Measurement of the Magnetic Flux Noise Spectrum in Superconducting Xmon Transmon Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaro, Ben; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Z.; Campbell, B.; Dunsworth, A.; O'Malley, P.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Migrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Roushan, P.; White, T.; Martinis, J. M.
Dephasing induced by magnetic flux noise limits the performance of modern superconducting quantum processors. We measure the flux noise power spectrum in planar, frequency-tunable, Xmon transmon quantum bits (qubits), with several SQUID loop geometries. We extend the Ramsey Tomography Oscilloscope (RTO) technique by rapid sampling up to 1 MHz, without state reset, to measure the flux noise power spectrum between 10-2 and 105 Hz. The RTO measurements are combined with idle gate randomized benchmarking and Ramsey decay to give a more complete picture of dephasing in SQUID-based devices.
Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola
2014-05-01
We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trabesinger, Andreas
2017-03-01
The promises of quantum computation are unique -- and so are the challenges. Progress in physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering have brought quantum computers to a point where they start to challenge their classical counterparts. By Andreas Trabesinger; illustration by Visual Science.
Optimal encryption of quantum bits
Boykin, P. Oscar; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2003-04-01
We show that 2n random classical bits are both necessary and sufficient for encrypting any unknown state of n quantum bits in an informationally secure manner. We also characterize the complete set of optimal protocols in terms of a set of unitary operations that comprise an orthonormal basis in a canonical inner product space. Moreover, a connection is made between quantum encryption and quantum teleportation that allows for a different proof of optimality of teleportation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-08-01
Can excitons be used to achieve scalable control of quantum light? Steffen Michaelis de Vasconcellos explained to Nature Photonics that the optoelectrical control of exciton qubits in quantum dots offers great promise.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
2004-04-16
We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.
A practical quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.
Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2012-06-01
Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.
Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises
He Guangping
2006-08-15
The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-05
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
Classical teleportation of a quantum Bit
Cerf; Gisin; Massar
2000-03-13
Classical teleportation is defined as a scenario where the sender is given the classical description of an arbitrary quantum state while the receiver simulates any measurement on it. This scenario is shown to be achievable by transmitting only a few classical bits if the sender and receiver initially share local hidden variables. Specifically, a communication of 2.19 bits is sufficient on average for the classical teleportation of a qubit, when restricted to von Neumann measurements. The generalization to positive-operator-valued measurements is also discussed.
Quantum Bit Commitment with a Composite Evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srikanth, R.
2004-01-01
Entanglement-based attacks, which are subtle and powerful, are usually believed to render quantum bit commitment insecure. We point out that the no-go argument leading to this view implicitly assumes the evidence-of-commitment to be a monolithic quantum system. We argue that more general evidence structures, allowing for a composite, hybrid (classical quantum) evidence, conduce to improved security. In particular, we present and prove the security of the following protocol Bob sends Alice an anonymous state. She inscribes her commitment b by measuring part of it in the + (for b = 0) or × (for b = 1) basis. She then communicates to him the (classical) measurement outcome Rx and the partmeasured anonymous state interpolated into other, randomly prepared qubits as her evidence-of-commitment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.
A noise immunity controlled quantum teleportation protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Baagyere, Edward; Qin, Zhen; Xiong, Hu; Zhan, Huayi
2016-11-01
With the advent of the Internet and information and communication technology, quantum teleportation has become an important field in information security and its application areas. This is because quantum teleportation has the ability to attain a timely secret information delivery and offers unconditional security. And as such, the field of quantum teleportation has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, noise has serious effect on the safety of quantum teleportation within the aspects of information fidelity, channel capacity and information transfer. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to address these problems of quantum teleportation. Firstly, in order to resist collective noise, we construct a decoherence-free subspace under different noise scenarios to establish a two-dimensional fidelity quantum teleportation models. And also create quantum teleportation of multiple degree of freedom, and these models ensure the accuracy and availability of the exchange of information and in multiple degree of freedom. Secondly, for easy preparation, measurement and implementation, we use super dense coding features to build an entangled quantum secret exchange channel. To improve the channel utilization and capacity, an efficient super dense coding method based on ultra-entanglement exchange is used. Thirdly, continuous variables of the controlled quantum key distribution were designed for quantum teleportation; in addition, we perform Bell-basis measurement under the collective noise and also prepare the storage technology of quantum states to achieve one-bit key by three-photon encoding to improve its security and efficiency. We use these two methods because they conceal information, resist a third party attack and can detect eavesdropping. Our proposed methods, according to the security analysis, are able to solve the problems associated with the quantum teleportation under various noise environments.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
2016-01-01
Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.
Quantum Dialogue Based on Hypertanglement Against Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhiguang; Baaguere, Edward; Zhan, Huayi
2016-08-01
The major problem faced by photons propagating through a physical channel is that of collective noise. This collective noise has the ability to reduce the number of quantum bits that are transmitted, thereby reduces the message fidelity. The traditional method of noise immunity is the use of entanglement purification, which consumes a lot of quantum resources in accomplishing the joint probability of noise immunity but does not guarantee accurate quantum dialog. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to quantum dialogue in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel. we constructs corresponding Decoherence Free Subspace(DFS), the quantum state after the change is in the maximally entangled state, so as to realize the fidelity of quantum dialogue model that can ensure the accuracy and noise resistance, and secret information exchange.
Annabestani, R; Cory, D G; Emerson, J
2015-03-01
Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.
Quantum Noise from Reduced Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacchini, Bassano
2016-07-01
We consider the description of quantum noise within the framework of the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to a composite system environment setting. Averaging over the environmental degrees of freedom leads to a stochastic quantum dynamics, described by equations complying with the constraints arising from the statistical structure of quantum mechanics. Simple examples are considered in the framework of open system dynamics described within a master equation approach, pointing in particular to the appearance of the phenomenon of decoherence and to the relevance of quantum correlation functions of the environment in the determination of the action of quantum noise.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Quantum Trajectories and Their Statistics for Remotely Entangled Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantasri, Areeya; Kimchi-Schwartz, Mollie E.; Roch, Nicolas; Siddiqi, Irfan; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-10-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigate the quantum trajectories of jointly monitored transmon qubits embedded in spatially separated microwave cavities. Using nearly quantum-noise-limited superconducting amplifiers and an optimized setup to reduce signal loss between cavities, we can efficiently track measurement-induced entanglement generation as a continuous process for single realizations of the experiment. The quantum trajectories of transmon qubits naturally split into low and high entanglement classes. The distribution of concurrence is found at any given time, and we explore the dynamics of entanglement creation in the state space. The distribution exhibits a sharp cutoff in the high concurrence limit, defining a maximal concurrence boundary. The most-likely paths of the qubits' trajectories are also investigated, resulting in three probable paths, gradually projecting the system to two even subspaces and an odd subspace, conforming to a "half-parity" measurement. We also investigate the most-likely time for the individual trajectories to reach their most entangled state, and we find that there are two solutions for the local maximum, corresponding to the low and high entanglement routes. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with the experimental entangled-qubit trajectory data.
Spin Quantum Bit with Ferromagnetic Contacts for Circuit QED
Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2010-10-15
We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.
Spin quantum bit with ferromagnetic contacts for circuit QED.
Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2010-10-15
We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.
Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-05-01
While unconditionally secure bit commitment (BC) is considered impossible within the quantum framework, it can be obtained under relativistic or experimental constraints. Here we study whether such BC can lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT). The answer is not completely negative. In one hand, we provide a detailed cheating strategy, showing that the "honest-but-curious adversaries" in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit. On the other hand, it is also found that some other no-go proofs claiming that a dishonest receiver can always decode all transferred bits simultaneously with reliability 100% become invalid in this scenario, because their models of cryptographic protocols are too ideal to cover such a BC-based QOT.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-23
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens
Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman Y.; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2012-01-01
The realization of devices that harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of “quantum money” [Wiesner S (1983) ACM SIGACT News 15:78–88]. A dishonest holder of a quantum bank note will invariably fail in any counterfeiting attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence, and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store, and measure single quantum bit memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled
Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.
Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Younge, K. C.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.
2007-09-01
Quantum information science involves the storage, manipulation and communication of information encoded in quantum systems, where the phenomena of superposition and entanglement can provide enhancements over what is possible classically. Large-scale quantum information processors require stable and addressable quantum memories, usually in the form of fixed quantum bits (qubits), and a means of transferring and entangling the quantum information between memories that may be separated by macroscopic or even geographic distances. Atomic systems are excellent quantum memories, because appropriate internal electronic states can coherently store qubits over very long timescales. Photons, on the other hand, are the natural platform for the distribution of quantum information between remote qubits, given their ability to traverse large distances with little perturbation. Recently, there has been considerable progress in coupling small samples of atomic gases through photonic channels, including the entanglement between light and atoms and the observation of entanglement signatures between remotely located atomic ensembles. In contrast to atomic ensembles, single-atom quantum memories allow the implementation of conditional quantum gates through photonic channels, a key requirement for quantum computing. Along these lines, individual atoms have been coupled to photons in cavities, and trapped atoms have been linked to emitted photons in free space. Here we demonstrate the entanglement of two fixed single-atom quantum memories separated by one metre. Two remotely located trapped atomic ions each emit a single photon, and the interference and detection of these photons signals the entanglement of the atomic qubits. We characterize the entangled pair by directly measuring qubit correlations with near-perfect detection efficiency. Although this entanglement method is probabilistic, it is still in principle useful for subsequent quantum operations and scalable quantum
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2007-09-15
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory.
Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2014-10-01
We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits.
Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Leghtas, Z; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Vool, U; Girvin, S M; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H
2013-12-19
Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard
2013-06-01
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment-for each classical communication history, not in average-allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment-bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
Security of quantum bit string commitment depends on the information measure.
Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Hayden, Patrick; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Wehner, Stephanie
2006-12-22
Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum world. However, when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this Letter, we introduce a framework of quantum schemes where Alice commits a string of n bits to Bob, in such a way that she can only cheat on a bits and Bob can learn at most b bits of information before the reveal phase. Our results are twofold: we show by an explicit construction that in the traditional approach, where the reveal and guess probabilities form the security criteria, no good schemes can exist: a + b is at least n. If, however, we use a more liberal criterion of security, the accessible information, we construct schemes where a = 4log2(n) + O(1) and b = 4, which is impossible classically. Our findings significantly extend known no-go results for quantum bit commitment.
Geometric Quantum Noise of Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Saha, Arijit; Burmistrov, Igor S.; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Altland, Alexander
2015-05-01
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, E.; Baranger, Harold U.
2017-02-01
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise. For strong noise, it is similar to the intermediate fixed point of the two-impurity Kondo model.
Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2012-01-01
We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Two-bit quantum random number generator based on photon-number-resolving detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Yi; Ren, Min; Wu, E.; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping
2011-07-01
Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the coherent light source guaranteed the complete randomness of the bit sequences. Multi-bit true random numbers were generated for the first time based on the multi-photon events from a coherent light source.
Quantum-noise randomized ciphers
Nair, Ranjith; Yuen, Horace P.; Kumar, Prem; Corndorf, Eric; Eguchi, Takami
2006-11-15
We review the notion of a classical random cipher and its advantages. We sharpen the usual description of random ciphers to a particular mathematical characterization suggested by the salient feature responsible for their increased security. We describe a concrete system known as {alpha}{eta} and show that it is equivalent to a random cipher in which the required randomization is affected by coherent-state quantum noise. We describe the currently known security features of {alpha}{eta} and similar systems, including lower bounds on the unicity distances against ciphertext-only and known-plaintext attacks. We show how {alpha}{eta} used in conjunction with any standard stream cipher such as the Advanced Encryption Standard provides an additional, qualitatively different layer of security from physical encryption against known-plaintext attacks on the key. We refute some claims in the literature that {alpha}{eta} is equivalent to a nonrandom stream cipher.
Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong
2013-10-15
The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.
Using entanglement against noise in quantum metrology.
Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafal; Maccone, Lorenzo
2014-12-19
We analyze the role of entanglement among probes and with external ancillas in quantum metrology. In the absence of noise, it is known that unentangled sequential strategies can achieve the same Heisenberg scaling of entangled strategies and that external ancillas are useless. This changes in the presence of noise; here we prove that entangled strategies can have higher precision than unentangled ones and that the addition of passive external ancillas can also increase the precision. We analyze some specific noise models and use the results to conjecture a general hierarchy for quantum metrology strategies in the presence of noise.
Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.
2006-03-15
The problem of automatically protecting a quantum system against noise in a closed circuit is analyzed. A general scheme is developed built from two steps. First, a distillation step is induced in which undesired components are removed to another degree of freedom of the system. Later a recovering step is employed in which the system gains back its initial density. An optimal-control method is used to generate the distilling operator. The scheme is demonstrated by a simulation of a two-level bit influenced by white noise. Undesired deviations from the target were shown to be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude on average. The relations between the quantum version of the classical Watt's governor and the field of quantum information are also discussed.
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung
2014-10-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tur, Moshe; Carmeli, Ran
1993-08-01
A Lyot depolarizer is used in a bit-rate-limiter of the Mach-Zehnder type in order to reduce the phase induced intensity noise, which otherwise, sets a floor on the bit error ratio. Results show an improvement of 3 dB, at the expense of longer arms and a more complicated design.
Noise suppression by quantum control before and after the noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakamura, Hiroaki; Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko
2017-02-01
We discuss the possibility of protecting the state of a quantum system that goes through noise by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. The aim is to seek the optimal protocol that makes the input and output states as close as possible and to clarify the role of the measurements therein. We consider two cases: one can perform quantum measurements and operations (i) only after the noise process and (ii) both before and after. We prove in a two-dimensional Hilbert space that, in case (i), the noise suppression is essentially impossible for all types of noise and, in case (ii), the optimal protocol for the depolarizing noise is either the "do nothing" protocol or the "discriminate and reprepare" protocol. These protocols are not "truly quantum" and can be considered as classical. They involve no measurement or only use the measurement outcomes. These results describe the fundamental limitations in quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of control theory. Finally, we conjecture that a statement similar to case (ii) holds for higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces and present some numerical evidence.
Gain and noise characteristics of high-bit-rate silicon parametric amplifiers.
Sang, Xinzhu; Boyraz, Ozdal
2008-08-18
We report a numerical investigation on parametric amplification of high-bit-rate signals and related noise figure inside silicon waveguides in the presence of two-photon absorption (TPA), TPA-induced free-carrier absorption, free-carrier-induced dispersion and linear loss. Different pump parameters are considered to achieve net gain and low noise figure. We show that the net gain can only be achieved in the anomalous dispersion regime at the high-repetition-rate, if short pulses are used. An evaluation of noise properties of parametric amplification in silicon waveguides is presented. By choosing pulsed pump in suitably designed silicon waveguides, parametric amplification can be a chip-scale solution in the high-speed optical communication and optical signal processing systems.
Unforgeable Noise-Tolerant Quantum Tokens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman; Pastawski, Fernando; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail; Cirac, Ignacio
2012-06-01
The realization of devices which harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of ``quantum money.'' A dishonest holder of a quantum bank-note will invariably fail in any forging attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure ``quantum money''-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store and measure single qubit quantum memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values.
Quantum limited heterodyne detection of spin noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.
2016-09-01
Spin noise spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying spin relaxation in semiconductors. In this article, we propose an extension of this technique based on optical heterodyne detection of spin noise, which provides several key advantages compared to conventional spin noise spectroscopy: detection of high frequency spin noise not limited by detector bandwidth or sampling rates of digitizers, quantum limited sensitivity even in case of very weak probe power, and possible amplification of the spin noise signal. Heterodyne detection of spin noise is demonstrated on insulating n-doped GaAs. From measurements of spin noise spectra up to 0.4 Tesla, we determined the distribution of g-factors, Δg/g = 0.49%.
Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.
Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger
2014-12-09
The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing.
Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires
Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.
2009-04-23
The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<
A Novel Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Chen; Li, Lvzhou; Qiu, Daowen
2015-10-01
This paper proposes a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme where a quantum participant Alice can share a specific message with several classical participants, Bobs. Semi-quantumness means that Alice can perform any quantum operation on her qubits and Bobs can choose to either (1) let the received qubits go back to Alice without disturbance, or (2) measure the qubits in the basis {|0>, |1>} and then resend the result state to Alice. In this scheme, Alice encodes her messages in two entangled states and . The present scheme differs from the existing ones in that the present scheme can share a specific bit string between Alice and Bobs, whereas only a random bit string is shared in most of the existing ones.
Quantum coin flipping secure against channel noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yuexin
2015-08-01
So far, most existing single-shot quantum coin flipping (QCF) protocols have failed in a noisy quantum channel. Here, we present a nested-structure framework that makes it possible to achieve partially noise-tolerant QCF, due to a trade-off between the security and the justice correctness. It is showed that noise-tolerant single-shot QCF protocols can be produced by filling the presented framework up with existing or even future protocols. We also proved a lower bound of 0.25, with which a cheating Alice or Bob could bias the outcome.
How noise affects quantum detector tomography
Wang, Q. Renema, J. J.; Exter, M. P.van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.
2015-10-07
We determine the full photon number response of a NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector via quantum detector tomography, and the results show the separation of linear, effective absorption efficiency from the internal detection efficiencies. In addition, we demonstrate an error budget for the complete quantum characterization of the detector. We find that for short times, the dominant noise source is shot noise, while laser power fluctuations limit the accuracy for longer timescales. The combined standard uncertainty of the internal detection efficiency derived from our measurements is about 2%.
Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.
Davies, P. C. W.
2001-09-01
The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-12-26
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.
Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits.
Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Ya-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2017-03-15
The calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution. A continuously working polarization-basis tracking scheme (PBTS) will effectively promote the efficiency of the system and reduce the potential security risk when switching between the transmission and calibration modes. Here, we proposed a single-photon level continuously working PBTS using only sifted key bits revealed during an error correction procedure, without introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. We applied the scheme to a polarization-encoding BB84 QKD system in a 50 km fiber channel, and obtained an average quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% during 24 h of continuous operation. The stable and relatively low QBER validates the effectiveness of the scheme.
Resonant Perturbation Theory of Decoherence and Relaxation of Quantum Bits
Merkli, M.; Berman, G. P.; Sigal, I. M.
