan
2016-12-01
We study cheating strategies against a practical four-state quantum bit-commitment protocol [A. Danan and L. Vaidman, Quant. Info. Proc. 11, 769 (2012)], 10.1007/s11128-011-0284-4 and its two-state variant [R. Loura et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052336 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052336 when the underlying quantum channels are noisy and the cheating party is constrained to using single-qubit measurements only. We show that simply inferring the transmitted photons' states by using the Breidbart basis, optimal for ambiguous (minimum-error) state discrimination, does not directly produce an optimal cheating strategy for this bit-commitment protocol. We introduce a strategy, based on certain postmeasurement processes and show it to have better chances at cheating than the direct approach. We also study to what extent sending forged geographical coordinates helps a dishonest party in breaking the binding security requirement. Finally, we investigate the impact of imperfect single-photon sources in the protocols. Our study shows that, in terms of the resources used, the four-state protocol is advantageous over the two-state version. The analysis performed can be straightforwardly generalized to any finite-qubit measurement, with the same qualitative results.
KEYNOTE SPEECH: Quantum noise, quantum measurement, and squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, Herman A.
2004-08-01
This is the edited text of the Keynote Speech that Professor Haus had been invited to give at the Conference on Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics, held at Santa Fe, NM, on 1-4 June 2003. He introduces it as partly an overview, partly a retrospective, finishing with some remarks about the future, addressing the topics as he knew them best, from his own perspective. Sadly, Professor Haus died shortly before he was due to present this speech to conference delegates.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B.; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Security trade-offs in ancilla-free quantum bit commitment in the presence of superselection rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divincenzo, David P.; Smolin, John A.; Terhal, Barbara M.
2004-07-01
Security trade-offs have previously been established for one-way bit commitment. We study this trade-off in two superselection settings. We show that for an [lsquo]abelian[rsquo] superselection rule (exemplified by particle conservation), the standard trade-off between sealing and binding properties still holds. For the non-abelian case (exemplified by angular momentum conservation), the security trade-off can be more subtle, which we illustrate by showing that if the bit commitment is forced to be ancilla-free, an asymptotically secure quantum bit commitment is possible.
Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, R. S.
1973-01-01
Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.
Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics
Jacobs, B.C.; Pittman, T.B.; Franson, J.D.
2002-11-01
Probabilistic quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements can be performed using linear optics and postselection. Here we show how QND devices of this kind can be used in a straightforward way to implement a quantum relay, which is capable of extending the range of a quantum cryptography system by suppressing the effects of detector noise. Unlike a quantum repeater, a quantum relay system does not require entanglement purification or the ability to store photons.
Maxwell-Bloch approach to excess quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutra, S. M.; Joosten, K.; Nienhuis, G.; van Druten, N. J.; van der Lee, A. M.; van Exter, M. P.; Woerdman, J. P.
1999-06-01
To meet recent experimental advances, we generalize the intuitively appealing nonorthogonal-mode theory of excess quantum noise by introducing a Maxwell-Bloch description of the gain medium. The resulting equations extend the nonorthogonal-mode approach beyond the class A linear-gain regime providing a general starting point for theoretical descriptions of excess quantum noise. As an illustration of our theory, we derive rate equations describing excess quantum noise in class B lasers and obtain the non-Lorentzian spectrum due to the coloring of excess noise in class A lasers accounting for gain saturation.
Noise resistance of adiabatic quantum computation using random matrix theory
Roland, Jeremie; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2005-03-01
Besides the traditional circuit-based model of quantum computation, several quantum algorithms based on a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution have recently been introduced, including for instance continuous-time quantum walk algorithms as well as adiabatic quantum algorithms. Unfortunately, very little is known today about the behavior of these Hamiltonian algorithms in the presence of noise. Here, we perform a fully analytical study of the resistance to noise of these algorithms using perturbation theory combined with a theoretical noise model based on random matrices drawn from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, whose elements vary in time and form a stationary random process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki
We designed and operated a 9-bit single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). SFQ pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) was employed for generation of variable quantum output voltage, where a 9-bit variable pulse number multiplier and a 100-fold voltage multiplier were the key components. Test chips were fabricated using a Nb Josephson integration technology. Arbitrary voltage waveforms were synthesized with the maximum voltage of 2.54 mV. For ac voltage standard applications, relationships between the DAC resolution and the synthesized waveform frequency are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Yanfei; Kim, May E.; Shahriar, Selim M.
2014-10-01
Previously, we had proposed the technique of light shift imbalance induced blockade which leads to a condition where a collection of non-interacting atoms under laser excitation remains combined to a superposition of the ground and the fist excited states, thus realizing a collective state quantum bit which in turn can be used to realize a quantum computer. In this paper, we show first that the light shift imbalance by itself is actually not enough to produce such a blockade, and explain the reason by the limitation of our previous analysis had reached this constraint. We then show that by introducing Rydberg interaction, it is possible to achieve such a blockade for a wide range of parameters. Analytic arguments used to establish these results are confirmed by numerical simulations. The fidelity of coupled quantum gates based on such collective state qubits is highly insensitive to the exact number of atoms in the ensemble. As such, this approach may prove be viable for scalable quantum computing based on neutral atoms.
On the effect of quantum noise in a quantum prisoner's dilemma cellular automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón
2017-06-01
The disrupting effect of quantum noise on the dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. It is concluded in this article that quantum noise induces in fair games the need for higher entanglement in order to make possible the emergence of the strategy pair ( Q, Q), which produces the same payoff of mutual cooperation. In unfair quantum versus classic player games, quantum noise delays the prevalence of the quantum player.
Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Á. J.; Stojanovic, A. D.; Paunković, N.; Loura, R.; Muga, N. J.; Silva, N. A.; Mateus, P.; André, P. S.; Pinto, A. N.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure.
Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen
2014-09-22
When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
FREDERIC IVES MEDAL PAPER: From classical to quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, Hermann A.
1995-11-01
An account is given of noise in electrical circuits and its relation to quantum noise connected with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. A phase-insensitive amplifier must introduce noise (most commonly the spontaneous emission noise) in order to satisfy the constraint imposed by quantum mechanics on the simultaneous measurement of two observables represented by noncommuting operators. Nonstationary, phase-sensitive amplifiers can employ squeezed radiation and reduce the noise below that of phase-insensitive amplifiers. Experiments on squeezing in optical fibers and the attendant noise reduction are presented. The squeezing apparatus can also be employed as a quantum nondemolition measurement of photon number. A thought experiment of a two-slit interferometer is described, in which the fringes are washed out progressively with the accuracy of the photon number determination in one of its arms. Implications of measurements of this kind for the resolution of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox are discussed. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
State protection by quantum control before and after noise processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakamura, Hiroaki; Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko
2017-08-01
We discuss protection of a quantum state that goes through a noise process by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. In our previous work, we showed the nonexistence of "truly quantum" protocols that protect an unknown qubit state against depolarizing noise better than "classical" ones. Toward identifying the class of noise processes that is optimally suppressed by such a "classical" protocol, we extend our previous result in two directions. First, we show that the statement is also true in any finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, which was previously conjectured; the optimal protocol is either the do nothing protocol or the discriminate and reprepare protocol, depending on the strength of the noise. Second, in the case of a single qubit, we show that essentially the same conclusion holds for any unital noise. Thus, the noise must be nonunital for a control protocol beyond "classical" ones to exist.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Daugherty, Elaine S.; Kramarchuk, Ihor
1987-01-01
The performance of microwave systems and components for digital data transmission can be characterized by a plot of the bit-error rate as a function of the signal to noise ratio (or E sub b/E sub o). Methods for the efficient automated measurement of bit-error rates and signal-to-noise ratios, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, are described. Noise measurement considerations and time requirements for measurement accuracy, as well as computer control and data processing methods, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Enss, Christian
2016-10-01
The comprehensive analysis of low-frequency excess flux noise both in terms of magnetic flux noise S Φ , 1 / f and energy sensitivity ɛ1/f of 84 superconducting quantum devices studied at temperatures below 1 K reveals a universal behavior. When analyzing data in terms of ɛ1/f, we find that noise spectra of independent devices cross each other all at certain crossing frequencies fc. Besides this main result of our paper, we further show that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) arrays systematically feature higher noise exponents than single SQUIDs and give evidence for a material and device type dependence of low-frequency excess flux noise. The latter results facilitate to engineer the shape of magnetic flux noise spectra and thus to experimentally modify key properties such as coherence or measurement times of superconducting quantum devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Xue, Liyin
2014-07-01
We propose two fault-tolerant high-capacity quantum key distribution schemes, in which an entangled pair over a collective-noise channel consisting of one logical qubit and one physical qubit can carry four bits of key information. The basic idea is to use 2-extended unitary operations from collective noises together with quantum dense coding. The key messages are encoded on logical qubits of two physical qubits with sixteen 2-extended unitary operations based on collective noises. The key can be recovered using Bell-state analysis on the logical qubit and a single-photon measurement on the physical qubit rather than three-qubit GHZ joint measurements. The proposed protocols require a collation table to be shared between Alice and Bob in advance. Consequently, the key messages carried by an entangled state, in our protocol, have doubled at the price of sharing the collation table between Alice and Bob. However, the efficiency of qubits is enhanced because a quantum bit is more expensive to prepare than a classical bit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.
2016-06-01
The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.
Experimental implementation of Hogg's algorithm on a three-quantum-bit NMR quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin
2002-04-01
Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with a three-qubit sample, we have experimentally implemented the highly structured algorithm for the satisfiability problem with one variable in each clause proposed by Hogg. A simplified temporal averaging procedure was employed to prepare the three-qubit pseudopure state. The algorithm was completed with only a single evaluation of the structure of the problem and the solutions were found theoretically with probability 100%, results that outperform both unstructured quantum and the best classical search algorithms. However, about 90% of the corresponding experimental fidelities can be attributed to the imperfections of manipulations.
Spin-dependent shot noise enhancement in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubbelohde, Niels; Fricke, Christian; Hohls, Frank; Haug, Rolf J.
2013-07-01
The spin-dependent dynamical blockade was investigated in a lateral quantum dot in a magnetic field. Spin-polarized edge channels in the two-dimensional leads and the spatial distribution of Landau orbitals in the dot modulate the tunnel coupling of the quantum dot level spectrum. In a measurement of the electron shot noise we observe a pattern of super-Poissonian noise which is correlated to the spin-dependent competition between different transport channels.
2016-03-31
using IRLED Emitter Arrays for High Bit-Depth with Reduced Sensitivity to Noise Garrett A. Ejzak, Josh Marks, Nick Waite, Jacob Benedict, Rodney...resolution with a voltage signal between zero and ten volts, as in the current system, entirely from off-board DACs the noise on these cables must be less...differential-output current DACs fed to trans-impedance amplifiers (TIAs). As a differential current signal is inherently less affected by noise , if the
Fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, TianYu
2015-04-01
In this paper, two fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue (QD) protocols against collective noise are presented. One is against collective-dephasing noise, while the other is against collective-rotation noise. The decoherent-free states, each of which is composed of two physical qubits, act as traveling states combating collective noise. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, which play the role of private quantum key, are securely shared between two participants over a collective-noise channel in advance. Through encryption and decryption with private quantum key, the initial state of each traveling two-photon logical qubit is privately shared between two participants. Due to quantum encryption sharing of the initial state of each traveling logical qubit, the issue of information leakage is overcome. The private quantum key can be repeatedly used after rotation as long as the rotation angle is properly chosen, making quantum resource economized. As a result, their information-theoretical efficiency is nearly up to 66.7%. The proposed QD protocols only need single-photon measurements rather than two-photon joint measurements for quantum measurements. Security analysis shows that an eavesdropper cannot obtain anything useful about secret messages during the dialogue process without being discovered. Furthermore, the proposed QD protocols can be implemented with current techniques in experiment.
Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation
Dawson, Christopher M.; Nielsen, Michael A.; Haselgrove, Henry L.
2006-05-15
In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3x10{sup -3} and the depolarization probability is less than 10{sup -4}. Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].
Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, Christopher M.; Haselgrove, Henry L.; Nielsen, Michael A.
2006-05-01
In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3×10-3 and the depolarization probability is less than 10-4 . Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].
Effect of Poisson noise on adiabatic quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiely, A.; Muga, J. G.; Ruschhaupt, A.
2017-01-01
We present a detailed derivation of the master equation describing a general time-dependent quantum system with classical Poisson white noise and outline its various properties. We discuss the limiting cases of Poisson white noise and provide approximations for the different noise strength regimes. We show that using the eigenstates of the noise superoperator as a basis can be a useful way of expressing the master equation. Using this, we simulate various settings to illustrate different effects of Poisson noise. In particular, we show a dip in the fidelity as a function of noise strength where high fidelity can occur in the strong-noise regime for some cases. We also investigate recent claims [J. Jing et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 032110 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.032110] that this type of noise may improve rather than destroy adiabaticity.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
Quantum noise limits to matter-wave interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scully, Marlan O.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1994-01-01
We derive the quantum limits for an atomic interferometer in which the atoms obey either Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. It is found that the limiting quantum noise is due to the uncertainty associated with the particle sorting between the two branches of the interferometer. As an example, the quantum-limited sensitivity of a matter-wave gyroscope is calculated and compared with that of laser gyroscopes.
Effects of quantum noise in a dye-laser model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Ya; Li, Jia-Rong
1997-03-01
The steady-state properties of a dye laser model with white quantum noise and strongly colored pump noise are investigated. An effective diffusion coefficient in the steady state is presented. Our coefficient differs from that of Fox and Roy [Phys. Rev. A 35, 1838 (1987)]. We compare our results with the measurements and simulations of Lett, Short, and Mandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 341 (1984)], and the results of Fox and Roy, respectively. We find that the quantum noise plays an important role in the steady-state analysis of laser fluctuations below and near threshold.
Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.
Nonequilibrium spin noise in a quantum dot ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, D. S.; Glasenapp, Ph.; Bergen, M.; Glazov, M. M.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.; Greilich, A.
2017-06-01
The spin noise in singly charged self-assembled quantum dots is studied theoretically and experimentally under the influence of a perturbation, provided by additional photoexcited charge carriers. The theoretical description takes into account generation and relaxation of charge carriers in the quantum dot system. The spin noise is measured under application of above barrier excitation for which the data are well reproduced by the developed model. Our analysis demonstrates a strong difference of the recharging dynamics for holes and electrons in quantum dots.
A 13-bit Noise Shaping SAR-ADC with Dual-Polarity Digital Calibration.
Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2013-06-01
We present a new noise shaping method and a dual polarity calibration technique suited for successive approximation register type analog to digital converters (SAR-ADC). Noise is pushed to higher frequencies with the noise shaping by adding a switched capacitor. The SAR capacitor array mismatch has been compensated by the dual-polarity digital calibration with minimum circuit overhead. A proof-of-concept prototype SAR-ADC using the proposed techniques has been fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS technology. It achieves 67.7 dB SNDR at 62.5 kHz sampling frequency, while consuming 38.3μW power with 1.8 V supply.
Excess quantum noise fluctuations in unstable-resonator lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Mussche, Paul; Fanning, Geoff; Siegman, A. E.
1996-12-01
Experiments completed during the past year confirm the existence of a sizable excess quantum noise factor in lasers using unstable optical resonators or, more generally, resonators with nonorthogonal oscillation modes. Schawlow and Townes predicted in 1958, before the first laser was built, that even an ideal laser should exhibit a finite linewidth resulting from spontaneous emission by the laser atoms.1 Lamb and others, using standard techniques of cavity mode expansion and second quantization, then showed that the spontaneous emission in any laser should have a magnitude equal to the downward stimulated emission due to one additional quantum of signal energy acting on the inverted laser medium.2 This "one extra noise photon" approach to quantum noise has since become conventional wisdom in the field. Petermann noted in 1979, however, that spontaneous emission into the oscillating mode of a gain-guided semiconductor laser could be significantly larger than one photon per mode, leading to potentially measurable consequences for such lasers.3 In 1985, Haus and Kawakami showed that there would be partial coherence between the excess noise emission into different cavity modes, thus avoiding apparent conflicts between this excess emission and basic concepts of thermal equilibrium.4 One of us then showed in 1989 that this excess quantum noise was actually associated with the nonhermitian or biorthogonal character of the modes in certain laser structures rather than with gain guiding per se, so that large excess quantum noise effects should be observed in unstable resonator lasers in particular.5
1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer using a flawed bit-string quantum protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesch, Martin; Pawłowski, Marcin; Pivoluska, Matej
2017-04-01
Oblivious transfer (OT) is an important tool in cryptography. It serves as a subroutine to other complex procedures of both theoretical and practical significance. A common attribute of OT protocols is that one party (Alice) has to send a message to another party (Bob) and has to stay oblivious to whether Bob did receive the message. Specific (OT) protocols vary by exact definition of the task—in the all-or-nothing protocol, Alice sends a single bit-string message, which Bob is able to read with only 50 % probability, whereas in a 1-out-of-2 OT protocol Bob reads one out of two messages sent by Alice. These two flavors of protocol are known to be equivalent. Recently, a computationally secure all-or-nothing OT protocol based on quantum states was developed by A. Souto et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 042306 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042306], which, however, cannot be reduced to a 1-out-of-2 OT protocol by standard means. Here we present an elaborate reduction of this protocol that retains the security of the original.
Hondo, Toshinobu; Kawai, Yousuke; Toyoda, Michisato
2015-01-01
Rapid acquisition of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from fewer acquisitions on average was investigated using the newly introduced 12-bit digitizer, Keysight model U5303A. This is expected to achieve a spectrum acquisition 32 times faster than the commonly used 8-bit digitizer for an equal signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Averaging fewer pulses improves the detection speed and chromatographic separation performance. However, increasing the analog-to-digital converter bit resolution for a high-frequency signal, such as a TOF spectrum, increases the system noise and requires the timing jitter (aperture error) to be minimized. We studied the relationship between the S/N ratio and the average number of acquisitions using U5303A and compared this with an 8-bit digitizer. The results show that the noise, measured as root-mean-square, decreases linearly to the square root of the average number of acquisitions without background subtraction, which means that almost no systematic noise existed in our signal bandwidth of interest (a few hundreds megahertz). In comparison, 8-bit digitizers that are commonly used in the market require 32 times more pulses with background subtraction.
Reduction of Classical Measurement Noise via Quantum-Dense Metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ast, Melanie; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman
2016-10-01
Quantum-dense metrology constitutes a special case of quantum metrology in which two orthogonal phase space projections of a signal are simultaneously sensed beyond the shot-noise limit. Previously, it was shown that the additional sensing channel that is provided by quantum-dense metrology contains information that can be used to identify and to discard corrupted segments from the measurement data. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new method in which this information is used for improving the sensitivity without discarding any measurement segments. Our measurement reached sub-shot-noise performance, although initially strong classical noise polluted the data. The new method has high potential for improving the noise spectral density of gravitational-wave detectors at signal frequencies of high astrophysical relevance.
Reduction of Classical Measurement Noise via Quantum-Dense Metrology.
Ast, Melanie; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman
2016-10-28
Quantum-dense metrology constitutes a special case of quantum metrology in which two orthogonal phase space projections of a signal are simultaneously sensed beyond the shot-noise limit. Previously, it was shown that the additional sensing channel that is provided by quantum-dense metrology contains information that can be used to identify and to discard corrupted segments from the measurement data. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new method in which this information is used for improving the sensitivity without discarding any measurement segments. Our measurement reached sub-shot-noise performance, although initially strong classical noise polluted the data. The new method has high potential for improving the noise spectral density of gravitational-wave detectors at signal frequencies of high astrophysical relevance.
Reducing the overhead for quantum computation when noise is biased
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Poulin, David
2015-12-01
We analyze a model for fault-tolerant quantum computation with low overhead suitable for situations where the noise is biased. The basis for this scheme is a gadget for the fault-tolerant preparation of magic states that enable universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using only Clifford gates that preserve the noise bias. We analyze the distillation of |T > -type magic states using this gadget at the physical level, followed by concatenation with the 15-qubit quantum Reed-Muller code, and comparing our results with standard constructions. In the regime where the noise bias (rate of Pauli Z errors relative to other single-qubit errors) is greater than a factor of 10, our scheme has lower overhead across a broad range of relevant noise rates.
Stochastic antiresonance in qubit phase estimation with quantum thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillard, Nicolas; Belin, Etienne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François
2017-08-01
We consider the fundamental quantum information processing task consisting in estimating the phase of a qubit. Following quantum measurement, the estimation performance is evaluated by the classical Fisher information which determines the best performance limiting any estimator and achievable by the maximum likelihood estimator. Estimation is analyzed in the presence of decoherence represented by a quantum thermal noise at arbitrary temperature. As the noise temperature is increased, we show the possibility of nontrivial behaviors of decoherence, with an estimation performance which does not necessarily degrade uniformly, but can experience nonmonotonic evolutions. Regimes are found where higher noise temperatures turn more favorable to estimation. Such behaviors are related to stochastic resonance or antiresonance effects, where noise reveals beneficial to information processing.
Quantum noise theory for phonon transport through nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Li; Huang, Yunmi; Huang, Changcheng
2017-04-01
We have developed a quantum noise approach to study the phonon transport through nanostructures. The nanostructures acting as phonon channels are attached to two phonon reservoirs. And the temperature drop between the two reservoirs drives the phonon transport through the channels. We have derived a quantum Langevin equation(QLE) to describe the phonon transport with the quantum noise originated from the thermal fluctuation of the reservoirs. Within the Markov approximation, the QLE is used to get the thermal conductivity κ of the nanostructures and the finite size effect of the κ then is studied. In this study, the advantage of the quantum noise approach lays on the fact that no any local temperature needs to be defined for the nanostructures in its non-equilibrium state.
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography.
Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W
2016-03-07
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF(2). This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy.
Rapid single-flux-quantum circuits for low noise mK operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intiso, Samuel; Pekola, Jukka; Savin, Alexander; Devyatov, Ygor; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna
2006-05-01
Rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) technology has been proposed as control electronics for superconducting quantum bits because of the material and working temperature compatibility. In this work, we consider practical aspects of RSFQ circuit design for low noise low power operation. At the working temperature of 20 mK and operational frequency of 2 GHz, dissipated power per junction is reduced to 25 pW by using 6 µA critical current junctions available at the Hypres and VTT low Jc fabrication process. To limit phonon temperature to 30 mK, a maximum of 40 junctions can be placed on a 5 mm × 5 mm chip. Electron temperature in resistive shunts of Josephson junctions is minimized by use of cooling fins, giving minimum electron temperatures of about 150 mK for the Hypres process and 70 mK for the VTT process.
Correlated versus uncorrelated noise acting on a quantum refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Bayan; Pekola, Jukka P.
2017-09-01
Two qubits form a quantum four-level system. The golden-rule based transition rates between these states are determined by the coupling of the qubits to noise sources. We demonstrate that depending on whether the noise acting on the two qubits is correlated or not, these transitions are governed by different selection rules. In particular, we find that for fully correlated or anticorrelated noise, there is a protected state, and the dynamics of the system depends then on its initialization. For nearly (anti)correlated noise, there is a long time scale determining the temporal evolution of the qubits. We apply our results to a quantum Otto refrigerator based on two qubits coupled to hot and cold baths. The steady-state power does not scale with the number (=2 here) of the qubits when there is a strong correlation of noise acting on them; under driven conditions the highest cooling power of the refrigerator is achieved for fully uncorrelated baths.
Noise and Controllability: Suppression of Controllability in Large Quantum Systems
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2011-03-25
A closed quantum system is defined as completely controllable if an arbitrary unitary transformation can be executed using the available controls. In practice, control fields are a source of unavoidable noise. Can one design control fields such that the effect of noise is negligible on the timescale of the transformation? Complete controllability in practice requires that the effect of noise can be suppressed for an arbitrary transformation. The present study considers a paradigm of control, where the Lie-algebraic structure of the control Hamiltonian is fixed, while the size of the system increases, determined by the dimension of the Hilbert space representation of the algebra. We show that for large quantum systems, generic noise in the controls dominates for a typical class of target transformation; i.e., complete controllability is destroyed by the noise.
Ultralow Noise Monolithic Quantum Dot Photonic Oscillators
2013-10-28
laser, the dual-mode quantum dot laser, and the optically- injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser. The key milestones achieved were: 1.) the...distributed feedback device using optical injection to generate microwave, mm- wave and THz signals, and 5.) the generation of relaxation oscillations over...a continuous 5 octaves (below 1 GHz to 40 GHz) in an optically- injected quantum dot laser. UU N/A N/A N/A 100-200 words 15 Shannon Denetchiley (505
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-15
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-01
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Wavelet denoising for quantum noise removal in chest digital tomosynthesis.
Gomi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Umeda, Tokuo
2015-01-01
Quantum noise impairs image quality in chest digital tomosynthesis (DT). A wavelet denoising processing algorithm for selectively removing quantum noise was developed and tested. A wavelet denoising technique was implemented on a DT system and experimentally evaluated using chest phantom measurements including spatial resolution. Comparison was made with an existing post-reconstruction wavelet denoising processing algorithm reported by Badea et al. (Comput Med Imaging Graph 22:309-315, 1998). The potential DT quantum noise decrease was evaluated using different exposures with our technique (pre-reconstruction and post-reconstruction wavelet denoising processing via the balance sparsity-norm method) and the existing wavelet denoising processing algorithm. Wavelet denoising processing algorithms such as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), root mean square error (RMSE) were compared with and without wavelet denoising processing. Modulation transfer functions (MTF) were evaluated for the in-focus plane. We performed a statistical analysis (multi-way analysis of variance) using the CNR and RMSE values. Our wavelet denoising processing algorithm significantly decreased the quantum noise and improved the contrast resolution in the reconstructed images (CNR and RMSE: pre-balance sparsity-norm wavelet denoising processing versus existing wavelet denoising processing, P<0.05; post-balance sparsity-norm wavelet denoising processing versus existing wavelet denoising processing, P<0.05; CNR: with versus without wavelet denoising processing, P<0.05). The results showed that although MTF did not vary (thus preserving spatial resolution), the existing wavelet denoising processing algorithm caused MTF deterioration. A balance sparsity-norm wavelet denoising processing algorithm for removing quantum noise in DT was demonstrated to be effective for certain classes of structures with high-frequency component features. This denoising approach may be useful for a variety of clinical
General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Haixing
2017-01-01
In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
Chau, H.F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1{radical}(5){approx_equal}27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1(5)≈27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, A. R.
1999-03-01
Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.