2010-01-01
We describe our recenmore » t results on the resonant perturbation theory of decoherence and relaxation for quantum systems with many qubits. The approach represents a rigorous analysis of the phenomenon of decoherence and relaxation for general N -level systems coupled to reservoirs of bosonic fields. We derive a representation of the reduced dynamics valid for all times t ≥ 0 and for small but fixed interaction strength. Our approach does not involve master equation approximations and applies to a wide variety of systems which are not explicitly solvable.« less
Multiqubit spectroscopy of Gaussian quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Norris, Leigh M.; Viola, Lorenza
2017-02-01
We introduce multipulse quantum noise spectroscopy protocols for spectral estimation of the noise affecting multiple qubits coupled to Gaussian dephasing environments including both classical and quantum sources. Our protocols are capable of reconstructing all the noise auto- and cross-correlation spectra entering the multiqubit dynamics, providing access, in particular, to the asymmetric spectra associated with nonclassical environments. Our result relies on (i) an exact analytic solution for the reduced multiqubit dynamics that holds in the presence of an arbitrary Gaussian environment and dephasing-preserving control; (ii) the use of specific timing symmetries, which allow for a frequency comb to be engineered for all filter functions of interest, and for the spectra to be related to experimentally accessible observables. We show that quantum spectra have distinctive dynamical signatures, which we explore in two paradigmatic open-system models describing spin and charge qubits coupled to bosonic environments. Complete noise spectroscopy is demonstrated numerically in a realistic setting consisting of two-exciton qubits coupled to a phonon bath. The estimated spectra allow us to accurately predict the exciton dynamics as well as extract the temperature and spectral density of the quantum environment.
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-11-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giacobino, E.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Poizat, J. Ph.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Zhang, T.-C.
1996-01-01
We have investigated the intensity noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using different types of line narrowing techniques at room temperature. We have measured an intensity squeezing of 1.2 dB with grating-extended cavity lasers and 1.4 dB with injection locked lasers (respectively 1.6 dB and 2.3 dB inferred at the laser output). We have observed that the intensity noise of a free-running nominally single mode laser diode results from a cancellation effect between large anti-correlated fluctuations of the main mode and of weak longitudinal side modes. Reducing the side modes by line narrowing techniques results in intensity squeezing.
Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.
2016-10-01
Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.
Efficient bit sifting scheme of post-processing in quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiong; Le, Dan; Wu, Xianyan; Niu, Xiamu; Guo, Hong
2015-10-01
Bit sifting is an important step in the post-processing of quantum key distribution (QKD). Its function is to sift out the undetected original keys. The communication traffic of bit sifting has essential impact on the net secure key rate of a practical QKD system. In this paper, an efficient bit sifting scheme is presented, of which the core is a lossless source coding algorithm. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the scheme is approaching the Shannon limit. The proposed scheme can greatly decrease the communication traffic of the post-processing of a QKD system, which means the proposed scheme can decrease the secure key consumption for classical channel authentication and increase the net secure key rate of the QKD system, as demonstrated by analyzing the improvement on the net secure key rate. Meanwhile, some recommendations on the application of the proposed scheme to some representative practical QKD systems are also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Joseph D.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios
2012-01-01
A method of determining the bit error rate (BER) of a digital circuit from the measurement of the analog S-parameters of the circuit has been developed. The method is based on the measurement of the noise and the standard deviation of the noise in the S-parameters. Once the standard deviation and the mean of the S-parameters are known, the BER of the circuit can be calculated using the normal Gaussian function.
Eavesdropping on Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Fu, Fangbo
2016-09-01
In a recent paper, Xie et al. (Int. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, 2015) proposed a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme based on specific bits. In this paper, a simple attack strategy (intercept-resend attack) is shown to prove that the Xie et al.'s scheme is not secure for a dishonest participant, and an improved protocol based on GHZ state is proposed. The improved protocol is secure and improves the efficiency of the previous one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Zhi-Guo
2016-11-01
Quantum secure communication brings a new direction for information security. As an important component of quantum secure communication, deterministic joint remote state preparation (DJRSP) could securely transmit a quantum state with 100 % success probability. In this paper, we study how the efficiency of DJRSP is affected when qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. Taking a GHZ-based DJRSP scheme as an example, we study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, i.e., the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase-damping), depolarizing and amplitude-damping noise. Our study shows that the fidelity of the output state depends on the phase factor, the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the bit-flip noise, while the fidelity only depends on the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the other three types of noise. And the receiver will get different output states depending on the first preparer's measurement result in the amplitude-damping noise. Our results will be helpful for improving quantum secure communication in real implementation.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, Eduardo; Baranger, Harold
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroying quantum effects as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment (noise). The similarity to the two impurity Kondo model suggests that there will be a quantum phase transition between a Kondo phase and a local singlet phase. However, this transition is destabilized by charge tunneling between the two leads. Our main result is that sufficiently strong quantum noise suppresses this charge transfer and leads to stabilization of the quantum phase transition. We present the phase diagram, the ground state degeneracy at the four fixed points, and the leading temperature dependence of the conductance near these points. Partially supported by (1) the U.S. DOE, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DE-SC0005237 and (2) FAPESP (BRAZIL) under Grant 2014/26356-9.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2017-03-01
The objective, classical world emerges from the underlying quantum substrate via the proliferation of redundant copies of selected information into the environment, which acts as a communication channel, transmitting that information to observers. These copies are independently accessible, allowing many observers to reach consensus about the state of a quantum system via its imprints in the environment. Quantum Darwinism recognizes that the redundancy of information is thus central to the emergence of objective reality in the quantum world. However, in addition to the "quantum system of interest," there are many other systems "of no interest" in the Universe that can imprint information on the common environment. There is therefore a danger that the information of interest will be diluted with irrelevant bits, suppressing the redundancy responsible for objectivity. We show that mixing of the relevant (the "wheat") and irrelevant (the "chaff") bits of information makes little quantitative difference to the redundancy of the information of interest. Thus, we demonstrate that it does not matter whether one separates the wheat (relevant information) from the (irrelevant) chaff: The large redundancy of the relevant information survives dilution, providing evidence of the objective, effectively classical world.
Ultralow Noise Monolithic Quantum Dot Photonic Oscillators
2013-10-28
HBCU/MI) ULTRALOW NOISE MONOLITHIC QUANTUM DOT PHOTONIC OSCILLATORS LUKE LESTER UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO 10/28/2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A...New Mexico , Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 Air Force Office of Scientific Research 875 N. Randolph St., Rm 3112 Arlington, VA 22203-1954 patricia.bell...Report 06/01/2010 - 05/31/2013 Professor Luke F. Lester, PI, University of New Mexico Contact address: Center for High Technology Materials
Reducing noise in a Raman quantum memory.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Heshami, Khabat; Kupchak, Connor; Sussman, Benjamin J
2016-11-01
Optical quantum memories are an important component of future optical and hybrid quantum technologies. Raman schemes are strong candidates for use with ultrashort optical pulses due to their broad bandwidth; however, the elimination of deleterious four-wave mixing noise from Raman memories is critical for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a quantum memory using the rotational states of hydrogen molecules at room temperature. Polarization selection rules prohibit four-wave mixing, allowing the storage and retrieval of attenuated coherent states with a mean photon number 0.9 and a pulse duration 175 fs. The 1/e memory lifetime is 85.5 ps, demonstrating a time-bandwidth product of ≈480 in a memory that is well suited for use with broadband heralded down-conversion and fiber-based photon sources.
Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, X.; Nori, F.
1996-03-01
We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time.
Resilience to Time-Correlated Noise in Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombín, Héctor
2016-10-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computation techniques rely on weakly correlated noise. Here, I show that it is enough to assume weak spatial correlations: Time correlations can take any form. In particular, single-shot error-correction techniques exhibit a noise threshold for quantum memories under spatially local stochastic noise.
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.
2011-10-15
Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.
Quantum Markov semigroups constructed from quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Chen, Jinshu
2016-02-15
Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBNs) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which can describe a two-level quantum system with infinitely many sites. In this paper, we consider the problem to construct quantum Markov semigroups (QMSs) directly from QBNs. We first establish several new theorems concerning QBNs. In particular, we define the number operator acting on Bernoulli functionals by using the canonical orthonormal basis, prove its self-adjoint property, and describe precisely its connections with QBN in a mathematically rigorous way. We then show the possibility to construct QMS directly from QBN. This is done by combining the general results on QMS with our new results on QBN obtained here. Finally, we examine some properties of QMS constructed from QBN.
Noise effects on conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Situ, Haozhen; Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai
2016-09-01
Noise effects can be harmful to quantum information systems. In the present paper, we study noise effects in the context of quantum games with incomplete information, which have more complicated structure than quantum games with complete information. The effects of several paradigmatic noises on three newly proposed conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information are studied using numerical optimization method. Intuitively noises will bring down the payoffs. However, we find that in some situations the outcome of the games under the influence of noise effects are counter-intuitive. Sometimes stronger noise may lead to higher payoffs. Some properties of the game, like quantum advantage, fairness and equilibrium, are invulnerable to some kinds of noises.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
1983-12-01
Environment 52 34. Comparison of Regression Lines Estimating Scores for the Sustention Intelligibility Feature vs Bit Error Rate for the DOD LPC-10 Vocoder in...both conditions, the feature "sibilation" obtained the highest scores, and the features "graveness" and " sustention " received the poorest scores, but...were under much greater impairment in the noise environment. Details of the variations in scores for sustention are shown in Figure 34, and, for
Noise-enhanced classical and quantum capacities in communication networks.
Caruso, Filippo; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2010-11-05
The unavoidable presence of noise is thought to be one of the major problems to solve in order to pave the way for implementing quantum information technologies in realistic physical platforms. However, here we show a clear example in which noise, in terms of dephasing, may enhance the capability of transmitting not only classical but also quantum information, encoded in quantum systems, through communication networks. In particular, we find analytically and numerically the quantum and classical capacities for a large family of quantum channels and show that these information transmission rates can be strongly enhanced by introducing dephasing noise in the complex network dynamics.
Quantum Samaritan's Dilemma Under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-12-01
We study how quantum noise affects the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma. Serval most common dissipative and nondissipative noise channels are considered as the model of the decoherence process. We find that the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma is stable under the influence of the amplitude damping, the bit flip and the bit-phase flip channel.
Quantum Samaritan's Dilemma Under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2017-03-01
We study how quantum noise affects the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma. Serval most common dissipative and nondissipative noise channels are considered as the model of the decoherence process. We find that the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma is stable under the influence of the amplitude damping, the bit flip and the bit-phase flip channel.
Bit-string oblivious transfer based on quantum state computational distinguishability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souto, A.; Mateus, P.; Adão, P.; Paunković, N.
2015-04-01
Oblivious transfer protocol is a basic building block in cryptography and is used to transfer information from a sender to a receiver in such a way that, at the end of the protocol, the sender does not know if the receiver got the message or not. Since Shor's quantum algorithm appeared, the security of most of the classical cryptographic schemes has been compromised, as they rely on the fact that factoring is infeasible. To overcome this, quantum mechanics has been used intensively in the past decades, and alternatives resistant to quantum attacks have been developed in order to fulfill the (potential) lack of security of a significant number of classical schemes. In this paper, we present a quantum computationally secure protocol for bit-string oblivious transfer between two parties, under the assumption of quantum hardness of state distinguishability and the constraint of performing at most few-qubit measurements (leaving open the question of general attacks performed on all qubits involved). The protocol is feasible, in the sense that it is implementable in polynomial time.
Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment
Mochon, Carlos
2004-09-01
Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias.
Quantum random bit generation using energy fluctuations in stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Moffatt, Doug; Spanner, Michael; Lausten, Rune; Sussman, Benjamin J
2013-12-02
Random number sequences are a critical resource in modern information processing systems, with applications in cryptography, numerical simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the measurement of pulse energy quantum fluctuations in Stokes light generated by spontaneously-initiated stimulated Raman scattering. Bright Stokes pulse energy fluctuations up to five times the mean energy are measured with fast photodiodes and converted to unbiased random binary strings. Since the pulse energy is a continuous variable, multiple bits can be extracted from a single measurement. Our approach can be generalized to a wide range of Raman active materials; here we demonstrate a prototype using the optical phonon line in bulk diamond.
Security of two-state and four-state practical quantum bit-commitment protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Arsenović, Dušan; Paunković, Nikola; Popović, Duška B.; Prvanović, Slobodan
2016-12-01
We study cheating strategies against a practical four-state quantum bit-commitment protocol [A. Danan and L. Vaidman, Quant. Info. Proc. 11, 769 (2012)], 10.1007/s11128-011-0284-4 and its two-state variant [R. Loura et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052336 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052336 when the underlying quantum channels are noisy and the cheating party is constrained to using single-qubit measurements only. We show that simply inferring the transmitted photons' states by using the Breidbart basis, optimal for ambiguous (minimum-error) state discrimination, does not directly produce an optimal cheating strategy for this bit-commitment protocol. We introduce a strategy, based on certain postmeasurement processes and show it to have better chances at cheating than the direct approach. We also study to what extent sending forged geographical coordinates helps a dishonest party in breaking the binding security requirement. Finally, we investigate the impact of imperfect single-photon sources in the protocols. Our study shows that, in terms of the resources used, the four-state protocol is advantageous over the two-state version. The analysis performed can be straightforwardly generalized to any finite-qubit measurement, with the same qualitative results.
KEYNOTE SPEECH: Quantum noise, quantum measurement, and squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, Herman A.
2004-08-01
This is the edited text of the Keynote Speech that Professor Haus had been invited to give at the Conference on Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics, held at Santa Fe, NM, on 1-4 June 2003. He introduces it as partly an overview, partly a retrospective, finishing with some remarks about the future, addressing the topics as he knew them best, from his own perspective. Sadly, Professor Haus died shortly before he was due to present this speech to conference delegates.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B.; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics
Jacobs, B.C.; Pittman, T.B.; Franson, J.D.
2002-11-01
Probabilistic quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements can be performed using linear optics and postselection. Here we show how QND devices of this kind can be used in a straightforward way to implement a quantum relay, which is capable of extending the range of a quantum cryptography system by suppressing the effects of detector noise. Unlike a quantum repeater, a quantum relay system does not require entanglement purification or the ability to store photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki
We designed and operated a 9-bit single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). SFQ pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) was employed for generation of variable quantum output voltage, where a 9-bit variable pulse number multiplier and a 100-fold voltage multiplier were the key components. Test chips were fabricated using a Nb Josephson integration technology. Arbitrary voltage waveforms were synthesized with the maximum voltage of 2.54 mV. For ac voltage standard applications, relationships between the DAC resolution and the synthesized waveform frequency are discussed.
Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Á. J.; Stojanovic, A. D.; Paunković, N.; Loura, R.; Muga, N. J.; Silva, N. A.; Mateus, P.; André, P. S.; Pinto, A. N.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure.
Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen
2014-09-22
When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
FREDERIC IVES MEDAL PAPER: From classical to quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, Hermann A.
1995-11-01
An account is given of noise in electrical circuits and its relation to quantum noise connected with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. A phase-insensitive amplifier must introduce noise (most commonly the spontaneous emission noise) in order to satisfy the constraint imposed by quantum mechanics on the simultaneous measurement of two observables represented by noncommuting operators. Nonstationary, phase-sensitive amplifiers can employ squeezed radiation and reduce the noise below that of phase-insensitive amplifiers. Experiments on squeezing in optical fibers and the attendant noise reduction are presented. The squeezing apparatus can also be employed as a quantum nondemolition measurement of photon number. A thought experiment of a two-slit interferometer is described, in which the fringes are washed out progressively with the accuracy of the photon number determination in one of its arms. Implications of measurements of this kind for the resolution of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox are discussed. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Daugherty, Elaine S.; Kramarchuk, Ihor
1987-01-01
The performance of microwave systems and components for digital data transmission can be characterized by a plot of the bit-error rate as a function of the signal to noise ratio (or E sub b/E sub o). Methods for the efficient automated measurement of bit-error rates and signal-to-noise ratios, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, are described. Noise measurement considerations and time requirements for measurement accuracy, as well as computer control and data processing methods, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Enss, Christian
2016-10-01
The comprehensive analysis of low-frequency excess flux noise both in terms of magnetic flux noise S Φ , 1 / f and energy sensitivity ɛ1/f of 84 superconducting quantum devices studied at temperatures below 1 K reveals a universal behavior. When analyzing data in terms of ɛ1/f, we find that noise spectra of independent devices cross each other all at certain crossing frequencies fc. Besides this main result of our paper, we further show that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) arrays systematically feature higher noise exponents than single SQUIDs and give evidence for a material and device type dependence of low-frequency excess flux noise. The latter results facilitate to engineer the shape of magnetic flux noise spectra and thus to experimentally modify key properties such as coherence or measurement times of superconducting quantum devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Xue, Liyin
2014-07-01
We propose two fault-tolerant high-capacity quantum key distribution schemes, in which an entangled pair over a collective-noise channel consisting of one logical qubit and one physical qubit can carry four bits of key information. The basic idea is to use 2-extended unitary operations from collective noises together with quantum dense coding. The key messages are encoded on logical qubits of two physical qubits with sixteen 2-extended unitary operations based on collective noises. The key can be recovered using Bell-state analysis on the logical qubit and a single-photon measurement on the physical qubit rather than three-qubit GHZ joint measurements. The proposed protocols require a collation table to be shared between Alice and Bob in advance. Consequently, the key messages carried by an entangled state, in our protocol, have doubled at the price of sharing the collation table between Alice and Bob. However, the efficiency of qubits is enhanced because a quantum bit is more expensive to prepare than a classical bit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.
2016-06-01
The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.
Spin-dependent shot noise enhancement in a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubbelohde, Niels; Fricke, Christian; Hohls, Frank; Haug, Rolf J.
2013-07-01
The spin-dependent dynamical blockade was investigated in a lateral quantum dot in a magnetic field. Spin-polarized edge channels in the two-dimensional leads and the spatial distribution of Landau orbitals in the dot modulate the tunnel coupling of the quantum dot level spectrum. In a measurement of the electron shot noise we observe a pattern of super-Poissonian noise which is correlated to the spin-dependent competition between different transport channels.
Experimental implementation of Hogg's algorithm on a three-quantum-bit NMR quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin
2002-04-01
Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with a three-qubit sample, we have experimentally implemented the highly structured algorithm for the satisfiability problem with one variable in each clause proposed by Hogg. A simplified temporal averaging procedure was employed to prepare the three-qubit pseudopure state. The algorithm was completed with only a single evaluation of the structure of the problem and the solutions were found theoretically with probability 100%, results that outperform both unstructured quantum and the best classical search algorithms. However, about 90% of the corresponding experimental fidelities can be attributed to the imperfections of manipulations.
Fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, TianYu
2015-04-01
In this paper, two fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue (QD) protocols against collective noise are presented. One is against collective-dephasing noise, while the other is against collective-rotation noise. The decoherent-free states, each of which is composed of two physical qubits, act as traveling states combating collective noise. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, which play the role of private quantum key, are securely shared between two participants over a collective-noise channel in advance. Through encryption and decryption with private quantum key, the initial state of each traveling two-photon logical qubit is privately shared between two participants. Due to quantum encryption sharing of the initial state of each traveling logical qubit, the issue of information leakage is overcome. The private quantum key can be repeatedly used after rotation as long as the rotation angle is properly chosen, making quantum resource economized. As a result, their information-theoretical efficiency is nearly up to 66.7%. The proposed QD protocols only need single-photon measurements rather than two-photon joint measurements for quantum measurements. Security analysis shows that an eavesdropper cannot obtain anything useful about secret messages during the dialogue process without being discovered. Furthermore, the proposed QD protocols can be implemented with current techniques in experiment.
Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation
Dawson, Christopher M.; Nielsen, Michael A.; Haselgrove, Henry L.
2006-05-15
In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3x10{sup -3} and the depolarization probability is less than 10{sup -4}. Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].
Effect of Poisson noise on adiabatic quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiely, A.; Muga, J. G.; Ruschhaupt, A.
2017-01-01
We present a detailed derivation of the master equation describing a general time-dependent quantum system with classical Poisson white noise and outline its various properties. We discuss the limiting cases of Poisson white noise and provide approximations for the different noise strength regimes. We show that using the eigenstates of the noise superoperator as a basis can be a useful way of expressing the master equation. Using this, we simulate various settings to illustrate different effects of Poisson noise. In particular, we show a dip in the fidelity as a function of noise strength where high fidelity can occur in the strong-noise regime for some cases. We also investigate recent claims [J. Jing et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 032110 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.032110] that this type of noise may improve rather than destroy adiabaticity.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
Quantum noise limits to matter-wave interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scully, Marlan O.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1994-01-01
We derive the quantum limits for an atomic interferometer in which the atoms obey either Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. It is found that the limiting quantum noise is due to the uncertainty associated with the particle sorting between the two branches of the interferometer. As an example, the quantum-limited sensitivity of a matter-wave gyroscope is calculated and compared with that of laser gyroscopes.
Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.
A 13-bit Noise Shaping SAR-ADC with Dual-Polarity Digital Calibration.
Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2013-06-01
We present a new noise shaping method and a dual polarity calibration technique suited for successive approximation register type analog to digital converters (SAR-ADC). Noise is pushed to higher frequencies with the noise shaping by adding a switched capacitor. The SAR capacitor array mismatch has been compensated by the dual-polarity digital calibration with minimum circuit overhead. A proof-of-concept prototype SAR-ADC using the proposed techniques has been fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS technology. It achieves 67.7 dB SNDR at 62.5 kHz sampling frequency, while consuming 38.3μW power with 1.8 V supply.
Excess quantum noise fluctuations in unstable-resonator lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Mussche, Paul; Fanning, Geoff; Siegman, A. E.
1996-12-01
Experiments completed during the past year confirm the existence of a sizable excess quantum noise factor in lasers using unstable optical resonators or, more generally, resonators with nonorthogonal oscillation modes. Schawlow and Townes predicted in 1958, before the first laser was built, that even an ideal laser should exhibit a finite linewidth resulting from spontaneous emission by the laser atoms.1 Lamb and others, using standard techniques of cavity mode expansion and second quantization, then showed that the spontaneous emission in any laser should have a magnitude equal to the downward stimulated emission due to one additional quantum of signal energy acting on the inverted laser medium.2 This "one extra noise photon" approach to quantum noise has since become conventional wisdom in the field. Petermann noted in 1979, however, that spontaneous emission into the oscillating mode of a gain-guided semiconductor laser could be significantly larger than one photon per mode, leading to potentially measurable consequences for such lasers.3 In 1985, Haus and Kawakami showed that there would be partial coherence between the excess noise emission into different cavity modes, thus avoiding apparent conflicts between this excess emission and basic concepts of thermal equilibrium.4 One of us then showed in 1989 that this excess quantum noise was actually associated with the nonhermitian or biorthogonal character of the modes in certain laser structures rather than with gain guiding per se, so that large excess quantum noise effects should be observed in unstable resonator lasers in particular.5
Hondo, Toshinobu; Kawai, Yousuke; Toyoda, Michisato
2015-01-01
Rapid acquisition of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from fewer acquisitions on average was investigated using the newly introduced 12-bit digitizer, Keysight model U5303A. This is expected to achieve a spectrum acquisition 32 times faster than the commonly used 8-bit digitizer for an equal signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Averaging fewer pulses improves the detection speed and chromatographic separation performance. However, increasing the analog-to-digital converter bit resolution for a high-frequency signal, such as a TOF spectrum, increases the system noise and requires the timing jitter (aperture error) to be minimized. We studied the relationship between the S/N ratio and the average number of acquisitions using U5303A and compared this with an 8-bit digitizer. The results show that the noise, measured as root-mean-square, decreases linearly to the square root of the average number of acquisitions without background subtraction, which means that almost no systematic noise existed in our signal bandwidth of interest (a few hundreds megahertz). In comparison, 8-bit digitizers that are commonly used in the market require 32 times more pulses with background subtraction.
Reducing the overhead for quantum computation when noise is biased
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Poulin, David
2015-12-01
We analyze a model for fault-tolerant quantum computation with low overhead suitable for situations where the noise is biased. The basis for this scheme is a gadget for the fault-tolerant preparation of magic states that enable universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using only Clifford gates that preserve the noise bias. We analyze the distillation of |T > -type magic states using this gadget at the physical level, followed by concatenation with the 15-qubit quantum Reed-Muller code, and comparing our results with standard constructions. In the regime where the noise bias (rate of Pauli Z errors relative to other single-qubit errors) is greater than a factor of 10, our scheme has lower overhead across a broad range of relevant noise rates.
Reduction of Classical Measurement Noise via Quantum-Dense Metrology.
Ast, Melanie; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman
2016-10-28
Quantum-dense metrology constitutes a special case of quantum metrology in which two orthogonal phase space projections of a signal are simultaneously sensed beyond the shot-noise limit. Previously, it was shown that the additional sensing channel that is provided by quantum-dense metrology contains information that can be used to identify and to discard corrupted segments from the measurement data. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new method in which this information is used for improving the sensitivity without discarding any measurement segments. Our measurement reached sub-shot-noise performance, although initially strong classical noise polluted the data. The new method has high potential for improving the noise spectral density of gravitational-wave detectors at signal frequencies of high astrophysical relevance.
Reduction of Classical Measurement Noise via Quantum-Dense Metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ast, Melanie; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman
2016-10-01
Quantum-dense metrology constitutes a special case of quantum metrology in which two orthogonal phase space projections of a signal are simultaneously sensed beyond the shot-noise limit. Previously, it was shown that the additional sensing channel that is provided by quantum-dense metrology contains information that can be used to identify and to discard corrupted segments from the measurement data. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new method in which this information is used for improving the sensitivity without discarding any measurement segments. Our measurement reached sub-shot-noise performance, although initially strong classical noise polluted the data. The new method has high potential for improving the noise spectral density of gravitational-wave detectors at signal frequencies of high astrophysical relevance.
Quantum noise theory for phonon transport through nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Li; Huang, Yunmi; Huang, Changcheng
2017-04-01
We have developed a quantum noise approach to study the phonon transport through nanostructures. The nanostructures acting as phonon channels are attached to two phonon reservoirs. And the temperature drop between the two reservoirs drives the phonon transport through the channels. We have derived a quantum Langevin equation(QLE) to describe the phonon transport with the quantum noise originated from the thermal fluctuation of the reservoirs. Within the Markov approximation, the QLE is used to get the thermal conductivity κ of the nanostructures and the finite size effect of the κ then is studied. In this study, the advantage of the quantum noise approach lays on the fact that no any local temperature needs to be defined for the nanostructures in its non-equilibrium state.
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography.
Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W
2016-03-07
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF(2). This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy.
Noise and Controllability: Suppression of Controllability in Large Quantum Systems
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2011-03-25
A closed quantum system is defined as completely controllable if an arbitrary unitary transformation can be executed using the available controls. In practice, control fields are a source of unavoidable noise. Can one design control fields such that the effect of noise is negligible on the timescale of the transformation? Complete controllability in practice requires that the effect of noise can be suppressed for an arbitrary transformation. The present study considers a paradigm of control, where the Lie-algebraic structure of the control Hamiltonian is fixed, while the size of the system increases, determined by the dimension of the Hilbert space representation of the algebra. We show that for large quantum systems, generic noise in the controls dominates for a typical class of target transformation; i.e., complete controllability is destroyed by the noise.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-01
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-15
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Haixing
2017-01-01
In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.
Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, A. R.
1999-03-01
Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1(5)≈27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
Chau, H.F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1{radical}(5){approx_equal}27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Demonstration of Johnson noise thermometry with all-superconducting quantum voltage noise source
Yamada, Takahiro Urano, Chiharu; Maezawa, Masaaki
2016-01-25
We present a Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) system based on an integrated quantum voltage noise source (IQVNS) that has been fully implemented using superconducting circuit technology. To enable precise measurement of Boltzmann's constant, an IQVNS chip was designed to produce intrinsically calculable pseudo-white noise to calibrate the JNT system. On-chip real-time generation of pseudo-random codes via simple circuits produced pseudo-voltage noise with a harmonic tone interval of less than 1 Hz, which was one order of magnitude finer than the harmonic tone interval of conventional quantum voltage noise sources. We estimated a value for Boltzmann's constant experimentally by performing JNT measurements at the temperature of the triple point of water using the IQVNS chip.
Two Quantum Key Agreement Protocols Immune to Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-10-01
In this paper, two quantum key agreement protocols are proposed, which can resist against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. These two protocols mainly utilize logical quantum states, the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. Moreover, they have no information leakage and are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The use of the decoy state technology and the delayed measurement technique makes them secure against both participant and outsider attacks. The efficiency analysis shows that the two protocols are very efficient.
Two Quantum Key Agreement Protocols Immune to Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2017-02-01
In this paper, two quantum key agreement protocols are proposed, which can resist against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. These two protocols mainly utilize logical quantum states, the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. Moreover, they have no information leakage and are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The use of the decoy state technology and the delayed measurement technique makes them secure against both participant and outsider attacks. The efficiency analysis shows that the two protocols are very efficient.
Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km.
Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka
2016-01-11
We demonstrate the first 40 Gbit/s single-channel polarization-multiplexed, 5 Gsymbol/s, 16 QAM quantum noise stream cipher (QNSC) transmission over 480 km by incorporating ASE quantum noise from EDFAs as well as the quantum shot noise of the coherent state with multiple photons for the random masking of data. By using a multi-bit encoded scheme and digital coherent transmission techniques, secure optical communication with a record data capacity and transmission distance has been successfully realized. In this system, the signal level received by Eve is hidden by both the amplitude and the phase noise. The highest number of masked signals, 7.5 x 10(4), was achieved by using a QAM scheme with FEC, which makes it possible to reduce the output power from the transmitter while maintaining an error free condition for Bob. We have newly measured the noise distribution around I and Q encrypted data and shown experimentally with a data size of as large as 2(25) that the noise has a Gaussian distribution with no correlations. This distribution is suitable for the random masking of data.
Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang
2016-10-01
This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.
Spectral analysis and identification of noises in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, R. B.; Li, T. F.; Kofman, A. G.; Zhang, J.; Liu, Yu-Xi; Pashkin, Yu. A.; Tsai, J.-S.; Nori, Franco
2013-02-01
In quantum information processing, knowledge of the noise in the system is crucial for high-precision manipulation and tomography of coherent quantum operations. Existing strategies for identifying this noise require the use of additional quantum devices or control pulses. We present a noise-identification method directly based on the system's non-Markovian response of an ensemble measurement to the noise. The noise spectrum is identified by reversing the response relationship in the frequency domain. For illustration, the method is applied to superconducting charge qubits, but it is equally applicable to any type of qubits. We find that the identification strategy recovers the well-known Fermi's golden rule under the lowest-order perturbation approximation, which corresponds to the Markovian limit when the measurement time is much longer than the noise correlation time. Beyond such approximation, it is possible to further improve the precision at the so-called optimal point by incorporating the transient response data in the non-Markovian regime. This method is verified with experimental data from coherent oscillations in a superconducting charge qubit.
Coping with noise in programmable quantum annealers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro
Solving real-world applications with quantum annealing algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language, to tuning several other parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. For example, in http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05679 we proposed an method to measure residual systematic biases in the programmable parameters of large-scale quantum annealers. Although the method described there works from a practical point of view, a few questions were left unanswered. One of these puzzles was the observation of a broad distribution in the estimated effective qubit temperatures throughout the device . In this talk, we will present our progress in understanding these puzzles and how these new insights allow for a more effective bias correction protocol. We will present the impact of these new parameter setting and bias correction protocols in the performance of hard discrete optimization problems and in the successful implementation of quantum-assisted machine-learning algorithms.
Kikuchi, Kazuro
2012-02-27
We develop a systematic method for characterizing semiconductor-laser phase noise, using a low-speed offline digital coherent receiver. The field spectrum, the FM-noise spectrum, and the phase-error variance measured with such a receiver can completely describe phase-noise characteristics of lasers under test. The sampling rate of the digital coherent receiver should be much higher than the phase-fluctuation speed. However, 1 GS/s is large enough for most of the single-mode semiconductor lasers. In addition to such phase-noise characterization, interpolating the taken data at 1.25 GS/s to form a data stream at 10 GS/s, we can predict the bit-error rate (BER) performance of multi-level modulated optical signals at 10 Gsymbol/s. The BER degradation due to the phase noise is well explained by the result of the phase-noise measurements.
On the Effect of Quantum Noise in a Quantum-Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen
2016-12-01
The disrupting effect of quantum noise on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.
Noise tailoring for scalable quantum computation via randomized compiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallman, Joel J.; Emerson, Joseph
2016-11-01
Quantum computers are poised to radically outperform their classical counterparts by manipulating coherent quantum systems. A realistic quantum computer will experience errors due to the environment and imperfect control. When these errors are even partially coherent, they present a major obstacle to performing robust computations. Here, we propose a method for introducing independent random single-qubit gates into the logical circuit in such a way that the effective logical circuit remains unchanged. We prove that this randomization tailors the noise into stochastic Pauli errors, which can dramatically reduce error rates while introducing little or no experimental overhead. Moreover, we prove that our technique is robust to the inevitable variation in errors over the randomizing gates and numerically illustrate the dramatic reductions in worst-case error that are achievable. Given such tailored noise, gates with significantly lower fidelity—comparable to fidelities realized in current experiments—are sufficient to achieve fault-tolerant quantum computation. Furthermore, the worst-case error rate of the tailored noise can be directly and efficiently measured through randomized benchmarking protocols, enabling a rigorous certification of the performance of a quantum computer.
Demonstration of quantum superiority in learning parity with noise with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus; Ryan, Colm; Cross, Andrew; Smolin, John; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry; Johnson, Blake
A problem in machine learning is to identify the function programmed in an unknown device, or oracle, having only access to its output. In particular, a parity function computes the parity of a subset of a bit register. We implement an oracle executing parity functions in a five-qubit superconducting processor and compare the performance of a classical and a quantum learner. The classical learner reads the output of multiple oracle calls and uses the results to infer the hidden function. In addition to querying the oracle, the quantum learner can apply coherent rotations on the output register before the readout. We show that, given a target success probability, the quantum approach outperforms the classical one in the number of queries needed. Moreover, this gap increases with readout noise and with the size of the qubit register. This result shows that quantum advantage can already emerge in current systems with a few, noisy qubits. We acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.
Highly noise resistant multiqubit quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskowski, Wiesław; Vértesi, Tamás; Wieśniak, Marcin
2015-11-01
We analyze robustness of correlations of the N-qubit GHZ and Dicke states against white noise admixture. For sufficiently large N, the Dicke states (for any number of excitations) lead to more robust violation of local realism than the GHZ states (e.g. for N > 8 for the W state). We also identify states that are the most resistant to white noise. Surprisingly, it turns out that these states are the GHZ states augmented with fully product states. Based on our numerical analysis conducted up to N = 8, and an analytical formula derived for any N parties, we conjecture that the three-qubit GHZ state augmented with a product of (N - 3) pure qubits is the most robust against white noise admixture among any N-qubit state. As a by-product, we derive a single Bell inequality and show that it is violated by all pure entangled states of a given number of parties. This gives an alternative proof of Gisin’s theorem.
Fast quantum noise in the Landau-Zener transition
Pokrovsky, V. L.; Sun, D.
2007-07-01
We show by direct calculation starting from a microscopic model that the two-state system with time-dependent energy levels in the presence of fast quantum noise obeys the master equation. The solution of master equation is found analytically and analyzed in a broad range of parameters. The fast transverse noise affects the transition probability during much longer time (the accumulation time) than the longitudinal one. The action of the fast longitudinal noise is restricted by the shorter Landau-Zener time, the same as in the regular Landau-Zener process. The large ratio of time scales allows solving the Landau-Zener problem with longitudinal noise only, and then solving the same problem with the transverse noise only and matching the two solutions. The correlation of the longitudinal and transverse noise renormalizes the Landau-Zener transition matrix element and can strongly enhance the survival probability, whereas the transverse noise always reduces it. If the noise is fast, its intensity at which the multiquantum processes become essential corresponds to a deeply adiabatic regime. We briefly discuss possible applications of the general theory to the molecular magnets.
Blind quantum computation over a collective-noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Yuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2016-05-01
Blind quantum computation (BQC) allows a client (Alice), who only possesses relatively poor quantum devices, to delegate universal quantum computation to a server (Bob) in such a way that Bob cannot know Alice's inputs, algorithm, and outputs. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is noisy, and the loss over the long-distance quantum communication should also be taken into account. Here we propose to use decoherence-free subspace (DFS) to overcome the collective noise in the quantum channel for BQC, which we call DFS-BQC. We propose three variations of DFS-BQC protocols. One of them, a coherent-light-assisted DFS-BQC protocol, allows Alice to faithfully send the signal photons with a probability proportional to a transmission rate of the quantum channel. In all cases, we combine the ideas based on DFS and the Broadbent-Fitzsimons-Kashefi protocol, which is one of the BQC protocols, without degrading unconditional security. The proposed DFS-based schemes are generic and hence can be applied to other BQC protocols where Alice sends quantum states to Bob.
Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates
Parodi, Daniele; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Solinas, Paolo
2007-07-15
We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by a suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called stimulated raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) gates.
Quantum noise reduction using squeezed states in LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwyer, Sheila E.