Demonstration of Johnson noise thermometry with all-superconducting quantum voltage noise source
Yamada, Takahiro Urano, Chiharu; Maezawa, Masaaki
2016-01-25
We present a Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) system based on an integrated quantum voltage noise source (IQVNS) that has been fully implemented using superconducting circuit technology. To enable precise measurement of Boltzmann's constant, an IQVNS chip was designed to produce intrinsically calculable pseudo-white noise to calibrate the JNT system. On-chip real-time generation of pseudo-random codes via simple circuits produced pseudo-voltage noise with a harmonic tone interval of less than 1 Hz, which was one order of magnitude finer than the harmonic tone interval of conventional quantum voltage noise sources. We estimated a value for Boltzmann's constant experimentally by performing JNT measurements at the temperature of the triple point of water using the IQVNS chip.
Noise Sensing and Quantum Simulation with Trapped Atomic Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorman, Dylan J.
In this work, we present a novel method to couple any two vibrational modes of a single trapped ion, allowing energy to be swapped between the two modes. We use the scheme to perform ground state cooling and heating rate measurements of vibrational modes without direct optical access. This lessens experimental design constraints in trapped ion experiments, particularly in surface trap apparatus where optical access can be difficult. We use a single ion as an electric-field noise sensor to study noise processes originating on the metallic surfaces of microfabricated ion traps. We show that realistic models of surface noise predict a specific polarization of the electric-field fluctuations relative to the trap geometry. In contrast, technical noise sources predict a different polarization direction and magnitude which can be inferred by electrostatic simulation of the trapping electrodes. We show that, by comparing heating rates of the two radial modes of a single trapped ion, one can determine whether technical noise sources are a significant contribution to heating. This is an important test for experiments aimed at studying surface noise effects. We also study dephasing due to surface noise, in which the electric potential curvature due to surface noise sources disturbs the phase of the ion motion. We measure the dephasing time for trapped ion motion. Using a noise model featuring dipolar noise sources, we probe the power spectrum of surface noise effects. These measurements, especially if repeated in a trap with smaller ion-electrode distances, may yield new insights as to the physical origin of surface noise effects. We demonstrate a two-ion quantum simulation of vibrationally-assisted energy transfer, an important phenomenon in biochemical energy transfer. We show that the quantum simulator performs well when benchmarked against exact numerical simulation. We believe that our approach can be scaled to more complicated systems beyond the reach of classical
Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km.
Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka
2016-01-11
We demonstrate the first 40 Gbit/s single-channel polarization-multiplexed, 5 Gsymbol/s, 16 QAM quantum noise stream cipher (QNSC) transmission over 480 km by incorporating ASE quantum noise from EDFAs as well as the quantum shot noise of the coherent state with multiple photons for the random masking of data. By using a multi-bit encoded scheme and digital coherent transmission techniques, secure optical communication with a record data capacity and transmission distance has been successfully realized. In this system, the signal level received by Eve is hidden by both the amplitude and the phase noise. The highest number of masked signals, 7.5 x 10(4), was achieved by using a QAM scheme with FEC, which makes it possible to reduce the output power from the transmitter while maintaining an error free condition for Bob. We have newly measured the noise distribution around I and Q encrypted data and shown experimentally with a data size of as large as 2(25) that the noise has a Gaussian distribution with no correlations. This distribution is suitable for the random masking of data.
Three-party quantum secure direct communication against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2017-10-01
Based on logical quantum states, two three-party quantum secure direct communication protocols are proposed, which can realize the exchange of the secret messages between three parties with the help of the measurement correlation property of six-particle entangled states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively; neither of them has information leakage problem. The one-way transmission mode ensures that they can congenitally resist against the Trojan horse attacks and the teleportation attack. Furthermore, these two protocols are secure against other active attacks because of the use of the decoy state technology.
Two Quantum Key Agreement Protocols Immune to Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2017-02-01
In this paper, two quantum key agreement protocols are proposed, which can resist against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. These two protocols mainly utilize logical quantum states, the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. Moreover, they have no information leakage and are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The use of the decoy state technology and the delayed measurement technique makes them secure against both participant and outsider attacks. The efficiency analysis shows that the two protocols are very efficient.
Two Quantum Key Agreement Protocols Immune to Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-10-01
In this paper, two quantum key agreement protocols are proposed, which can resist against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. These two protocols mainly utilize logical quantum states, the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. Moreover, they have no information leakage and are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The use of the decoy state technology and the delayed measurement technique makes them secure against both participant and outsider attacks. The efficiency analysis shows that the two protocols are very efficient.
Noise-induced quantum state transfer in distant cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jie; Li, Chuang; Xia, Yan; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Jiang, Yong-Yuan
2017-09-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics evolution of three-level atoms in two cavities coupled to a non-Markovian environment. By adjusting the system parameters, we find that the noise has almost no influence on population transfer between atomic states. The strong noise will be helpful in achieving quantum state control, even when the coupling between cavities is equal to zero. Furthermore, we may drive the system into the desired steady state within a short time in the noisy environment.
Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang
2016-10-01
This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.
Spectral analysis and identification of noises in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, R. B.; Li, T. F.; Kofman, A. G.; Zhang, J.; Liu, Yu-Xi; Pashkin, Yu. A.; Tsai, J.-S.; Nori, Franco
2013-02-01
In quantum information processing, knowledge of the noise in the system is crucial for high-precision manipulation and tomography of coherent quantum operations. Existing strategies for identifying this noise require the use of additional quantum devices or control pulses. We present a noise-identification method directly based on the system's non-Markovian response of an ensemble measurement to the noise. The noise spectrum is identified by reversing the response relationship in the frequency domain. For illustration, the method is applied to superconducting charge qubits, but it is equally applicable to any type of qubits. We find that the identification strategy recovers the well-known Fermi's golden rule under the lowest-order perturbation approximation, which corresponds to the Markovian limit when the measurement time is much longer than the noise correlation time. Beyond such approximation, it is possible to further improve the precision at the so-called optimal point by incorporating the transient response data in the non-Markovian regime. This method is verified with experimental data from coherent oscillations in a superconducting charge qubit.
Coping with noise in programmable quantum annealers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro
Solving real-world applications with quantum annealing algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language, to tuning several other parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. For example, in http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05679 we proposed an method to measure residual systematic biases in the programmable parameters of large-scale quantum annealers. Although the method described there works from a practical point of view, a few questions were left unanswered. One of these puzzles was the observation of a broad distribution in the estimated effective qubit temperatures throughout the device . In this talk, we will present our progress in understanding these puzzles and how these new insights allow for a more effective bias correction protocol. We will present the impact of these new parameter setting and bias correction protocols in the performance of hard discrete optimization problems and in the successful implementation of quantum-assisted machine-learning algorithms.
Noise Estimation and Adaptive Encoding for Asymmetric Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florjanczyk, Jan; Brun, Todd; CenterQuantum Information Science; Technology Team
We present a technique that improves the performance of asymmetric quantum error correcting codes in the presence of biased qubit noise channels. Our study is motivated by considering what useful information can be learned from the statistics of syndrome measurements in stabilizer quantum error correcting codes (QECC). We consider the case of a qubit dephasing channel where the dephasing axis is unknown and time-varying. We are able to estimate the dephasing angle from the statistics of the standard syndrome measurements used in stabilizer QECC's. We use this estimate to rotate the computational basis of the code in such a way that the most likely type of error is covered by the highest distance of the asymmetric code. In particular, we use the [ [ 15 , 1 , 3 ] ] shortened Reed-Muller code which can correct one phase-flip error but up to three bit-flip errors. In our simulations, we tune the computational basis to match the estimated dephasing axis which in turn leads to a decrease in the probability of a phase-flip error. With a sufficiently accurate estimate of the dephasing axis, our memory's effective error is dominated by the much lower probability of four bit-flips. Aro MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0268.
Kikuchi, Kazuro
2012-02-27
We develop a systematic method for characterizing semiconductor-laser phase noise, using a low-speed offline digital coherent receiver. The field spectrum, the FM-noise spectrum, and the phase-error variance measured with such a receiver can completely describe phase-noise characteristics of lasers under test. The sampling rate of the digital coherent receiver should be much higher than the phase-fluctuation speed. However, 1 GS/s is large enough for most of the single-mode semiconductor lasers. In addition to such phase-noise characterization, interpolating the taken data at 1.25 GS/s to form a data stream at 10 GS/s, we can predict the bit-error rate (BER) performance of multi-level modulated optical signals at 10 Gsymbol/s. The BER degradation due to the phase noise is well explained by the result of the phase-noise measurements.
Noise and entanglement in quantum conductors
Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.
2009-05-14
In this article we discuss our two recent proposals on producing and detecting of entangled states in quantum conductors. First we analyze a setup where two electrons are scattered on a quantum dot with Coulomb repulsion and became orbitally entangled. Second, for identical noninteracting particles we suggest an operating scheme for the deliberate generation of spin-entangled electron pairs in a normal-metal mesoscopic structure with a fork geometry. The spin-entangled pair is created through a post-selection in the two branches of the fork. We also make comments on different ways of producing and quantifying the degree of entanglement.
On the Effect of Quantum Noise in a Quantum-Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-12-01
The disrupting effect of quantum noise on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.
Noise-resilient quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling
Liu, Gang-Qin; Po, Hoi Chun; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ren-Bao; Pan, Xin-Yu
2013-01-01
Realistic quantum computing is subject to noise. Therefore, an important frontier in quantum computing is to implement noise-resilient quantum control over qubits. At the same time, dynamical decoupling can protect the coherence of qubits. Here we demonstrate non-trivial quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling control, which simultaneously suppresses noise effects. We design and implement a self-protected controlled-NOT gate on the electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy centre and a nearby carbon-13 nuclear spin in diamond at room temperature, by employing an engineered dynamical decoupling control on the electron spin. Final state fidelity of 0.91(1) is observed in preparation of a Bell state using the gate. At the same time, the qubit coherence time is elongated at least 30 fold. The design scheme does not require the dynamical decoupling control to commute with the qubit interaction and therefore works for general qubit systems. This work marks a step towards implementing realistic quantum computing systems. PMID:23912335
Noise tailoring for scalable quantum computation via randomized compiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallman, Joel J.; Emerson, Joseph
2016-11-01
Quantum computers are poised to radically outperform their classical counterparts by manipulating coherent quantum systems. A realistic quantum computer will experience errors due to the environment and imperfect control. When these errors are even partially coherent, they present a major obstacle to performing robust computations. Here, we propose a method for introducing independent random single-qubit gates into the logical circuit in such a way that the effective logical circuit remains unchanged. We prove that this randomization tailors the noise into stochastic Pauli errors, which can dramatically reduce error rates while introducing little or no experimental overhead. Moreover, we prove that our technique is robust to the inevitable variation in errors over the randomizing gates and numerically illustrate the dramatic reductions in worst-case error that are achievable. Given such tailored noise, gates with significantly lower fidelity—comparable to fidelities realized in current experiments—are sufficient to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation. Furthermore, the worst-case error rate of the tailored noise can be directly and efficiently measured through randomized benchmarking protocols, enabling a rigorous certification of the performance of a quantum computer.
Demonstration of quantum superiority in learning parity with noise with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus; Ryan, Colm; Cross, Andrew; Smolin, John; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry; Johnson, Blake
A problem in machine learning is to identify the function programmed in an unknown device, or oracle, having only access to its output. In particular, a parity function computes the parity of a subset of a bit register. We implement an oracle executing parity functions in a five-qubit superconducting processor and compare the performance of a classical and a quantum learner. The classical learner reads the output of multiple oracle calls and uses the results to infer the hidden function. In addition to querying the oracle, the quantum learner can apply coherent rotations on the output register before the readout. We show that, given a target success probability, the quantum approach outperforms the classical one in the number of queries needed. Moreover, this gap increases with readout noise and with the size of the qubit register. This result shows that quantum advantage can already emerge in current systems with a few, noisy qubits. We acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.
Highly noise resistant multiqubit quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskowski, Wiesław; Vértesi, Tamás; Wieśniak, Marcin
2015-11-01
We analyze robustness of correlations of the N-qubit GHZ and Dicke states against white noise admixture. For sufficiently large N, the Dicke states (for any number of excitations) lead to more robust violation of local realism than the GHZ states (e.g. for N > 8 for the W state). We also identify states that are the most resistant to white noise. Surprisingly, it turns out that these states are the GHZ states augmented with fully product states. Based on our numerical analysis conducted up to N = 8, and an analytical formula derived for any N parties, we conjecture that the three-qubit GHZ state augmented with a product of (N - 3) pure qubits is the most robust against white noise admixture among any N-qubit state. As a by-product, we derive a single Bell inequality and show that it is violated by all pure entangled states of a given number of parties. This gives an alternative proof of Gisin’s theorem.
Quantum noise and spatial emission properties of RCLEDs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birkner, Richard; Kaiser, Joachim; ElsaBer, Wolfgang; Jung, Christian
2004-09-01
We present results of comprehensive investigations of the intensity noise and the angular-resolved spectral emission characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes (RCLEDs), demonstrating an interesting interplay between these two properties. First, we find that the intensity noise of the investigated RCLEDs, detected within a full solid angle of detection, is up to -0.15 dB below the shot noise in a quite large pumping regime, i.e., we demonstrate the successful generation of squeezed states of light with these optoelectronic devices. Second, we investigate the spectral and angular emission characteristics and find that the cavity-like character of the Bragg mirrors and the quantum well active medium manifests itself in a blue shift of the central emission wavelength from 847 nm at zero degree to 825 nm at an emission angle of sixty degree. By varying the temperature we are able to detune the quantum-well emission wavelength and the cavity resonance wavelength and observe a broader angular intensity profile. Third, we measure the angular resolved intensity noise. Its super-shot noise behavior can be explained by anticorrelations between radial components of the output intensity emitted at different angles. Finally, the possible origin of the observed anticorrelations in the angular-resolved intensity noise, as well as possibilities for future trends, applications and the limitations of these non-classical states of light with respect to sensing and spectroscopic applications are discussed.
Fast quantum noise in the Landau-Zener transition
Pokrovsky, V. L.; Sun, D.
2007-07-01
We show by direct calculation starting from a microscopic model that the two-state system with time-dependent energy levels in the presence of fast quantum noise obeys the master equation. The solution of master equation is found analytically and analyzed in a broad range of parameters. The fast transverse noise affects the transition probability during much longer time (the accumulation time) than the longitudinal one. The action of the fast longitudinal noise is restricted by the shorter Landau-Zener time, the same as in the regular Landau-Zener process. The large ratio of time scales allows solving the Landau-Zener problem with longitudinal noise only, and then solving the same problem with the transverse noise only and matching the two solutions. The correlation of the longitudinal and transverse noise renormalizes the Landau-Zener transition matrix element and can strongly enhance the survival probability, whereas the transverse noise always reduces it. If the noise is fast, its intensity at which the multiquantum processes become essential corresponds to a deeply adiabatic regime. We briefly discuss possible applications of the general theory to the molecular magnets.
Fault tolerant quantum secure direct communication with quantum encryption against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Heng-Yue; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei
2012-10-01
We present two novel quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols over different collective-noise channels. Different from the previous QSDC schemes over collective-noise channels, which are all source-encrypting protocols, our two protocols are based on channel-encryption. In both schemes, two authorized users first share a sequence of EPR pairs as their reusable quantum key. Then they use their quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the secret message carried by the decoherence-free states over the collective-noise channel. In theory, the intrinsic efficiencies of both protocols are high since there is no need to consume any entangled states including both the quantum key and the information carriers except the ones used for eavesdropping checks. For checking eavesdropping, the two parties only need to perform two-particle measurements on the decoy states during each round. Finally, we make a security analysis of our two protocols and demonstrate that they are secure.
Blind quantum computation over a collective-noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Yuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2016-05-01
Blind quantum computation (BQC) allows a client (Alice), who only possesses relatively poor quantum devices, to delegate universal quantum computation to a server (Bob) in such a way that Bob cannot know Alice's inputs, algorithm, and outputs. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is noisy, and the loss over the long-distance quantum communication should also be taken into account. Here we propose to use decoherence-free subspace (DFS) to overcome the collective noise in the quantum channel for BQC, which we call DFS-BQC. We propose three variations of DFS-BQC protocols. One of them, a coherent-light-assisted DFS-BQC protocol, allows Alice to faithfully send the signal photons with a probability proportional to a transmission rate of the quantum channel. In all cases, we combine the ideas based on DFS and the Broadbent-Fitzsimons-Kashefi protocol, which is one of the BQC protocols, without degrading unconditional security. The proposed DFS-based schemes are generic and hence can be applied to other BQC protocols where Alice sends quantum states to Bob.
Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates
Parodi, Daniele; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Solinas, Paolo
2007-07-15
We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by a suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called stimulated raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) gates.
Quantum noise reduction using squeezed states in LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwyer, Sheila E.
Direct detection of gravitational waves will require earth based detectors to measure strains of the order 10-21, at frequencies of 100Hz, a sensitivity that has been accomplished with the initial generation of LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors. A new generation of detectors currently under construction is designed improve on the sensitivity of the initial detectors by about a factor of 10. The quantum nature of light will limit the sensitivity of these Advanced LIGO interferometers at most frequencies; new approaches to reducing the quantum noise will be needed to improve the sensitivity further. This quantum noise originates from the vacuum fluctuations that enter the unused port of the interferometer and interfere with the laser light. Vacuum fluctuations have the minimum noise allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, DeltaX1 Delta X2 ≤ 1, where the two quadratures X 1 and X2 are non-commuting observables responsible for the two forms of quantum noise, shot noise and radiation pressure noise. By replacing the vacuum fluctuations entering the interferometer with squeezed states, which have lower noise in one quadrature than the vacuum state, we have reduced the shot noise of a LIGO interferometer. The sensitivity to gravitational waves measured during this experiment represents the best sensitivity achieved to date at frequencies above 200 Hz, and possibly the first time that squeezing has been measured in an interferometer at frequencies below 700 Hz. The possibility that injection of squeezed states could introduce environmental noise couplings that would degrade the crucial but fragile low frequency sensitivity of a LIGO interferometer has been a major concern in planning to implement squeezing as part of baseline interferometer operations. These results demonstrate that squeezing is compatible with the low frequency sensitivity of a full scale gravitational wave interferometer. We also investigated the limits to the level of squeezing
Prefect Protection of Quantum-Enhanced Metrology from Dephasing Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wei; Huang, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Guang
2017-04-01
One of the main obstacles for quantum-enhanced metrology is that the estimation accuracy enhanced by non-classical states is likely to be obliterated by noises. Here, we consider a scenario of phase estimation suffering from pure dephasing noise which is taken into account after the phase parameter being imprinted, and propose a scheme to effectively protect the quantum enhancement from both correlated and uncorrelated dephasing sources by performing a rotation operation prior to the noise. By invoking the Fisher information approach, we strictly prove that a π /2 rotation is the ideal one which can completely resist the influence of the phase noise for all real symmetric pure states and the optimal measurement approaching the ultimate sensitivity set by quantum Cramér-Rao bound is presented. Additionally, we numerically study the availability of the scheme with arbitrary angle rotation for different probe states and show that our scheme will still robust for general symmetric pure states even with non-ideal rotation operation. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11475146
Description of quantum noise by a Langevin equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metiu, H.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
General features of the quantum noise problem expressed as the equations of motion for a particle coupled to a set of oscillators are investigated analytically. Account is taken of the properties of the companion oscillators by formulating quantum statistical correlation Langevin equations (QSLE). The frequency of the oscillators is then retained as a natural cut-off for the quantum noise. The QSLE is further extended to encompass the particle trajectory and is bounded by initial and final states of the oscillator. The states are expressed as the probability of existence at the moment of particle collision that takes the oscillator into a final state. Two noise sources then exist: a statistical uncertainty of the initial state and the quantum dynamical uncertainty associated with a transition from the initial to final state. Feynman's path-integral formulation is used to characterize the functional of the particle trajectory, which slows the particle. It is shown that the energy loss may be attributed to friction, which satisfies energy conservation laws.
Description of quantum noise by a Langevin equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metiu, H.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
General features of the quantum noise problem expressed as the equations of motion for a particle coupled to a set of oscillators are investigated analytically. Account is taken of the properties of the companion oscillators by formulating quantum statistical correlation Langevin equations (QSLE). The frequency of the oscillators is then retained as a natural cut-off for the quantum noise. The QSLE is further extended to encompass the particle trajectory and is bounded by initial and final states of the oscillator. The states are expressed as the probability of existence at the moment of particle collision that takes the oscillator into a final state. Two noise sources then exist: a statistical uncertainty of the initial state and the quantum dynamical uncertainty associated with a transition from the initial to final state. Feynman's path-integral formulation is used to characterize the functional of the particle trajectory, which slows the particle. It is shown that the energy loss may be attributed to friction, which satisfies energy conservation laws.
Quantum reading capacity under thermal and correlated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano
2013-06-01
Quantum communication theory sets the maximum rates at which information can be encoded and decoded reliably given the physical properties of the information carriers. Here we consider the problem of readout of a digital optical memory, where information is stored by means of the optical properties of the memory cells that are in turn probed by shining a laser beam on them. Interesting features arise in the regime in which the probing light has to be treated quantum mechanically. The maximum rate of reliable readout defines the quantum reading capacity, which is proven to overcome the classical reading capacity—obtained by probing with classical light—in several relevant settings. We consider a model of optical memory in which information is encoded in the (complex-valued) attenuation factor and study the effects on the reading rates of thermal and correlated noise. The latter type of noise arises when the effects of wave diffraction on the probing light beam are taken into account. We discuss the advantages of quantum reading over the classical one and show that the former is substantially more robust than the latter under thermal noise in the regime of low power per pulse.
Effect of local noise for achieving nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-09-01
In this paper, we investigate steering, Bell nonlocality and nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence for entangled pure states. We find that there are nonlocal states which cannot achieve a nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence. In addition, we explore the effect of local noise for achieving nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence. It shows that, with the increase in noise parameter, it is difficult to achieve nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence and when the noise parameter is beyond a certain value, nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence cannot be achieved. Compared with steering and Bell nonlocality, the effect of local noise for achieving nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence is dominated.
Quantum sensing of noises in one and two dimensional quantum walks.
Chen, Tian; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiangdong
2017-07-10
Quantum walk (QW) provides a versatile platform for the realization of quantum algorithms. Due to the existence of the inevitable noises in the walk, the different quantum algorithms accommodating to different noises are demanded. Thus, the success of the algorithms based on the QW requires us to sense different noises in the walk. Until now, the way to distinguish different noises in the walk has been discussed rarely. Here, we propose an efficient way to sense the noises in the one and two dimensional QWs. The populations of the coin in the walk with or without decoherence are presented. By only detecting the populations of the coin in the QW, we can determine whether there exists the decoherence in the total QW system. Moreover, the non-Markovianity of the coin in the one and two dimensional QWs is revealed, in which the coin is taken as an open quantum system, and the other components of the QW system is taken as the large environment. With the measured value of the non-Markovianity for the coin, we can conjecture which kinds of noise emerges in the one and two dimensional QWs.
Optimal alphabets for noise-resistant quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2005-06-01
Possibilities of improving critical error rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols for different strategies of eavesdropping are investigated. QKD-protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 vertexes respectively) and QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vortexes are considered. Stability of such QKD-protocols to the noise in a quantum channel which is due to the Eve's interference that apply either intercept-receipt or optimal eavesdropping strategy at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after bases reconciliation the QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols in terms of noise-resistance. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.
Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation
Yeo Ye
2003-05-01
Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.
Optimal ratio between phase basis and bit basis in quantum key distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Masahito
2009-02-01
In the original Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, the bit basis and the phase basis are used with equal probability. Lo [J. Cryptology 18, 133 (2005)] proposed modifying the ratio between the two bases by increasing the final key generation rate. However, the optimum ratio has not yet been derived. In this Rapid Communication, in order to examine this problem, the ratio between the two bases is optimized for exponential constraints, given Eve’s information distinguishability and the final error probability.
Optical scatter of quantum noise filter cavity optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vander-Hyde, Daniel; Amra, Claude; Lequime, Michel; Magaña-Sandoval, Fabian; Smith, Joshua R.; Zerrad, Myriam
2015-07-01
Optical cavities to filter squeezed light for quantum noise reduction require optics with very low scattering losses. We report on measured light scattering from two super-polished fused silica optics before and after applying highly-reflective ion-beam sputtered dielectric coatings. We used an imaging scatterometer that illuminates the sample with a linearly polarized 1064 nm wavelength laser at a fixed angle of incidence and records images of back scatter for azimuthal angles in the plane of the laser beam. We extract from these images the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the optics with and without coating and estimate their integrated scatter. We find that application of these coatings led to a more than 50% increase of the integrated wide-angle scatter, to 5.00+/- 0.30 and 3.38+/- 0.20 ppm for the two coated samples. In addition, the BRDF function of the coated optics takes on a pattern of maxima versus azimuthal angle. We compare with a scattering model to show that this is qualitatively consistent with roughness scattering from the coating layer interfaces. These results are part of a broader study to understand and minimize optical loss in quantum noise filter cavities for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. The scattering measured for these samples is acceptable for the 16 m long filter cavities envisioned for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), though reducing the loss further would improve LIGO’s quantum-noise limited performance.
An Electronic Primary Thermometer Based on Quantum Shot Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spietz, Lafe; Lehnert, K. W.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2001-03-01
The wide range of thermometers used in cryogenic systems today all suffer from some combination of lack of absolute accuracy, complexity, and sensitivity to magnetic fields. We describe a primary thermometer that is fast, compact, insensitive to magnetic fields, and operates over a range from millikelvin temperatures to tens of Kelvins. The thermometer consists of a 50 Ohm tunnel junction whose noise power is measured by standard techniques of microwave radiometry. In such a junction, the quantum shot noise is an elementary function of the applied bias voltage, the electron’s charge, the Boltzmann constant, and the temperature. In contrast to Johnson noise thermometry, this method is self-calibrating and depends only on applied DC voltage, temperature, and fundamental constants. Hence this system may have metrological applications. We report progress toward a proof-of-concept demonstration of this thermometer.