Direct detection of gravitational waves will require earth based detectors to measure strains of the order 10-21, at frequencies of 100Hz, a sensitivity that has been accomplished with the initial generation of LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors. A new generation of detectors currently under construction is designed improve on the sensitivity of the initial detectors by about a factor of 10. The quantum nature of light will limit the sensitivity of these Advanced LIGO interferometers at most frequencies; new approaches to reducing the quantum noise will be needed to improve the sensitivity further. This quantum noise originates from the vacuum fluctuations that enter the unused port of the interferometer and interfere with the laser light. Vacuum fluctuations have the minimum noise allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, DeltaX1 Delta X2 ≤ 1, where the two quadratures X 1 and X2 are non-commuting observables responsible for the two forms of quantum noise, shot noise and radiation pressure noise. By replacing the vacuum fluctuations entering the interferometer with squeezed states, which have lower noise in one quadrature than the vacuum state, we have reduced the shot noise of a LIGO interferometer. The sensitivity to gravitational waves measured during this experiment represents the best sensitivity achieved to date at frequencies above 200 Hz, and possibly the first time that squeezing has been measured in an interferometer at frequencies below 700 Hz. The possibility that injection of squeezed states could introduce environmental noise couplings that would degrade the crucial but fragile low frequency sensitivity of a LIGO interferometer has been a major concern in planning to implement squeezing as part of baseline interferometer operations. These results demonstrate that squeezing is compatible with the low frequency sensitivity of a full scale gravitational wave interferometer. We also investigated the limits to the level of squeezing
Description of quantum noise by a Langevin equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metiu, H.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
General features of the quantum noise problem expressed as the equations of motion for a particle coupled to a set of oscillators are investigated analytically. Account is taken of the properties of the companion oscillators by formulating quantum statistical correlation Langevin equations (QSLE). The frequency of the oscillators is then retained as a natural cut-off for the quantum noise. The QSLE is further extended to encompass the particle trajectory and is bounded by initial and final states of the oscillator. The states are expressed as the probability of existence at the moment of particle collision that takes the oscillator into a final state. Two noise sources then exist: a statistical uncertainty of the initial state and the quantum dynamical uncertainty associated with a transition from the initial to final state. Feynman's path-integral formulation is used to characterize the functional of the particle trajectory, which slows the particle. It is shown that the energy loss may be attributed to friction, which satisfies energy conservation laws.
Quantum reading capacity under thermal and correlated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano
2013-06-01
Quantum communication theory sets the maximum rates at which information can be encoded and decoded reliably given the physical properties of the information carriers. Here we consider the problem of readout of a digital optical memory, where information is stored by means of the optical properties of the memory cells that are in turn probed by shining a laser beam on them. Interesting features arise in the regime in which the probing light has to be treated quantum mechanically. The maximum rate of reliable readout defines the quantum reading capacity, which is proven to overcome the classical reading capacity—obtained by probing with classical light—in several relevant settings. We consider a model of optical memory in which information is encoded in the (complex-valued) attenuation factor and study the effects on the reading rates of thermal and correlated noise. The latter type of noise arises when the effects of wave diffraction on the probing light beam are taken into account. We discuss the advantages of quantum reading over the classical one and show that the former is substantially more robust than the latter under thermal noise in the regime of low power per pulse.
Optimal alphabets for noise-resistant quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2005-06-01
Possibilities of improving critical error rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols for different strategies of eavesdropping are investigated. QKD-protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 vertexes respectively) and QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vortexes are considered. Stability of such QKD-protocols to the noise in a quantum channel which is due to the Eve's interference that apply either intercept-receipt or optimal eavesdropping strategy at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after bases reconciliation the QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols in terms of noise-resistance. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.
Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation
Yeo Ye
2003-05-01
Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.
Optical scatter of quantum noise filter cavity optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vander-Hyde, Daniel; Amra, Claude; Lequime, Michel; Magaña-Sandoval, Fabian; Smith, Joshua R.; Zerrad, Myriam
2015-07-01
Optical cavities to filter squeezed light for quantum noise reduction require optics with very low scattering losses. We report on measured light scattering from two super-polished fused silica optics before and after applying highly-reflective ion-beam sputtered dielectric coatings. We used an imaging scatterometer that illuminates the sample with a linearly polarized 1064 nm wavelength laser at a fixed angle of incidence and records images of back scatter for azimuthal angles in the plane of the laser beam. We extract from these images the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the optics with and without coating and estimate their integrated scatter. We find that application of these coatings led to a more than 50% increase of the integrated wide-angle scatter, to 5.00+/- 0.30 and 3.38+/- 0.20 ppm for the two coated samples. In addition, the BRDF function of the coated optics takes on a pattern of maxima versus azimuthal angle. We compare with a scattering model to show that this is qualitatively consistent with roughness scattering from the coating layer interfaces. These results are part of a broader study to understand and minimize optical loss in quantum noise filter cavities for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. The scattering measured for these samples is acceptable for the 16 m long filter cavities envisioned for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), though reducing the loss further would improve LIGO’s quantum-noise limited performance.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Phonon squeezed states: quantum noise reduction in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1999-03-01
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million) fluctuations in phonons. We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/∼nori/squeezed.html.
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Focus on quantum effects and noise in biomolecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, G. R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2011-11-01
The role of quantum mechanics in biological organisms has been a fundamental question of twentieth-century biology. It is only now, however, with modern experimental techniques, that it is possible to observe quantum mechanical effects in bio-molecular complexes directly. Indeed, recent experiments have provided evidence that quantum effects such as wave-like motion of excitonic energy flow, delocalization and entanglement can be seen even in complex and noisy biological environments (Engel et al 2007 Nature 446 782; Collini et al 2010 Nature 463 644; Panitchayangkoon et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 12766). Motivated by these observations, theoretical work has highlighted the importance of an interplay between environmental noise and quantum coherence in such systems (Mohseni et al 2008 J. Chem. Phys. 129 174106; Plenio and Huelga 2008 New J. Phys. 10 113019; Olaya-Castro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 085115; Rebentrost et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 033003; Caruso et al 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 105106; Ishizaki and Fleming 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 234111). All of this has led to a surge of interest in the exploration of quantum effects in biological systems in order to understand the possible relevance of non-trivial quantum features and to establish a potential link between quantum coherence and biological function. These studies include not only exciton transfer across light harvesting complexes, but also the avian compass (Ritz et al 2000 Biophys. J. 78 707), and the olfactory system (Turin 1996 Chem. Sens. 21 773; Chin et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 065002). These examples show that the full understanding of the dynamics at bio-molecular length (10 Å) and timescales (sub picosecond) in noisy biological systems can uncover novel phenomena and concepts and hence present a fertile ground for truly multidisciplinary research.
Probabilistic quantum teleportation in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2016-06-01
We extend the research program initiated in [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012338 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012338] from noisy deterministic teleportation protocols to noisy probabilistic (conditional) protocols. Our main goal now is to study how we can increase the fidelity of the teleported state in the presence of noise by working with probabilistic protocols. We work with several scenarios involving the most common types of noise in realistic implementations of quantum communication tasks and find many cases where adding more noise to the probabilistic protocol increases considerably the fidelity of the teleported state, without decreasing the probability of a successful run of the protocol. Also, there are cases where the entanglement of the channel connecting Alice and Bob leading to the greatest fidelity is not maximal. Moreover, there exist cases where the optimal fidelity for the probabilistic protocols are greater than the maximal fidelity (2 /3 ) achievable by using only classical resources, while the optimal ones for the deterministic protocols under the same conditions lie below this limit. This result clearly illustrates that in some cases we can only get a truly quantum teleportation if we use probabilistic instead of deterministic protocols.
Dissipative Landau-Zener quantum dynamics with transversal and longitudinal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanbakht, S.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2015-05-01
We determine the Landau-Zener transition probability in a dissipative environment including both longitudinal as well as transversal quantum-mechanical noise originating from a single noise source. For this, we use the numerically exact quasiadiabatic path integral, as well as the approximative nonequilibrium Bloch equations. We find that transversal quantum noise in general influences the Landau-Zener probability much more strongly than longitudinal quantum noise does at a given temperature and system-bath coupling strength. In other words, transversal noise contributions become important even when the coupling strength of transversal noise is smaller than that of longitudinal noise. We furthermore reveal that transversal noise renormalizes the tunnel coupling independent of temperature. Finally, we show that the effect of mixed longitudinal and transversal noise originating from a single bath cannot be obtained from an incoherent sum of purely longitudinal and purely transversal noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souto, A.; Mateus, P.; Adão, P.; Paunković, N.
2015-10-01
In the Comment the author states that the proposed all-or-nothing oblivious transfer (OT) protocol in our paper is insecure against a dishonest Alice and, as a corollary, derives an attack to Crépeau's construction of 1-out-of-2 OT. The security criterion used in the Comment is indeed stronger than the one used in our paper. However, we argue that the criterion used in our paper is in the spirit of the original idea of the OT protocol proposed by Rabin. Moreover, a protocol that satisfies the criterion in our paper can be used to construct useful multiparty protocols. Finally, the protocol in our paper can be used, together with a secure bit commitment scheme, to construct a 1-out-of-2 OT secure against malicious Alice, achieving the security requirement considered in the Comment.
4-bit Bipolar Triangle Voltage Waveform Generator Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoki; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki; Mizugaki, Yoshinao
SFQ digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are one of the candidates for AC voltage standards. We have proposed SFQ-DACs based on frequency modulation (FM). Bipolar output is required for applications of AC voltage standards, while our previous SFQ-DACs generated only positive voltages. In this paper, we present our design of a 4-bit bipolar triangle voltage waveform generator comprising an SFQ-DAC. The waveform generator has two output ports. Synthesized half-period waveforms are alternately generated in one of the output ports. The bipolar output is realized by observing the differential voltage between the ports. We confirmed a 72-μVPP bipolar triangle voltage waveform at the frequency of 35.7 Hz.
Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn
2015-12-07
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.
Two-party quantum key agreement against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
2016-12-01
In this paper, two two-party quantum key agreement protocols are proposed with logical χ -states and logical Bell states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. They make full use of the measurement correlation property of multi-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. This ensures that two participants can exchange the secret keys of each other and fairly establishes a shared key. There is no information leakage problem when establishing a shared key. The use of the delayed measurement technique and the decoy state technology makes the two protocols resist against both participant and outsider attacks. Furthermore, the two protocols are congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks and have high qubit efficiency.
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-03-01
Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-01
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.
Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.
1988-02-15
We show, via simple geometrical arguments, the quantum-noise quenching in a correlated (spontaneous) emission laser (CEL). This noise quenching is a consequence of the correlation between noise sources which results in a multiplicative noise process. The steady-state distribution for the phase difference between the two electric fields in a CEL is compared and contrasted to that of a standard phase-locked laser. Noise quenching is shown to occur in the case of the CEL via an explicit solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.
Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2014-08-11
We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup −5} e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup −6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.
Shot noise, LER, and quantum efficiency of EUV photoresists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brainard, Robert L.; Trefonas, Peter; Lammers, Jeroen H.; Cutler, Charlotte A.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Trefonas, Alexander; Robertson, Stewart A.
2004-05-01
The shot noise, line edge roughness (LER) and quantum efficiency of EUV interaction with seven resists related to EUV-2D (SP98248B) are studied. These resists were identical to EUV-2D except were prepared with seven levels of added base while keeping all other resist variables constant. These seven resists were patterned with EUV lithography, and LER was measured on 100-200 nm dense lines. Similarly, the resists were also imaged using DUV lithography and LER was determined for 300-500 nm dense lines. LER results for both wavelengths were plotted against Esize. Both curves show very similar LER behavior-the resists requiring low doses have poor LER, whereas the resists requiring high doses have good LER. One possible explanation for the observed LER response is that the added base improves LER by reacting with the photogenerated acid to control the lateral spread of acid, leading to better chemical contrast at the line edge. An alternative explanation to the observed relationship between LER and Esize is that shot-noise generated LER decreases as the number of photons absorbed at the line edge increases. We present an analytical model for the influence of shot noise based on Poisson statistics that preidicts that the LER is proportional to (Esize)-1/2. Indeed, both sets of data give straight lines when plotted this way (DUV r2 = 0.94; EUV r2 = 0.97). We decided to further evaluate this interpretation by constructing a simulation model for shot noise resulting from exposure and acid diffusion at the mask edge. In order to acquire the data for this model, we used the base titration method developed by Szmanda et al. to determine C-parameters and hence the quantum efficiency for producing photogenerated acid. This information, together with film absorptivity, allows the calculation of number and location of acid molecules generated at the mask edgte by assuming a stochastic distribution of individual photons corresponding to the aerial image function. The edge
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, L.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2016-08-01
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The ‘break-even’ point of QEC—at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system—has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0>f and |1>f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits.
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Jiang, L; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2016-08-25
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The 'break-even' point of QEC--at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system--has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0〉f and |1〉f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.
Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel
2015-08-01
The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-05-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Contribution of off-resonant states to the phase noise of quantum dot lasers.
Wang, Cheng; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Grillot, Frédéric; Chan, Sze-Chun
2016-12-26
The phase noise of quantum dot lasers is investigated theoretically by coupling the Langevin noise sources into the rate equations. The off-resonant populations in the excited state and in the carrier reservoir contribute to the phase noise of ground-state emission lasers through the phase-amplitude coupling effect. This effect arises from the optical-noise induced carrier fluctuations in the off-resonant states. In addition, the phase noise has low sensitivity to the carrier scattering rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Pengqin; Hu, Menghan; Ying, Yaofeng; Jin, Jinshuang
2016-09-01
Based on the time-nonlocal particle number-resolved master equation, we investigate the sequential electron transport through the interacting double quantum dots. Our calculations show that there exists the effect of energy renormalization in the dispersion of the bath interaction spectrum and it is sensitive to the the bandwidth of the bath. This effect would strongly affect the stationary current and its zero-frequency shot noise for weak inter-dot coherent coupling strength, but for strong inter-dot coupling regime, it is negligible due to the strong intrinsic Rabi coherent dynamics. Moreover, the possible observable effects of the energy renormalization in the noise spectrum are also investigated through the Rabi coherence signal. Finally, the non-Markovian effect is manifested in the finite-frequency noise spectrum with the appearance of quasisteps, and the magnitude of these quasisteps are modified by the dispersion function.
Quantum δ-kicked rotor: the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouard, S.; Plata, J.
2003-04-01
We study analytically the effect of amplitude noise on the quantum resonances of an atom optics realization of the delta-kicked rotor. Noise is shown to add a time growth to the 'deterministic' energy and to induce a time increasing spreading in the momentum distribution; exact results are given for both effects. The ballistic peaks characteristic of the noiseless distribution for particular initial conditions broaden and eventually vanish, whereas the associated quadratic growth of energy persists; at large times, the survival probability decays as t-1. Moreover, the nonexponential 'localization' linked to different initial conditions is gradually destroyed. Features specific to Gaussian noise, white and coloured, are analysed. The feasibility of experimental tests of these effects is discussed.
Paired carriers as a way to reduce quantum noise of multicarrier gravitational-wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobko, Mikhail; Voronchev, Nikita; Miao, Haixing; Khalili, Farid Ya.
2015-02-01
We explore new regimes of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors with multiple optical carriers which allow us to reduce the quantum noise of these detectors. In particular, we show that using two carriers with the opposite detunings, homodyne angles, and squeezing angles, but identical other parameters (the antisymmetric carriers), one can suppress the quantum noise in such a way that its spectrum follows the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) at low frequencies. Relaxing this antisymmetry condition, it is also possible to slightly overcome the SQL in broadband. Combining several such pairs in the xylophone configuration, it is possible to shape the quantum noise spectrum flexibly.
Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.
2011-03-01
Mu-bit is defined here as `multi-space bit'. It is different from the standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multispace theory (also spelt multi-space) the bit is created simultaneously in many subspaces (that form together a multi-space). This new `bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with `qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now, from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: `mu-bit' (from `multi-space bit).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenman, Loren; Whitley, Heather D.; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2013-10-01
We present density functional theory calculations of phosphorus dopants in bulk silicon and of several properties relating to their use as spin qubits for quantum computation. Rather than a mixed pseudopotential or a Heitler-London approach, we have used an explicit treatment for the phosphorus donor and examined the detailed electronic structure of the system as a function of the isotropic doping fraction, including lattice relaxation due to the presence of the impurity. Doping electron densities (ρdoped-ρbulk) and spin densities (ρ↑-ρ↓) are examined in order to study the properties of the dopant electron as a function of the isotropic doping fraction. Doping potentials (Vdoped-Vbulk) are also calculated for use in calculations of the scattering cross sections of the phosphorus dopants, which are important in the understanding of electrically detected magnetic resonance experiments. We find that the electron density around the dopant leads to nonspherical features in the doping potentials, such as trigonal lobes in the (001) plane at energy scales of +12 eV near the nucleus and of -700 meV extending away from the dopants. These features are generally neglected in effective mass theory and will affect the coupling between the donor electron and the phosphorus nucleus. Our density functional calculations reveal detail in the densities and potentials of the dopants which are not evident in calculations that do not include explicit treatment of the phosphorus donor atom and relaxation of the crystal lattice. These details can also be used to parametrize tight-binding models for simulation of large-scale devices.
Fault tolerant quantum key distribution protocol with collective random unitary noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiang-Bin
2005-11-01
We propose an easy implementable prepare-and-measure protocol for robust quantum key distribution with photon polarization. The protocol is fault tolerant against collective random unitary channel noise. The protocol does not need any collective quantum measurement or quantum memory. A security proof and a specific linear optical realization using spontaneous parametric down conversion are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joe, Sung-Min; Bae, Jong-Ho; Park, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Ho
2014-12-01
Bit-line (BL) current fluctuation (ΔIBL = high IBL - low IBL) of the trap position is modeled as a parameter of the state (program or erase) of adjacent BL cells which affects the current density distribution appreciably. To model ΔIBL, we extracted the integrated electron current density (J0 = f(z)) and the electric blockade length (Lt) by considering the effect of the interference of adjacent cells. A characteristic function (g(z)) which has a Gaussian functional form is defined based on Lt and the trap position within the tunneling oxide from the channel surface (xT). Finally, ΔIBL is extracted through the integration of f(z) and g(z). Our model predicts accurately the ΔIBL with the trap position as a parameter of the state of BL cells, showing good agreement with 3D simulation data.
Oelze, B.; Ruck, B.; Sodtke, E.; Kirichenko, A.F.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Prusseit, W.
1997-02-01
A 3 bit single flux quantum (SFQ) shift register based on high-T{sub c} bicrystal Josephson junctions has been designed, fabricated, and experimentally tested. The circuit consists of 26 bicrystal Josephson junctions and includes the shift register itself, two dc-SFQ converters, one readout superconducting quantum interference device, serving as a SFQ-dc converter, and three Josephson transmission lines. The correct operation of all circuit components has been demonstrated by low frequency testing at a temperature of 50 K. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baboiu, D.-M.; Mihalache, D.; Panoiu, N.-C.
1995-09-01
Amplified spontaneous emission noise generates fluctuations in soliton energy and therefore fluctuations in the Raman self-frequency shift and in the group velocity. The corresponding timing jitter is found to be the main limitation for communication distances less than 1500 km.
Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers.
Friis, S M M; Rottwitt, K; McKinstrie, C J
2013-12-02
We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplifiers. We show that the model agrees with earlier fully quantum approaches in the linear gain regime, whereas in the saturated gain regime, in which the classical equations are valid, we predict that the amplifier increases the signal-to-noise ratio by generating an amplitude-squeezed state of light. Also, in the same process, we analyze the quantum noise properties of the pump, which is difficult using standard quantum approaches, and we discover that the pump displays complicated dynamics in both the linear and the nonlinear gain regimes.
Error Sensitivity to Environmental Noise in Quantum Circuits for Chemical State Preparation.
Sawaya, Nicolas P D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; McClean, Jarrod R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-07-12
Calculating molecular energies is likely to be one of the first useful applications to achieve quantum supremacy, performing faster on a quantum than a classical computer. However, if future quantum devices are to produce accurate calculations, errors due to environmental noise and algorithmic approximations need to be characterized and reduced. In this study, we use the high performance qHiPSTER software to investigate the effects of environmental noise on the preparation of quantum chemistry states. We simulated 18 16-qubit quantum circuits under environmental noise, each corresponding to a unitary coupled cluster state preparation of a different molecule or molecular configuration. Additionally, we analyze the nature of simple gate errors in noise-free circuits of up to 40 qubits. We find that, in most cases, the Jordan-Wigner (JW) encoding produces smaller errors under a noisy environment as compared to the Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) encoding. For the JW encoding, pure dephasing noise is shown to produce substantially smaller errors than pure relaxation noise of the same magnitude. We report error trends in both molecular energy and electron particle number within a unitary coupled cluster state preparation scheme, against changes in nuclear charge, bond length, number of electrons, noise types, and noise magnitude. These trends may prove to be useful in making algorithmic and hardware-related choices for quantum simulation of molecular energies.
Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung
2016-07-01
In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.
1986-05-01
quantum 1/f noise will be derived again in three steps: first we consider just a single mode of the electromagnetic field in a coherent state and...Univ. of NRnn ad FL. Some suggestions are given at the end of Sec. IV. For devices larger than 10.100 microns coherent state quantum (1/f) noise bec...suggestions are given at the end of Sec. IV. For devices larger than 10 - 100 microns coherent state quantum 1/f noise becomes important according to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Shih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-11-01
This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius
2017-02-01
We address the dynamics of quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical pure dephasing random telegraph noise (RTN) in three different physical environmental situations (independent, mixed and common environments). Two initial entangled states of the system are examined, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)- and Werner (W)-type states. The classical noise is introduced as a stochastic process affecting the energy splitting of the qubits. With the help of suitable measures of tripartite entanglement (entanglement witnesses and lower bound of concurrence) and quantum discord (global quantum discord and quantum dissension), we show that the evolution of quantum correlations is not only affected by the type of the system-environment interaction but also by the input configuration of the qubits and the memory properties of the environmental noise. Indeed, depending on the memory properties of the environmental noise and the initial state considered, we find that independent, common and mixed environments can play opposite roles in preserving quantum correlations, and that the sudden death and revival phenomena or the survival of quantum correlations may occur. On the other hand, we also show that the W-type state has strong dynamics under this noise than the GHZ-type ones.
A Shearlet-based algorithm for quantum noise removal in low-dose CT images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Aguan; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yumin; Yang, Xiaopeng
2016-03-01
Low-dose CT (LDCT) scanning is a potential way to reduce the radiation exposure of X-ray in the population. It is necessary to improve the quality of low-dose CT images. In this paper, we propose an effective algorithm for quantum noise removal in LDCT images using shearlet transform. Because the quantum noise can be simulated by Poisson process, we first transform the quantum noise by using anscombe variance stabilizing transform (VST), producing an approximately Gaussian noise with unitary variance. Second, the non-noise shearlet coefficients are obtained by adaptive hard-threshold processing in shearlet domain. Third, we reconstruct the de-noised image using the inverse shearlet transform. Finally, an anscombe inverse transform is applied to the de-noised image, which can produce the improved image. The main contribution is to combine the anscombe VST with the shearlet transform. By this way, edge coefficients and noise coefficients can be separated from high frequency sub-bands effectively. A number of experiments are performed over some LDCT images by using the proposed method. Both quantitative and visual results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the quantum noise while enhancing the subtle details. It has certain value in clinical application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon
2014-12-01
We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.
Lim, M; Saloma, C
2001-04-10
We demonstrate an efficient noise dithering procedure for measuring the power spectrum of a weak spectral doublet with a Fourier-transform spectrometer in which the subthreshold interferogram is measured by a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter without oversampling. In the absence of noise, no information is obtained regarding the doublet spectrum because the modulation term s(x) of its interferogram is below the instrumental detection limit B, i.e., |s(x)| < B, for all path difference x values. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out concerning the recovery of the doublet power spectrum that is represented by s(x) = (s(0)/2)exp(-pi(2)x(2)/beta)[cos(2pif(1)x) + cos(2pif(2)x)], where s(0) is a constant, beta is the linewidth factor, and ?f? = (f(1) + f(2))/2. Different values of ?f?, s(0), and beta are considered to evaluate thoroughly the accuracy of the procedure to determine the unknown values of f(1) and f(2), the spectral linewidth, and the peak values of the spectral profiles. Our experiments show that, even for short observation times, the resonant frequencies of s(x) could be located with high accuracy over a wide range of ?f? and beta values. Signal-to-noise ratios as high as 50 are also gained for the recovered power spectra. The performance of the procedure is also analyzed with respect to another method that recovers the amplitude values of s(x) directly.
Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.
2003-01-01
A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.
Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno
2016-05-01
It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu
2015-11-01
We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80-120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Sun-Kun
1996-01-01
The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.
Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit
Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P
2009-11-30
We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)
Full counting statistics of super-Poissonian shot noise in multilevel quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belzig, W.
2005-04-01
We examine the full counting statistics of quantum dots, which display super-Poissonian shot noise. By an extension to a generic situation with many excited states we identify the underlying transport process. The statistics is a sum of independent Poissonian processes of bunches of different sizes, which leads to the enhanced noise. The obtained results could be useful in determining transport characteristics in molecules and large quantum dots, since the noise (and higher cumulants) allow us to identify the internal level structure, which is not visible in the average current.
Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with Twin-Signal-Recycling.
Thüring, André; Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2009-03-15
Twin-Signal-Recycling (TSR) builds on the resonance doublet of two optically coupled cavities and efficiently enhances the sensitivity of an interferometer at a dedicated signal frequency. We report on what we believe to be the first experimental realization of a TSR Michelson interferometer and also its broadband enhancement by squeezed light injection. The complete setup was stably locked, and a broadband quantum noise reduction of the interferometers shot noise by a factor of up to 4 dB was demonstrated. The system was characterized by measuring its quantum noise spectra for several tunings of the TSR cavities. We found good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations.
Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise.
Ubbelohde, N; Roszak, K; Hohls, F; Maire, N; Haug, R J; Novotný, T
2012-01-01
Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges.
Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise
Ubbelohde, N.; Roszak, K.; Hohls, F.; Maire, N.; Haug, R. J.; Novotný, T.
2012-01-01
Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges. PMID:22530093
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto
2016-05-01
Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-01-01
We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.
Quantum noise of a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer with a translucent mechanical oscillator
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Friedrich, Daniel; Westphal, Tobias; Gossler, Stefan; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman; Somiya, Kentaro; Danilishin, Stefan L.
2010-03-15
Quantum fluctuations in the radiation pressure of light can excite stochastic motions of mechanical oscillators thereby realizing a linear quantum opto-mechanical coupling. When performing a precise measurement of the position of an oscillator, this coupling results in quantum radiation pressure noise. Up to now this effect has not been observed yet. Generally speaking, the strength of radiation pressure noise increases when the effective mass of the oscillator is decreased or when the power of the reflected light is increased. Recently, extremely light SiN membranes ({approx_equal}100 ng) with high mechanical Q values at room temperature ({>=}10{sup 6}) have attracted attention as low thermal noise mechanical oscillators. However, the power reflectance of these membranes is much lower than unity (<0.4 at a wavelength of 1064 nm) which makes the use of advanced interferometer recycling techniques to amplify the radiation pressure noise in a standard Michelson interferometer inefficient. Here, we propose and theoretically analyze a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer that includes the membrane as a common end mirror for the Michelson interferometer part. In this topology, both power and signal recycling can be used even if the reflectance of the membrane is much lower than unity. In particular, signal recycling is a useful tool because it does not involve a power increase at the membrane. We derive the formulas for the quantum radiation pressure noise and the shot noise of an oscillator position measurement and compare them with theoretical models of the thermal noise of a SiN membrane with a fundamental resonant frequency of 75 kHz and an effective mass of125 ng. We find that quantum radiation pressure noise should be observable with a power of 1 W at the central beam splitter of the interferometer and a membrane temperature of 1 K.
Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan
2014-09-15
Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of these profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of several important quantities e.g. magnetic field strength, confinement frequency, dopant location, dopant potential, and aluminium concentration, both in presence and absence of noise. We have invariably envisaged noise-induced suppression of DMS. Moreover, the extent of suppression noticeably depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The said mode of application also plays a governing role in the onset of saturation of DMS values. The present study provides a deep insight into the promising role played by noise in controlling effective confinement imposed on the system which bears significant relevance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qing
2014-04-01
The shot noise of a hybrid triple-quantum-dot (TQD) interferometer has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the general shot noise formula has been derived. The oscillation behaviors of transmission coefficients and shot noise versus the Aharonov-Bohm phase ϕ exhibit asymmetric Fano resonance structure and blockade effect. Sub-Poissonian and super-Poissonian behaviors of shot noise appear in different regimes of terminal bias eVγ contributed by the Andreev reflection, and correlation of Andreev tunneling with the normal electron transport. The inverse resonance and resonance structures emerge in the shot noise and Fano factor with respect to one of the gate voltages in different regimes of eVγ. The asymmetric structure can be enhanced by modifying the energy levels and gate biases of the TQD. The self-correlation and cross-correlation of current components contribute to the enhancement and suppression of shot noise.
Practical quantum random number generator based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yong; Tian, Liang; Zou, Hongxin
2010-06-01
The shot noise of vacuum states is a kind of quantum noise and is totally random. In this paper a nondeterministic random number generation scheme based on measuring the shot noise of vacuum states is presented and experimentally demonstrated. We use a homodyne detector to measure the shot noise of vacuum states. Considering that the frequency bandwidth of our detector is limited, we derive the optimal sampling rate so that sampling points have the least correlation with each other. We also choose a method to extract random numbers from sampling values, and prove that the influence of classical noise can be avoided with this method so that the detector does not have to be shot-noise limited. The random numbers generated with this scheme have passed ent and diehard tests.
Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin; King, Sun-Kun; Wu, Chun-Hsien
2013-02-15
We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise correlations can
Laser noise imposed limitations of ensemble quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plankensteiner, D.; Schachenmayer, J.; Ritsch, H.; Genes, C.
2016-12-01
Laser noise is a decisive limiting factor in high precision spectroscopy of narrow lines using atomic ensembles. In an idealized Doppler and differential-light-shift-free magic wavelength lattice configuration, it remains as one distinct principal limitation beyond collective atomic decay. In this work we study the limitations originating from laser phase and amplitude noise in an idealized Ramsey pulse interrogation scheme with uncorrelated atoms. Phase noise leads to a saturation of the frequency sensitivity with increasing atom number while amplitude noise implies a scaling 1/\\sqrt{τ } with τ being the interrogation time. We employ a technique using decoherence-free subspaces first introduced in Dorner (2012 New J. Phys. 14 043011) which can restore the scaling with the square root of the inverse particle number 1/\\sqrt{N}. Similar results and improvements are obtained numerically for a Rabi spectroscopy setup.
Robustness of quantum-randomness expansion protocols in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin
2013-09-01
In this paper we investigate properties of several randomness generation protocols in the device-independent framework. Using Bell-type inequalities it is possible to certify that the numbers generated by an untrusted device are indeed random. We present a selection of certificates which guarantee two bits of randomness for each run of the experiment in the noiseless case and require the parties to share a maximally entangled state. To compare them we study their efficiency in the presence of white noise. We find that for different amounts of noise different operators are optimal for certifying most randomness. Therefore, the vendor of the device should use different protocols depending on the amount of noise expected to occur. Another of our results that we find particularly interesting is that using a single Bell operator as a figure of merit is rarely optimal.
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-11
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup −6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup −6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise
Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric
2014-08-15
We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.
Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.
Two-mode correlation of microwave quantum noise generated by parametric down-conversion.
Bergeal, N; Schackert, F; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H
2012-03-23
In this Letter, we report the observation of the correlation between two modes of microwave radiation resulting from the amplification of quantum noise by the Josephson parametric converter. This process, seen from the pump, can be viewed as parametric down-conversion. The correlation is measured by an interference experiment displaying a contrast better than 99% with a number of photons per mode greater than 250,000. Dispersive measurements of mesoscopic systems and quantum encryption can benefit from this development.
Stochastic quantum Zeno-based detection of noise correlations
Müller, Matthias M.; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
2016-01-01
A system under constant observation is practically freezed to the measurement subspace. If the system driving is a random classical field, the survival probability of the system in the subspace becomes a random variable described by the Stochastic Quantum Zeno Dynamics (SQZD) formalism. Here, we study the time and ensemble average of this random survival probability and demonstrate how time correlations in the noisy environment determine whether the two averages do coincide or not. These environment time correlations can potentially generate non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum system depending on the structure and energy scale of the system Hamiltonian. We thus propose a way to detect time correlations of the environment by coupling a quantum probe system to it and observing the survival probability of the quantum probe in a measurement subspace. This will further contribute to the development of new schemes for quantum sensing technologies, where nanodevices may be exploited to image external structures or biological molecules via the surface field they generate. PMID:27941889
Stochastic quantum Zeno-based detection of noise correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Matthias M.; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
2016-12-01
A system under constant observation is practically freezed to the measurement subspace. If the system driving is a random classical field, the survival probability of the system in the subspace becomes a random variable described by the Stochastic Quantum Zeno Dynamics (SQZD) formalism. Here, we study the time and ensemble average of this random survival probability and demonstrate how time correlations in the noisy environment determine whether the two averages do coincide or not. These environment time correlations can potentially generate non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum system depending on the structure and energy scale of the system Hamiltonian. We thus propose a way to detect time correlations of the environment by coupling a quantum probe system to it and observing the survival probability of the quantum probe in a measurement subspace. This will further contribute to the development of new schemes for quantum sensing technologies, where nanodevices may be exploited to image external structures or biological molecules via the surface field they generate.
Classical communication in the presence of quantum Gaussian noise (Invited Paper)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yen, Brent J.; Guha, Saikat; Erkmen, Baris I.
2005-05-01
The classical information capacity of channels that are subject to quantum Gaussian noise is studied. Recent work has established the capacity of the pure-loss channel, as well as bounds on and a conjecture for the capacity of the lossy channel with isotropic-Gaussian excess noise. This work is applied to the pure-loss free-space channel that uses multiple Hermite-Gaussian (HG) or Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) spatial modes to communicate between soft-aperture transmit and receive pupils, and to the lossy channel with anisotropic (colored) Gaussian noise.
Bit error rate measurement above and below bit rate tracking threshold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kobayaski, H. S.; Fowler, J.; Kurple, W. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
Bit error rate is measured by sending a pseudo-random noise (PRN) code test signal simulating digital data through digital equipment to be tested. An incoming signal representing the response of the equipment being tested, together with any added noise, is received and tracked by being compared with a locally generated PRN code. Once the locally generated PRN code matches the incoming signal a tracking lock is obtained. The incoming signal is then integrated and compared bit-by-bit against the locally generated PRN code and differences between bits being compared are counted as bit errors.
Quantum Metrology: Surpassing the shot-noise limit with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali
2015-11-09
Entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies such as quantum information and quantum metrology. Providing larger quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be better resources than separable systems in quantum metrology. However the effects on the entanglement dynamics such as decoherence usually decrease the QFI considerably. On the other hand, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been shown to excite entanglement. Since an increase in entanglement does not imply an increase in QFI, and also there are cases where QFI decreases as entanglement increases, it is interesting to study the influence of DM interaction on quantum metrology. In this work, we study the QFI of thermal entanglement of two-qubit and three-qubit Heisenberg models with respect to SU(2) rotations. We show that even at high temperatures, DM interaction excites QFI of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models. We also show that QFI of the ferromagnetic model of two qubits can surpass the shot-noise limit of the separable states, while QFI of the antiferromagnetic model in consideration can only approach to the shot-noise limit. Our results open new insights in quantum metrology with Heisenberg models.
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlo, Gabriel G.; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Spina, María E.
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏeff values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏeff and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.
Correspondence behavior of classical and quantum dissipative directed transport via thermal noise.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Ermann, Leonardo; Rivas, Alejandro M F; Spina, María E
2016-04-01
We systematically study several classical-quantum correspondence properties of the dissipative modified kicked rotator, a paradigmatic ratchet model. We explore the behavior of the asymptotic currents for finite ℏ_{eff} values in a wide range of the parameter space. We find that the correspondence between the classical currents with thermal noise providing fluctuations of size ℏ_{eff} and the quantum ones without it is very good in general with the exception of specific regions. We systematically consider the spectra of the corresponding classical Perron-Frobenius operators and quantum superoperators. By means of an average distance between the classical and quantum sets of eigenvalues we find that the correspondence is unexpectedly quite uniform. This apparent contradiction is solved with the help of the Weyl-Wigner distributions of the equilibrium eigenvectors, which reveal the key role of quantum effects by showing surviving coherences in the asymptotic states.
Photoexcited escape probability, optical gain, and noise in quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, B. F.; Zussman, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Asom, M. T.; Kuo, J. M.; Hobson, W. S.
1992-01-01
We present a detailed and thorough study of a wide variety of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), which were chosen to have large differences in their optical and transport properties. Both n- and p-doped QWIPs, as well as intersubband transitions based on photoexcitation from bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasi-continuum, and bound-to-continuum quantum well states were investigated. The measurements and theoretical analysis included optical absorption, responsivity, dark current, current noise, optical gain, hot carrier mean free path; net quantum efficiency, quantum well escape probability, quantum well escape time, as well as detectivity. These results allow a better understanding of the optical and transport physics and thus a better optimization of the QWIP performance.
Allam, F. M.
1985-07-09
A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.
Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki
2010-12-15
The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.
Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise
Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2011-09-15
We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.
Noise, delocalization, and quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholami, Ehsan; Lashkami, Zahra Mohammaddoust
2017-02-01
As an unusual type of anomalous diffusion behavior, namely (transient) superballistic transport, has been experimentally observed recently, but it is not yet well understood. In this paper, we investigate the white noise effect (in the Markov approximation) on quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models with a periodic, disordered, and quasiperiodic region of size L attached to two perfect lattices at both ends in which the wave packet is initially located at the center of the sublattice. We find that in a completely localized system, inducing noise could delocalize the system to a desirable diffusion phase. This controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of disorder and white noise, as well as to explore an exotic quantum phase.
Quantum witness of high-speed low-noise single-photon detection.