Interferometric constraints on quantum geometrical shear noise correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Aaron; Glass, Henry; Gustafson, H. Richard; Hogan, Craig J.; Kamai, Brittany L.; Kwon, Ohkyung; Lanza, Robert; McCuller, Lee; Meyer, Stephan S.; Richardson, Jonathan W.; Stoughton, Chris; Tomlin, Ray; Weiss, Rainer
2017-08-01
Final measurements and analysis are reported from the first-generation Holometer, the first instrument capable of measuring correlated variations in space-time position at strain noise power spectral densities smaller than a Planck time. The apparatus consists of two co-located, but independent and isolated, 40 m power-recycled Michelson interferometers, whose outputs are cross-correlated to 25 MHz. The data are sensitive to correlations of differential position across the apparatus over a broad band of frequencies up to and exceeding the inverse light crossing time, 7.6 MHz. By measuring with Planck precision the correlation of position variations at spacelike separations, the Holometer searches for faint, irreducible correlated position noise backgrounds predicted by some models of quantum space-time geometry. The first-generation optical layout is sensitive to quantum geometrical noise correlations with shear symmetry—those that can be interpreted as a fundamental noncommutativity of space-time position in orthogonal directions. General experimental constraints are placed on parameters of a set of models of spatial shear noise correlations, with a sensitivity that exceeds the Planck-scale holographic information bound on position states by a large factor. This result significantly extends the upper limits placed on models of directional noncommutativity by currently operating gravitational wave observatories.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Phonon squeezed states: quantum noise reduction in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1999-03-01
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million) fluctuations in phonons. We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/∼nori/squeezed.html.
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Izadyar, Seyed Mohsen; Razaghi, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Abdollah
2017-04-20
In this paper, a theoretical model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QDSOA) is proposed. The dynamics of carriers in ground, excited, and continuum states and wetting layer are considered in this model. The effects of the second excited state (ES2) inclusion are investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in the proposed QDSOA model. Moreover, the inhomogeneous broadening effect due to size distribution of dots, and the homogeneous broadening effect of a single dot in the gain spectrum by grouping of dots based on their optical resonant frequency, are included in the model. Furthermore, grouping of photon modes is considered in the model. It is shown that improvement of QDSOA performance is possible by considering ES2 in rate equations. Gain saturation in different injection currents is obtained for various square-shaped pulse train bit-rates. It is shown that carriers' relaxation time plays an important role in signal amplification and processing of QDSOA. The results illustrate that QDSOA can be used for high bit-rate signal processing devices (up to 450 Gbps) with negligible wave distortion and fast gain recovery.
Focus on quantum effects and noise in biomolecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, G. R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2011-11-01
The role of quantum mechanics in biological organisms has been a fundamental question of twentieth-century biology. It is only now, however, with modern experimental techniques, that it is possible to observe quantum mechanical effects in bio-molecular complexes directly. Indeed, recent experiments have provided evidence that quantum effects such as wave-like motion of excitonic energy flow, delocalization and entanglement can be seen even in complex and noisy biological environments (Engel et al 2007 Nature 446 782; Collini et al 2010 Nature 463 644; Panitchayangkoon et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 12766). Motivated by these observations, theoretical work has highlighted the importance of an interplay between environmental noise and quantum coherence in such systems (Mohseni et al 2008 J. Chem. Phys. 129 174106; Plenio and Huelga 2008 New J. Phys. 10 113019; Olaya-Castro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 085115; Rebentrost et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 033003; Caruso et al 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 105106; Ishizaki and Fleming 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 234111). All of this has led to a surge of interest in the exploration of quantum effects in biological systems in order to understand the possible relevance of non-trivial quantum features and to establish a potential link between quantum coherence and biological function. These studies include not only exciton transfer across light harvesting complexes, but also the avian compass (Ritz et al 2000 Biophys. J. 78 707), and the olfactory system (Turin 1996 Chem. Sens. 21 773; Chin et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 065002). These examples show that the full understanding of the dynamics at bio-molecular length (10 Å) and timescales (sub picosecond) in noisy biological systems can uncover novel phenomena and concepts and hence present a fertile ground for truly multidisciplinary research.
Probabilistic quantum teleportation in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2016-06-01
We extend the research program initiated in [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012338 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012338] from noisy deterministic teleportation protocols to noisy probabilistic (conditional) protocols. Our main goal now is to study how we can increase the fidelity of the teleported state in the presence of noise by working with probabilistic protocols. We work with several scenarios involving the most common types of noise in realistic implementations of quantum communication tasks and find many cases where adding more noise to the probabilistic protocol increases considerably the fidelity of the teleported state, without decreasing the probability of a successful run of the protocol. Also, there are cases where the entanglement of the channel connecting Alice and Bob leading to the greatest fidelity is not maximal. Moreover, there exist cases where the optimal fidelity for the probabilistic protocols are greater than the maximal fidelity (2 /3 ) achievable by using only classical resources, while the optimal ones for the deterministic protocols under the same conditions lie below this limit. This result clearly illustrates that in some cases we can only get a truly quantum teleportation if we use probabilistic instead of deterministic protocols.
Dissipative Landau-Zener quantum dynamics with transversal and longitudinal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanbakht, S.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2015-05-01
We determine the Landau-Zener transition probability in a dissipative environment including both longitudinal as well as transversal quantum-mechanical noise originating from a single noise source. For this, we use the numerically exact quasiadiabatic path integral, as well as the approximative nonequilibrium Bloch equations. We find that transversal quantum noise in general influences the Landau-Zener probability much more strongly than longitudinal quantum noise does at a given temperature and system-bath coupling strength. In other words, transversal noise contributions become important even when the coupling strength of transversal noise is smaller than that of longitudinal noise. We furthermore reveal that transversal noise renormalizes the tunnel coupling independent of temperature. Finally, we show that the effect of mixed longitudinal and transversal noise originating from a single bath cannot be obtained from an incoherent sum of purely longitudinal and purely transversal noise.
4-bit Bipolar Triangle Voltage Waveform Generator Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoki; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki; Mizugaki, Yoshinao
SFQ digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are one of the candidates for AC voltage standards. We have proposed SFQ-DACs based on frequency modulation (FM). Bipolar output is required for applications of AC voltage standards, while our previous SFQ-DACs generated only positive voltages. In this paper, we present our design of a 4-bit bipolar triangle voltage waveform generator comprising an SFQ-DAC. The waveform generator has two output ports. Synthesized half-period waveforms are alternately generated in one of the output ports. The bipolar output is realized by observing the differential voltage between the ports. We confirmed a 72-μVPP bipolar triangle voltage waveform at the frequency of 35.7 Hz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souto, A.; Mateus, P.; Adão, P.; Paunković, N.
2015-10-01
In the Comment the author states that the proposed all-or-nothing oblivious transfer (OT) protocol in our paper is insecure against a dishonest Alice and, as a corollary, derives an attack to Crépeau's construction of 1-out-of-2 OT. The security criterion used in the Comment is indeed stronger than the one used in our paper. However, we argue that the criterion used in our paper is in the spirit of the original idea of the OT protocol proposed by Rabin. Moreover, a protocol that satisfies the criterion in our paper can be used to construct useful multiparty protocols. Finally, the protocol in our paper can be used, together with a secure bit commitment scheme, to construct a 1-out-of-2 OT secure against malicious Alice, achieving the security requirement considered in the Comment.
Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn
2015-12-07
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.
Two-party quantum key agreement against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-12-01
In this paper, two two-party quantum key agreement protocols are proposed with logical χ -states and logical Bell states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. They make full use of the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. This ensures that two participants can exchange the secret keys of each other and fairly establishes a shared key. There is no information leakage problem when establishing a shared key. The use of the delayed measurement technique and the decoy state technology makes the two protocols resist against both participant and outsider attacks. Furthermore, the two protocols are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks and have high qubit efficiency.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-03-01
Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Hideo; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2017-05-01
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) is an energy-efficient superconductor logic. The advantage of AQFP is that the switching energy can be reduced by lowering operation frequencies or by increasing the quality factors of Josephson junctions, while keeping the energy barrier height much larger than thermal energy. In other words, both low energy dissipation and low bit error rates (BERs) can be achieved. In this paper, we report the first measurement results of the low BERs of AQFP logic. We used a superconductor voltage driver with a stack of dc superconducting-quantum-interference-devices to amplify the logic signals of AQFP gates into mV-range voltage signals for the BER measurement. Our measurement results showed 3.3 dB and 2.6 dB operation margins, in which BERs were less than 10-20, for 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps data rates, respectively. While the observed BERs were very low, the estimated switching energy for the 1-Gbps operation was only 2 zJ or 30kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann's constant and T is the temperature. Unlike conventional non-adiabatic logic, BERs are not directly associated with switching energy in AQFP.
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Eun-Cheol
2008-03-03
We theoretically study evolution of quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light that propagates a semiconductor waveguide where nonlinear optical interaction occurs. Optical quantum noise is simulated by statistical (pseudo-)random distribution of phasors in a phase space with Gaussian probability weight, and each phasor evolution is governed by beam propagation method. It is shown that Kerr effects squeeze quantum noise of coherent light in a phase space such that photon-number noise is unchanged while phase noise increasing with uncertainty area invariant. However, two-photon absorption alters the photon-number statistics of light unlike Kerr effects.
Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-01
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.
Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2014-08-11
We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup −5} e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup −6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.
Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.
1988-02-15
We show, via simple geometrical arguments, the quantum-noise quenching in a correlated (spontaneous) emission laser (CEL). This noise quenching is a consequence of the correlation between noise sources which results in a multiplicative noise process. The steady-state distribution for the phase difference between the two electric fields in a CEL is compared and contrasted to that of a standard phase-locked laser. Noise quenching is shown to occur in the case of the CEL via an explicit solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.
Shot noise, LER, and quantum efficiency of EUV photoresists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brainard, Robert L.; Trefonas, Peter; Lammers, Jeroen H.; Cutler, Charlotte A.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Trefonas, Alexander; Robertson, Stewart A.
2004-05-01
The shot noise, line edge roughness (LER) and quantum efficiency of EUV interaction with seven resists related to EUV-2D (SP98248B) are studied. These resists were identical to EUV-2D except were prepared with seven levels of added base while keeping all other resist variables constant. These seven resists were patterned with EUV lithography, and LER was measured on 100-200 nm dense lines. Similarly, the resists were also imaged using DUV lithography and LER was determined for 300-500 nm dense lines. LER results for both wavelengths were plotted against Esize. Both curves show very similar LER behavior-the resists requiring low doses have poor LER, whereas the resists requiring high doses have good LER. One possible explanation for the observed LER response is that the added base improves LER by reacting with the photogenerated acid to control the lateral spread of acid, leading to better chemical contrast at the line edge. An alternative explanation to the observed relationship between LER and Esize is that shot-noise generated LER decreases as the number of photons absorbed at the line edge increases. We present an analytical model for the influence of shot noise based on Poisson statistics that preidicts that the LER is proportional to (Esize)-1/2. Indeed, both sets of data give straight lines when plotted this way (DUV r2 = 0.94; EUV r2 = 0.97). We decided to further evaluate this interpretation by constructing a simulation model for shot noise resulting from exposure and acid diffusion at the mask edge. In order to acquire the data for this model, we used the base titration method developed by Szmanda et al. to determine C-parameters and hence the quantum efficiency for producing photogenerated acid. This information, together with film absorptivity, allows the calculation of number and location of acid molecules generated at the mask edgte by assuming a stochastic distribution of individual photons corresponding to the aerial image function. The edge
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits.
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Jiang, L; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2016-08-25
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The 'break-even' point of QEC--at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system--has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0〉f and |1〉f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, L.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2016-08-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The ‘break-even’ point of QEC—at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system—has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0>f and |1>f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel
2015-08-01
The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-05-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Contribution of off-resonant states to the phase noise of quantum dot lasers.
Wang, Cheng; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Grillot, Frédéric; Chan, Sze-Chun
2016-12-26
The phase noise of quantum dot lasers is investigated theoretically by coupling the Langevin noise sources into the rate equations. The off-resonant populations in the excited state and in the carrier reservoir contribute to the phase noise of ground-state emission lasers through the phase-amplitude coupling effect. This effect arises from the optical-noise induced carrier fluctuations in the off-resonant states. In addition, the phase noise has low sensitivity to the carrier scattering rates.
Room-temperature quantum bit storage exceeding 39 minutes using ionized donors in silicon-28.
Saeedi, Kamyar; Simmons, Stephanie; Salvail, Jeff Z; Dluhy, Phillip; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J L; Thewalt, Mike L W
2013-11-15
Quantum memories capable of storing and retrieving coherent information for extended times at room temperature would enable a host of new technologies. Electron and nuclear spin qubits using shallow neutral donors in semiconductors have been studied extensively but are limited to low temperatures (≲10 kelvin); however, the nuclear spins of ionized donors have the potential for high-temperature operation. We used optical methods and dynamical decoupling to realize this potential for an ensemble of phosphorous-31 donors in isotopically purified silicon-28 and observed a room-temperature coherence time of over 39 minutes. We further showed that a coherent spin superposition can be cycled from 4.2 kelvin to room temperature and back, and we report a cryogenic coherence time of 3 hours in the same system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Pengqin; Hu, Menghan; Ying, Yaofeng; Jin, Jinshuang
2016-09-01
Based on the time-nonlocal particle number-resolved master equation, we investigate the sequential electron transport through the interacting double quantum dots. Our calculations show that there exists the effect of energy renormalization in the dispersion of the bath interaction spectrum and it is sensitive to the the bandwidth of the bath. This effect would strongly affect the stationary current and its zero-frequency shot noise for weak inter-dot coherent coupling strength, but for strong inter-dot coupling regime, it is negligible due to the strong intrinsic Rabi coherent dynamics. Moreover, the possible observable effects of the energy renormalization in the noise spectrum are also investigated through the Rabi coherence signal. Finally, the non-Markovian effect is manifested in the finite-frequency noise spectrum with the appearance of quasisteps, and the magnitude of these quasisteps are modified by the dispersion function.
Quantum δ-kicked rotor: the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouard, S.; Plata, J.
2003-04-01
We study analytically the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances of an atom optics realization of the delta-kicked rotor. Noise is shown to add a time growth to the 'deterministic' energy and to induce a time increasing spreading in the momentum distribution; exact results are given for both effects. The ballistic peaks characteristic of the noiseless distribution for particular initial conditions broaden and eventually vanish, whereas the associated quadratic growth of energy persists; at large times, the survival probability decays as t-1. Moreover, the nonexponential 'localization' linked to different initial conditions is gradually destroyed. Features specific to Gaussian noise, white and coloured, are analysed. The feasibility of experimental tests of these effects is discussed.
Paired carriers as a way to reduce quantum noise of multicarrier gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobko, Mikhail; Voronchev, Nikita; Miao, Haixing; Khalili, Farid Ya.
2015-02-01
We explore new regimes of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors with multiple optical carriers which allow us to reduce the quantum noise of these detectors. In particular, we show that using two carriers with the opposite detunings, homodyne angles, and squeezing angles, but identical other parameters (the antisymmetric carriers), one can suppress the quantum noise in such a way that its spectrum follows the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) at low frequencies. Relaxing this antisymmetry condition, it is also possible to slightly overcome the SQL in broadband. Combining several such pairs in the xylophone configuration, it is possible to shape the quantum noise spectrum flexibly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.
2011-03-01
Mu-bit is defined here as `multi-space bit'. It is different from the standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multispace theory (also spelt multi-space) the bit is created simultaneously in many subspaces (that form together a multi-space). This new `bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with `qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now, from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: `mu-bit' (from `multi-space bit).
Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenman, Loren; Whitley, Heather D.; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2013-10-01
We present density functional theory calculations of phosphorus dopants in bulk silicon and of several properties relating to their use as spin qubits for quantum computation. Rather than a mixed pseudopotential or a Heitler-London approach, we have used an explicit treatment for the phosphorus donor and examined the detailed electronic structure of the system as a function of the isotropic doping fraction, including lattice relaxation due to the presence of the impurity. Doping electron densities (ρdoped-ρbulk) and spin densities (ρ↑-ρ↓) are examined in order to study the properties of the dopant electron as a function of the isotropic doping fraction. Doping potentials (Vdoped-Vbulk) are also calculated for use in calculations of the scattering cross sections of the phosphorus dopants, which are important in the understanding of electrically detected magnetic resonance experiments. We find that the electron density around the dopant leads to nonspherical features in the doping potentials, such as trigonal lobes in the (001) plane at energy scales of +12 eV near the nucleus and of -700 meV extending away from the dopants. These features are generally neglected in effective mass theory and will affect the coupling between the donor electron and the phosphorus nucleus. Our density functional calculations reveal detail in the densities and potentials of the dopants which are not evident in calculations that do not include explicit treatment of the phosphorus donor atom and relaxation of the crystal lattice. These details can also be used to parametrize tight-binding models for simulation of large-scale devices.
Fault tolerant quantum key distribution protocol with collective random unitary noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiang-Bin
2005-11-01
We propose an easy implementable prepare-and-measure protocol for robust quantum key distribution with photon polarization. The protocol is fault tolerant against collective random unitary channel noise. The protocol does not need any collective quantum measurement or quantum memory. A security proof and a specific linear optical realization using spontaneous parametric down conversion are given.
Oelze, B.; Ruck, B.; Sodtke, E.; Kirichenko, A.F.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Prusseit, W.
1997-02-01
A 3 bit single flux quantum (SFQ) shift register based on high-T{sub c} bicrystal Josephson junctions has been designed, fabricated, and experimentally tested. The circuit consists of 26 bicrystal Josephson junctions and includes the shift register itself, two dc-SFQ converters, one readout superconducting quantum interference device, serving as a SFQ-dc converter, and three Josephson transmission lines. The correct operation of all circuit components has been demonstrated by low frequency testing at a temperature of 50 K. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joe, Sung-Min; Bae, Jong-Ho; Park, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Ho
2014-12-01
Bit-line (BL) current fluctuation (ΔIBL = high IBL - low IBL) of the trap position is modeled as a parameter of the state (program or erase) of adjacent BL cells which affects the current density distribution appreciably. To model ΔIBL, we extracted the integrated electron current density (J0 = f(z)) and the electric blockade length (Lt) by considering the effect of the interference of adjacent cells. A characteristic function (g(z)) which has a Gaussian functional form is defined based on Lt and the trap position within the tunneling oxide from the channel surface (xT). Finally, ΔIBL is extracted through the integration of f(z) and g(z). Our model predicts accurately the ΔIBL with the trap position as a parameter of the state of BL cells, showing good agreement with 3D simulation data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokharel, Ramesh K.; Uchida, Kenta; Tomar, Abhishek; Kanaya, Haruichi; Yoshida, Keiji
A method to realize the fine frequency-tuning steps using tiny capacitors instead of Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors is proposed for a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO). The tiny capacitors are realized by the coplanar transmission lines which are arranged unsymmetrical in a 6 metal layers (M6) foundry of 0.18µm CMOS technology. These transmission line based capacitors are designed by using electro-magnetic field simulator, and co-designed by using SPICE simulator. Finally, these capacitors are employed to design 15bit DCO and fabricated the proposed DCO in 0.18µm CMOS technology, and tested. The measured phase noise of DCO was -118.3dBc/Hz (@1MHz offset frequency), and the oscillating frequency tuned from 4.86GHz to 5.36GHz in the minimum frequency-tuning step of 18kHz.
Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers.
Friis, S M M; Rottwitt, K; McKinstrie, C J
2013-12-02
We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplifiers. We show that the model agrees with earlier fully quantum approaches in the linear gain regime, whereas in the saturated gain regime, in which the classical equations are valid, we predict that the amplifier increases the signal-to-noise ratio by generating an amplitude-squeezed state of light. Also, in the same process, we analyze the quantum noise properties of the pump, which is difficult using standard quantum approaches, and we discover that the pump displays complicated dynamics in both the linear and the nonlinear gain regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baboiu, D.-M.; Mihalache, D.; Panoiu, N.-C.
1995-09-01
Amplified spontaneous emission noise generates fluctuations in soliton energy and therefore fluctuations in the Raman self-frequency shift and in the group velocity. The corresponding timing jitter is found to be the main limitation for communication distances less than 1500 km.
Error Sensitivity to Environmental Noise in Quantum Circuits for Chemical State Preparation.
Sawaya, Nicolas P D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; McClean, Jarrod R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-07-12
Calculating molecular energies is likely to be one of the first useful applications to achieve quantum supremacy, performing faster on a quantum than a classical computer. However, if future quantum devices are to produce accurate calculations, errors due to environmental noise and algorithmic approximations need to be characterized and reduced. In this study, we use the high performance qHiPSTER software to investigate the effects of environmental noise on the preparation of quantum chemistry states. We simulated 18 16-qubit quantum circuits under environmental noise, each corresponding to a unitary coupled cluster state preparation of a different molecule or molecular configuration. Additionally, we analyze the nature of simple gate errors in noise-free circuits of up to 40 qubits. We find that, in most cases, the Jordan-Wigner (JW) encoding produces smaller errors under a noisy environment as compared to the Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) encoding. For the JW encoding, pure dephasing noise is shown to produce substantially smaller errors than pure relaxation noise of the same magnitude. We report error trends in both molecular energy and electron particle number within a unitary coupled cluster state preparation scheme, against changes in nuclear charge, bond length, number of electrons, noise types, and noise magnitude. These trends may prove to be useful in making algorithmic and hardware-related choices for quantum simulation of molecular energies.
Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung
2016-07-01
In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.
1986-05-01
quantum 1/f noise will be derived again in three steps: first we consider just a single mode of the electromagnetic field in a coherent state and...Univ. of NRnn ad FL. Some suggestions are given at the end of Sec. IV. For devices larger than 10.100 microns coherent state quantum (1/f) noise bec...suggestions are given at the end of Sec. IV. For devices larger than 10 - 100 microns coherent state quantum 1/f noise becomes important according to
Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.
2017-06-01
Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Shih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-11-01
This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.
Non-Markovian continuous-time quantum walks on lattices with dynamical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedetti, Claudia; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-04-01
We address the dynamics of continuous-time quantum walks on one-dimensional disordered lattices inducing dynamical noise in the system. Noise is described as time-dependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites, and attention is focused on non-Gaussian telegraph noise, going beyond the usual assumption of fast Gaussian noise. We observe the emergence of two different dynamical behaviors for the walker, corresponding to two opposite noise regimes: slow noise (i.e., strong coupling with the environment) confines the walker into few lattice nodes, while fast noise (weak coupling) induces a transition between quantum and classical diffusion over the lattice. A phase transition between the two dynamical regimes may be observed by tuning the ratio between the autocorrelation time of the noise and the coupling between the walker and the external environment generating the noise. We also address the non-Markovianity of the quantum map by assessing its memory effects, as well as evaluating the information backflow to the system. Our results suggest that the non-Markovian character of the evolution is linked to the dynamical behavior in the slow noise regime, and that fast noise induces a Markovian dynamics for the walker.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, De-Sheng; Cao, Li; Wu, Da-Jin
Based on the single-mode laser noise model driven by quadratic colored pump noise and quantum noise with cross-correlation between real and imaginary parts of noise proposed in International Journal of Modern Physics B 20, 5383 (2006) and Phys. Rev. E 73, 023802 (2006), the stochastic resonance (SR) of laser intensity is investigated by virtue of the linearized approximation. The analytic expression of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated. It is found that the phenomena of stochastic resonance respectively exist in the curves of the SNR versus the noise cross-correlation coefficient λp and the SNR versus the pump parameter a, as well as the SNR versus the signal frequency bar {ω } for the model. It is shown that there are three different types of SR in the model: the conventional form of SR, the SR in the broad sense and the bona fide SR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2017-02-01
We address the dynamics of quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical pure dephasing random telegraph noise (RTN) in three different physical environmental situations (independent, mixed and common environments). Two initial entangled states of the system are examined, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)- and Werner (W)-type states. The classical noise is introduced as a stochastic process affecting the energy splitting of the qubits. With the help of suitable measures of tripartite entanglement (entanglement witnesses and lower bound of concurrence) and quantum discord (global quantum discord and quantum dissension), we show that the evolution of quantum correlations is not only affected by the type of the system-environment interaction but also by the input configuration of the qubits and the memory properties of the environmental noise. Indeed, depending on the memory properties of the environmental noise and the initial state considered, we find that independent, common and mixed environments can play opposite roles in preserving quantum correlations, and that the sudden death and revival phenomena or the survival of quantum correlations may occur. On the other hand, we also show that the W-type state has strong dynamics under this noise than the GHZ-type ones.
A Shearlet-based algorithm for quantum noise removal in low-dose CT images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Aguan; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yumin; Yang, Xiaopeng
2016-03-01
Low-dose CT (LDCT) scanning is a potential way to reduce the radiation exposure of X-ray in the population. It is necessary to improve the quality of low-dose CT images. In this paper, we propose an effective algorithm for quantum noise removal in LDCT images using shearlet transform. Because the quantum noise can be simulated by Poisson process, we first transform the quantum noise by using anscombe variance stabilizing transform (VST), producing an approximately Gaussian noise with unitary variance. Second, the non-noise shearlet coefficients are obtained by adaptive hard-threshold processing in shearlet domain. Third, we reconstruct the de-noised image using the inverse shearlet transform. Finally, an anscombe inverse transform is applied to the de-noised image, which can produce the improved image. The main contribution is to combine the anscombe VST with the shearlet transform. By this way, edge coefficients and noise coefficients can be separated from high frequency sub-bands effectively. A number of experiments are performed over some LDCT images by using the proposed method. Both quantitative and visual results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the quantum noise while enhancing the subtle details. It has certain value in clinical application.
Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup
Doering, D.; McDonald, G.; Debs, J. E.; Figl, C.; Altin, P. A.; Bachor, H.-A.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D.
2010-04-15
Every measurement of the population in an uncorrelated ensemble of two-level systems is limited by what is known as the quantum projection noise limit. Here, we present quantum-projection-noise-limited performance of a Ramsey-type interferometer using freely propagating coherent atoms. The experimental setup is based on an electro-optic modulator in an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer, optically coupling the two interfering atomic states via a two-photon Raman transition. Going beyond the quantum projection noise limit requires the use of reduced quantum uncertainty (squeezed) states. The experiment described demonstrates atom interferometry at the fundamental noise level and allows the observation of possible squeezing effects in an atom laser, potentially leading to improved sensitivity in atom interferometers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon
2014-12-01
We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.
Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno
2016-05-01
It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.
Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.
2003-01-01
A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.
Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.
2003-01-01
A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.