Zhao, Lin; Huang, Kun; Liang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Xueshun; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2015-12-14
We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10⁻³ per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime.
Shot noise generated by graphene p-n junctions in the quantum Hall effect regime.
Kumada, N; Parmentier, F D; Hibino, H; Glattli, D C; Roulleau, P
2015-09-04
Graphene offers a unique system to investigate transport of Dirac Fermions at p-n junctions. In a magnetic field, combination of quantum Hall physics and the characteristic transport across p-n junctions leads to a fractionally quantized conductance associated with the mixing of electron-like and hole-like modes and their subsequent partitioning. The mixing and partitioning suggest that a p-n junction could be used as an electronic beam splitter. Here we report the shot noise study of the mode-mixing process and demonstrate the crucial role of the p-n junction length. For short p-n junctions, the amplitude of the noise is consistent with an electronic beam-splitter behaviour, whereas, for longer p-n junctions, it is reduced by the energy relaxation. Remarkably, the relaxation length is much larger than typical size of mesoscopic devices, encouraging using graphene for electron quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Shot-Noise Evidence of Fractional Quasiparticle Creation in a Local Fractional Quantum Hall State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa
2015-02-01
We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T1(1 -T1) over a wide range of T1 , where T1 is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.
Measurements of Correlated Conductances and Noise Fluctuations from 3-Lead Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toonen, R. C.; Prada, M.; Qin, H.; Huettel, A. K.; Goswami, S.; Eriksson, M. A.; van der Weide, D. W.; Eberl, K.; Blick, R. H.
2005-08-01
We have investigated the conductance properties of a few-electron quantum dot with three terminals. In the regime of strong coupling between the quantum dot and the leads, we have observed the both the integer- and half-integer-spin Kondo effect at zero magnetic field. Within the integer-spin conductance diamond, we find cotunneling spectral lines which correspond to singlet-triplet transitions. We extract the exchange energy from this information and find that the value (J = 320 μeV) agrees remarkably well with the theoretical prediction. We believe that spin dependent transport in a three-terminal quantum dot could yield positive cross-correlations between shot noise events on two output channels. To investigate such phenomena, we have designed an analog continuum cross-correlator to analyze the shot noise spectra of our device in the X- and Ku-bands (8 to 18 GHz).
Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks
Corndorf, Eric; Liang Chuang; Kanter, Gregory S.; Kumar, Prem; Yuen, Horace P.
2005-06-15
We demonstrate high-rate randomized data-encryption through optical fibers using the inherent quantum-measurement noise of coherent states of light. Specifically, we demonstrate 650 Mbit/s data encryption through a 10 Gbit/s data-bearing, in-line amplified 200-km-long line. In our protocol, legitimate users (who share a short secret key) communicate using an M-ry signal set while an attacker (who does not share the secret key) is forced to contend with the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states. Implementations of our protocol using both polarization-encoded signal sets as well as polarization-insensitive phase-keyed signal sets are experimentally and theoretically evaluated. Different from the performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of key generation (quantum key-generation), one possible set of performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of data encryption is established and carefully considered.
Shot noise generated by graphene p-n junctions in the quantum Hall effect regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumada, N.; Parmentier, F. D.; Hibino, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2015-09-01
Graphene offers a unique system to investigate transport of Dirac Fermions at p-n junctions. In a magnetic field, combination of quantum Hall physics and the characteristic transport across p-n junctions leads to a fractionally quantized conductance associated with the mixing of electron-like and hole-like modes and their subsequent partitioning. The mixing and partitioning suggest that a p-n junction could be used as an electronic beam splitter. Here we report the shot noise study of the mode-mixing process and demonstrate the crucial role of the p-n junction length. For short p-n junctions, the amplitude of the noise is consistent with an electronic beam-splitter behaviour, whereas, for longer p-n junctions, it is reduced by the energy relaxation. Remarkably, the relaxation length is much larger than typical size of mesoscopic devices, encouraging using graphene for electron quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.
Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-29
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-06-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers
Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji
2014-05-15
We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.
Shot-Noise in a Quantum Dot as a Spin-current Diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, F. M.; Penteado, P. H.; Merchant, C. A.; Markovic, N.; Egues, J. C.
2010-03-01
Shot-noise is an unavoidable non-equilibrium current fluctuation that arises from the granularity of the electron charge. In the present work, we investigate shot-noise for the recently proposed spin diode system (1,2). This consists of a quantum dot coupled to two metallic leads, one nonmagnetic (NM) and another ferromagnetic (FM). In the Coulomb blockade regime this system displays a spin-diode effect (1,2), which has recently been probed in a carbon nanotube based quantum dot (2). Our calculation shows that the shot-noise provides a robust signature for this spin-polarization rectification effect. In the bias range for which the current polarization is zero the shot-noise is super-Poissonian. In contrast, for voltages such that the current is spin polarized, the shot-noise becomes sub-Poissonian. Hence shot noise can provide an interesting additional tool to probe spin-polarized transport in these systems. We shall also discuss recent experimental progress in this direction (3). (1) F. M. Souza, J. C. Egues, and A. P. Jauho, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165303 (2007). (2) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156601 (2008). (3) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07C711 (2009).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a broad exploration of profiles of third harmonic generation (THG) susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. A Gaussian impurity has been introduced into the QD. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The THG profiles have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the role of the pathway through which noise is applied (additive/multiplicative) on the THG profiles has also been deciphered. The THG profiles are found to be decorated with interesting observations such as shift of THG peak position and maximization/minimization of THG peak intensity. Presence of noise alters the characteristics of THG profiles and sometimes enhances the THG peak intensity. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) also regulates the THG profiles in a few occasions in contrasting manners. The observations highlight the possible scope of tuning the THG coefficient of doped QD systems in the presence of noise and bears tremendous technological importance.
The effect of losses on the quantum-noise cancellation in the SU(1,1) interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Jing, Jietai
2016-08-01
Quantum-noise cancellation (QNC) is an effective method to control the noise of the quantum system, which reduces or even eliminates the noise of the quantum systems by utilizing destructive interference in the quantum system. However, QNC can be extremely dependent on the losses inside the system. In this letter, we experimentally and theoretically study how the losses can affect the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer. We find that losses in the different arms inside the SU(1,1) interferometer can have different effects on the QNC in the output fields from the SU(1,1) interferometer. And the QNC in the SU(1,1) interferometer can almost be insensitive to the losses in some cases. Our findings may find its potential applications in the quantum noise control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-02-01
We perform a rigorous analysis of the profiles of a few diagonal and off-diagonal components of linear ( α xx , α yy , α xy , and α yx ), first nonlinear ( β xxx , β yyy , β xyy , and β yxx ), and second nonlinear ( γ xxxx , γ yyyy , γ xxyy , and γ yyxx ) polarizabilities of quantum dots exposed to an external pulsed field. Simultaneous presence of multiplicative white noise has also been taken into account. The quantum dot contains a dopant represented by a Gaussian potential. The number of pulse and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the said profiles through their interplay. Moreover, a variation in the noise strength also contributes evidently in designing the profiles of above polarizability components. In general, the off-diagonal components have been found to be somewhat more responsive to a variation of noise strength. However, we have found some exception to the above fact for the off-diagonal β yxx component. The study projects some pathways of achieving stable, enhanced, and often maximized output of linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots driven by multiplicative noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2015-07-01
We investigate the modulation of diagonal components of static linear (αxx, αyy) and first nonlinear (βxxx, βyyy) polarizabilities of quantum dots by Gaussian white noise. Quantum dot is doped with impurity represented by a Gaussian potential and repulsive in nature. The study reveals the importance of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the polarizability components. The doped system is further exposed to a static external electric field of given intensity. As important observation we have found that the strength of additive noise becomes unable to influence the polarizability components. However, the multiplicative noise influences them conspicuously and gives rise to additional interesting features. Multiplicative noise even enhances the magnitude of the polarizability components immensely. The present investigation deems importance in view of the fact that noise seriously affects the optical properties of doped quantum dot devices.
Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, S. L.; Gräf, C.; Leavey, S. S.; Hennig, J.; Houston, E. A.; Pascucci, D.; Steinlechner, S.; Wright, J.; Hild, S.
2015-04-01
The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the standard quantum limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalized, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally, we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with metre- and kilometre-long baselines.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
A Novel LSB Based Quantum Watermarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Shahrokh; Naseri, Mosayeb
2016-10-01
Quantum watermarking is a technique which embeds the invisible quantum signal such as the owners identification into quantum multimedia data (such as audio, video and image) for copyright protection. In this paper, using a quantum representation of digital images a new quantum watermarking protocol including quantum image scrambling based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) is proposed. In this protocol, by using m-bit embedding key K 1 and m-bit extracting key K 2 a m-pixel gray scale image is watermarked in a m-pixel carrier image by the original owner of the carrier image. For validation of the presented scheme the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and histogram graphs of the images are analyzed.
Shot noise at the quantum point contact in InGaAs heterostructure
Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Shuji; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku
2013-12-04
We study the shot noise at a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in an InGaAs/InGaAsP heterostructure, whose conductance can be electrically tuned by the gate voltages. Shot noise suppression is observed at the conductance plateau of N(2e{sup 2}/h) (N = 4,5,and 6), which indicates the coherent quantized channel formation in the QPC. The electron heating effect generated at the QPC explains the deviation of the observed Fano factor from the theory.
Robust EPR-pairs-based quantum secure communication with authentication resisting collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, ShiBin; Li, Jian; Yan, LiLi
2014-10-01
This work presents two robust quantum secure communication schemes with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can withstand collective noises. Two users previously share an identity string representing their identities. The identity string is encoded as decoherence-free states (termed logical qubits), respectively, over the two collective noisy channels, which are used as decoy photons. By using the decoy photons, both the authentication of two users and the detection of eavesdropping were implemented. The use of logical qubits not only guaranteed the high fidelity of exchanged secret message, but also prevented the eavesdroppers to eavesdrop beneath a mask of noise.
Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
Kamioka, J.; Oda, S.; Kodera, T.; Takeda, K.; Obata, T.; Tarucha, S.
2014-05-28
The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.
Nuclear numerical range and quantum error correction codes for non-unitary noise models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipka-Bartosik, Patryk; Życzkowski, Karol
2017-01-01
We introduce a notion of nuclear numerical range defined as the set of expectation values of a given operator A among normalized pure states, which belong to the nucleus of an auxiliary operator Z. This notion proves to be applicable to investigate models of quantum noise with block-diagonal structure of the corresponding Kraus operators. The problem of constructing a suitable quantum error correction code for this model can be restated as a geometric problem of finding intersection points of certain sets in the complex plane. This technique, worked out in the case of two-qubit systems, can be generalized for larger dimensions.
Nuclear quantum effects in solids using a colored-noise thermostat.
Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele
2009-07-17
We present a method, based on a non-Markovian Langevin equation, to include quantum corrections to the classical dynamics of ions in a quasiharmonic system. By properly fitting the correlation function of the noise, one can vary the fluctuations in positions and momenta as a function of the vibrational frequency, and fit them so as to reproduce the quantum-mechanical behavior, with minimal a priori knowledge of the details of the system. We discuss the application of the thermostat to diamond and to ice Ih. We find that results in agreement with path-integral methods can be obtained using only a fraction of the computational effort.
Quantum Noise and Excess Noise in Optical Homodyne and Heterodyne Receivers
1984-01-01
an output that contains a frequency translated replica of the signal field components that were coherent in space and time with the local oscillator...the half space z<O over an observation time interval t c T. This detector is assumed to have a constant quantum efficiency n over the frequency band...photodetection model [313, in our notation, presumes that J(7,t) is a conditional space - time Poisson impulse train with rate function i(Z,t) - RI(7,t)/e
Robustness of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates against parametric noise
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-10-01
We present a numerical study of the robustness of a specific class of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates. We take into account the parametric noise due to stochastic fluctuations of the control fields which drive the time-dependent Hamiltonian along an adiabatic loop. The performance estimator used is the state fidelity between noiseless and noisy holonomic gates. We carry over our analysis with different correlation times and we find out that noisy holonomic gates seem to be close to the noiseless ones for 'short' and 'long' noise correlation times. This result can be interpreted as a consequence of the geometric nature of the holonomic operator. Our simulations have been performed by using parameters relevant to the excitonic proposal for the implementation of holonomic quantum computation [P. Solinas et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 121307 (2003)].
Designing high-impedance/low-noise superinductances for quantum electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, Ioan; Minev, Zlatko; Masluk, Nicholas; Kamal, Archana; Devoret, Michel
2012-02-01
Superinductances are essential circuit elements which enable the suppression of charge fluctuations in superconducting fluxonium qubits [1] and in other Josephson junction devices [2]. Commonly implemented as an array of Josephson junctions, superinductances have two main limitations. Firstly, the spurious capacitive coupling of the chain islands to ground lowers the plasma frequency of the chain, and consequently limits the operational bandwidth. Secondly, coherent quantum phase-slips (CQPS) [3] in the Josephson junction chain induce time dependent inductance fluctuations via the Aharonov-Casher effect [4]. We present the application of a novel lithographic technique [5] which enables the fabrication of arrays with optimal junction-capacitance to ground-capacitance ratio. We also present new superinductance designs which topologically suppress the CQPS, allowing the implementation of practically phase-slip free high inductance Josephson junction.[4pt] [1] Manucharyan et al., Science, 326 (2009)[0pt] [2] Guichard and Hekking, PRB, 81 (2010)[0pt] [3] Matveev et al. PRL, 89 (2002)[0pt] [4] Pop et al., arXiv:1105.6204 and Manucharyan et al., arXiv:1012.1928[0pt] [5] Lecocq et al., Nanotechnology, 22 (2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.
2016-07-01
We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.
Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
2016-05-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
An extremely low-noise heralded single-photon source: A breakthrough for quantum technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Genovese, M.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Della Frera, A.; Tosi, A.; Bahgat Shehata, A.; Scarcella, C.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.; Polyakov, S. V.; Migdall, A.; Giudice, A.
2012-11-01
Low noise single-photon sources are a critical element for quantum technologies. We present a heralded single-photon source with an extremely low level of residual background photons, by implementing low-jitter detectors and electronics and a fast custom-made pulse generator controlling an optical shutter (a LiNbO3 waveguide optical switch) on the output of the source. This source has a second-order autocorrelation g(2)(0)=0.005(7), and an output noise factor (defined as the ratio of the number of noise photons to total photons at the source output channel) of 0.25(1)%. These are the best performance characteristics reported to date.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintana, C. M.; Chen, Yu; Sank, D.; Petukhov, A. G.; White, T. C.; Kafri, Dvir; Chiaro, B.; Megrant, A.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Graff, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Shabani, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.
2017-02-01
By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around 2 kBT /h ≈1 GHz , allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a 1 /f power law that matches the magnitude of the 1 /f noise near 1 Hz. The antisymmetric component displays a 1 /T dependence below 100 mK, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Extrapolating the two-sided spectrum predicts the linewidth and reorganization energy of incoherent resonant tunneling between flux qubit wells.
Shot noise in magnetic tunneling structures with two-level quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.
2016-12-01
We analyze shot noise in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-level quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's levels to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot noise we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot noise, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.
Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields
Zhao, Hong-Kang Zou, Wei-Ke; Chen, Qiao
2014-09-07
We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.
Leggett-Garg inequalities for a quantum top affected by classical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dajka, Jerzy; Łobejko, Marcin; Łuczka, Jerzy
2016-11-01
The violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality is studied for a quantum top (with angular momentum J_z of integer or half-integer size), being driven by classical Gaussian white noise. The form of a longitudinal (J_z) or a transverse (J_x) coupling of noise to the angular momentum affects both (i) to what extent the Leggett-Garg inequality is violated and (ii) how this violation is influenced by the size j of the spinning top and direction of a coupling (transverse or longitudinal). We introduce j-independent method, using two- dimensional invariant subspace of the system Hilbert space, which allows us to find out strict analytical solution for a noise-free system and with longitudinal coupling and to extract from the whole dynamics effects purely induced by a noise. It is demonstrated that in the semi-classical limit of a large angular momentum j and for the transverse coupling, the Leggett-Garg inequalities become more strongly violated as compared to the deep quantum regime of small j.
Bloch Oscillations of Cold Atoms in a Cavity: Effects of Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatesh, B.; O'Dell, D. H. J.
2013-05-01
We extend our theory of Bloch oscillations of cold atoms inside an optical cavity [Venkatesh et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 063834 (2009)] to include the effects of quantum noise. The noise acts as a form of quantum measurement backaction by perturbing the coupleddynamics of the atoms and the light. We take it into account by solving the Heiseberg-Langevin equations for linearized fluctuations about the atomic and optical meanfields and examine how this influences the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement of external forces using this system. In particular, we investigate the effects of changing the number of atoms, the intracavity lattice depth, and the atom-light coupling strength, and show how resonances between the Bloch oscillation dynamics and the quasiparticle spectrum have a strong influence on the signal-to-noise ratio. One of the hurdles we overcome along the way is the proper treatment of fluctuations about time-dependent meanfields in the cold atom cavity-QED context.
Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in a cavity: Effects of quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; O'Dell, D. H. J.
2013-07-01
We extend our theory of Bloch oscillations of cold atoms inside an optical cavity [Venkatesh , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.063834 80, 063834 (2009)] to include the effects of quantum noise arising from coupling to external modes. The noise acts as a form of quantum measurement backaction by perturbing the coupled dynamics of the atoms and the light. We take it into account by solving the Heisenberg-Langevin equations for linearized fluctuations about the atomic and optical mean fields and examine how this influences the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement of external forces using this system. In particular, we investigate the effects of changing the number of atoms, the intracavity lattice depth, and the atom-light coupling strength, and show how resonances between the Bloch oscillation dynamics and the quasiparticle spectrum have a strong influence on the signal-to-noise ratio, as well as heating effects. One of the hurdles we overcome in this paper is the proper treatment of fluctuations about time-dependent mean fields in the context of cold-atom cavity QED.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei
2015-07-01
A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).
Granata, C; Vettoliere, A; Russo, M
2011-01-01
An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. The sensor design is based on a multiturn signal coil coupled to a suitable SQUID magnetometer. The signal coil consists of 60 square niobium turns tightly coupled to a superconducting flux transformer of a SQUID magnetometer. The primary coil (pick-up coil) of the flux transformer has been suitably designed in order to accommodate the multiturn input coil. It has a side length of 10 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. In such a way we have obtained a signal current to magnetic flux transfer coefficient (current sensitivity) as low as 62 nA∕Φ(0). The sensor has been characterized in liquid helium by using a direct coupling low noise readout electronic and a standard modulated electronic in flux locked loop configuration for the noise measurements. Beside the circuit complexity, the sensor has exhibited a smooth and free resonance voltage-flux characteristic guaranteeing a reliable and a stable working operation. Considering a SQUID magnetic flux noise of S(Φ)(1∕2) = 1.8 μΦ(0)∕Hz(1∕2) at T = 4.2 K, a current noise as low as 110 fA∕Hz(1∕2) is obtained. Such a value is about a factor two less than the noise of other SQUIDs of the same category. As an application, Nyquist noise measurements of integrated test resistors using the current sensing noise thermometer technique are reported. Due to its high performance such a sensor can be employed in all applications requiring an extremely current sensitivity like the readout of the gravitational wave detectors and the current sensing noise thermometry.
Reading boundless error-free bits using a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2013-06-01
We address the problem of how efficiently information can be encoded into and read out reliably from a passive reflective surface that encodes classical data by modulating the amplitude and phase of incident light. We show that nature imposes no fundamental upper limit to the number of bits that can be read per expended probe photon and demonstrate the quantum-information-theoretic trade-offs between the photon efficiency (bits per photon) and the encoding efficiency (bits per pixel) of optical reading. We show that with a coherent-state (ideal laser) source, an on-off (amplitude-modulation) pixel encoding, and shot-noise-limited direct detection (an overly optimistic model for commercial CD and DVD drives), the highest photon efficiency achievable in principle is about 0.5 bits read per transmitted photon. We then show that a coherent-state probe can read unlimited bits per photon when the receiver is allowed to make joint (inseparable) measurements on the reflected light from a large block of phase-modulated memory pixels. Finally, we show an example of a spatially entangled nonclassical light probe and a receiver design—constructible using a single-photon source, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors—that can in principle read any number of error-free bits of information. The probe is a single photon prepared in a uniform coherent superposition of multiple orthogonal spatial modes, i.e., a W state. The code and joint-detection receiver complexity required by a coherent-state transmitter to achieve comparable photon efficiency performance is shown to be much higher in comparison to that required by the W-state transceiver, although this advantage rapidly disappears with increasing loss in the system.
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states.
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-06
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green's function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵ(M) increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.
Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang
2014-08-01
We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ɛM increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions.
Phase-noise limitations in continuous-variable quantum key distribution with homodyne detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corvaja, Roberto
2017-02-01
In continuous-variables quantum key distribution with coherent states, the advantage of performing the detection by using standard telecoms components is counterbalanced by the lack of a stable phase reference in homodyne detection due to the complexity of optical phase-locking circuits and to the unavoidable phase noise of lasers, which introduces a degradation on the achievable secure key rate. Pilot-assisted phase-noise estimation and postdetection compensation techniques are used to implement a protocol with coherent states where a local laser is employed and it is not locked to the received signal, but a postdetection phase correction is applied. Here the reduction of the secure key rate determined by the laser phase noise, for both individual and collective attacks, is analytically evaluated and a scheme of pilot-assisted phase estimation proposed, outlining the tradeoff in the system design between phase noise and spectral efficiency. The optimal modulation variance as a function of the phase-noise amount is derived.
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
Robust relativistic bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2016-12-01
Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-01
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (βxxx and βyyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2014-05-07
We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.
Dissipative dynamics of a quantum two-state system in presence of nonequilibrium quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Niklas; Brüggemann, Jochen; Thorwart, Michael
2016-12-01
We analyze the real-time dynamics of a quantum two-state system in the presence of nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations. The latter are generated by a coupling of the two-state system to a single electronic level of a quantum dot which carries a nonequilibrium tunneling current. We restrict to the sequential tunneling regime and calculate the dynamics of the two-state system, of the dot population, and of the nonequilibrium charge current on the basis of a diagrammatic perturbative method valid for a weak tunneling coupling. We find a nontrivial dependence of the relaxation and dephasing rates of the two-state system due to the nonequilibrium fluctuations which is directly linked to the structure of the unperturbed central system. In addition, a Heisenberg-Langevin-equation of motion allows us to calculate the correlation function of the nonequilibrium fluctuations. By this, we obtain a generalized nonequilibrium fluctuation relation which includes the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the limit of zero transport voltage. A straightforward extension to the case with a time-periodic ac voltage is shown.
Perfectly secure steganography: Hiding information in the quantum noise of a photograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanguinetti, Bruno; Traverso, Giulia; Lavoie, Jonathan; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-01-01
We show that it is possible to hide information perfectly within a photograph. The proposed protocol works by selecting each pixel value from two images that differ only by shot noise. Pixel values are never modified, but only selected, making the resulting stego image provably indistinguishable from an untampered image, and the protocol provably secure. We demonstrate that a perfect steganographic protocol is also a perfectly secure cryptographic protocol, and therefore has at least the same requirements: a truly random key as long as the message. In our system, we use a second image as the key, satisfying length requirements, and the randomness is provided by the naturally occurring quantum noise which is dominant in images taken with modern sensors. We conclude that, given a photograph, it is impossible to tell whether it contains any hidden information.
Overhead and noise threshold of fault-tolerant quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew M.
2003-10-01
Fault-tolerant quantum error correction (QEC) networks are studied by a combination of numerical and approximate analytical treatments. The probability of failure of the recovery operation is calculated for a variety of Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, including large block codes and concatenated codes. Recent insights into the syndrome extraction process, which render the whole process more efficient and more noise tolerant, are incorporated. The average number of recoveries that can be completed without failure is thus estimated as a function of various parameters. The main parameters are the gate γ and memory ɛ failure rates, the physical scale-up of the computer size, and the time tm required for measurements and classical processing. The achievable computation size is given as a surface in parameter space. This indicates the noise threshold as well as other information. It is found that concatenated codes based on the [[23,1,7
Finite-frequency-dependent noise of a quantum dot in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moca, C. P.; Simon, P.; Chung, Chung-Hou; Zaránd, G.
2014-04-01
We present a detailed study for the finite-frequency current noise of a Kondo quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field by using a recently developed real-time functional renormalization group approach [C. P. Moca, P. Simon, C. H. Chung, and G. Zaránd, Phys. Rev. B 83, 201303(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.201303]. The scaling equations are modified in an external magnetic field; the couplings and nonlocal current vertices become strongly anisotropic, and develop new singularities. Consequently, in addition to the natural emission threshold frequency, ℏω =|eV|, a corresponding singular behavior is found to emerge in the noise spectrum at frequencies ℏω ≈|eV±B|. The predicted singularities are measurable with present-day experimental techniques.
Estimating the Coherence of Noise in Quantum Control of a Solid-State Qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Guanru; Wallman, Joel J.; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Cho, Franklin H.; Park, Daniel K.; Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-12-01
To exploit a given physical system for quantum information processing, it is critical to understand the different types of noise affecting quantum control. Distinguishing coherent and incoherent errors is extremely useful as they can be reduced in different ways. Coherent errors are generally easier to reduce at the hardware level, e.g., by improving calibration, whereas some sources of incoherent errors, e.g., T2* processes, can be reduced by engineering robust pulses. In this work, we illustrate how purity benchmarking and randomized benchmarking can be used together to distinguish between coherent and incoherent errors and to quantify the reduction in both of them due to using optimal control pulses and accounting for the transfer function in an electron spin resonance system. We also prove that purity benchmarking provides bounds on the optimal fidelity and diamond norm that can be achieved by correcting the coherent errors through improving calibration.
Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme
2012-02-17
We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.
Signatures of a noise-induced quantum phase transition in a mesoscopic metal ring.
Tong, Ning-Hua; Vojta, Matthias
2006-07-07
We study a mesoscopic ring with an inline quantum dot threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. Zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic environment capacitively coupled to the ring, with omega(s) spectral density, can suppress tunneling through the dot, resulting in a quantum phase transition from an unpolarized to a polarized phase. We show that robust signatures of such a transition can be found in the response of the persistent current in the ring to the external flux as well as to the bias between the dot and the arm. Particular attention is paid to the experimentally relevant cases of Ohmic (s = 1) and sub-Ohmic (s = 1/2) noise.
Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.
Multiple-Particle Interference and Quantum Error Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steane, Andrew
1996-11-01
The concept of multiple-particle interference is discussed, using insights provided by the classical theory of error correcting codes. This leads to a discussion of error correction in a quantum communication channel or a quantum computer. Methods of error correction in the quantum regime are presented, and their limitations assessed. A quantum channel can recover from arbitrary decoherence of x qubits if K bits of quantum information are encoded using n quantum bits, where K/n can be greater than 1 - 2H (2x/n), but must be less than 1 - 2H (x/n). This implies exponential reduction of decoherence with only a polynomial increase in the computing resources required. Therefore quantum computation can be made free of errors in the presence of physically realistic levels of decoherence. The methods also allow isolation of quantum communication from noise and evesdropping (quantum privacy amplification).
Quantum noise and squeezing in optical parametric oscillator with arbitrary output coupling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, Sudhakar
1993-01-01
The redistribution of intrinsic quantum noise in the quadratures of the field generated in a sub-threshold degenerate optical parametric oscillator exhibits interesting dependences on the individual output mirror transmittances, when they are included exactly. We present a physical picture of this problem, based on mirror boundary conditions, which is valid for arbitrary transmittances. Hence, our picture applies uniformly to all values of the cavity Q factor representing, in the opposite extremes, both perfect oscillator and amplifier configurations. Beginning with a classical second-harmonic pump, we shall generalize our analysis to the finite amplitude and phase fluctuations of the pump.
Li, Ying
2016-09-16
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g., superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this Letter. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error-correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about 1,000 normal qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying
2016-09-01
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in systems composed of both Majorana fermions and topologically unprotected quantum systems, e.g., superconducting circuits or quantum dots, is studied in this Letter. Errors caused by topologically unprotected quantum systems need to be corrected with error-correction schemes, for instance, the surface code. We find that the error-correction performance of such a hybrid topological quantum computer is not superior to a normal quantum computer unless the topological charge of Majorana fermions is insusceptible to noise. If errors changing the topological charge are rare, the fault-tolerance threshold is much higher than the threshold of a normal quantum computer and a surface-code logical qubit could be encoded in only tens of topological qubits instead of about 1,000 normal qubits.
Yamanishi, Masamichi Hirohata, Tooru; Hayashi, Syohei; Fujita, Kazuue; Tanaka, Kazunori
2014-11-14
Free running line-widths (>100 kHz), much broader than intrinsic line-widths ∼100 Hz, of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by strong flicker frequency-noise originating from electrical flicker noise. Understanding of microscopic origins of the electrical flicker noises in quantum-cascade lasers is crucially important for the reduction of strength of flicker frequency-noise without assistances of any type of feedback schemes. In this article, an ad hoc model that is based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by electron trappings and de-trappings at indispensable impurity states in injector super-lattices of a quantum-cascade laser is proposed, developing theoretical framework based on the model. The validity of the present model is evaluated by comparing theoretical voltage-noise power spectral densities based on the model with experimental ones obtained by using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers with designed impurity-positioning. The obtained experimental results on flicker noises, in comparison with the theoretical ones, shed light on physical mechanisms, such as the inherent one due to impurity states in their injectors and extrinsic ones due to surface states on the ridge-walls and due to residual deep traps, for electrical flicker-noise generation in existing mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers. It is shown theoretically that quasi-delta doping of impurities in their injectors leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole length at a certain temperature, for instance ∼300 K and, in turn, is expected to result in substantial narrowing of the free running line-width down below 10 kHz.
Low-noise dc superconducting quantum interference devices for gravity wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Insik
I have designed, built and tested a low noise dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) system which is intended primarily for use in a 50 mK omnidirectional gravity wave antenna. The SQUID system has three SQUIDs on a single chip: one SQUID is the sensor, another SQUID is the main readout, and the last is a spare readout. For good impedance matching between the sensor SQUID and the input circuit, I use a thin-film transformer. This thin-film transformer gives an input inductance of about 1 muH, which is good for many applications. A SQUID system in a gravity wave antenna must operate continuously for at least 6 months with high reliability. To meet these requirements, I fabricated dc SQUID chips from Nb-Al/AlOsbx-Nb trilayers. I tested the SQUID chips in a liquid helium bath and a dilution refrigerator in the temperature range of 4.2 K to 90 mK. I have designed and tested an eddy-current damping filter as a distributed microwave filter to damp out microwave resonances in strip-line input coils coupled to SQUIDs. The filter chip consists of a Au/Cu-dot array. The filter chip was coupled to the SQUID using a flip-chip arrangement on the SQUID chip. I found that the filter reduced noise bumps and removed distortion from the current-voltage curves. To flux-lock the SQUID system, I developed 2-stage SQUID feedback loops. I investigated two cascade SQUID systems in which I feed the feedback signal into the sensor SQUID and couple the ac modulation signal to the readout SQUID. I found that the noise spectrum with 2-SQUID feedback operation recovers the noise spectrum of the sensor SQUID with about 9% higher noise.
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho
2014-05-15
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim
2014-05-01
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Yong-Ho; Krause, Hans-Joachim
2014-05-01
We investigated and optimized the low-frequency noise characteristics of a preamplifier used for readout of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). When the SQUID output was detected directly using a room-temperature low-voltage-noise preamplifier, the low-frequency noise of a SQUID system was found to be dominated by the input current noise of the preamplifiers in case of a large dynamic resistance of the SQUID. To reduce the current noise of the preamplifier in the low-frequency range, we investigated the dependence of total preamplifier noise on the collector current and source resistance. When the collector current was decreased from 8.4 mA to 3 mA in the preamplifier made of 3 parallel SSM2220 transistor pairs, the low-frequency total voltage noise of the preamplifier (at 0.1 Hz) decreased by about 3 times for a source resistance of 30 Ω whereas the white noise level remained nearly unchanged. Since the relative contribution of preamplifier's input voltage and current noise is different depending on the dynamic resistance or flux-to-voltage transfer of the SQUID, the results showed that the total noise of a SQUID system at low-frequency range can be improved significantly by optimizing the preamplifier circuit parameters, mainly the collector current in case of low-noise bipolar transistor pairs.
Hood, M.
1986-02-11
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face. 4 figs.
Hood, Michael
1986-01-01
A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore the diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise and under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T). Presence of noise and also its mode of application discernibly affect the DMS profile. Application of HP and T invites greater delicacies in the observed DMS profiles. However, whereas the interplay between T and noise comes out to be extremely sensitive in fabricating the DMS profile, the pressure-noise interplay appears to be not that much noticeable. Under all conditions of temperature and pressure, the presence of multiplicative noise diminishes the value of DMS in comparison with that in presence of its additive analogue. The present study renders a deep insight into the remarkable role played by the interplay between noise, hydrostatic pressure and temperature in controlling the effective confinement imposed on the system which bears unquestionable relevance.
Conceptual Difficulties of Standard Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Noise in Overcoming Them
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghirardi, Giancarlo
2016-08-01
We briefly review the difficulties of the standard version of quantum mechanics in accounting for all kinds of physical processes (in particular both the micro and the macroscopic ones) and we argue that to overcome such difficulties one has to give up the superposition principle, i.e., to break the linear nature of the theory. We then show that the simple introduction of terms violating the linearity of the deterministic evolution of the standard theory has physically unacceptable consequences. Taking this into account we are led to modify the quantum dynamics by adding to Schrödinger’s equation, besides nonlinear terms, a coupling with an appropriate noise. We show that, with such a move, one can work out a theory which is internally consistent and it allows to account, in a quite simple and physically appealing way, for natural processes including the measurements and the classical behavior of macroscopic bodies. On the basis of our analysis, we are led to conclude that the consideration of the noise represents a crucial element for understanding the laws of nature.
Optical Spin Noise of a Single Hole Spin Localized in an (InGa)As Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahbashi, Ramin; Hübner, Jens; Berski, Fabian; Pierz, Klaus; Oestreich, Michael
2014-04-01
We advance spin noise spectroscopy to the ultimate limit of single spin detection. This technique enables the measurement of the spin dynamic of a single heavy hole localized in a flat (InGa)As quantum dot. Magnetic field and light intensity dependent studies reveal even at low magnetic fields a strong magnetic field dependence of the longitudinal heavy hole spin relaxation time with an extremely long T1 of ≥180 μs at 31 mT and 5 K. The wavelength dependence of the spin noise power discloses for finite light intensities an inhomogeneous single quantum dot spin noise spectrum which is explained by charge fluctuations in the direct neighborhood of the quantum dot. The charge fluctuations are corroborated by the distinct intensity dependence of the effective spin relaxation rate.
Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M
2013-02-08
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.
Quantum noise limits in white-light-cavity-enhanced gravitational wave detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.
2015-10-01
Previously, we had proposed a gravitational wave detector that incorporates the white-light-cavity (WLC) effect using a compound cavity for signal recycling (CC-SR). Here, we first use an idealized model for the negative dispersion medium (NDM) and use the so-called Caves model for a phase-insensitive linear amplifier to account for the quantum noise (QN) contributed by the NDM, in order to determine the upper bound of the enhancement in the sensitivity-bandwidth product. We calculate the quantum noise limited sensitivity curves for the CC-SR design, and find that the broadening of sensitivity predicted by the classical analysis is also present in these curves, but is somewhat reduced. Furthermore, we find that the curves always stay above the standard quantum limit. To circumvent this limitation, we modify the dispersion to compensate the nonlinear phase variation produced by the optomechanical resonance effects. We find that the upper bound of the factor by which the sensitivity-bandwidth product is increased, compared to the highest-sensitivity result predicted by Bunanno and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 64, 042006 (2001)], is ˜14 . We also present a simpler scheme (WLC-SR), where a dispersion medium is inserted into the SR cavity. For this scheme, we found the upper bound of the enhancement factor to be ˜18 . We then consider an explicit system for realizing the NDM, which makes use of five energy levels in M configuration to produce gain, accompanied by electromagnetically induced transparency (the GEIT system). For this explicit system, we employ the rigorous approach based on Master Equation to compute the QN contributed by the NDM, thus enabling us to determine the enhancement in the sensitivity-bandwidth product definitively rather than the upper bound thereof. Specifically, we identify a set of parameters for which the sensitivity-bandwidth product is enhanced by a factor of 17.66.
Shot noise and linear conductance in a transport through quantum dot coupled to polarized leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, A.
2009-04-01
We study the influence of polarized leads and of magnetic field on the noise power and on transport through a link which may be a quantum dot or a point junction. We suggest that such link is tuned to the local spin regime and reveals Kondo type behavior. The implication of superconductivity is also analyzed in the case when one of the leads is a superconductor. Specifically, we calculate the noise power to the third order in the Kondo coupling. With the help of fluctuation-dissipation theorem we can further define the linear conductance as a function of the polarization and magnetic field. For dot spin operators we used their representation in terms of mixed Dirac and Majorana fermions. The important output of the derivation with both, spin polarization and magnetic field included, is the potential scattering contribution which acquires logarithmic dependence on the band width. Motivated by experiment [1] we analyze a set configuration when only one lead is polarized. The Kondo temperature is defined with the help of renormalization group equations. In particular, some of these equations follow from the invariance of the shot noise under scale transformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-02-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence.