Lim, M; Saloma, C
2001-04-10
We demonstrate an efficient noise dithering procedure for measuring the power spectrum of a weak spectral doublet with a Fourier-transform spectrometer in which the subthreshold interferogram is measured by a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter without oversampling. In the absence of noise, no information is obtained regarding the doublet spectrum because the modulation term s(x) of its interferogram is below the instrumental detection limit B, i.e., |s(x)| < B, for all path difference x values. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out concerning the recovery of the doublet power spectrum that is represented by s(x) = (s(0)/2)exp(-pi(2)x(2)/beta)[cos(2pif(1)x) + cos(2pif(2)x)], where s(0) is a constant, beta is the linewidth factor, and ?f? = (f(1) + f(2))/2. Different values of ?f?, s(0), and beta are considered to evaluate thoroughly the accuracy of the procedure to determine the unknown values of f(1) and f(2), the spectral linewidth, and the peak values of the spectral profiles. Our experiments show that, even for short observation times, the resonant frequencies of s(x) could be located with high accuracy over a wide range of ?f? and beta values. Signal-to-noise ratios as high as 50 are also gained for the recovered power spectra. The performance of the procedure is also analyzed with respect to another method that recovers the amplitude values of s(x) directly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu
2015-11-01
We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80-120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Sun-Kun
1996-01-01
The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basit, Abdul; Badshah, Fazal; Ali, Hamad; Ge, Guo-Qin
2017-05-01
Protection of the quantum coherence and discord in realistic quantum systems interacting with the environment of depolarizing noise is an important subject in quantum information processing. Weak measurement and measurement reversal can effectively suppress the amplitude damping-class decoherence. In this paper, we examine the effect of this protocol in the protection of quantum coherence and discord subjected to depolarizing noise environments. Our scheme consists of a prior weak measurement on each qubit before interacting with noisy channels followed by post measurement reversal. It is found that quantum coherence and discord can be enhanced to an optimal value by performing weak measurements and adjusting measurement parameters on each qubit. In addition, the maximal value of the quantum coherence and discord is found to be independent of the initial-state parameters.
Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.
Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J
2017-08-06
Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit
Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P
2009-11-30
We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)
Ultralow-Noise Room-Temperature Quantum Memory for Polarization Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namazi, Mehdi; Kupchak, Connor; Jordaan, Bertus; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Figueroa, Eden
2017-09-01
Here, we show an ultralow-noise regime of operation in a simple quantum memory in warm 87Rb atomic vapor. By modeling the quantum dynamics of four-level room-temperature atoms, we achieve fidelities >90 % for single-photon-level polarization qubits, surpassing any classical strategies exploiting the nonunitary memory efficiency. Additionally, we show experimental techniques capable of producing fidelities close to unity. Our results demonstrate the potential of simple, resource-moderate experimental room-temperature quantum devices.
Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with Twin-Signal-Recycling.
Thüring, André; Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2009-03-15
Twin-Signal-Recycling (TSR) builds on the resonance doublet of two optically coupled cavities and efficiently enhances the sensitivity of an interferometer at a dedicated signal frequency. We report on what we believe to be the first experimental realization of a TSR Michelson interferometer and also its broadband enhancement by squeezed light injection. The complete setup was stably locked, and a broadband quantum noise reduction of the interferometers shot noise by a factor of up to 4 dB was demonstrated. The system was characterized by measuring its quantum noise spectra for several tunings of the TSR cavities. We found good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations.
Full counting statistics of super-Poissonian shot noise in multilevel quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belzig, W.
2005-04-01
We examine the full counting statistics of quantum dots, which display super-Poissonian shot noise. By an extension to a generic situation with many excited states we identify the underlying transport process. The statistics is a sum of independent Poissonian processes of bunches of different sizes, which leads to the enhanced noise. The obtained results could be useful in determining transport characteristics in molecules and large quantum dots, since the noise (and higher cumulants) allow us to identify the internal level structure, which is not visible in the average current.
Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise
Ubbelohde, N.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Novotný, T.
2012-01-01
Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges. PMID:22530093
Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise.
Ubbelohde, N; Roszak, K; Hohls, F; Maire, N; Haug, R J; Novotný, T
2012-01-01
Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto
2016-05-01
Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Quantum noise of a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer with a translucent mechanical oscillator
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Friedrich, Daniel; Westphal, Tobias; Gossler, Stefan; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman; Somiya, Kentaro; Danilishin, Stefan L.
2010-03-15
Quantum fluctuations in the radiation pressure of light can excite stochastic motions of mechanical oscillators thereby realizing a linear quantum opto-mechanical coupling. When performing a precise measurement of the position of an oscillator, this coupling results in quantum radiation pressure noise. Up to now this effect has not been observed yet. Generally speaking, the strength of radiation pressure noise increases when the effective mass of the oscillator is decreased or when the power of the reflected light is increased. Recently, extremely light SiN membranes ({approx_equal}100 ng) with high mechanical Q values at room temperature ({>=}10{sup 6}) have attracted attention as low thermal noise mechanical oscillators. However, the power reflectance of these membranes is much lower than unity (<0.4 at a wavelength of 1064 nm) which makes the use of advanced interferometer recycling techniques to amplify the radiation pressure noise in a standard Michelson interferometer inefficient. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer that includes the membrane as a common end mirror for the Michelson interferometer part. In this topology, both power and signal recycling can be used even if the reflectance of the membrane is much lower than unity. In particular, signal recycling is a useful tool because it does not involve a power increase at the membrane. We derive the formulas for the quantum radiation pressure noise and the shot noise of an oscillator position measurement and compare them with theoretical models of the thermal noise of a SiN membrane with a fundamental resonant frequency of 75 kHz and an effective mass of125 ng. We find that quantum radiation pressure noise should be observable with a power of 1 W at the central beam splitter of the interferometer and a membrane temperature of 1 K.
Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-01-01
We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan
2014-09-15
Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was
High-threshold topological quantum error correction against biased noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephens, Ashley M.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
2013-12-01
Quantum information can be protected from decoherence and other errors, but only if these errors are sufficiently rare. For quantum computation to become a scalable technology, practical schemes for quantum error correction that can tolerate realistically high error rates will be necessary. In some physical systems, errors may exhibit a characteristic structure that can be carefully exploited to improve the efficacy of error correction. Here we describe a scheme for topological quantum error correction to protect quantum information from a dephasing-biased error model, where we combine a repetition code with a topological cluster state. We find that the scheme tolerates error rates of up to 1.37%-1.83% per gate, requiring only short-range interactions in a two-dimensional array.
Noise-Induced Subdiffusion in Strongly Localized Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Islam, K. Ranjibul; Knap, Michael
2017-07-01
We consider the dynamics of strongly localized systems subject to dephasing noise with arbitrary correlation time. Although noise inevitably induces delocalization, transport in the noise-induced delocalized phase is subdiffusive in a parametrically large intermediate-time window. We argue for this intermediate-time subdiffusive regime both analytically and using numerical simulations on single-particle localized systems. Furthermore, we show that normal diffusion is restored in the long-time limit, through processes analogous to variable-range hopping. With numerical simulations based on Lanczos exact diagonalization, we demonstrate that our qualitative conclusions are also valid for interacting systems in the many-body localized phase.
Practical quantum random number generator based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states
Shen Yong; Zou Hongxin; Tian Liang
2010-06-15
The shot noise of vacuum states is a kind of quantum noise and is totally random. In this paper a nondeterministic random number generation scheme based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states is presented and experimentally demonstrated. We use a homodyne detector to measure the shot noise of vacuum states. Considering that the frequency bandwidth of our detector is limited, we derive the optimal sampling rate so that sampling points have the least correlation with each other. We also choose a method to extract random numbers from sampling values, and prove that the influence of classical noise can be avoided with this method so that the detector does not have to be shot-noise limited. The random numbers generated with this scheme have passed ent and diehard tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qing
2014-04-01
The shot noise of a hybrid triple-quantum-dot (TQD) interferometer has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the general shot noise formula has been derived. The oscillation behaviors of transmission coefficients and shot noise versus the Aharonov-Bohm phase ϕ exhibit asymmetric Fano resonance structure and blockade effect. Sub-Poissonian and super-Poissonian behaviors of shot noise appear in different regimes of terminal bias eVγ contributed by the Andreev reflection, and correlation of Andreev tunneling with the normal electron transport. The inverse resonance and resonance structures emerge in the shot noise and Fano factor with respect to one of the gate voltages in different regimes of eVγ. The asymmetric structure can be enhanced by modifying the energy levels and gate biases of the TQD. The self-correlation and cross-correlation of current components contribute to the enhancement and suppression of shot noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of these profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of several important quantities e.g. magnetic field strength, confinement frequency, dopant location, dopant potential, and aluminium concentration, both in presence and absence of noise. We have invariably envisaged noise-induced suppression of DMS. Moreover, the extent of suppression noticeably depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The said mode of application also plays a governing role in the onset of saturation of DMS values. The present study provides a deep insight into the promising role played by noise in controlling effective confinement imposed on the system which bears significant relevance.
Nonlinear optical properties of doped quantum dots: Interplay between noise and carrier density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas
2017-07-01
Present work explores the profiles of a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) with special emphasis on the role played by the carrier density under the aegis of noise. Noise term maintains a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. A change of carrier density principally affects the peak height of the NLO properties. Incorporation of noise leads to some remarkable changes in the profiles of NLO properties during the variation of carrier density. These changes, however, depend on the pathway by which noise has been applied and also on the noise strength. The interplay between carrier density and noise produces some interesting outcomes that bear relevance in the related field of research.
Practical quantum random number generator based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yong; Tian, Liang; Zou, Hongxin
2010-06-01
The shot noise of vacuum states is a kind of quantum noise and is totally random. In this paper a nondeterministic random number generation scheme based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states is presented and experimentally demonstrated. We use a homodyne detector to measure the shot noise of vacuum states. Considering that the frequency bandwidth of our detector is limited, we derive the optimal sampling rate so that sampling points have the least correlation with each other. We also choose a method to extract random numbers from sampling values, and prove that the influence of classical noise can be avoided with this method so that the detector does not have to be shot-noise limited. The random numbers generated with this scheme have passed ent and diehard tests.
Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin; King, Sun-Kun; Wu, Chun-Hsien
2013-02-15
We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise correlations can
Comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.
2010-11-15
We present a theoretical comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging. We first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of each process in terms of its controllable experimental conditions. We show that a key distinction is that a thermal ghost image always resides on top of a large background; the fluctuations in this background constitutes an intrinsic noise source for thermal ghost imaging. In contrast, there is a negligible intrinsic background to a quantum ghost image. However, for practical reasons involving achievable illumination levels, acquisition times for thermal ghost images are often much shorter than those for quantum ghost images. We provide quantitative predictions for the conditions under which each process provides superior performance. Our conclusion is that each process can provide useful functionality, although under complementary conditions.
Laser noise imposed limitations of ensemble quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plankensteiner, D.; Schachenmayer, J.; Ritsch, H.; Genes, C.
2016-12-01
Laser noise is a decisive limiting factor in high precision spectroscopy of narrow lines using atomic ensembles. In an idealized Doppler and differential-light-shift-free magic wavelength lattice configuration, it remains as one distinct principal limitation beyond collective atomic decay. In this work we study the limitations originating from laser phase and amplitude noise in an idealized Ramsey pulse interrogation scheme with uncorrelated atoms. Phase noise leads to a saturation of the frequency sensitivity with increasing atom number while amplitude noise implies a scaling 1/\\sqrt{τ } with τ being the interrogation time. We employ a technique using decoherence-free subspaces first introduced in Dorner (2012 New J. Phys. 14 043011) which can restore the scaling with the square root of the inverse particle number 1/\\sqrt{N}. Similar results and improvements are obtained numerically for a Rabi spectroscopy setup.
Robustness of quantum-randomness expansion protocols in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin
2013-09-01
In this paper we investigate properties of several randomness generation protocols in the device-independent framework. Using Bell-type inequalities it is possible to certify that the numbers generated by an untrusted device are indeed random. We present a selection of certificates which guarantee two bits of randomness for each run of the experiment in the noiseless case and require the parties to share a maximally entangled state. To compare them we study their efficiency in the presence of white noise. We find that for different amounts of noise different operators are optimal for certifying most randomness. Therefore, the vendor of the device should use different protocols depending on the amount of noise expected to occur. Another of our results that we find particularly interesting is that using a single Bell operator as a figure of merit is rarely optimal.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-11
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup −6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup −6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
Ershov, M.
2001-06-01
A theory of the nonequilibrium high-frequency noise and responsivity in multiple quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) is presented. The nonequilibrium regime dominates at frequencies higher than the inverse characteristic response time of the injecting contact. The nonequilibrium generation{endash}recombination (GR) noise and responsivity are determined by the fast component of the transient current (primary current) in response to impulse excitation. The nonequilibrium GR noise power and responsivity are lower than their low-frequency values due to the cutoff of the injection from the emitter at high frequencies. Analytical formulas for the noise and responsivity are obtained. These expressions are consistent with the conventional formulas of the standard model of unipolar photoconductors if the transit time across the QWIP is longer than the capture time by the quantum wells. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise
Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric
2014-08-15
We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.
Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.
Two-mode correlation of microwave quantum noise generated by parametric down-conversion.
Bergeal, N; Schackert, F; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H
2012-03-23
In this Letter, we report the observation of the correlation between two modes of microwave radiation resulting from the amplification of quantum noise by the Josephson parametric converter. This process, seen from the pump, can be viewed as parametric down-conversion. The correlation is measured by an interference experiment displaying a contrast better than 99% with a number of photons per mode greater than 250,000. Dispersive measurements of mesoscopic systems and quantum encryption can benefit from this development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsokeng, Arthur Tsamouo; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2017-08-01
We analyze the effect of a classical random telegraph noise on the dynamics of quantum correlations and decoherence between two non-interacting spin-qutrit particles, initially entangled, and coupled either to independent sources or to a common source of noise. Both Markovian and non-Markovian environments are considered. For the Markov regime, as the noise switching rate decreases, a monotonic decay of the initial quantum correlations is found and the loss of coherence increases monotonically with time up to the saturation value. For the non-Markov regime, evident oscillations of correlations and decoherence are observed due to the noise regime, but correlations, however, avoid sudden death phenomena. The oscillatory behavior is more and more prominent as the noise switching rate decreases in this regime, thus enhancing robustness of correlations. Similarly to the qubits case, independent environments coupling is more effective than a common environment coupling in preserving quantum correlations and coherence of the system for a Markovian noise; meanwhile, the opposite is found for the non-Markovian one.
Stochastic quantum Zeno-based detection of noise correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Matthias M.; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
2016-12-01
A system under constant observation is practically freezed to the measurement subspace. If the system driving is a random classical field, the survival probability of the system in the subspace becomes a random variable described by the Stochastic Quantum Zeno Dynamics (SQZD) formalism. Here, we study the time and ensemble average of this random survival probability and demonstrate how time correlations in the noisy environment determine whether the two averages do coincide or not. These environment time correlations can potentially generate non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum system depending on the structure and energy scale of the system Hamiltonian. We thus propose a way to detect time correlations of the environment by coupling a quantum probe system to it and observing the survival probability of the quantum probe in a measurement subspace. This will further contribute to the development of new schemes for quantum sensing technologies, where nanodevices may be exploited to image external structures or biological molecules via the surface field they generate.
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kołodyński, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-07-01
Quantum metrology offers enhanced performance in experiments on topics such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clock frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features, such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application, the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to place a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzański et al (2012 Nature Commun. 3 1063), so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for a small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models, including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
Stochastic quantum Zeno-based detection of noise correlations
Müller, Matthias M.; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
2016-01-01
A system under constant observation is practically freezed to the measurement subspace. If the system driving is a random classical field, the survival probability of the system in the subspace becomes a random variable described by the Stochastic Quantum Zeno Dynamics (SQZD) formalism. Here, we study the time and ensemble average of this random survival probability and demonstrate how time correlations in the noisy environment determine whether the two averages do coincide or not. These environment time correlations can potentially generate non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum system depending on the structure and energy scale of the system Hamiltonian. We thus propose a way to detect time correlations of the environment by coupling a quantum probe system to it and observing the survival probability of the quantum probe in a measurement subspace. This will further contribute to the development of new schemes for quantum sensing technologies, where nanodevices may be exploited to image external structures or biological molecules via the surface field they generate. PMID:27941889
Low Noise Quantum Frequency Conversion from Rb Wavelengths to Telecom O-band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao; Solmeyer, Neal; Stack, Daniel; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-05-01
Ideal quantum repeaters would be composed of long-lived quantum memories entangled with flying qubits. They are becoming essential elements to achieve quantum communication over long distances in a quantum network. However, quantum memories based on neutral atoms operate at wavelengths in the near infrared, unsuitable for long distance communication. The ability to coherently convert photons entangled with quantum memories into telecom wavelengths reduces the transmission loss in optical fibers and therefore dramatically improves the range of a quantum repeater. Furthermore, quantum frequency conversion (QFC) can enable entanglement and communication between different types of quantum memories, thus creating a versatile hybrid quantum network. A recent experiment has shown the conversion of heralded photons from Rb-based memories to the telecom C-band. We implement a setup using a nonlinear PPLN waveguide for the QFC into a wavelength region where the noise-floor would be limited by dark counts rather than pump photons. Our approach uses a pump laser at a much longer wavelength. It has the advantage that the strong pump itself and the broad background in the PPLN can be nearly completely filtered from the converted signal. Such low background level allows for the conversion to be done on the heralding photon, which enables the generated entanglement to be used in a scalable way to multiple nodes remotely situated and to subsequent protocols.
Yamada, Isao
2016-12-01
A one-dimensional stochastic model is proposed to analyze the characteristics of quantum noise in flat-panel detectors (FPD) for medical imaging applications. The number of x-ray photons is modeled as a Poisson process, and explicit expressions for the autocorrelation function and noise power spectrum density (NPSD) are obtained in terms of the exposure dose, blur shape in the capture element, and pixel size. The results from the proposed model are validated with numerical simulations, and it is shown that this model can be used for the analysis of the noise properties of the FPD. The influence of these three parameters on the NPSD is then investigated.
Classical communication in the presence of quantum Gaussian noise (Invited Paper)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yen, Brent J.; Guha, Saikat; Erkmen, Baris I.
2005-05-01
The classical information capacity of channels that are subject to quantum Gaussian noise is studied. Recent work has established the capacity of the pure-loss channel, as well as bounds on and a conjecture for the capacity of the lossy channel with isotropic-Gaussian excess noise. This work is applied to the pure-loss free-space channel that uses multiple Hermite-Gaussian (HG) or Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) spatial modes to communicate between soft-aperture transmit and receive pupils, and to the lossy channel with anisotropic (colored) Gaussian noise.
Resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes: quantum noise and spatial emission characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birkner, R. H.; Kaiser, J.; Elsässer, W.; Jung, C.
2004-12-01
We demonstrate the interplay between the intensity noise and the spatial emission characteristics of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes. First, we find that the total aperture intensity noise exhibits a sub-shot noise behavior in a quite large pumping regime. Second, we investigate the angular, spectral, and spatial emission characteristics of the devices by controlling the shape and width of the angular intensity distribution via temperature detuning of the quantum well wavelength and the cavity resonance wavelength. Finally, the angular and aperture resolved intensity noise exhibit a super-shot noise behavior in contrast to that of the total emission. We explain this difference with anticorrelations between various radial components which increase with the temperature-tuned extension of the spatial emission.
Bit error rate measurement above and below bit rate tracking threshold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kobayaski, H. S.; Fowler, J.; Kurple, W. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
Bit error rate is measured by sending a pseudo-random noise (PRN) code test signal simulating digital data through digital equipment to be tested. An incoming signal representing the response of the equipment being tested, together with any added noise, is received and tracked by being compared with a locally generated PRN code. Once the locally generated PRN code matches the incoming signal a tracking lock is obtained. The incoming signal is then integrated and compared bit-by-bit against the locally generated PRN code and differences between bits being compared are counted as bit errors.
Quantum Metrology: Surpassing the shot-noise limit with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali
2015-11-09
Entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies such as quantum information and quantum metrology. Providing larger quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be better resources than separable systems in quantum metrology. However the effects on the entanglement dynamics such as decoherence usually decrease the QFI considerably. On the other hand, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been shown to excite entanglement. Since an increase in entanglement does not imply an increase in QFI, and also there are cases where QFI decreases as entanglement increases, it is interesting to study the influence of DM interaction on quantum metrology. In this work, we study the QFI of thermal entanglement of two-qubit and three-qubit Heisenberg models with respect to SU(2) rotations. We show that even at high temperatures, DM interaction excites QFI of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models. We also show that QFI of the ferromagnetic model of two qubits can surpass the shot-noise limit of the separable states, while QFI of the antiferromagnetic model in consideration can only approach to the shot-noise limit. Our results open new insights in quantum metrology with Heisenberg models.
Photoexcited escape probability, optical gain, and noise in quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, B. F.; Zussman, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Asom, M. T.; Kuo, J. M.; Hobson, W. S.
1992-01-01
We present a detailed and thorough study of a wide variety of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), which were chosen to have large differences in their optical and transport properties. Both n- and p-doped QWIPs, as well as intersubband transitions based on photoexcitation from bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasi-continuum, and bound-to-continuum quantum well states were investigated. The measurements and theoretical analysis included optical absorption, responsivity, dark current, current noise, optical gain, hot carrier mean free path; net quantum efficiency, quantum well escape probability, quantum well escape time, as well as detectivity. These results allow a better understanding of the optical and transport physics and thus a better optimization of the QWIP performance.
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M F; Spina, María E
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏ_{eff} values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏ_{eff} and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlo, Gabriel G.; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Spina, María E.
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏeff values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏeff and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.
Allam, F. M.
1985-07-09
A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation for local non-Markovian noise
Terhal, Barbara M.; Burkard, Guido
2005-01-01
We derive a threshold result for fault-tolerant quantum computation for local non-Markovian noise models. The role of error amplitude in our analysis is played by the product of the elementary gate time t{sub 0} and the spectral width of the interaction Hamiltonian between system and bath. We discuss extensions of our model and the applicability of our analysis.
Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki
2010-12-15
The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jason; Hwang, Tzonelih
2013-02-01
This work presents two robust entanglement swappings against two types of collective noises, respectively. The entanglement swapping can be achieved by performing two Bell state measurements on two logical qubits that come from two original logical Bell states, respectively. Two fault tolerant quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols are further proposed to demonstrate the usefulness of the newly proposed entanglement swappings. The proposed QSS schemes are not only free from Trojan horse attacks but also quite efficient. Moreover, by adopting two Bell state measurements instead of four-qubit joint measurements, the proposed protocols are practical in combating collective noises. The proposed fault tolerant entanglement swapping can also be used to replace the traditional Bell-state entanglement swapping used in various quantum cryptographic protocols to provide robustness in combating collective noises.
Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise
Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2011-09-15
We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.
Noise, delocalization, and quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholami, Ehsan; Lashkami, Zahra Mohammaddoust
2017-02-01
As an unusual type of anomalous diffusion behavior, namely (transient) superballistic transport, has been experimentally observed recently, but it is not yet well understood. In this paper, we investigate the white noise effect (in the Markov approximation) on quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models with a periodic, disordered, and quasiperiodic region of size L attached to two perfect lattices at both ends in which the wave packet is initially located at the center of the sublattice. We find that in a completely localized system, inducing noise could delocalize the system to a desirable diffusion phase. This controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of disorder and white noise, as well as to explore an exotic quantum phase.
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-06-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Noise-induced collective quantum state preservation in spin qubit arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Edwin; Deng, Dong-Ling; Throckmorton, Robert E.; Wu, Yang-Le; Das Sarma, S.
2016-02-01
The hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins (or, Overhauser noise) has long been viewed as a leading source of decoherence in individual quantum dot spin qubits. Here we show that in a coupled multiqubit system consisting of as few as four spins, interactions with nuclear spins can have the opposite effect where they instead preserve the collective quantum state of the system. This noise-induced state preservation can be realized in a linear spin qubit array using current technological capabilities. Our proposal requires no control over the Overhauser fields in the array; only experimental control over the average interqubit coupling between nearest neighbors is needed, and this is readily achieved by tuning gate voltages. Our results illustrate how the role of the environment can transform from harmful to helpful in the progression from single-qubit to multiqubit quantum systems.
Noise-induced collective quantum state preservation in spin qubit arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Edwin; Deng, Dong-Ling; Throckmorton, Robert; Wu, Yang-Le
The hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins (or, Overhauser noise) has long been viewed as a leading source of decoherence in individual quantum dot spin qubits. We show that in a coupled multi-qubit system consisting of as few as four spins, interactions with nuclear spins can have the opposite effect where they instead preserve the collective quantum state of the system. This noise-induced state preservation can be realized in a linear spin qubit array using current technological capabilities. Our proposal requires no control over the Overhauser fields in the array; only experimental control over the average interqubit coupling between nearest neighbors is needed, and this is readily achieved by tuning gate voltages. Our results illustrate how the role of the environment can transform from harmful to helpful in the progression from single-qubit to multi-qubit quantum systems. Work supported by LPS-MPO-CMTC and IARPA-MQCO.
Measurements of Correlated Conductances and Noise Fluctuations from 3-Lead Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toonen, R. C.; Prada, M.; Qin, H.; Huettel, A. K.; Goswami, S.; Eriksson, M. A.; van der Weide, D. W.; Eberl, K.; Blick, R. H.
2005-08-01
We have investigated the conductance properties of a few-electron quantum dot with three terminals. In the regime of strong coupling between the quantum dot and the leads, we have observed the both the integer- and half-integer-spin Kondo effect at zero magnetic field. Within the integer-spin conductance diamond, we find cotunneling spectral lines which correspond to singlet-triplet transitions. We extract the exchange energy from this information and find that the value (J = 320 μeV) agrees remarkably well with the theoretical prediction. We believe that spin dependent transport in a three-terminal quantum dot could yield positive cross-correlations between shot noise events on two output channels. To investigate such phenomena, we have designed an analog continuum cross-correlator to analyze the shot noise spectra of our device in the X- and Ku-bands (8 to 18 GHz).
Shot noise generated by graphene p-n junctions in the quantum Hall effect regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumada, N.; Parmentier, F. D.; Hibino, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2015-09-01
Graphene offers a unique system to investigate transport of Dirac Fermions at p-n junctions. In a magnetic field, combination of quantum Hall physics and the characteristic transport across p-n junctions leads to a fractionally quantized conductance associated with the mixing of electron-like and hole-like modes and their subsequent partitioning. The mixing and partitioning suggest that a p-n junction could be used as an electronic beam splitter. Here we report the shot noise study of the mode-mixing process and demonstrate the crucial role of the p-n junction length. For short p-n junctions, the amplitude of the noise is consistent with an electronic beam-splitter behaviour, whereas, for longer p-n junctions, it is reduced by the energy relaxation. Remarkably, the relaxation length is much larger than typical size of mesoscopic devices, encouraging using graphene for electron quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Quantum witness of high-speed low-noise single-photon detection.
Zhao, Lin; Huang, Kun; Liang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Xueshun; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2015-12-14
We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10⁻³ per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime.
Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks
Corndorf, Eric; Liang Chuang; Kanter, Gregory S.; Kumar, Prem; Yuen, Horace P.
2005-06-15
We demonstrate high-rate randomized data-encryption through optical fibers using the inherent quantum-measurement noise of coherent states of light. Specifically, we demonstrate 650 Mbit/s data encryption through a 10 Gbit/s data-bearing, in-line amplified 200-km-long line. In our protocol, legitimate users (who share a short secret key) communicate using an M-ry signal set while an attacker (who does not share the secret key) is forced to contend with the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states. Implementations of our protocol using both polarization-encoded signal sets as well as polarization-insensitive phase-keyed signal sets are experimentally and theoretically evaluated. Different from the performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of key generation (quantum key-generation), one possible set of performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of data encryption is established and carefully considered.
Shot noise generated by graphene p-n junctions in the quantum Hall effect regime.
Kumada, N; Parmentier, F D; Hibino, H; Glattli, D C; Roulleau, P
2015-09-04
Graphene offers a unique system to investigate transport of Dirac Fermions at p-n junctions. In a magnetic field, combination of quantum Hall physics and the characteristic transport across p-n junctions leads to a fractionally quantized conductance associated with the mixing of electron-like and hole-like modes and their subsequent partitioning. The mixing and partitioning suggest that a p-n junction could be used as an electronic beam splitter. Here we report the shot noise study of the mode-mixing process and demonstrate the crucial role of the p-n junction length. For short p-n junctions, the amplitude of the noise is consistent with an electronic beam-splitter behaviour, whereas, for longer p-n junctions, it is reduced by the energy relaxation. Remarkably, the relaxation length is much larger than typical size of mesoscopic devices, encouraging using graphene for electron quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Shot-Noise Evidence of Fractional Quasiparticle Creation in a Local Fractional Quantum Hall State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa
2015-02-01
We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T1(1 -T1) over a wide range of T1 , where T1 is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.
Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-29
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers
Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji
2014-05-15
We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.
Shot-Noise in a Quantum Dot as a Spin-current Diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, F. M.; Penteado, P. H.; Merchant, C. A.; Markovic, N.; Egues, J. C.
2010-03-01
Shot-noise is an unavoidable non-equilibrium current fluctuation that arises from the granularity of the electron charge. In the present work, we investigate shot-noise for the recently proposed spin diode system (1,2). This consists of a quantum dot coupled to two metallic leads, one nonmagnetic (NM) and another ferromagnetic (FM). In the Coulomb blockade regime this system displays a spin-diode effect (1,2), which has recently been probed in a carbon nanotube based quantum dot (2). Our calculation shows that the shot-noise provides a robust signature for this spin-polarization rectification effect. In the bias range for which the current polarization is zero the shot-noise is super-Poissonian. In contrast, for voltages such that the current is spin polarized, the shot-noise becomes sub-Poissonian. Hence shot noise can provide an interesting additional tool to probe spin-polarized transport in these systems. We shall also discuss recent experimental progress in this direction (3). (1) F. M. Souza, J. C. Egues, and A. P. Jauho, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165303 (2007). (2) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156601 (2008). (3) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07C711 (2009).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a broad exploration of profiles of third harmonic generation (THG) susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. A Gaussian impurity has been introduced into the QD. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The THG profiles have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the role of the pathway through which noise is applied (additive/multiplicative) on the THG profiles has also been deciphered. The THG profiles are found to be decorated with interesting observations such as shift of THG peak position and maximization/minimization of THG peak intensity. Presence of noise alters the characteristics of THG profiles and sometimes enhances the THG peak intensity. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) also regulates the THG profiles in a few occasions in contrasting manners. The observations highlight the possible scope of tuning the THG coefficient of doped QD systems in the presence of noise and bears tremendous technological importance.
Task-based assessment of breast tomosynthesis: Effect of acquisition parameters and quantum noise1
Reiser, I.; Nishikawa, R. M.
2010-01-01
Purpose: Tomosynthesis is a promising modality for breast imaging. The appearance of the tomosynthesis reconstructed image is greatly affected by the choice of acquisition and reconstruction parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of tomosynthesis breast imaging due to scan parameters and quantum noise. Tomosynthesis image quality was assessed based on performance of a mathematical observer model in a signal-known exactly (SKE) detection task. Methods: SKE detectability (d′) was estimated using a prewhitening observer model. Structured breast background was simulated using filtered noise. Detectability was estimated for designer nodules ranging from 0.05 to 0.8 cm in diameter. Tomosynthesis slices were reconstructed using iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization. The tomosynthesis scan angle was varied between 15° and 60°, the number of views between 11 and 41 and the total number of x-ray quanta was ∞, 6×105, and 6×104. Detectability in tomosynthesis was compared to that in a single projection. Results: For constant angular sampling distance, increasing the angular scan range increased detectability for all signal sizes. Large-scale signals were little affected by quantum noise or angular sampling. For small-scale signals, quantum noise and insufficient angular sampling degraded detectability. At high quantum noise levels, angular step size of 3° or below was sufficient to avoid image degradation. At lower quantum noise levels, increased angular sampling always resulted in increased detectability. The ratio of detectability in the tomosynthesis slice to that in a single projection exhibited a peak that shifted to larger signal sizes when the angular range increased. For a given angular range, the peak shifted toward smaller signals when the number of views was increased. The ratio was greater than unity for all conditions evaluated. Conclusion: The effect of acquisition parameters on lesion detectability
The effect of losses on the quantum-noise cancellation in the SU(1,1) interferometer
Xin, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Jing, Jietai
2016-08-01
Quantum-noise cancellation (QNC) is an effective method to control the noise of the quantum system, which reduces or even eliminates the noise of the quantum systems by utilizing destructive interference in the quantum system. However, QNC can be extremely dependent on the losses inside the system. In this letter, we experimentally and theoretically study how the losses can affect the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer. We find that losses in the different arms inside the SU(1,1) interferometer can have different effects on the QNC in the output fields from the SU(1,1) interferometer. And the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer can almost be insensitive to the losses in some cases. Our findings may find its potential applications in the quantum noise control.
The effect of losses on the quantum-noise cancellation in the SU(1,1) interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Jing, Jietai
2016-08-01
Quantum-noise cancellation (QNC) is an effective method to control the noise of the quantum system, which reduces or even eliminates the noise of the quantum systems by utilizing destructive interference in the quantum system. However, QNC can be extremely dependent on the losses inside the system. In this letter, we experimentally and theoretically study how the losses can affect the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer. We find that losses in the different arms inside the SU(1,1) interferometer can have different effects on the QNC in the output fields from the SU(1,1) interferometer. And the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer can almost be insensitive to the losses in some cases. Our findings may find its potential applications in the quantum noise control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-02-01
We perform a rigorous analysis of the profiles of a few diagonal and off-diagonal components of linear ( α xx , α yy , α xy , and α yx ), first nonlinear ( β xxx , β yyy , β xyy , and β yxx ), and second nonlinear ( γ xxxx , γ yyyy , γ xxyy , and γ yyxx ) polarizabilities of quantum dots exposed to an external pulsed field. Simultaneous presence of multiplicative white noise has also been taken into account. The quantum dot contains a dopant represented by a Gaussian potential. The number of pulse and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the said profiles through their interplay. Moreover, a variation in the noise strength also contributes evidently in designing the profiles of above polarizability components. In general, the off-diagonal components have been found to be somewhat more responsive to a variation of noise strength. However, we have found some exception to the above fact for the off-diagonal β yxx component. The study projects some pathways of achieving stable, enhanced, and often maximized output of linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots driven by multiplicative noise.
Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, S. L.; Gräf, C.; Leavey, S. S.; Hennig, J.; Houston, E. A.; Pascucci, D.; Steinlechner, S.; Wright, J.; Hild, S.
2015-04-01
The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the standard quantum limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalized, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally, we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with metre- and kilometre-long baselines.
Enabling quantum non-Markovian dynamics by injection of classical colored noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa-Filho, J. I.; Lima, R. B. B.; Paiva, R. R.; Soares, P. M.; Morgado, W. A. M.; Franco, R. Lo; Soares-Pinto, D. O.
2017-05-01
The non-Markovian nature of quantum systems recently turned to be a key subject for investigations on open quantum system dynamics. Many studies, from its theoretical grounding to its usefulness as a resource for quantum information processing and experimental demonstrations, have been reported in the literature. Typically, in these studies, a structured reservoir is required to make non-Markovian dynamics emerge. Here, we investigate the dynamics of a qubit interacting with a bosonic bath and under the injection of a classical stochastic colored noise. A canonical Lindblad-like master equation for the system is derived by using the stochastic wave function formalism. Then, the non-Markovianity of the evolution is witnessed by using the measure of Andersson, Cresser, Hall, and Li. We evaluate the measure for three different noises and study the interplay between environment and noise pump necessary to generate quantum non-Markovianity, as well as the energy balance of the system. Finally, we discuss the possibility to experimentally implement the proposed model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2015-07-01
We investigate the modulation of diagonal components of static linear (αxx, αyy) and first nonlinear (βxxx, βyyy) polarizabilities of quantum dots by Gaussian white noise. Quantum dot is doped with impurity represented by a Gaussian potential and repulsive in nature. The study reveals the importance of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the polarizability components. The doped system is further exposed to a static external electric field of given intensity. As important observation we have found that the strength of additive noise becomes unable to influence the polarizability components. However, the multiplicative noise influences them conspicuously and gives rise to additional interesting features. Multiplicative noise even enhances the magnitude of the polarizability components immensely. The present investigation deems importance in view of the fact that noise seriously affects the optical properties of doped quantum dot devices.
Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Kawamura, Seiji
2007-08-15
There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector due to two coupled resonators. The additional third dip makes it possible to decrease quantum noise at low frequencies, keeping the moderate sensitivity at high frequencies. Then, taking advantage of the third dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of {approx_equal}1.43 for neutron star binary, {approx_equal}2.28 for 50M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary, and {approx_equal}2.94 for 100M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
A Novel LSB Based Quantum Watermarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Shahrokh; Naseri, Mosayeb
2016-10-01
Quantum watermarking is a technique which embeds the invisible quantum signal such as the owners identification into quantum multimedia data (such as audio, video and image) for copyright protection. In this paper, using a quantum representation of digital images a new quantum watermarking protocol including quantum image scrambling based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) is proposed. In this protocol, by using m-bit embedding key K 1 and m-bit extracting key K 2 a m-pixel gray scale image is watermarked in a m-pixel carrier image by the original owner of the carrier image. For validation of the presented scheme the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and histogram graphs of the images are analyzed.
Robustness of quantum key distribution with discrete and continuous variables to channel noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasota, Mikołaj; Filip, Radim; Usenko, Vladyslav C.
2017-06-01
We study the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols using discrete or continuous variables to the channel noise. We introduce the model of such noise based on coupling of the signal to a thermal reservoir, typical for continuous-variable quantum key distribution, to the discrete-variable case. Then we perform a comparison of the bounds on the tolerable channel noise between these two kinds of protocols using the same noise parametrization, in the case of implementation which is perfect otherwise. Obtained results show that continuous-variable protocols can exhibit similar robustness to the channel noise when the transmittance of the channel is relatively high. However, for strong loss discrete-variable protocols are superior and can overcome even the infinite-squeezing continuous-variable protocol while using limited nonclassical resources. The requirement on the probability of a single-photon production which would have to be fulfilled by a practical source of photons in order to demonstrate such superiority is feasible thanks to the recent rapid development in this field.
Observation of Squeezed Light with 10-dB Quantum-Noise Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Chelkowski, Simon; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Lastzka, Nico; Goßler, Stefan; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2008-01-01
Squeezing of light’s quantum noise requires temporal rearranging of photons. This again corresponds to creation of quantum correlations between individual photons. Squeezed light is a nonclassical manifestation of light with great potential in high-precision quantum measurements, for example, in the detection of gravitational waves [C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.23.1693]. Equally promising applications have been proposed in quantum communication [H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 657 (1978)IETTAW0018-944810.1109/TIT.1978.1055958]. However, after 20 years of intensive research doubts arose whether strong squeezing can ever be realized as required for eminent applications. Here we show experimentally that strong squeezing of light’s quantum noise is possible. We reached a benchmark squeezing factor of 10 in power (10 dB). Thorough analysis reveals that even higher squeezing factors will be feasible in our setup.
Shot noise at the quantum point contact in InGaAs heterostructure
Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Shuji; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku
2013-12-04
We study the shot noise at a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in an InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructure, whose conductance can be electrically tuned by the gate voltages. Shot noise suppression is observed at the conductance plateau of N(2e{sup 2}/h) (N = 4,5,and 6), which indicates the coherent quantized channel formation in the QPC. The electron heating effect generated at the QPC explains the deviation of the observed Fano factor from the theory.
Robust EPR-pairs-based quantum secure communication with authentication resisting collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, ShiBin; Li, Jian; Yan, LiLi
2014-10-01
This work presents two robust quantum secure communication schemes with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can withstand collective noises. Two users previously share an identity string representing their identities. The identity string is encoded as decoherence-free states (termed logical qubits), respectively, over the two collective noisy channels, which are used as decoy photons. By using the decoy photons, both the authentication of two users and the detection of eavesdropping were implemented. The use of logical qubits not only guaranteed the high fidelity of exchanged secret message, but also prevented the eavesdroppers to eavesdrop beneath a mask of noise.
Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
Kamioka, J.; Oda, S.; Kodera, T.; Takeda, K.; Obata, T.; Tarucha, S.
2014-05-28
The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.
Nuclear numerical range and quantum error correction codes for non-unitary noise models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipka-Bartosik, Patryk; Życzkowski, Karol
2017-01-01
We introduce a notion of nuclear numerical range defined as the set of expectation values of a given operator A among normalized pure states, which belong to the nucleus of an auxiliary operator Z. This notion proves to be applicable to investigate models of quantum noise with block-diagonal structure of the corresponding Kraus operators. The problem of constructing a suitable quantum error correction code for this model can be restated as a geometric problem of finding intersection points of certain sets in the complex plane. This technique, worked out in the case of two-qubit systems, can be generalized for larger dimensions.
Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise
Heid, Matthias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2007-08-15
We investigate the security against collective attacks of a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme in the asymptotic key limit for a realistic setting. The quantum channel connecting the two honest parties is assumed to be lossy and imposes Gaussian noise on the observed quadrature distributions. Secret key rates are given for direct and reverse reconciliation schemes including post-selection in the collective attack scenario. The effect of a nonideal error correction and two-way communication in the classical post-processing step is also taken into account.
Quantum Noise and Excess Noise in Optical Homodyne and Heterodyne Receivers
1984-01-01
an output that contains a frequency translated replica of the signal field components that were coherent in space and time with the local oscillator...the half space z<O over an observation time interval t c T. This detector is assumed to have a constant quantum efficiency n over the frequency band...photodetection model [313, in our notation, presumes that J(7,t) is a conditional space - time Poisson impulse train with rate function i(Z,t) - RI(7,t)/e
Robustness of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates against parametric noise
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-10-01
We present a numerical study of the robustness of a specific class of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates. We take into account the parametric noise due to stochastic fluctuations of the control fields which drive the time-dependent Hamiltonian along an adiabatic loop. The performance estimator used is the state fidelity between noiseless and noisy holonomic gates. We carry over our analysis with different correlation times and we find out that noisy holonomic gates seem to be close to the noiseless ones for 'short' and 'long' noise correlation times. This result can be interpreted as a consequence of the geometric nature of the holonomic operator. Our simulations have been performed by using parameters relevant to the excitonic proposal for the implementation of holonomic quantum computation [P. Solinas et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 121307 (2003)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingfu; Suter, Dieter
2015-09-01
Hybrid systems consisting of different types of qubits are promising for building quantum computers if they combine useful properties of their constituent qubits. However, they also pose additional challenges if one type of qubits is more susceptible to environmental noise than the others. Dynamical decoupling can help to protect such systems by reducing the decoherence due to the environmental noise, but the protection must be designed such that it does not interfere with the control fields driving the logical operations. Here, we test such a protection scheme on a quantum register consisting of the electronic and nuclear spins of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. The results show that processing is compatible with protection: The dephasing time was extended almost to the limit given by the longitudinal relaxation time of the electron spin.
Designing high-impedance/low-noise superinductances for quantum electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, Ioan; Minev, Zlatko; Masluk, Nicholas; Kamal, Archana; Devoret, Michel
2012-02-01
Superinductances are essential circuit elements which enable the suppression of charge fluctuations in superconducting fluxonium qubits [1] and in other Josephson junction devices [2]. Commonly implemented as an array of Josephson junctions, superinductances have two main limitations. Firstly, the spurious capacitive coupling of the chain islands to ground lowers the plasma frequency of the chain, and consequently limits the operational bandwidth. Secondly, coherent quantum phase-slips (CQPS) [3] in the Josephson junction chain induce time dependent inductance fluctuations via the Aharonov-Casher effect [4]. We present the application of a novel lithographic technique [5] which enables the fabrication of arrays with optimal junction-capacitance to ground-capacitance ratio. We also present new superinductance designs which topologically suppress the CQPS, allowing the implementation of practically phase-slip free high inductance Josephson junction.[4pt] [1] Manucharyan et al., Science, 326 (2009)[0pt] [2] Guichard and Hekking, PRB, 81 (2010)[0pt] [3] Matveev et al. PRL, 89 (2002)[0pt] [4] Pop et al., arXiv:1105.6204 and Manucharyan et al., arXiv:1012.1928[0pt] [5] Lecocq et al., Nanotechnology, 22 (2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.
2016-07-01
We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.
Common mechanisms regulating dark noise and quantum bump amplification in Drosophila photoreceptors
Chu, Brian; Liu, Che-Hsiung; Sengupta, Sukanya; Gupta, Amit; Raghu, Padinjat
2013-01-01
Absolute visual thresholds are limited by “dark noise,” which in Drosophila photoreceptors is dominated by brief (∼10 ms), small (∼2 pA) inward current events, occurring at ∼2/s, believed to reflect spontaneous G protein activations. These dark events were increased in rate and amplitude by a point mutation in myosin III (NINAC), which disrupts its interaction with the scaffolding protein, INAD. This phenotype mimics that previously described in null mutants of ninaC (no inactivation no afterpotential; encoding myosin III) and an associated protein, retinophilin (rtp). Dark noise was similarly increased in heterozygote mutants of diacylglycerol kinase (rdgA/+). Dark noise in ninaC, rtp, and rdgA/+ mutants was greatly suppressed by mutations of the Gq α-subunit (Gαq) and the major light-sensitive channel (trp) but not rhodopsin. ninaC, rtp, and rdgA/+ mutations also all facilitated residual light responses in Gαq and PLC hypomorphs. Raising cytosolic Ca2+ in the submicromolar range increased dark noise, facilitated activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels by exogenous agonist, and again facilitated light responses in Gαq hypomorphs. Our results indicate that RTP, NINAC, INAD, and diacylglycerol kinase, together with a Ca2+-dependent threshold, share common roles in suppressing dark noise and regulating quantum bump generation; consequently, most spontaneous G protein activations fail to generate dark events under normal conditions. By contrast, quantum bump generation is reliable but delayed until sufficient G proteins and PLC are activated to overcome threshold, thereby ensuring generation of full-size bumps with high quantum efficiency. PMID:23365183
Theory of fast nondeterministic physical random-bit generation with chaotic lasers.
Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Jun; Arai, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Atsushi; Davis, Peter
2012-04-01
We theoretically show that completely stochastic fast physical random bit generation at a rate of more than one gigabit per second can be realized by using lasers with optical delayed feedback which creates high-dimensional chaos of laser light outputs. The theory is based on the mixing property of chaos, which transduces microscopic quantum noise of spontaneous emission in lasers into random transitions between discrete macroscopic states.
Lossy JPEG compression in quantitative angiography: the role of X-ray quantum noise.
Fritsch, Johannes Peter; Brennecke, Rüdiger
2011-06-01
In medical imaging, contrary to applications in the consumer market, the use of irreversible or lossy compression is still in its beginnings. This is due to the suspected risk of compromising the diagnostic content. Many studies have been performed, but it was not until 2008 that national activities in different countries resulted in recommendations for the safe use of irreversible image compression in clinical practice. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), however, poses a special problem, since here a large variation in published maximum compression factors has strengthened the general concerns about the use of lossy techniques. Up to now, the reason for the variation has not been thoroughly investigated. Reasons for the discrepancies in published compression factors are determined in this study. Since JPEG compression reduces the quantum noise of the X-ray images, the impact of compression is overestimated when interpreting any change in local diameter as an error. By taking into consideration the quantitative effect of quantum noise in QCA, it is shown that the influence of JPEG compression can be neglected for compression factors up to ten at clinically applicable X-ray doses. This limit is comparable to that found by visual analysis for aesthetic image quality. Future studies on image compression effects should take the interaction with quantum noise explicitly into consideration.
Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
2016-05-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
Low-Noise High-Performance Current Controllers for Quantum Cascade Lasers
Taubman, Matthew S.
2011-06-01
Quantum cascade lasers have ushered in a new era of enhanced capability for chemical sensing. The higher current and voltage demands of these devices over their laser diode counterparts has also ushered in the demand for more capable drive electronics. The current-sensitivity and high frequency response of these devices has continued the desire for low noise, stability and agility enjoyed by the laser diode community for many years. This article addresses the issue of maintaining these characteristics at the currents and voltages required, and presents example performance of current controllers developed by the author at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, achieving output currents up to two amperes and compliance voltages of 15 volts, with noise levels close to the Johnson noise of the internal resistors, typically a few nA/rt-Hz. Full current depth rapid modulation up to 100 kHz is also demonstrated.
Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields
Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao
2014-09-07
We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintana, C. M.; Chen, Yu; Sank, D.; Petukhov, A. G.; White, T. C.; Kafri, Dvir; Chiaro, B.; Megrant, A.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Graff, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Shabani, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.
2017-02-01
By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around 2 kBT /h ≈1 GHz , allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a 1 /f power law that matches the magnitude of the 1 /f noise near 1 Hz. The antisymmetric component displays a 1 /T dependence below 100 mK, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Extrapolating the two-sided spectrum predicts the linewidth and reorganization energy of incoherent resonant tunneling between flux qubit wells.
An extremely low-noise heralded single-photon source: A breakthrough for quantum technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Genovese, M.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Della Frera, A.; Tosi, A.; Bahgat Shehata, A.; Scarcella, C.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.; Polyakov, S. V.; Migdall, A.; Giudice, A.
2012-11-01
Low noise single-photon sources are a critical element for quantum technologies. We present a heralded single-photon source with an extremely low level of residual background photons, by implementing low-jitter detectors and electronics and a fast custom-made pulse generator controlling an optical shutter (a LiNbO3 waveguide optical switch) on the output of the source. This source has a second-order autocorrelation g(2)(0)=0.005(7), and an output noise factor (defined as the ratio of the number of noise photons to total photons at the source output channel) of 0.25(1)%. These are the best performance characteristics reported to date.
Shot noise in magnetic tunneling structures with two-level quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.
2016-12-01
We analyze shot noise in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-level quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's levels to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot noise we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot noise, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.
Leggett-Garg inequalities for a quantum top affected by classical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dajka, Jerzy; Łobejko, Marcin; Łuczka, Jerzy
2016-11-01
The violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality is studied for a quantum top (with angular momentum J_z of integer or half-integer size), being driven by classical Gaussian white noise. The form of a longitudinal (J_z) or a transverse (J_x) coupling of noise to the angular momentum affects both (i) to what extent the Leggett-Garg inequality is violated and (ii) how this violation is influenced by the size j of the spinning top and direction of a coupling (transverse or longitudinal). We introduce j-independent method, using two- dimensional invariant subspace of the system Hilbert space, which allows us to find out strict analytical solution for a noise-free system and with longitudinal coupling and to extract from the whole dynamics effects purely induced by a noise. It is demonstrated that in the semi-classical limit of a large angular momentum j and for the transverse coupling, the Leggett-Garg inequalities become more strongly violated as compared to the deep quantum regime of small j.
Bloch Oscillations of Cold Atoms in a Cavity: Effects of Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatesh, B.; O'Dell, D. H. J.
2013-05-01
We extend our theory of Bloch oscillations of cold atoms inside an optical cavity [Venkatesh et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 063834 (2009)] to include the effects of quantum noise. The noise acts as a form of quantum measurement backaction by perturbing the coupleddynamics of the atoms and the light. We take it into account by solving the Heiseberg-Langevin equations for linearized fluctuations about the atomic and optical meanfields and examine how this influences the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement of external forces using this system. In particular, we investigate the effects of changing the number of atoms, the intracavity lattice depth, and the atom-light coupling strength, and show how resonances between the Bloch oscillation dynamics and the quasiparticle spectrum have a strong influence on the signal-to-noise ratio. One of the hurdles we overcome along the way is the proper treatment of fluctuations about time-dependent meanfields in the cold atom cavity-QED context.
Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in a cavity: Effects of quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; O'Dell, D. H. J.
2013-07-01
We extend our theory of Bloch oscillations of cold atoms inside an optical cavity [Venkatesh , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.063834 80, 063834 (2009)] to include the effects of quantum noise arising from coupling to external modes. The noise acts as a form of quantum measurement backaction by perturbing the coupled dynamics of the atoms and the light. We take it into account by solving the Heisenberg-Langevin equations for linearized fluctuations about the atomic and optical mean fields and examine how this influences the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement of external forces using this system. In particular, we investigate the effects of changing the number of atoms, the intracavity lattice depth, and the atom-light coupling strength, and show how resonances between the Bloch oscillation dynamics and the quasiparticle spectrum have a strong influence on the signal-to-noise ratio, as well as heating effects. One of the hurdles we overcome in this paper is the proper treatment of fluctuations about time-dependent mean fields in the context of cold-atom cavity QED.
Can quantum-bumps in photoreceptors be reconstructed from noise-data?
Schnakenberg, J
1988-01-01
The method of reconstructing quantum bumps in photoreceptor cells from noise data by making use of shot noise theory is critically reviewed. The application of this method produces results irrespective of whether the conditions for reconstructing bumps by the method are satisfied or not and even irrespective of whether at high stimulus intensities quantum bumps exist or not. We argue that at high intensities the concept of quantum bumps indeed becomes physically meaningless and degenerates to a purely mathematical concept. In order to investigate the meaning of the results of the reconstruction method, we submit it to a test model for which bumps and single channel opening events can be evaluated analytically. By comparing the analytical results of the test model with that of the reconstruction method applied to the test model we find: (1) even at low intensities, the reconstructed bump values deviate from the analytical results by up to an order of magnitude due to the variability of the bumps, (2) at high intensities, the reconstruction method produces single channel opening events rather than anything like a quantum bump. We also find, however, that there is no continuous transition from a bump at low intensities to a single channel event at high intensities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei
2015-07-01
A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granata, C.; Vettoliere, A.; Russo, M.
2011-01-01
An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. The sensor design is based on a multiturn signal coil coupled to a suitable SQUID magnetometer. The signal coil consists of 60 square niobium turns tightly coupled to a superconducting flux transformer of a SQUID magnetometer. The primary coil (pick-up coil) of the flux transformer has been suitably designed in order to accommodate the multiturn input coil. It has a side length of 10 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. In such a way we have obtained a signal current to magnetic flux transfer coefficient (current sensitivity) as low as 62 nA/Φ0. The sensor has been characterized in liquid helium by using a direct coupling low noise readout electronic and a standard modulated electronic in flux locked loop configuration for the noise measurements. Beside the circuit complexity, the sensor has exhibited a smooth and free resonance voltage-flux characteristic guaranteeing a reliable and a stable working operation. Considering a SQUID magnetic flux noise of SΦ1/2 = 1.8 μΦ0/Hz1/2 at T = 4.2 K, a current noise as low as 110 fA/Hz1/2 is obtained. Such a value is about a factor two less than the noise of other SQUIDs of the same category. As an application, Nyquist noise measurements of integrated test resistors using the current sensing noise thermometer technique are reported. Due to its high performance such a sensor can be employed in all applications requiring an extremely current sensitivity like the readout of the gravitational wave detectors and the current sensing noise thermometry.
Granata, C; Vettoliere, A; Russo, M
2011-01-01
An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. The sensor design is based on a multiturn signal coil coupled to a suitable SQUID magnetometer. The signal coil consists of 60 square niobium turns tightly coupled to a superconducting flux transformer of a SQUID magnetometer. The primary coil (pick-up coil) of the flux transformer has been suitably designed in order to accommodate the multiturn input coil. It has a side length of 10 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. In such a way we have obtained a signal current to magnetic flux transfer coefficient (current sensitivity) as low as 62 nA∕Φ(0). The sensor has been characterized in liquid helium by using a direct coupling low noise readout electronic and a standard modulated electronic in flux locked loop configuration for the noise measurements. Beside the circuit complexity, the sensor has exhibited a smooth and free resonance voltage-flux characteristic guaranteeing a reliable and a stable working operation. Considering a SQUID magnetic flux noise of S(Φ)(1∕2) = 1.8 μΦ(0)∕Hz(1∕2) at T = 4.2 K, a current noise as low as 110 fA∕Hz(1∕2) is obtained. Such a value is about a factor two less than the noise of other SQUIDs of the same category. As an application, Nyquist noise measurements of integrated test resistors using the current sensing noise thermometer technique are reported. Due to its high performance such a sensor can be employed in all applications requiring an extremely current sensitivity like the readout of the gravitational wave detectors and the current sensing noise thermometry.
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
Reading boundless error-free bits using a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2013-06-01
We address the problem of how efficiently information can be encoded into and read out reliably from a passive reflective surface that encodes classical data by modulating the amplitude and phase of incident light. We show that nature imposes no fundamental upper limit to the number of bits that can be read per expended probe photon and demonstrate the quantum-information-theoretic trade-offs between the photon efficiency (bits per photon) and the encoding efficiency (bits per pixel) of optical reading. We show that with a coherent-state (ideal laser) source, an on-off (amplitude-modulation) pixel encoding, and shot-noise-limited direct detection (an overly optimistic model for commercial CD and DVD drives), the highest photon efficiency achievable in principle is about 0.5 bits read per transmitted photon. We then show that a coherent-state probe can read unlimited bits per photon when the receiver is allowed to make joint (inseparable) measurements on the reflected light from a large block of phase-modulated memory pixels. Finally, we show an example of a spatially entangled nonclassical light probe and a receiver design—constructible using a single-photon source, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors—that can in principle read any number of error-free bits of information. The probe is a single photon prepared in a uniform coherent superposition of multiple orthogonal spatial modes, i.e., a W state. The code and joint-detection receiver complexity required by a coherent-state transmitter to achieve comparable photon efficiency performance is shown to be much higher in comparison to that required by the W-state transceiver, although this advantage rapidly disappears with increasing loss in the system.
Phase-noise limitations in continuous-variable quantum key distribution with homodyne detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corvaja, Roberto
2017-02-01
In continuous-variables quantum key distribution with coherent states, the advantage of performing the detection by using standard telecoms components is counterbalanced by the lack of a stable phase reference in homodyne detection due to the complexity of optical phase-locking circuits and to the unavoidable phase noise of lasers, which introduces a degradation on the achievable secure key rate. Pilot-assisted phase-noise estimation and postdetection compensation techniques are used to implement a protocol with coherent states where a local laser is employed and it is not locked to the received signal, but a postdetection phase correction is applied. Here the reduction of the secure key rate determined by the laser phase noise, for both individual and collective attacks, is analytically evaluated and a scheme of pilot-assisted phase estimation proposed, outlining the tradeoff in the system design between phase noise and spectral efficiency. The optimal modulation variance as a function of the phase-noise amount is derived.
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states.
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-06
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green's function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵ(M) increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-01
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ɛM increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolde, Seyoum; Lao, Yan-Feng; Unil Perera, A. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wang, T. M.; Kim, J. O.; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, S.
2017-06-01
We report experimental results showing how the noise in a Quantum-Dot Infrared photodetector (QDIP) and Quantum Dot-in-a-well (DWELL) varies with the electric field and temperature. At lower temperatures (below ˜100 K), the noise current of both types of detectors is dominated by generation-recombination (G-R) noise which is consistent with a mechanism of fluctuations driven by the electric field and thermal noise. The noise gain, capture probability, and carrier life time for bound-to-continuum or quasi-bound transitions in DWELL and QDIP structures are discussed. The capture probability of DWELL is found to be more than two times higher than the corresponding QDIP. Based on the analysis, structural parameters such as the numbers of active layers, the surface density of QDs, and the carrier capture or relaxation rate, type of material, and electric field are some of the optimization parameters identified to improve the gain of devices.
‘Momentum rejuvenation’ underlies the phenomenon of noise-assisted quantum energy flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying; Caruso, Filippo; Gauger, Erik; Benjamin, Simon C.
2015-01-01
An important challenge in quantum science is to fully understand the efficiency of energy flow in networks. Here we present a simple and intuitive explanation for the intriguing observation that optimally efficient networks are not purely quantum, but are assisted by some interaction with a ‘noisy’ classical environment. By considering the system's dynamics in both the site-basis and the momentum-basis, we show that the effect of classical noise is to sustain a broad momentum distribution, countering the depletion of high mobility terms which occurs as energy exits from the network. This picture suggests that the optimal level of classical noise is reciprocally related to the linear dimension of the lattice; our numerical simulations verify this prediction to high accuracy for regular 1D and 2D networks over a range of sizes up to thousands of sites. This insight leads to the discovery that dramatic further improvements in performance occur when a driving field targets noise at the low mobility components. The simulation code which we wrote for this study has been made openly available at figshare4.
Optimum spectral windows to minimize quantum noise of ratiometric intracellular fluorescent probes.
Stern, M D; Spurgeon, H A; Hansford, R; Lakatta, E G; Capogrossi, M C
1989-01-01
When fluorescent indicators are used to measure intracellular ligands in single cells, the quality of the data is usually limited by quantum (shot) noise. For indicators which shift excitation or emission wavelengths upon ligand binding, a ratiometric method is usually employed. In choosing the spectral windows for excitation or collection of fluorescence, there is a trade-off between maximum sensitivity to ligand binding, and maximum collection of light. We show that there is a well-defined optimum choice of windows which minimizes the error caused by quantum noise in the estimated ligand concentration. An algorithm for determining these optimum windows is presented. As an example, we consider the measurement of intracellular calcium by indo-1 fluorescence emission ratio in cardiac myocytes. The optimum wavelength bands for collection of fluorescence are considerably wider than those commonly employed. The use of these windows in a pulsed-excitation time-resolved calcium measurement instrument resulted in improved signal to noise ratio of the calcium signal.
Robust relativistic bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2016-12-01
Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-07
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2017-06-01
Present study examines the pattern of variation of electric dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (αp) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) under combined presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature and in presence of noise. Noise term carries a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. Profiles of μ and αp have been monitored against the variations of hydrostatic pressure (HP), temperature and the noise strength. Under a given condition of HP and temperature, application of noise prominently influences the above two properties. However, the extent of influence depends on the noise strength and the pathway through which noise is introduced. The findings divulge feasible routes to control the dipole moment and polarizability of doped QD system through the interplay between HP, temperature and noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-01
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
Multiple-Particle Interference and Quantum Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew
1996-11-01
The concept of multiple-particle interference is discussed, using insights provided by the classical theory of error correcting codes. This leads to a discussion of error correction in a quantum communication channel or a quantum computer. Methods of error correction in the quantum regime are presented, and their limitations assessed. A quantum channel can recover from arbitrary decoherence of x qubits if K bits of quantum information are encoded using n quantum bits, where K/n can be greater than 1 - 2H (2x/n), but must be less than 1 - 2H (x/n). This implies exponential reduction of decoherence with only a polynomial increase in the computing resources required. Therefore quantum computation can be made free of errors in the presence of physically realistic levels of decoherence. The methods also allow isolation of quantum communication from noise and evesdropping (quantum privacy amplification).
Dissipative dynamics of a quantum two-state system in presence of nonequilibrium quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Niklas; Brüggemann, Jochen; Thorwart, Michael
2016-12-01
We analyze the real-time dynamics of a quantum two-state system in the presence of nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations. The latter are generated by a coupling of the two-state system to a single electronic level of a quantum dot which carries a nonequilibrium tunneling current. We restrict to the sequential tunneling regime and calculate the dynamics of the two-state system, of the dot population, and of the nonequilibrium charge current on the basis of a diagrammatic perturbative method valid for a weak tunneling coupling. We find a nontrivial dependence of the relaxation and dephasing rates of the two-state system due to the nonequilibrium fluctuations which is directly linked to the structure of the unperturbed central system. In addition, a Heisenberg-Langevin-equation of motion allows us to calculate the correlation function of the nonequilibrium fluctuations. By this, we obtain a generalized nonequilibrium fluctuation relation which includes the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the limit of zero transport voltage. A straightforward extension to the case with a time-periodic ac voltage is shown.
Perfectly secure steganography: Hiding information in the quantum noise of a photograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanguinetti, Bruno; Traverso, Giulia; Lavoie, Jonathan; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-01-01
We show that it is possible to hide information perfectly within a photograph. The proposed protocol works by selecting each pixel value from two images that differ only by shot noise. Pixel values are never modified, but only selected, making the resulting stego image provably indistinguishable from an untampered image, and the protocol provably secure. We demonstrate that a perfect steganographic protocol is also a perfectly secure cryptographic protocol, and therefore has at least the same requirements: a truly random key as long as the message. In our system, we use a second image as the key, satisfying length requirements, and the randomness is provided by the naturally occurring quantum noise which is dominant in images taken with modern sensors. We conclude that, given a photograph, it is impossible to tell whether it contains any hidden information.
Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit.
Mizouri, Arin; Deng, L Z; Eardley, Jack S; Nahler, N Hendrik; Wrede, Eckart; Carty, David
2013-12-07
The absolute density of SD radicals in a supersonic jet has been measured down to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(5) cm(-3) in a modestly specified apparatus that uses a cross-correlated combination of cavity ring-down and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Such a density corresponds to 215 ± 21 molecules in the probe volume at any given time. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient was quantum-noise-limited and measured to be (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) cm(-1), in 200 s of acquisition time, corresponding to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity for the apparatus of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(-9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2).
Finite-frequency-dependent noise of a quantum dot in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moca, C. P.; Simon, P.; Chung, Chung-Hou; Zaránd, G.
2014-04-01
We present a detailed study for the finite-frequency current noise of a Kondo quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field by using a recently developed real-time functional renormalization group approach [C. P. Moca, P. Simon, C. H. Chung, and G. Zaránd, Phys. Rev. B 83, 201303(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.201303]. The scaling equations are modified in an external magnetic field; the couplings and nonlocal current vertices become strongly anisotropic, and develop new singularities. Consequently, in addition to the natural emission threshold frequency, ℏω =|eV|, a corresponding singular behavior is found to emerge in the noise spectrum at frequencies ℏω ≈|eV±B|. The predicted singularities are measurable with present-day experimental techniques.
Luo, JunYan; Jiao, HuJun; Xiong, BiTao; He, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Changrong
2013-04-17
We study spin-resolved noise in Coulomb blockaded double quantum dots coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes. The modulation of the interdot coupling and spin polarization in the electrodes gives rise to an intriguing dynamical spin ↑-↑ (↓-↓) blockade mechanism: bunching of up (down) spins due to dynamical blockade of an up (down) spin. In contrast to the conventional dynamical spin ↑-↓ bunching (bunching of up spins associated with a dynamical blockade of a down spin), this new bunching behavior is found to be intimately associated with the spin mutual-correlation, i.e. the noise fluctuation between opposite spin currents. We further demonstrate that the dynamical spin ↑-↑ and ↑-↓ bunching of tunneling events may be coexistent in the regime of weak interdot coupling and low spin polarization.
Overhead and noise threshold of fault-tolerant quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew M.
2003-10-01
Fault-tolerant quantum error correction (QEC) networks are studied by a combination of numerical and approximate analytical treatments. The probability of failure of the recovery operation is calculated for a variety of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, including large block codes and concatenated codes. Recent insights into the syndrome extraction process, which render the whole process more efficient and more noise tolerant, are incorporated. The average number of recoveries that can be completed without failure is thus estimated as a function of various parameters. The main parameters are the gate γ and memory ɛ failure rates, the physical scale-up of the computer size, and the time tm required for measurements and classical processing. The achievable computation size is given as a surface in parameter space. This indicates the noise threshold as well as other information. It is found that concatenated codes based on the [[23,1,7
Linear stochastic Schrödinger equations in terms of quantum Bernoulli noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jinshu; Wang, Caishi
2017-05-01
Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBN) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which satisfy a canonical anti-commutation relation. In this paper, we study linear stochastic Schrödinger equations (LSSEs) associated with QBN in the space of square integrable complex-valued Bernoulli functionals. We first rigorously prove a formula concerning the number operator N on Bernoulli functionals. And then, by using this formula as well as Mora and Rebolledo's results on a general LSSE [C. M. Mora and R. Rebolledo, Infinite. Dimens. Anal. Quantum Probab. Relat. Top. 10, 237-259 (2007)], we obtain an easily checking condition for a LSSE associated with QBN to have a unique Nr-strong solution of mean square norm conservation for given r ≥0 . Finally, as an application of this condition, we examine a special class of LSSEs associated with QBN and some further results are proven.
Signatures of a noise-induced quantum phase transition in a mesoscopic metal ring.
Tong, Ning-Hua; Vojta, Matthias
2006-07-07
We study a mesoscopic ring with an inline quantum dot threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. Zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic environment capacitively coupled to the ring, with omega(s) spectral density, can suppress tunneling through the dot, resulting in a quantum phase transition from an unpolarized to a polarized phase. We show that robust signatures of such a transition can be found in the response of the persistent current in the ring to the external flux as well as to the bias between the dot and the arm. Particular attention is paid to the experimentally relevant cases of Ohmic (s = 1) and sub-Ohmic (s = 1/2) noise.
Estimating the Coherence of Noise in Quantum Control of a Solid-State Qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Guanru; Wallman, Joel J.; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Cho, Franklin H.; Park, Daniel K.; Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-12-01
To exploit a given physical system for quantum information processing, it is critical to understand the different types of noise affecting quantum control. Distinguishing coherent and incoherent errors is extremely useful as they can be reduced in different ways. Coherent errors are generally easier to reduce at the hardware level, e.g., by improving calibration, whereas some sources of incoherent errors, e.g., T2* processes, can be reduced by engineering robust pulses. In this work, we illustrate how purity benchmarking and randomized benchmarking can be used together to distinguish between coherent and incoherent errors and to quantify the reduction in both of them due to using optimal control pulses and accounting for the transfer function in an electron spin resonance system. We also prove that purity benchmarking provides bounds on the optimal fidelity and diamond norm that can be achieved by correcting the coherent errors through improving calibration.
Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme
2012-02-17
We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.
Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying
2016-09-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g., superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this Letter. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error-correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about 1,000 normal qubits.
Li, Ying
2016-09-16
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g., superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this Letter. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error-correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about 1,000 normal qubits.
Quantum noise and squeezing in optical parametric oscillator with arbitrary output coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, Sudhakar
1993-01-01
The redistribution of intrinsic quantum noise in the quadratures of the field generated in a sub-threshold degenerate optical parametric oscillator exhibits interesting dependences on the individual output mirror transmittances, when they are included exactly. We present a physical picture of this problem, based on mirror boundary conditions, which is valid for arbitrary transmittances. Hence, our picture applies uniformly to all values of the cavity Q factor representing, in the opposite extremes, both perfect oscillator and amplifier configurations. Beginning with a classical second-harmonic pump, we shall generalize our analysis to the finite amplitude and phase fluctuations of the pump.
Yamanishi, Masamichi Hirohata, Tooru; Hayashi, Syohei; Fujita, Kazuue; Tanaka, Kazunori
2014-11-14
Free running line-widths (>100 kHz), much broader than intrinsic line-widths ∼100 Hz, of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by strong flicker frequency-noise originating from electrical flicker noise. Understanding of microscopic origins of the electrical flicker noises in quantum-cascade lasers is crucially important for the reduction of strength of flicker frequency-noise without assistances of any type of feedback schemes. In this article, an ad hoc model that is based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by electron trappings and de-trappings at indispensable impurity states in injector super-lattices of a quantum-cascade laser is proposed, developing theoretical framework based on the model. The validity of the present model is evaluated by comparing theoretical voltage-noise power spectral densities based on the model with experimental ones obtained by using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers with designed impurity-positioning. The obtained experimental results on flicker noises, in comparison with the theoretical ones, shed light on physical mechanisms, such as the inherent one due to impurity states in their injectors and extrinsic ones due to surface states on the ridge-walls and due to residual deep traps, for electrical flicker-noise generation in existing mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers. It is shown theoretically that quasi-delta doping of impurities in their injectors leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole length at a certain temperature, for instance ∼300 K and, in turn, is expected to result in substantial narrowing of the free running line-width down below 10 kHz.
Noise Spectrum of a Quantum Point Contact Coupled to a Nano-Mechanical Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidya, Nikhilesh A.
With the advance in nanotechnology, we are more interested in the "smaller worlds". One of the practical applications of this is to measure a very small displacement or the mass of a nano-mechanical object. To measure such properties, one needs a very sensitive detector. A quantum point contact (QPC) is one of the most sensitive detectors. In a QPC, electrons tunnel one by one through a tunnel junction (a "hole"). The tunnel junction in a QPC consists of a narrow constriction (nm-wide) between two conductors. To measure the properties of a nano-mechanical object (which acts as a harmonic oscillator), we couple it to a QPC. This coupling effects the electrons tunneling through the QPC junction. By measuring the transport properties of the tunneling electrons, we can infer the properties of the oscillator (i.e. the nano-mechanical object). However, this coupling introduces noise, which reduces the measurement precision. Thus, it is very important to understand this source of noise and to study how it effects the measurement process. We theoretically study the transport properties of electrons through a QPC junction, weakly coupled to a vibration mode of a nano-mechanical oscillator via both the position and the momentum of the oscillator. We study both the position and momentum based coupling. The transport properties that we study consist of the average flow of current through the junction, given by the one-time correlation of the electron tunneling event, and the current noise given by the two-time correlation of the average current, i.e., the variance. The first comprehensive experimental study of the noise spectrum of a detector coupled to a QPC was performed by the group of Stettenheim et al. Their observed spectral features had two pronounced peaks which depict the noise produced due to the coupling of the QPC with the oscillator and in turn provide evidence of the induced feedback loop (back-action). Benatov and Blencowe theoretically studied these spectral
Hood, M.
1986-02-11
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face. 4 figs.
Hood, Michael
1986-01-01
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face.
Low-noise dc superconducting quantum interference devices for gravity wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Insik
I have designed, built and tested a low noise dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) system which is intended primarily for use in a 50 mK omnidirectional gravity wave antenna. The SQUID system has three SQUIDs on a single chip: one SQUID is the sensor, another SQUID is the main readout, and the last is a spare readout. For good impedance matching between the sensor SQUID and the input circuit, I use a thin-film transformer. This thin-film transformer gives an input inductance of about 1 muH, which is good for many applications. A SQUID system in a gravity wave antenna must operate continuously for at least 6 months with high reliability. To meet these requirements, I fabricated dc SQUID chips from Nb-Al/AlOsbx-Nb trilayers. I tested the SQUID chips in a liquid helium bath and a dilution refrigerator in the temperature range of 4.2 K to 90 mK. I have designed and tested an eddy-current damping filter as a distributed microwave filter to damp out microwave resonances in strip-line input coils coupled to SQUIDs. The filter chip consists of a Au/Cu-dot array. The filter chip was coupled to the SQUID using a flip-chip arrangement on the SQUID chip. I found that the filter reduced noise bumps and removed distortion from the current-voltage curves. To flux-lock the SQUID system, I developed 2-stage SQUID feedback loops. I investigated two cascade SQUID systems in which I feed the feedback signal into the sensor SQUID and couple the ac modulation signal to the readout SQUID. I found that the noise spectrum with 2-SQUID feedback operation recovers the noise spectrum of the sensor SQUID with about 9% higher noise.
Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M
2013-02-08
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho
2014-05-15
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim
2014-05-01
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim
2014-05-01
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
Conceptual Difficulties of Standard Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Noise in Overcoming Them
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghirardi, Giancarlo
2016-08-01
We briefly review the difficulties of the standard version of quantum mechanics in accounting for all kinds of physical processes (in particular both the micro and the macroscopic ones) and we argue that to overcome such difficulties one has to give up the superposition principle, i.e., to break the linear nature of the theory. We then show that the simple introduction of terms violating the linearity of the deterministic evolution of the standard theory has physically unacceptable consequences. Taking this into account we are led to modify the quantum dynamics by adding to Schrödinger’s equation, besides nonlinear terms, a coupling with an appropriate noise. We show that, with such a move, one can work out a theory which is internally consistent and it allows to account, in a quite simple and physically appealing way, for natural processes including the measurements and the classical behavior of macroscopic bodies. On the basis of our analysis, we are led to conclude that the consideration of the noise represents a crucial element for understanding the laws of nature.
Lam Chok Sing, M.; Dolabdjian, C.; Gunther, C.; Bloyet, D.; Certenais, J.
1996-03-01
We present a comparative study of existing low-frequency noise reduction techniques for dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). These methods are essential to applications involving high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} SQUIDS because they dramatically reduce the 1/{ital f} noise to useful low-frequency noise levels. We propose a formal presentation of the problem and explain mathematically the working principles of these noise reductions methods, particularly for fluctuations arising from the critical current of the junctions. An increase in the white noise level is generally observed when a sinusoidal lock-in detection is used for these methods and we give here a mathematical explanation for this peculiar effect. Finally, noise measurements made on high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} grain boundary dc SQUIDS are presented; the experimental results are in close agreement with theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore the diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise and under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T). Presence of noise and also its mode of application discernibly affect the DMS profile. Application of HP and T invites greater delicacies in the observed DMS profiles. However, whereas the interplay between T and noise comes out to be extremely sensitive in fabricating the DMS profile, the pressure-noise interplay appears to be not that much noticeable. Under all conditions of temperature and pressure, the presence of multiplicative noise diminishes the value of DMS in comparison with that in presence of its additive analogue. The present study renders a deep insight into the remarkable role played by the interplay between noise, hydrostatic pressure and temperature in controlling the effective confinement imposed on the system which bears unquestionable relevance.
Optical Spin Noise of a Single Hole Spin Localized in an (InGa)As Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahbashi, Ramin; Hübner, Jens; Berski, Fabian; Pierz, Klaus; Oestreich, Michael
2014-04-01
We advance spin noise spectroscopy to the ultimate limit of single spin detection. This technique enables the measurement of the spin dynamic of a single heavy hole localized in a flat (InGa)As quantum dot. Magnetic field and light intensity dependent studies reveal even at low magnetic fields a strong magnetic field dependence of the longitudinal heavy hole spin relaxation time with an extremely long T1 of ≥180 μs at 31 mT and 5 K. The wavelength dependence of the spin noise power discloses for finite light intensities an inhomogeneous single quantum dot spin noise spectrum which is explained by charge fluctuations in the direct neighborhood of the quantum dot. The charge fluctuations are corroborated by the distinct intensity dependence of the effective spin relaxation rate.
Effects of quantum noise in 4D-CT on deformable image registration and derived ventilation data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latifi, Kujtim; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Feygelman, Vladimir; Budzevich, Mikalai M.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W.; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre; Zhang, Geoffrey G.
2013-11-01
Quantum noise is common in CT images and is a persistent problem in accurate ventilation imaging using 4D-CT and deformable image registration (DIR). This study focuses on the effects of noise in 4D-CT on DIR and thereby derived ventilation data. A total of six sets of 4D-CT data with landmarks delineated in different phases, called point-validated pixel-based breathing thorax models (POPI), were used in this study. The DIR algorithms, including diffeomorphic morphons (DM), diffeomorphic demons (DD), optical flow and B-spline, were used to register the inspiration phase to the expiration phase. The DIR deformation matrices (DIRDM) were used to map the landmarks. Target registration errors (TRE) were calculated as the distance errors between the delineated and the mapped landmarks. Noise of Gaussian distribution with different standard deviations (SD), from 0 to 200 Hounsfield Units (HU) in amplitude, was added to the POPI models to simulate different levels of quantum noise. Ventilation data were calculated using the ΔV algorithm which calculates the volume change geometrically based on the DIRDM. The ventilation images with different added noise levels were compared using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The root mean square (RMS) values of the landmark TRE over the six POPI models for the four DIR algorithms were stable when the noise level was low (SD <150 HU) and increased with added noise when the level is higher. The most accurate DIR was DD with a mean RMS of 1.5 ± 0.5 mm with no added noise and 1.8 ± 0.5 mm with noise (SD = 200 HU). The DSC values between the ventilation images with and without added noise decreased with the noise level, even when the noise level was relatively low. The DIR algorithm most robust with respect to noise was DM, with mean DSC = 0.89 ± 0.01 and 0.66 ± 0.02 for the top 50% ventilation volumes, as compared between 0 added noise and SD = 30 and 200 HU, respectively. Although the landmark TRE were stable with low noise, the
Quantum noise limits in white-light-cavity-enhanced gravitational wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.
2015-10-01
Previously, we had proposed a gravitational wave detector that incorporates the white-light-cavity (WLC) effect using a compound cavity for signal recycling (CC-SR). Here, we first use an idealized model for the negative dispersion medium (NDM) and use the so-called Caves model for a phase-insensitive linear amplifier to account for the quantum noise (QN) contributed by the NDM, in order to determine the upper bound of the enhancement in the sensitivity-bandwidth product. We calculate the quantum noise limited sensitivity curves for the CC-SR design, and find that the broadening of sensitivity predicted by the classical analysis is also present in these curves, but is somewhat reduced. Furthermore, we find that the curves always stay above the standard quantum limit. To circumvent this limitation, we modify the dispersion to compensate the nonlinear phase variation produced by the optomechanical resonance effects. We find that the upper bound of the factor by which the sensitivity-bandwidth product is increased, compared to the highest-sensitivity result predicted by Bunanno and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 64, 042006 (2001)], is ˜14 . We also present a simpler scheme (WLC-SR), where a dispersion medium is inserted into the SR cavity. For this scheme, we found the upper bound of the enhancement factor to be ˜18 . We then consider an explicit system for realizing the NDM, which makes use of five energy levels in M configuration to produce gain, accompanied by electromagnetically induced transparency (the GEIT system). For this explicit system, we employ the rigorous approach based on Master Equation to compute the QN contributed by the NDM, thus enabling us to determine the enhancement in the sensitivity-bandwidth product definitively rather than the upper bound thereof. Specifically, we identify a set of parameters for which the sensitivity-bandwidth product is enhanced by a factor of 17.66.
Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence
Scully, Marlan O.; Chapin, Kimberly R.; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly
2011-01-01
Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein’s studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by “hot” thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature Th (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature Tc (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser
Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence.
Scully, Marlan O; Chapin, Kimberly R; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly
2011-09-13
Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein's studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by "hot" thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature T(h) (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature T(c) (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-02-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Shot Noise of Charge and Spin Current of a Quantum Dot Coupled to Semiconductor Electrodes.
Sartipi, Zahra; Vahedi, Javad
2015-10-15
On the basis of the scattering matrix theory and nonequilibrium green function method, we have investigated the fluctuations of charge and spin current of the systems that consist of a quantum dot (QD) with a resonant level coupled to two semiconductor contacts within in alternative site (AS) and alternative bond (AB) framework, where two transverse (Bx) and longitudinal (Bz) magnetic fields are applied to the QD. It is only necessary to use the autocorrelation function to characterize the fluctuations of charge current for a twoterminal system because of the relation that is defined as Σα e Sαβ = Σβ e Sαβ = 0. Our result shows that both auto-shot noise (SLL) and cross-shot noise (SLR) are essential to characterize the fluctuations of spin current when Bx is present. Moreover, our model calculations show that the sign of the cross-shot noise of spin current is negative for all surface states of AS/QD/AS junctions, whereas it oscillates between positive and negative values for two surface states of AB/QD/AB junctions as we sweep the gate voltage.
Shot noise and linear conductance in a transport through quantum dot coupled to polarized leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, A.
2009-04-01
We study the influence of polarized leads and of magnetic field on the noise power and on transport through a link which may be a quantum dot or a point junction. We suggest that such link is tuned to the local spin regime and reveals Kondo type behavior. The implication of superconductivity is also analyzed in the case when one of the leads is a superconductor. Specifically, we calculate the noise power to the third order in the Kondo coupling. With the help of fluctuation-dissipation theorem we can further define the linear conductance as a function of the polarization and magnetic field. For dot spin operators we used their representation in terms of mixed Dirac and Majorana fermions. The important output of the derivation with both, spin polarization and magnetic field included, is the potential scattering contribution which acquires logarithmic dependence on the band width. Motivated by experiment [1] we analyze a set configuration when only one lead is polarized. The Kondo temperature is defined with the help of renormalization group equations. In particular, some of these equations follow from the invariance of the shot noise under scale transformation.
Direct Identification of Dilute Surface Spins on Al2 O3 : Origin of Flux Noise in Quantum Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Graaf, S. E.; Adamyan, A. A.; Lindström, T.; Erts, D.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Danilov, A. V.
2017-02-01
An on-chip electron spin resonance technique is applied to reveal the nature and origin of surface spins on Al2 O3 . We measure a spin density of 2.2 ×1 017 spins/m2 , attributed to physisorbed atomic hydrogen and S =1 /2 electron spin states on the surface. This is direct evidence for the nature of spins responsible for flux noise in quantum circuits, which has been an issue of interest for several decades. Our findings open up a new approach to the identification and controlled reduction of paramagnetic sources of noise and decoherence in superconducting quantum devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Pavithran; da Silva, Marcus P.; Poulin, David
In this work, we aim to determine the parameters of a single qubit channel that can tightly bound the logical error rate of the Steane code. We do not assume any a priori structure for the quantum channel, except that it is a CPTP map and we use a concatenated Steane code to encode a single qubit. Unlike the standard Monte Carlo technique that requires many iterations to estimate the logical error rate with sufficient accuracy, we use techniques to compute the complete effect of a physical CPTP map, at the logical level. Using this, we have studied the predictive power of several physical noise metrics on the logical error rate, and show, through numerical simulations with random quantum channels, that, on their own, none of the natural physical metrics lead to accurate predictions about the logical error rate. We then show how machine learning techniques help us to explore which features of a random quantum channel are important in predicting its logical error rate.
Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface-plasmon-resonance sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Joong-Sung; Huynh, Trung; Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Geol; Lee, Jinhyoung; Tame, Mark; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lee, Changhyoup
2017-09-01
We investigate the use of twin-mode quantum states of light with symmetric statistical features in their photon number for improving intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. For this purpose, one of the modes is sent into a prism setup where the Kretschmann configuration is employed as a sensing platform and the analyte to be measured influences the SPR excitation conditions. This influence modifies the output state of light that is subsequently analyzed by an intensity-difference measurement scheme. We show that quantum noise reduction is achieved not only as a result of the sub-Poissonian statistical nature of a single mode, but also as a result of the nonclassical correlation of the photon number between the two modes. When combined with the high sensitivity of the SPR sensor, we show that the use of twin-mode quantum states of light notably enhances the estimation precision of the refractive index of an analyte. With this we are able to identify a clear strategy to further boost the performance of SPR sensors, which are already a mature technology in biochemical and medical sensing applications.
Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas; Arend, Carsten; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph
2016-04-01
telecom regime as a result of the small conversion bandwidth and using a high-performance fiber-Bragg-grating solely left the detector dark counts as the only noise source in our setup. Therefore, we could achieve conversion efficiencies of more than 20 %. In order to test the indistinguishability, sequentially emitted photons were fed into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatially as well as temporally overlapped at the output beam splitter. Cross-correlation measurements between both output-ports of the beam splitter exhibit two-photon interference contrasts of more than 40 % prior to and after the down-conversion step. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the process of quantum frequency conversion preserves photon indistinguishability and can be used to establish a versatile source of indistinguishable single photons at the telecom C-Band. Furthermore our scheme allows for converting photons in a wavelength band from 900 nm to 910 nm to the same telecom target wavelength. This enables us to test indistinguishability of frequency-converted photons, originally stemming from different sources with dinstinguishable wavelengths.
Manipulation of electrical flicker-noise and line narrowing in free-running quantum cascade-lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanishi, Masamichi; Hirohata, Toru
2015-01-01
Intrinsic linewidths of quantum-cascade lasers are found to be extremely narrow, ~100 Hz. However, the free running linewidths (usually ~1 MHz) of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by flicker frequency-noise that is identified to originate from electrical flicker-noise in the devices. Obviously, substantial suppression of the electrical flicker noise is required for substantial narrowing of free-running LWs. In this presentation, we show systematic experimental results of flicker voltage-noise power-spectral density obtained with mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers of designed positioning of impurities in injectors. The measured noise-levels depending strongly on impurity position as well as device-temperature are evaluated with an ad hoc model based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by trapping and de-trapping at impurity states in their injectors. It is shown that quasi-delta doping of impurities leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole-length at a certain temperature, for instance ~300 K and, in turn, is expected to narrow astonishingly the free-running line-width down below 10 kHz without assistances of any types of feedback schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Li, Lingyun; Jin, Haifei; Li, Ruifan
2013-11-01
Environmental noise is inevitable in non-isolated systems. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze the security of the “Ping-Pong” protocol in a noisy environment. An excellent model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and information theoretical methods are applied to analyze the security of this protocol. If noise level ε is lower than 11%, an eavesdropper can gain some, but not all, information freely without being detected. Otherwise, the protocol becomes insecure. We conclude that the use of ‘Ping-Pong’ protocol as a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol is quasi-secure, as declared by the original author when ε⩽11%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hell, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; DiVincenzo, D. P.
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the backaction of a sensor quantum dot with strong local Coulomb repulsion on the transient dynamics of a qubit that is probed capacitively. We show that the measurement backaction induced by the noise of electron cotunneling through the sensor is surprisingly mitigated by the recently identified coherent backaction [M. Hell, M. R. Wegewijs, and D. P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 195405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195405] arising from quantum fluctuations. This indicates that a sensor with quantized states may be switched off better than naively expected. This renormalization effect is missing in semiclassical stochastic fluctuator models and typically also in Born-Markov approaches, which try to avoid the calculation of the nonstationary, nonequilibrium state of the qubit plus sensor. Technically, we integrate out the current-carrying electrodes to obtain kinetic equations for the joint, nonequilibrium detector-qubit dynamics. We show that the sensor current response, level renormalization, cotunneling broadening, and leading non-Markovian corrections always appear together and cannot be turned off individually in an experiment or ignored theoretically. We analyze the backaction on the reduced qubit state—capturing the full non-Markovian effects imposed by the sensor quantum dot on the qubit—by applying a Liouville-space decomposition into quasistationary and rapidly decaying modes. Importantly, the sensor cannot be eliminated completely even in the simplest high-temperature, weak-measurement limit since the qubit state experiences an initial slip depending on the initial preparation of qubit plus sensor quantum dot. The slip persists over many qubit cycles, i.e., also on the time scale of the qubit decoherence induced by the backaction. A quantum-dot sensor can thus not be modeled as usual as a "black box" without accounting for its dynamical variables; it is part of the quantum circuit. We furthermore find that the Bloch vector
Electron quantum optics: current and noise of a single electron emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fève, Gwendal
2010-03-01
Ballistic electronic transport along the Quantum Hall edge states of two dimensional electron gases presents strong analogies with the propagation of photons which have been best illustrated by the realization of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers [1]. The analogy can be pushed to quantum optics where single electron emitters are realized to manipulate one or few charges. Celebrated experiments such as the one electron Hanbury-Brown and Twiss or the two electrons Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments can then be implemented [2]. This brings us closer to the on demand generation of entangled electron pairs. The feasibility of these new quantum optics experiments relies also on the ability to measure the output correlations of the current generated by the source. We will present the first realization of such a single electron source characterized both by the measurement of the average ac current [3] and its fluctuations. The source is made of a periodically driven mesoscopic capacitor [4,5] coupled to the electron reservoir by a tunnel barrier of adjustable transmission. At the first half period of the excitation drive, an occupied energy level of the dot is suddenly promoted above the Fermi energy and a single charge is emitted on the tunnelling escape time. In the second half period, the level is brought back to its initial value and an electron is absorbed, leaving a hole in the Fermi sea. Single electron emission appears as a quantization of the ac current in units of the electric charge times the drive frequency. The occurrence of spurious multiple charge events can be ruled out by the measurement of the noise presented here. Our measurements confirm single electron emission where the noise reduces to the quantum jitter associated with the Heisenberg uncertainty on the emission time.[4pt] [1] Y. Ji et al., Nature 422, 415 (2003) [0pt] [2] S. Ol'khovskaya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 166802 (2008)[0pt] [3] G. Fève et al., Science 316, 1169 (2007) [0pt] [4] M. B
Pfeffer, A. H.; Kaviraj, B.; Coupiac, O.; Lefloch, F.
2012-11-15
We have implemented a new experimental set-up for precise measurements of current fluctuations in three-terminal devices. The system operates at very low temperatures (30 mK) and is equipped with three superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as low noise current amplifiers. A SQUID input coil is connected to each terminal of a sample allowing the acquisition of time-dependent current everywhere in the circuit. From these traces, we can measure the current mean value, the noise, and cross-correlations between different branches of a device. In this paper, we present calibration results of noise and cross-correlations obtained using low impedance macroscopic resistors. From these results, we can extract the noise level of the set-up and show that there are no intrinsic correlations due to the measurement scheme. We also studied noise and correlations as a function of a dc current and estimated the electronic temperature of various macroscopic resistors.
Werle, P; Slemr, F; Gehrtz, M; Bräuchle, C
1989-05-01
The wideband noise characteristics of a PbEuSe molecular beam epitaxy diode laser have been measured up to 500 MHz. The cutoff of the frequency dependent (1/f type) laser noise contribution was found to be 170 MHz for this particular laser. Above this cutoff frequency the photon shot noise dominates, as was demonstrated. A noise reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude was observed in the shot noise limited domain when compared with the 1/f noise dominated region below 1 MHz. This finding indicates that a similar 2 orders of magnitude sensitivity improvement can be achieved in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy when frequency modulation techniques are applied instead of the more conventional derivative modulation below 1 MHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.
General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza
2014-12-01
We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.
Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca
2014-08-17
A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.
Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca
2016-01-01
A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon. PMID:27478293
Estimation of output-channel noise for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thearle, Oliver; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas
2016-04-01
Estimation of channel parameters is important for extending the range and increasing the key rate of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols. We propose an estimator for the channel noise parameter based on the method-of-moments. The method-of-moments finds an estimator from the moments of the output distribution of the protocol. This estimator has the advantage of being able to use all of the states shared between Alice and Bob. Other estimators are limited to a smaller publicly revealed subset of the states. The proposed estimator has a lower variance for the high-loss channel than what has previously been proposed. We show that the method-of-moments estimator increases the key rate by up to an order of magnitude at the maximum transmission of the protocol.
Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers
Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.
2014-01-13
Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Luyi; Glasenapp, P.; Greilich, A.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Crooker, S. A.
2014-09-01
‘Spin noise spectroscopy’ is an optical technique for probing electron and hole spin dynamics that is based on detecting their intrinsic fluctuations while in thermal equilibrium. Here we show that fluctuation correlations can be further exploited in multi-probe noise studies to reveal information that in general cannot be accessed by conventional linear optical spectroscopy, such as the underlying homogeneous linewidths of individual constituents within inhomogeneously broadened systems. This is demonstrated in singly charged (In,Ga)As quantum-dot ensembles using two weak probe lasers: When the lasers have similar wavelengths, they probe the same quantum dots in the ensemble and show correlated spin fluctuations. In contrast, mutually detuned probe lasers measure different subsets of quantum dots, giving uncorrelated fluctuations. The noise correlation versus laser detuning directly reveals the quantum dot homogeneous linewidth even in the presence of a strong inhomogeneous broadening. Such noise-based correlation techniques are not limited to semiconductor spin systems, but are applicable to any system with measurable intrinsic fluctuations.
Yang, Luyi; Glasenapp, P; Greilich, A; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Crooker, S A
2014-09-15
'Spin noise spectroscopy' is an optical technique for probing electron and hole spin dynamics that is based on detecting their intrinsic fluctuations while in thermal equilibrium. Here we show that fluctuation correlations can be further exploited in multi-probe noise studies to reveal information that in general cannot be accessed by conventional linear optical spectroscopy, such as the underlying homogeneous linewidths of individual constituents within inhomogeneously broadened systems. This is demonstrated in singly charged (In,Ga)As quantum-dot ensembles using two weak probe lasers: When the lasers have similar wavelengths, they probe the same quantum dots in the ensemble and show correlated spin fluctuations. In contrast, mutually detuned probe lasers measure different subsets of quantum dots, giving uncorrelated fluctuations. The noise correlation versus laser detuning directly reveals the quantum dot homogeneous linewidth even in the presence of a strong inhomogeneous broadening. Such noise-based correlation techniques are not limited to semiconductor spin systems, but are applicable to any system with measurable intrinsic fluctuations.
Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Energy-Time Entangled Bipartite States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali-Khan, Irfan; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.
2007-02-01
We present a protocol for large-alphabet quantum key distribution (QKD) using energy-time entangled biphotons. Binned, high-resolution timing measurements are used to generate a large-alphabet key with over 10 bits of information per photon pair, albeit with large noise. QKD with 5% bit error rate is demonstrated with 4 bits of information per photon pair, where the security of the quantum channel is determined by the visibility of Franson interference fringes. The protocol is easily generalizable to even larger alphabets, and utilizes energy-time entanglement which is robust to transmission over large distances in fiber.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts.
Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-01
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts
Kim, Jin-Mok Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-15
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Efficient quantum key distribution secure against no-signalling eavesdroppers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acín, Antonio; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano
2006-08-01
By carrying out measurements on entangled states, two parties can generate a secret key which is secure not only against an eavesdropper bound by the laws of quantum mechanics, but also against a hypothetical 'post-quantum' eavesdroppers limited by the no-signalling principle only. We introduce a family of quantum key distribution protocols of this type, which are more efficient than previous ones, both in terms of key rate and noise resistance. Interestingly, the best protocols involve large number of measurements. We show that in the absence of noise, these protocols can yield one secret bit per entanglement bit, implying that the key rates in the no-signalling post-quantum scenario are comparable to the key rates in usual quantum key distribution.
Effects of quantum noise and binocular summation on dose requirements in stereoradiography.
Maidment, Andrew D A; Bakic, Predrag R; Albert, Michael
2003-12-01
In the case of a quantum-noise limited detector, signal detection theory suggests that stereoradiographic images can be acquired with one half of the per-image dose needed for a standard radiographic projection, as information from the two stereo images can be combined. Previously, film-screen stereoradiography has been performed using the same per-image dose as in projection radiography, i.e., doubling the total dose. In this paper, the assumption of a possible decrease in dose for stereoradiography was tested by a series of contrast-detail experiments, using phantom images acquired over a range of exposures. The number of visible details, the effective reduction of the dose, and the effective decrease in the threshold signal-to-noise ratio were determined using human observers under several display and viewing conditions. These results were averaged over five observers and compared with multiple readings by a single observer and with the results of an additional observer with limited stereoscopic acuity. Experimental results show that the total dose needed to produce a stereoradiographic image pair is approximately 1.1 times the dose needed for a single projection in standard radiography, indicating that under these conditions the human visual system demonstrates almost ideal binocular summation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-08-01
Higher channel capacity and security are difficult to reach in a noisy channel. The loss of photons and the distortion of the qubit state are caused by noise. To solve these problems, in our study, a hyperentangled Bell state is used to design faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol over collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noisy channel, which doubles the channel capacity compared with using an ordinary Bell state as a carrier; a logical hyperentangled Bell state immune to collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noise is constructed. The secret message is divided into several parts to transmit, however the identity strings of Alice and Bob are reused. Unitary operations are not used. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.
Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wölbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter
2013-01-22
Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(μ)(1/2) = 62 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Mingesz, Robert; Gingl, Zoltan
2007-06-01
Very recently, it has been shown that Gaussian thermal noise and its artificial versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as an information carrier with peculiar properties therefore it may be proper to call this topic Thermal Noise Informatics. Zero Power (Stealth) Communication, Thermal Noise Driven Computing, and Totally Secure Classical Communication are relevant examples. In this paper, while we will briefly describe the first and the second subjects, we shall focus on the third subject, the secure classical communication via wire. This way of secure telecommunication utilizes the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The communicator is unconditionally secure at the conceptual (circuit theoretical) level and this property is (so far) unique in communication systems based on classical physics. The communicator is superior to quantum alternatives in all known aspects, except the need of using a wire. In the idealized system, the eavesdropper can extract zero bit of information without getting uncovered. The scheme is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle attack. The communication can take place also via currently used power lines or phone (wire) lines and it is not only a point-to-point communication like quantum channels but network-ready. We report that a pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line with ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation/sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for copper wires with diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Arghya Pratim; Mandal, Arkajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-02-01
The influence of anisotropy on various nonlinear optical (NLO) properties such as total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) have been investigated in presence and absence of noise. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. Profiles of the optical properties have been monitored as a function of incident photon energy for different values of anisotropy. In this connection the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) has also been analysed. The interplay between noise and anisotropy has been found to profoundly affect the NLO properties. The investigation reveals that there are only one or two anisotropy regimes (depending on the particular NLO property under consideration) where noise-induced enhancement of the NLO property can be realized. Thus, anisotropy appears to be the central parameter by which the noise-induced enhancement of NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.
Experimental Quantum Error Detection
Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi
2012-01-01
Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047
An optical ultrafast random bit generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-01-01
The generation of random bit sequences based on non-deterministic physical mechanisms is of paramount importance for cryptography and secure communications. High data rates also require extremely fast generation rates and robustness to external perturbations. Physical generators based on stochastic noise sources have been limited in bandwidth to ~100 Mbit s-1 generation rates. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having time-delayed self-feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300 Gbit s-1. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Milliken, F.P.; Brown, S.L.; Koch, R.H.
1997-09-01
We have measured the noise of several directly coupled high T{sub c} superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers as we change a static magnetic field B while the devices are superconducting. Devices without {open_quotes}flux dams{close_quotes} show an increase in noise at relatively low magnetic fields B{approximately}1 {mu}T. Devices with flux dams can show no deterioration of the noise characteristics for B as large as 34 {mu}T. The flux dams are part of the pickup loop and limit the circulating current I{sub circ}. If I{sub circ} is kept sufficiently low no vortices are forced into the SQUID loop and the noise performance of the magnetometer remains good. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallet, G.; Bookjans, E.; Eismann, U.; Bilicki, S.; Le Targat, R.; Lodewyck, J.
2017-08-01
We present and implement a non-destructive detection scheme for the transition probability readout of an optical lattice clock. The scheme relies on a differential heterodyne measurement of the dispersive properties of lattice-trapped atoms enhanced by a high finesse cavity. By design, this scheme offers a 1st order rejection of the technical noise sources, an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, and an homogeneous atom-cavity coupling. We theoretically show that this scheme is optimal with respect to the photon shot noise limit. We experimentally realise this detection scheme in an operational strontium optical lattice clock. The resolution is on the order of a few atoms with a photon scattering rate low enough to keep the atoms trapped after detection. This scheme opens the door to various different interrogations protocols, which reduce the frequency instability, including atom recycling, zero-dead time clocks with a fast repetition rate, and sub quantum projection noise frequency stability.
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2005-04-01
We reexamine mass flow in a superfluid gyroscope containing a superfluid Josephson weak link. We introduce a frequency-dependent hydrodynamic inductance to account for an oscillatory flow of the normal fluid component in the sensing loop. With this hydrodynamic inductance, we derive the thermal phase noise, and hence the thermal rotational noise of the gyroscope. We examine the thermodynamic stability of the system based on an analysis of the free energy. We derive a quantum phase noise, which is analogous to the zero-point motion of a simple harmonic oscillator. The configuration of the studied gyroscope is analogous to a conventional superconducting RF SQUID. We show that the gyroscope has very low intrinsic noise (1.9x10{sup -13} rad s{sup -1}/{radical}(Hz)), and it can potentially be applied to study general relativity, Earth science, and to improve global positioning systems (GPS)
Freeman, Blake M.; Schoenfield, Joshua S.; Jiang, HongWen
2016-06-20
We investigate and compare the charge noise in Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiGe gate defined quantum dots with identically patterned gates by measuring the low frequency 1/f current noise through the biased quantum dots in the coulomb blockade regime. The current noise is normalized and used to extract a measurement of the potential energy noise in the system. Additionally, the temperature dependence of this noise is investigated. The measured charge noise in Si/SiO{sub 2} compares favorably with that of the SiGe device as well as previous measurements made on other substrates suggesting Si/SiO{sub 2} is a potential candidate for spin based quantum computing.
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P
2015-05-01
Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Jennifer; Teufel, John; Donner, Tobias; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Lehnert, Konrad
2010-03-01
Observing quantum behavior of mechanical motion is challenging because it is difficult both to prepare pure quantum states of motion and to detect those states with sufficient precision. We present displacement measurements of a nanomechanical oscillator with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit [1]. We infer the motion from the phase modulation imprinted on a microwave signal by that motion. The modulation is enhanced by embedding the oscillator in a high-Q microwave cavity. We achieve the low imprecision by reading out the modulation with a Josephson Parametric Amplifier, realizing a microwave interferometer that operates near the shot-noise limit. The apparent motion of the mechanical oscillator due the interferometer's noise is now substantially less than its zero-point motion, making future detection of quantum states feasible. In addition, the phase sensitivity of the demonstrated interferometer is 30 times higher than previous microwave interferometers, providing a critical piece of technology for many experiments investigating quantum information encoded in microwave fields. [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, K. W. Lehnert, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343, (2009).
Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Roger E.; Berrick, Stephen W.
1995-02-01
Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS) is an EOSAEL module that calculates transmittance for systems with broad spectral response. Path-integrated concentration data from COMBIC, other EOSAEL modules, or user models are used as input for BITS. The primary function of BITS is to provide rigorous transmittance calculations for broadband systems, replacing the Beer-Lambert law used in most obscuration models. To use BITS, the system detector, filters, optics, and source spectral functions must be defined. The spectral transmittances of the atmosphere and mass extinction coefficient spectral data for the obscurant are also required. The output consists of transmittance as a function of concentration length for Beer's law and band-integrated computation methods. The theory of the model, a description of the module organization, and an operations guide that provides input and output in EOSAEL format are provided in this user's guide. Example uses for BITS are also included.
Cryptographic quantum bound on nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2017-02-01
Information causality states that the information obtainable by a receiver cannot be greater than the communication bits from a sender, even if they utilize no-signaling resources. This physical principle successfully explains some boundaries between quantum and postquantum nonlocal correlations, where the obtainable information reaches the maximum limit. We show that no-signaling resources of pure partially entangled states produce randomness (or noise) in the communication bits, and achievement of the maximum limit is impossible, i.e., the information causality principle is insufficient for the full identification of the quantum boundaries already for bipartite settings. The nonlocality inequalities such as so-called the Tsirelson inequality are extended to show how such randomness affects the strength of nonlocal correlations. As a result, a relation followed by most of quantum correlations in the simplest Bell scenario is revealed. The extended inequalities reflect the cryptographic principle such that a completely scrambled message cannot carry information.
Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing a dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of non-interacting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.
Ultra-Low Phase Noise, High Resolution Spectrometer Using Comb-Assisted Quantum Cascade Lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Andrew A.; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Gatti, Davide; Marangoni, Marco; Gianfrani, Livio; Hartl, Ingmar; Fermann, Martin
2013-06-01
In recent years, optical frequency combs have been used extensively to stabilize solid state cw lasers for high resolution spectroscopy, enabling the acquisition of absorption profiles of a gas sample with an absolutely calibrated, repeatable and linear frequency axis. This uniquely defined and repeatable frequency axis allows for the retrieval of highly accurate and traceable spectroscopic parameters and the ability to obtain physical insights regarding the influence of collisional processes on the absorption line shapes. The highly accurate frequency axis has can be used in precision spectroscopy applications such as resolving hyperfine transitions or cavity enhanced spectroscopy for trace gas detection. To simplify such precision spectroscopy systems in the future, the use of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) as a spectroscopic tool is highly desired. Here we report on the precision phase locking of a 9 μm QCL to a 2 μm low-noise thulium frequency comb. Utilizing a coherent lock with a MHz-level feedback bandwidth, we line narrow a QCL with a 1 MHz linewidth and achieve an in-loop beatnote measurement with 70 dB S/N at 1 Hz RBW. As an application, we demonstrate the interrogation of sub-Doppler features of ammonia spectra at 9 μm. It is expected that the system is further compatible with line narrowing of widely tunable external cavity QCL's, opening new measurement avenues in precision spectroscopy.
The operator-sum-difference representation of a quantum noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2015-06-01
When a model for quantum noise is exactly solvable, a Kraus (or operator-sum) representation can be derived from the spectral decomposition of the Choi matrix for the channel. More generally, a Kraus representation can be obtained from any positive-sum (or ensemble) decomposition of the matrix. Here we extend this idea to any Hermitian-sum decomposition. This yields what we call the "operator-sum-difference" (OSD) representation, in which the channel can be represented as the sum and difference of "subchannels." As one application, the subchannels can be chosen to be analytically diagonalizable, even if the parent channel is not (on account of the Abel-Galois irreducibility theorem), though in this case the number of the OSD representation operators may exceed the channel rank. Our procedure is applicable to general Hermitian (completely positive or non-completely positive) maps and can be extended to the more general, linear maps. As an illustration of the application, we derive an OSD representation for a two-qubit amplitude-damping channel.
Decoherence, Two-Mode Squeezing and Quantum Noise Reduction in a Cavity Raman Laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Windenberger, Claude
In this dissertation, we study squeezing for the Stokes and Anti-Stokes fields generated in a model of a single-mode Raman laser in a loss-less cavity with classical pump and unsaturated medium, for arbitrary homogeneous broadening and dispersion. Generalizing the notion of two-mode squeezing to allow for arbitrary linear combinations of the two modes in the definition of the quadrature variables, we find that the two output modes, for this general notion, always exhibit quadrature squeezing with noise reduction below the vacuum level. We also discuss our results and the general area of quantum optics in terms of the structures of intelligence as presented in Maharishi's Vedic Science. Finally, we report on a practical aspect of our dissertation research, the "European Alliance with Natural Law Project", whose purpose was to introduce Maharishi's programs, as presented in "Maharishi's Master Plan to Create Heaven on Earth", to our hometown Strasbourg, France, and in particular to the European Parliament located there.
Physical-layer security analysis of PSK quantum-noise randomized cipher in optically amplified links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Huatao
2017-08-01
The quantitative security of quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) in optically amplified links is analyzed from the perspective of physical-layer advantage. Establishing the wire-tap channel models for both key and data, we derive the general expressions of secrecy capacities for the key against ciphertext-only attack and known-plaintext attack, and that for the data, which serve as the basic performance metrics. Further, the maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. Based on the same framework, the secrecy capacities of various cases can be assessed and compared. The results indicate perfect secrecy is potentially achievable for data transmission, and an elementary principle of setting proper number of photons and bases is given to ensure the maximal data secrecy capacity. But the key security is asymptotically perfect, which tends to be the main constraint of systemic maximal secrecy rate. Moreover, by adopting cascaded optical amplification, QNRC can realize long-haul transmission with secure rate up to Gb/s, which is orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems.
Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.; von Garssen, H.
1988-04-15
An analytical steady-state distribution for the phase difference psi in a correlated spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) is derived based on the amplitude and phase equations of a CEL. This distribution is shown to be an excellent approximation to that obtained from a numerical simulation of the complete set of CEL equations. In particular, the effects of amplitude noise on CEL operation are considered and it is shown that fluctuations in the relative amplitude are also noise quenched.
Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2015-03-06
Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems.
Agnihotri, Pratik; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo
2012-05-30
Using ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, we have studied hot carrier spin dynamics and spin noise in a multi-subband GaAs quantum wire in the presence of a randomly varying Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The random variation reduces the carrier ensemble's spin dephasing time due to the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism, but otherwise makes no qualitative difference to the temporal spin relaxation characteristics. However, it makes a qualitative difference to the spatial spin relaxation characteristics which change from monotonic and smooth to non-monotonic and chaotic because of a complex interplay between carriers in different subbands. As far as spin fluctuation and spin noise are concerned, the random variation has no major effect except that the low-frequency noise power spectral density increases slightly when the magnitude of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction field is varied randomly while holding the direction constant.
Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.
1994-01-01
A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.
Using Bit Errors To Diagnose Fiber-Optic Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.
1989-01-01
Technique for diagnosis of fiber-optic digital communication link in local-area network of computers based on measurement of bit-error rates. Variable optical attenuator inserted in optical fiber to vary power of received signal. Bit-error rate depends on ratio of peak signal power to root-mean-square noise in receiver. For optimum measurements, one selects bit-error rate between 10 to negative 8th power and 10 to negative 4th power. Greater rates result in low accuracy in determination of signal-to-noise ratios, while lesser rates require impractically long measurement times.
Using Bit Errors To Diagnose Fiber-Optic Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.
1989-01-01
Technique for diagnosis of fiber-optic digital communication link in local-area network of computers based on measurement of bit-error rates. Variable optical attenuator inserted in optical fiber to vary power of received signal. Bit-error rate depends on ratio of peak signal power to root-mean-square noise in receiver. For optimum measurements, one selects bit-error rate between 10 to negative 8th power and 10 to negative 4th power. Greater rates result in low accuracy in determination of signal-to-noise ratios, while lesser rates require impractically long measurement times.
Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.
Kent, Adrian
2012-09-28
We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.
Critique of a Hughes shuttle Ku-band data sampler/bit synchronizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, J. K.
1980-01-01
An alternative bit synchronizer proposed for shuttle was analyzed in a noise-free environment by considering the basic operation of the loop via timing diagrams and by linearizing the bit synchronizer as an equivalent, continuous, phased-lock loop (PLL). The loop is composed of a high-frequency phase-frequency detector which is capable of detecting both phase and frequency errors and is used to track the clock, and a bit transition detector which attempts to track the transitions of the data bits. It was determined that the basic approach was a good design which, with proper implementation of the accumulator, up/down counter and logic should provide accurate mid-bit sampling with symmetric bits. However, when bit asymmetry occurs, the bit synchronizer can lock up with a large timing error, yet be quasi-stable (timing will not change unless the clock and bit sequence drift). This will result in incorrectly detecting some bits.
Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins.
Zu, C; Wang, W-B; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Dai, C-Y; Wang, F; Duan, L-M
2014-10-02
Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an 'all-geometric' approach to quantum computation, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies, from geometric transformation of quantum states in the Hilbert space. Apart from its fundamental interest and rich mathematical structure, the geometric approach has some built-in noise-resilience features. On the experimental side, geometric phases and holonomies have been observed in thermal ensembles of liquid molecules using nuclear magnetic resonance; however, such systems are known to be non-scalable for the purposes of quantum computing. There are proposals to implement geometric quantum computation in scalable experimental platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting quantum bits and quantum dots, and a recent experiment has realized geometric single-bit gates in a superconducting system. Here we report the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using the solid-state spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres. These diamond defects provide a scalable experimental platform with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing, which has attracted strong interest in recent years. Our experiment shows that all-geometric and potentially robust quantum computation can be realized with solid-state spin quantum bits, making use of recent advances in the coherent control of this system.
Shot noise spectrum of open dissipative quantum two-level systems.
Aguado, Ramón; Brandes, Tobias
2004-05-21
We study the current noise spectrum of qubits under transport conditions in a dissipative bosonic environment. We combine (non-)Markovian master equations with correlation functions in Laplace space to derive a noise formula for both weak and strong coupling to the bath. The coherence-induced reduction of noise is diminished by weak dissipation and/or a large level separation (bias). For weak dissipation, we demonstrate that the dephasing and relaxation rates of the two-level systems can be extracted from noise. In the strong dissipation regime, the localization-delocalization transition becomes visible in the low-frequency noise.
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Xiang, Peng; Fang, Tao
2017-05-15
The physical-layer security of a quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) system is, for the first time, quantitatively evaluated with secrecy capacity employed as the performance metric. Considering quantum noise as a channel advantage for legitimate parties over eavesdroppers, the specific wire-tap models for both channels of the key and data are built with channel outputs yielded by quantum heterodyne measurement; the general expressions of secrecy capacities for both channels are derived, where the matching codes are proved to be uniformly distributed. The maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. The influences of various system parameters on secrecy capacities are assessed in detail. The results indicate that QNRC combined with proper channel codes is a promising framework of secure communication for long distance with high speed, which can be orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems. Even if the eavesdropper intercepts more signal power than the legitimate receiver, secure communication (up to Gb/s) can still be achievable. Moreover, the secrecy of running key is found to be the main constraint to the systemic maximal secrecy rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayden, Patrick; Myers, Robert
2017-01-01
Patrick Hayden and Robert Myers describe how the study of “qubits”, quantum bits of information, may hold the key to uniting quantum theory and general relativity into a unified theory of quantum gravity
Totally secure classical communication utilizing Johnson (-like) noise and Kirchoff's law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2006-03-01
An absolutely secure, fast, inexpensive, robust, maintenance-free and low-power-consumption communication is proposed. The states of the information bit are represented by two resistance values. The sender and the receiver have such resistors available and they randomly select and connect one of them to the channel at the beginning of each clock period. The thermal noise voltage and current can be observed but Kirchoff's law provides only a second-order equation. A secure bit is communicated when the actual resistance values at the sender's side and the receiver's side differ. Then the second order equation yields the two resistance values but the eavesdropper is unable to determine the actual locations of the resistors and to find out the state of the sender's bit. The receiver knows that the sender has the inverse of his bit, similarly to quantum entanglement. The eavesdropper can decode the message if, for each bits, she inject current in the wire and measures the voltage change and the current changes in the two directions. However, in this way she gets discovered by the very first bit she decodes. Instead of thermal noise, proper external noise generators should be used when the communication is not aimed to be stealth.
1989-06-26
outgoing DeBroglie waves scattered without bremsstrahlung energy losses above the detection limit (given in turn by the reciprocal duration T of the 1/f...scattering processes. The result of the calculation is similar to the radiaiton from a single representative scattering process, with a correction factor...squared current ratio. The detectivity of infrared detectors is limited in general by three types of noise: (i) current noise in the detector, (ii) noise
Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.
2016-01-01
We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.
Fernandes, F. M.; Silva, E. C. F. da; Quivy, A. A.
2015-11-28
We propose a new way to assess the output signal of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Instead of measuring the photocurrent produced by the device, as usually done, we show that the noise induced by the absorption process can be used to generate a useful detection signal. We built a simple electronic circuit able to quantify the noise of an AlGaAs/GaAs QWIP that was intentionally designed to produce no photocurrent at all, and we demonstrated that such a circuit was able to generate a strong output signal whenever an infrared radiation of a specific wavelength was shed on the detector. This concept opens new possibilities for the design of novel types of photodetection systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, F. M.; da Silva, E. C. F.; Quivy, A. A.
2015-11-01
We propose a new way to assess the output signal of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Instead of measuring the photocurrent produced by the device, as usually done, we show that the noise induced by the absorption process can be used to generate a useful detection signal. We built a simple electronic circuit able to quantify the noise of an AlGaAs/GaAs QWIP that was intentionally designed to produce no photocurrent at all, and we demonstrated that such a circuit was able to generate a strong output signal whenever an infrared radiation of a specific wavelength was shed on the detector. This concept opens new possibilities for the design of novel types of photodetection systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures
Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.
2007-09-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n{sup +}-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4 {mu}m thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C for 60 s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51 eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.
Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs /GaAs quantum dot structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.
2007-09-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n+-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4μm thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1×1016cm-3. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700°C for 60s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au /n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.
Correlated input-port, matter-wave interferometer: Quantum-noise limits to the atom-laser gyroscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowling, Jonathan P.
1998-06-01
I derive the quantum phase-noise limit to the sensitivity of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which the incident quantum particles enter via both input ports. I show that if the incident particles are entangled and correlated properly, then the phase sensitivity scales asymptotically like the Heisenberg-limited Δφ=O(1/N), for large N, where N is the number of particles incident per unit time. (In a one-input-port device, the sensitivity can be at best Δφ=1/N.) My calculation applies to bosons or fermions of arbitrary integer or half-integer spin. Applications to optical, atom-beam, and atom-laser gyroscopes are discussed-in particular, an atom-laser can be used to obtain the required entanglements for achieving this Heisenberg-limited sensitivity with atomic matter waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le
2016-10-01
Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.
Probing Spatial Spin Correlations of Ultracold Gases by Quantum Noise Spectroscopy
Bruun, G. M.; Andersen, Brian M.; Demler, Eugene; Soerensen, Anders S.
2009-01-23
Spin noise spectroscopy with a single laser beam is demonstrated theoretically to provide a direct probe of the spatial correlations of cold fermionic gases. We show how the generic many-body phenomena of antibunching, pairing, antiferromagnetic, and algebraic spin liquid correlations can be revealed by measuring the spin noise as a function of laser width, temperature, and frequency.
Quantum 1/f Noise in High Technology Applications Including Ultrasmall Structures and Devices
1991-07-15
the conceptual success of our earlier classical turbulence approach to 1/f noise, the question about the ultimate origin of nature’s omnipresent 1/f...Junctions", Phys. Rev. B26. p.1475-1476 (1982). 35. Y. Srivastava: "Radiation and Noise", Lectures delivered at Escuela Latino Americana de Fisica , Cali
Implications of simultaneous requirements for low-noise exchange gates in double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Erik; Young, Ralph W.; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, M. S.
2010-08-01
Achieving low-error, exchange-interaction operations in quantum dots for quantum computing imposes simultaneous requirements on the exchange energy’s dependence on applied voltages. A double quantum dot qubit, approximated with a quadratic potential, is solved using a full configuration interaction method. This method is more accurate than Heitler-London and Hund-Mulliken approaches and captures new and significant qualitative behavior. We show that multiple regimes can be found in which the exchange energy’s dependence on the bias voltage between the dots is compatible with current quantum error correction codes and state-of-the-art electronics. Identifying such regimes may prove valuable for the construction and operation of quantum gates that are robust to charge fluctuations, particularly in the case of dynamically corrected gates.
1985-12-01
noise in n -o Hg 1 _.CdxTe ohotodiodes and in other junction devices together with the aoplication of the cuantum I/f noise theory 7 -1 5 , in order to...us to recognize cases in which the dominant cuantum i /f noise contribution does not come from mobility fluctuations, but from fluctuations of the...therefore not exolain these d aVa. In the UmKlaoo cuantum I/- roise crocess 17 the carrier can transfer a momentum n/a : or from the iat’+ice, whlere a
Lossy cardiac x-ray image compression based on acquisition noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Bruijn, Frederik J.; Slump, Cornelis H.
1997-05-01
In lossy medical image compression, the requirements for the preservation of diagnostic integrity cannot be easily formulated in terms of a perceptual model. Especially since, in reality, human visual perception is dependent on numerous factors such as the viewing conditions and psycho-visual factors. Therefore, we investigate the possibility to develop alternative measures for data loss, based on the characteristics of the acquisition system, in our case, a digital cardiac imaging system. In general, due to the low exposure, cardiac x-ray images tend to be relatively noisy. The main noise contributions are quantum noise and electrical noise. The electrical noise is not correlated with the signal. In addition, the signal can be transformed such that the correlated Poisson-distributed quantum noise is transformed into an additional zero-mean Gaussian noise source which is uncorrelated with the signal. Furthermore, the systems modulation transfer function imposes a known spatial-frequency limitation to the output signal. In the assumption that noise which is not correlated with the signal contains no diagnostic information, we have derived a compression measure based on the acquisition parameters of a digital cardiac imaging system. The measure is used for bit- assignment and quantization of transform coefficients. We present a blockwise-DCT compression algorithm which is based on the conventional JPEG-standard. However, the bit- assignment to the transform coefficients is now determined by an assumed noise variance for each coefficient, for a given set of acquisition parameters. Experiments with the algorithm indicate that a bit rate of 0.6 bit/pixel is feasible, without apparent loss of clinical information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2004-08-01
This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of fluctuational phenomena in photonics and quantum optics. The topics discussed in this issue extend from fundamental physics to applications of noise and fluctuational methods from quantum to classical systems, and include: bullet Quantum measurement bullet Quantum squeezing bullet Solitons and fibres bullet Gravitational wave inferometers bullet Fluorescence phenomena bullet Cavity QED bullet Photon statistics bullet Noise in lasers and laser systems bullet Quantum computing and information bullet Quantum lithography bullet Teleportation. This Special Issue is published in connection with the SPIE International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on 1-4 June 2003. The symposium contained six parallel conferences, and the papers in this Special Issue are connected to the conference entitled `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics'. This was the first in a series of symposia organized with the support of the SPIE that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The co-founders of the symposium series were Laszlo B Kish (Texas A&M University) and Derek Abbott (The University of Adelaide). The Chairs of the `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics' conference were Derek Abbott, Jeffrey H Shapiro and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Kristi Kelso and Marilyn Gorsuch of the SPIE, USA. Sadly, less than two weeks before the conference, Hermann A Haus passed away. Hermann Haus was a founding father of the field of noise in optics and quantum optics. He submitted three papers to the conference and was very excited to attend; as can be seen in the collection of papers, he was certainly present in spirit. In honour of his creativity and pioneering work in this field, we have
A New Quantum Watermarking Based on Quantum Wavelet Transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Shahrokh; Naseri, Mosayeb; Gheibi, Reza; Baghfalaki, Masoud; Rasoul Pourarian, Mohammad; Farouk, Ahmed
2017-06-01
Quantum watermarking is a technique to embed specific information, usually the owner’s identification, into quantum cover data such for copyright protection purposes. In this paper, a new scheme for quantum watermarking based on quantum wavelet transforms is proposed which includes scrambling, embedding and extracting procedures. The invisibility and robustness performances of the proposed watermarking method is confirmed by simulation technique. The invisibility of the scheme is examined by the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the histogram calculation. Furthermore the robustness of the scheme is analyzed by the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the Correlation Two-Dimensional (Corr 2-D) calculation. The simulation results indicate that the proposed watermarking scheme indicate not only acceptable visual quality but also a good resistance against different types of attack. Supported by Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
... of the arachnid family, which also includes mites, spiders, and scorpions . A tick attaches itself to the ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Going ...
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-09-01
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins.
Casanova, J; Wang, Z-Y; Plenio, M B
2016-09-23
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-08-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-Kang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jian
2016-11-01
The dynamic properties of a quantum dot (QD) coupled with Majorana fermions under the perturbation of microwave fields (MWFs) have been investigated through the nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. The photon-assisted differential conductance, current, shot noise, and Fano factor have been evaluated in the Nambu representation. The normal electron tunneling and Andreev reflections contribute to the transport effectively, and novel conductance peaks appear around each photon-induced side channel. The shot noise is enhanced by increasing the interaction strength of Majorana fermions evidently, while it is suppressed accompanying with peak-valley structures by the MWFs. For the symmetric transmission where the QD energy Ed = 0, terminal current disappears when the source-drain bias eV is removed. For the asymmetric transmission where Ed ≠ 0, there exists nonzero pumping current induced by the applied MWF. The saturate pumping current increases with increasing Ed as eV = 0 and Ed ≠ 0, but the shot noise increases with decreasing Ed. As the coupling energy between the Majorana fermions becomes zero, the Fano factor reaches the robust value F ≈ 0.38 as eV → 0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yung-Chao; Wu, Shin-Tza
2017-09-01
We study theoretically the teleportation of a controlled-phase (cz) gate through measurement-based quantum-information processing for continuous-variable systems. We examine the degree of entanglement in the output modes of the teleported cz-gate for two classes of resource states: the canonical cluster states that are constructed via direct implementations of two-mode squeezing operations and the linear-optical version of cluster states which are built from linear-optical networks of beam splitters and phase shifters. In order to reduce the excess noise arising from finite-squeezed resource states, teleportation through resource states with different multirail designs will be considered and the enhancement of entanglement in the teleported cz gates will be analyzed. For multirail cluster with an arbitrary number of rails, we obtain analytical expressions for the entanglement in the output modes and analyze in detail the results for both classes of resource states. At the same time, we also show that for uniformly squeezed clusters the multirail noise reduction can be optimized when the excess noise is allocated uniformly to the rails. To facilitate the analysis, we develop a trick with manipulations of quadrature operators that can reveal rather efficiently the measurement sequence and corrective operations needed for the measurement-based gate teleportation, which will also be explained in detail.
1991-12-01
integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...returning its MIL-STD-1553B data tables and BIT status to normal (no fault) data. When the scenario requires sensory -caused faults, the UUT computer sets...uncorrelated faults. Information Enhanced BIT is a technique that uses additional sensory data to complement the standard BIT information. Sensory information
Enhanced sensing and communication via quantum networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, James F.
2017-05-01
A network based on quantum information has been developed to improve sensing and communications capabilities. Quantum teleportation offers features for communicating information not found in classical procedures. It is fundamental to the quantum network approach. A version of quantum teleportation based on hyper-entanglement is used to bring about these improvements. Recently invented methods of improving sensing and communication via quantum information based on hyper-entanglement are discussed. These techniques offer huge improvements in the SNR, signal to interference ratio, and time-on-target of various sensors including RADAR and LADAR. Hyper-entanglement refers to quantum entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, e.g. polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum (OAM), etc. The quantum network makes use of quantum memory located in each node of the network, thus the network forms a quantum repeater. The quantum repeater facilitates the use of quantum teleportation, and superdense coding. Superdense coding refers to the ability to incorporate more than one classical bit into each transmitted qubit. The network of sensors and/or communication devices has an enhanced resistance to interference sources. The repeater has the potential for greatly reducing loss in communications and sensor systems related to the effect of the atmosphere on fragile quantum states. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are discussed that show the utility of the network for improving sensing and communications in the presence of loss and noise. The quantum repeater will reduce overall size, weight, power and cost (SWAPC) of fielded components of systems.
Quantum Measurement of Two-Qubit System in Damping Noise Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-03-01
It is known that the inevitable interaction of the entangled qubits with their environments may result in the degradation of quantum correlation. We study the decoherence of two remote qubits under general local single- and two-sided amplitude-damping channel (ADC). By using concurrence, quantum discord and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, we find that the relation between the residual quantum correlations and the initial ones are different. Recently, Wang et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54 (2015) 5] showed that there exist a set of partially entangled states that are more robust than maximally entangled states in terms of the residual quantum correlation measured by concurrence, fully entangled fraction and quantum discord, respectively. Here we find that both in single- and two-sided ADC, only the evolution of CHSH inequality with the initial parameter is proportional to that of the initial nonlocality. That means the initial state with maximally nonlocality will retain its role in the evolution. It implies that the evolution of nonlocality may reveal the characteristics of quantum state better. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutions of the three different quantum measurements with the initial parameter under generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) and find that they are all proportional to that of the initial state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204002, 11274010, 61073048, 11005029, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123401120003, 20113401110002), the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Nos. 211080, 210092), the Key Program of the Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No. KJ2012A020, the “211” Project of Anhui University, the Talent Foundation of Anhui University, the personnel department of Anhui province
Experience with stratapax drill bits
Thant, M.
1984-02-01
Polycrystalline Diamond Comocct (PDC) bits have been extensively used in oil field drilling for sometime. Major performance gains have been reported for use of these bits in oil based drilling fluids, operating on mud motors. This paper describes the experience in Sarawak and Sabah Shell Operations with PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and with rotary drilling. It represents the results of over 80 individual PDC bit runs incorporating over 30,000' of 8 1/2'' hole drilled with 4 types of PDC bits from 3 manufacturers, and over 14,000' of 12 1/4'' hole with 8 bit types from 4 manufacturers. The paper discusses the PDC bit runs made, the performance in relation to conventional tri-cone bits, the effects of conventional hydraulics on PDC bit performance and the design of the PDC bits in terms of cutter density and placement, number of nozzles and their placement, and construction methods. The outlook for future designs of PDC bit with respect to use in water base drilling fluids and on rotary drilling is presented. The experience presented can be applied to drilling operations in a wide variety of areas to optimise usage of PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and on rotary drilling. As a result of extensive testing within Sarawak and Sabah Shell operations, the use of 8 1/2'' PDC bits in water based drilling fluids on rotary drilling can now be considered a proven application when drilling both clastics and carbonates. Only modest success has been achieved in 12 1/4'' hole where tricone bit performance (Cost/ft) in generally softer clastic formations has proven more difficult to match with PDC bits.
An Efficient Quantum Private Comparison of Equality over Collective-Noise Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
2016-04-01
This article proposes a collective-noise resistant QPC protocol with the help of an almostdishonest third party (TP) who may try to perform any sort of attacks to derive participants' private secrets except colluding with any participant. The proposed scheme has some considerable advantages over the state-of-the-art QPC protocols over collective-noise channels, where it does not require any pre-shared key between the participants (Alice and Bob). Nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist Trojan horse attacks without consuming half of the transmitted qubits and any additional equipment (wavelength filter and PNS) support. As a consequence, the proposed QPC protocol can guarantee higher qubit efficiency as compared to the others over collective noise channels.