Scully, Marlan O; Chapin, Kimberly R; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly
2011-09-13
Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein's studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by "hot" thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature T(h) (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature T(c) (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser power
Direct Identification of Dilute Surface Spins on Al2 O3 : Origin of Flux Noise in Quantum Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Graaf, S. E.; Adamyan, A. A.; Lindström, T.; Erts, D.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Danilov, A. V.
2017-02-01
An on-chip electron spin resonance technique is applied to reveal the nature and origin of surface spins on Al2 O3 . We measure a spin density of 2.2 ×1 017 spins/m2 , attributed to physisorbed atomic hydrogen and S =1 /2 electron spin states on the surface. This is direct evidence for the nature of spins responsible for flux noise in quantum circuits, which has been an issue of interest for several decades. Our findings open up a new approach to the identification and controlled reduction of paramagnetic sources of noise and decoherence in superconducting quantum devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Pavithran; da Silva, Marcus P.; Poulin, David
In this work, we aim to determine the parameters of a single qubit channel that can tightly bound the logical error rate of the Steane code. We do not assume any a priori structure for the quantum channel, except that it is a CPTP map and we use a concatenated Steane code to encode a single qubit. Unlike the standard Monte Carlo technique that requires many iterations to estimate the logical error rate with sufficient accuracy, we use techniques to compute the complete effect of a physical CPTP map, at the logical level. Using this, we have studied the predictive power of several physical noise metrics on the logical error rate, and show, through numerical simulations with random quantum channels, that, on their own, none of the natural physical metrics lead to accurate predictions about the logical error rate. We then show how machine learning techniques help us to explore which features of a random quantum channel are important in predicting its logical error rate.
Manipulation of electrical flicker-noise and line narrowing in free-running quantum cascade-lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanishi, Masamichi; Hirohata, Toru
2015-01-01
Intrinsic linewidths of quantum-cascade lasers are found to be extremely narrow, ~100 Hz. However, the free running linewidths (usually ~1 MHz) of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by flicker frequency-noise that is identified to originate from electrical flicker-noise in the devices. Obviously, substantial suppression of the electrical flicker noise is required for substantial narrowing of free-running LWs. In this presentation, we show systematic experimental results of flicker voltage-noise power-spectral density obtained with mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers of designed positioning of impurities in injectors. The measured noise-levels depending strongly on impurity position as well as device-temperature are evaluated with an ad hoc model based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by trapping and de-trapping at impurity states in their injectors. It is shown that quasi-delta doping of impurities leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole-length at a certain temperature, for instance ~300 K and, in turn, is expected to narrow astonishingly the free-running line-width down below 10 kHz without assistances of any types of feedback schemes.
Low-noise quantum frequency down-conversion of indistinguishable photons (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambs, Benjamin; Kettler, Jan; Bock, Matthias; Becker, Jonas; Arend, Carsten; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Becher, Christoph
2016-04-01
telecom regime as a result of the small conversion bandwidth and using a high-performance fiber-Bragg-grating solely left the detector dark counts as the only noise source in our setup. Therefore, we could achieve conversion efficiencies of more than 20 %. In order to test the indistinguishability, sequentially emitted photons were fed into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatially as well as temporally overlapped at the output beam splitter. Cross-correlation measurements between both output-ports of the beam splitter exhibit two-photon interference contrasts of more than 40 % prior to and after the down-conversion step. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the process of quantum frequency conversion preserves photon indistinguishability and can be used to establish a versatile source of indistinguishable single photons at the telecom C-Band. Furthermore our scheme allows for converting photons in a wavelength band from 900 nm to 910 nm to the same telecom target wavelength. This enables us to test indistinguishability of frequency-converted photons, originally stemming from different sources with dinstinguishable wavelengths.
Pfeffer, A. H.; Kaviraj, B.; Coupiac, O.; Lefloch, F.
2012-11-15
We have implemented a new experimental set-up for precise measurements of current fluctuations in three-terminal devices. The system operates at very low temperatures (30 mK) and is equipped with three superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as low noise current amplifiers. A SQUID input coil is connected to each terminal of a sample allowing the acquisition of time-dependent current everywhere in the circuit. From these traces, we can measure the current mean value, the noise, and cross-correlations between different branches of a device. In this paper, we present calibration results of noise and cross-correlations obtained using low impedance macroscopic resistors. From these results, we can extract the noise level of the set-up and show that there are no intrinsic correlations due to the measurement scheme. We also studied noise and correlations as a function of a dc current and estimated the electronic temperature of various macroscopic resistors.
Electron quantum optics: current and noise of a single electron emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fève, Gwendal
2010-03-01
Ballistic electronic transport along the Quantum Hall edge states of two dimensional electron gases presents strong analogies with the propagation of photons which have been best illustrated by the realization of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers [1]. The analogy can be pushed to quantum optics where single electron emitters are realized to manipulate one or few charges. Celebrated experiments such as the one electron Hanbury-Brown and Twiss or the two electrons Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments can then be implemented [2]. This brings us closer to the on demand generation of entangled electron pairs. The feasibility of these new quantum optics experiments relies also on the ability to measure the output correlations of the current generated by the source. We will present the first realization of such a single electron source characterized both by the measurement of the average ac current [3] and its fluctuations. The source is made of a periodically driven mesoscopic capacitor [4,5] coupled to the electron reservoir by a tunnel barrier of adjustable transmission. At the first half period of the excitation drive, an occupied energy level of the dot is suddenly promoted above the Fermi energy and a single charge is emitted on the tunnelling escape time. In the second half period, the level is brought back to its initial value and an electron is absorbed, leaving a hole in the Fermi sea. Single electron emission appears as a quantization of the ac current in units of the electric charge times the drive frequency. The occurrence of spurious multiple charge events can be ruled out by the measurement of the noise presented here. Our measurements confirm single electron emission where the noise reduces to the quantum jitter associated with the Heisenberg uncertainty on the emission time.[4pt] [1] Y. Ji et al., Nature 422, 415 (2003) [0pt] [2] S. Ol'khovskaya et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 166802 (2008)[0pt] [3] G. Fève et al., Science 316, 1169 (2007) [0pt] [4] M. B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-03-01
We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.
General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza
2014-12-01
We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.
Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Caucci, Luca
2014-08-17
A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.
Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers
Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.
2014-01-13
Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.
Yang, Luyi; Glasenapp, P; Greilich, A; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Crooker, S A
2014-09-15
'Spin noise spectroscopy' is an optical technique for probing electron and hole spin dynamics that is based on detecting their intrinsic fluctuations while in thermal equilibrium. Here we show that fluctuation correlations can be further exploited in multi-probe noise studies to reveal information that in general cannot be accessed by conventional linear optical spectroscopy, such as the underlying homogeneous linewidths of individual constituents within inhomogeneously broadened systems. This is demonstrated in singly charged (In,Ga)As quantum-dot ensembles using two weak probe lasers: When the lasers have similar wavelengths, they probe the same quantum dots in the ensemble and show correlated spin fluctuations. In contrast, mutually detuned probe lasers measure different subsets of quantum dots, giving uncorrelated fluctuations. The noise correlation versus laser detuning directly reveals the quantum dot homogeneous linewidth even in the presence of a strong inhomogeneous broadening. Such noise-based correlation techniques are not limited to semiconductor spin systems, but are applicable to any system with measurable intrinsic fluctuations.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts.
Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-01
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts
Kim, Jin-Mok Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong
2013-12-15
We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.
Low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference device operating in Tesla magnetic fields.
Schwarz, Tobias; Nagel, Joachim; Wölbing, Roman; Kemmler, Matthias; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter
2013-01-22
Superconductivity in the cuprate YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) persists up to huge magnetic fields (B) up to several tens of Teslas, and sensitive direct current (dc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) can be realized in epitaxially grown YBCO films by using grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJs). Here we present the realization of high-quality YBCO nanoSQUIDs, patterned by focused ion beam milling. We demonstrate low-noise performance of such a SQUID up to B = 1 T applied parallel to the plane of the SQUID loop at the temperature T = 4.2 K. The GBJs are shunted by a thin Au layer to provide nonhysteretic current voltage characteristics, and the SQUID incorporates a 90 nm wide constriction which is used for on-chip modulation of the magnetic flux through the SQUID loop. The white flux noise of the device increases only slightly from 1.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz)(1/2) at B = 0 to 2.3 μΦ(0)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. Assuming that a point-like magnetic particle with magnetization in the plane of the SQUID loop is placed directly on top of the constriction and taking into account the geometry of the SQUID, we calculate a spin sensitivity S(μ)(1/2) = 62 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at B = 0 and 110 μ(B)/(Hz))(1/2) at 1 T. The demonstration of low noise of such a SQUID in Tesla fields is a decisive step toward utilizing the full potential of ultrasensitive nanoSQUIDs for direct measurements of magnetic hysteresis curves of magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets.
Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Energy-Time Entangled Bipartite States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali-Khan, Irfan; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.
2007-02-01
We present a protocol for large-alphabet quantum key distribution (QKD) using energy-time entangled biphotons. Binned, high-resolution timing measurements are used to generate a large-alphabet key with over 10 bits of information per photon pair, albeit with large noise. QKD with 5% bit error rate is demonstrated with 4 bits of information per photon pair, where the security of the quantum channel is determined by the visibility of Franson interference fringes. The protocol is easily generalizable to even larger alphabets, and utilizes energy-time entanglement which is robust to transmission over large distances in fiber.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Arghya Pratim; Mandal, Arkajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-02-01
The influence of anisotropy on various nonlinear optical (NLO) properties such as total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) have been investigated in presence and absence of noise. Noise has been applied to the system additively and multiplicatively. The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. A perpendicular magnetic field emerges out as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. Profiles of the optical properties have been monitored as a function of incident photon energy for different values of anisotropy. In this connection the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) has also been analysed. The interplay between noise and anisotropy has been found to profoundly affect the NLO properties. The investigation reveals that there are only one or two anisotropy regimes (depending on the particular NLO property under consideration) where noise-induced enhancement of the NLO property can be realized. Thus, anisotropy appears to be the central parameter by which the noise-induced enhancement of NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2005-04-01
We reexamine mass flow in a superfluid gyroscope containing a superfluid Josephson weak link. We introduce a frequency-dependent hydrodynamic inductance to account for an oscillatory flow of the normal fluid component in the sensing loop. With this hydrodynamic inductance, we derive the thermal phase noise, and hence the thermal rotational noise of the gyroscope. We examine the thermodynamic stability of the system based on an analysis of the free energy. We derive a quantum phase noise, which is analogous to the zero-point motion of a simple harmonic oscillator. The configuration of the studied gyroscope is analogous to a conventional superconducting RF SQUID. We show that the gyroscope has very low intrinsic noise (1.9x10{sup -13} rad s{sup -1}/{radical}(Hz)), and it can potentially be applied to study general relativity, Earth science, and to improve global positioning systems (GPS)
An optical ultrafast random bit generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-01-01
The generation of random bit sequences based on non-deterministic physical mechanisms is of paramount importance for cryptography and secure communications. High data rates also require extremely fast generation rates and robustness to external perturbations. Physical generators based on stochastic noise sources have been limited in bandwidth to ~100 Mbit s-1 generation rates. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having time-delayed self-feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300 Gbit s-1. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Jennifer; Teufel, John; Donner, Tobias; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Lehnert, Konrad
2010-03-01
Observing quantum behavior of mechanical motion is challenging because it is difficult both to prepare pure quantum states of motion and to detect those states with sufficient precision. We present displacement measurements of a nanomechanical oscillator with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit [1]. We infer the motion from the phase modulation imprinted on a microwave signal by that motion. The modulation is enhanced by embedding the oscillator in a high-Q microwave cavity. We achieve the low imprecision by reading out the modulation with a Josephson Parametric Amplifier, realizing a microwave interferometer that operates near the shot-noise limit. The apparent motion of the mechanical oscillator due the interferometer's noise is now substantially less than its zero-point motion, making future detection of quantum states feasible. In addition, the phase sensitivity of the demonstrated interferometer is 30 times higher than previous microwave interferometers, providing a critical piece of technology for many experiments investigating quantum information encoded in microwave fields. [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, K. W. Lehnert, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343, (2009).
Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P
2015-05-01
Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.
Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Roger E.; Berrick, Stephen W.
1995-02-01
Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS) is an EOSAEL module that calculates transmittance for systems with broad spectral response. Path-integrated concentration data from COMBIC, other EOSAEL modules, or user models are used as input for BITS. The primary function of BITS is to provide rigorous transmittance calculations for broadband systems, replacing the Beer-Lambert law used in most obscuration models. To use BITS, the system detector, filters, optics, and source spectral functions must be defined. The spectral transmittances of the atmosphere and mass extinction coefficient spectral data for the obscurant are also required. The output consists of transmittance as a function of concentration length for Beer's law and band-integrated computation methods. The theory of the model, a description of the module organization, and an operations guide that provides input and output in EOSAEL format are provided in this user's guide. Example uses for BITS are also included.
The operator-sum-difference representation of a quantum noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2015-06-01
When a model for quantum noise is exactly solvable, a Kraus (or operator-sum) representation can be derived from the spectral decomposition of the Choi matrix for the channel. More generally, a Kraus representation can be obtained from any positive-sum (or ensemble) decomposition of the matrix. Here we extend this idea to any Hermitian-sum decomposition. This yields what we call the "operator-sum-difference" (OSD) representation, in which the channel can be represented as the sum and difference of "subchannels." As one application, the subchannels can be chosen to be analytically diagonalizable, even if the parent channel is not (on account of the Abel-Galois irreducibility theorem), though in this case the number of the OSD representation operators may exceed the channel rank. Our procedure is applicable to general Hermitian (completely positive or non-completely positive) maps and can be extended to the more general, linear maps. As an illustration of the application, we derive an OSD representation for a two-qubit amplitude-damping channel.
Decoherence, Two-Mode Squeezing and Quantum Noise Reduction in a Cavity Raman Laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Windenberger, Claude
In this dissertation, we study squeezing for the Stokes and Anti-Stokes fields generated in a model of a single-mode Raman laser in a loss-less cavity with classical pump and unsaturated medium, for arbitrary homogeneous broadening and dispersion. Generalizing the notion of two-mode squeezing to allow for arbitrary linear combinations of the two modes in the definition of the quadrature variables, we find that the two output modes, for this general notion, always exhibit quadrature squeezing with noise reduction below the vacuum level. We also discuss our results and the general area of quantum optics in terms of the structures of intelligence as presented in Maharishi's Vedic Science. Finally, we report on a practical aspect of our dissertation research, the "European Alliance with Natural Law Project", whose purpose was to introduce Maharishi's programs, as presented in "Maharishi's Master Plan to Create Heaven on Earth", to our hometown Strasbourg, France, and in particular to the European Parliament located there.
Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.; von Garssen, H.
1988-04-15
An analytical steady-state distribution for the phase difference psi in a correlated spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) is derived based on the amplitude and phase equations of a CEL. This distribution is shown to be an excellent approximation to that obtained from a numerical simulation of the complete set of CEL equations. In particular, the effects of amplitude noise on CEL operation are considered and it is shown that fluctuations in the relative amplitude are also noise quenched.
Cryptographic quantum bound on nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2017-02-01
Information causality states that the information obtainable by a receiver cannot be greater than the communication bits from a sender, even if they utilize no-signaling resources. This physical principle successfully explains some boundaries between quantum and postquantum nonlocal correlations, where the obtainable information reaches the maximum limit. We show that no-signaling resources of pure partially entangled states produce randomness (or noise) in the communication bits, and achievement of the maximum limit is impossible, i.e., the information causality principle is insufficient for the full identification of the quantum boundaries already for bipartite settings. The nonlocality inequalities such as so-called the Tsirelson inequality are extended to show how such randomness affects the strength of nonlocal correlations. As a result, a relation followed by most of quantum correlations in the simplest Bell scenario is revealed. The extended inequalities reflect the cryptographic principle such that a completely scrambled message cannot carry information.
Agnihotri, Pratik; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo
2012-05-30
Using ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, we have studied hot carrier spin dynamics and spin noise in a multi-subband GaAs quantum wire in the presence of a randomly varying Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The random variation reduces the carrier ensemble's spin dephasing time due to the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism, but otherwise makes no qualitative difference to the temporal spin relaxation characteristics. However, it makes a qualitative difference to the spatial spin relaxation characteristics which change from monotonic and smooth to non-monotonic and chaotic because of a complex interplay between carriers in different subbands. As far as spin fluctuation and spin noise are concerned, the random variation has no major effect except that the low-frequency noise power spectral density increases slightly when the magnitude of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction field is varied randomly while holding the direction constant.
Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2015-03-06
Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems.
Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.
1994-01-01
A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.
Using Bit Errors To Diagnose Fiber-Optic Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.
1989-01-01
Technique for diagnosis of fiber-optic digital communication link in local-area network of computers based on measurement of bit-error rates. Variable optical attenuator inserted in optical fiber to vary power of received signal. Bit-error rate depends on ratio of peak signal power to root-mean-square noise in receiver. For optimum measurements, one selects bit-error rate between 10 to negative 8th power and 10 to negative 4th power. Greater rates result in low accuracy in determination of signal-to-noise ratios, while lesser rates require impractically long measurement times.
Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.
Kent, Adrian
2012-09-28
We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.
Shot noise spectrum of open dissipative quantum two-level systems.
Aguado, Ramón; Brandes, Tobias
2004-05-21
We study the current noise spectrum of qubits under transport conditions in a dissipative bosonic environment. We combine (non-)Markovian master equations with correlation functions in Laplace space to derive a noise formula for both weak and strong coupling to the bath. The coherence-induced reduction of noise is diminished by weak dissipation and/or a large level separation (bias). For weak dissipation, we demonstrate that the dephasing and relaxation rates of the two-level systems can be extracted from noise. In the strong dissipation regime, the localization-delocalization transition becomes visible in the low-frequency noise.
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayden, Patrick; Myers, Robert
2017-01-01
Patrick Hayden and Robert Myers describe how the study of “qubits”, quantum bits of information, may hold the key to uniting quantum theory and general relativity into a unified theory of quantum gravity
Fernandes, F. M.; Silva, E. C. F. da; Quivy, A. A.
2015-11-28
We propose a new way to assess the output signal of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Instead of measuring the photocurrent produced by the device, as usually done, we show that the noise induced by the absorption process can be used to generate a useful detection signal. We built a simple electronic circuit able to quantify the noise of an AlGaAs/GaAs QWIP that was intentionally designed to produce no photocurrent at all, and we demonstrated that such a circuit was able to generate a strong output signal whenever an infrared radiation of a specific wavelength was shed on the detector. This concept opens new possibilities for the design of novel types of photodetection systems.
Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.
2016-01-01
We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, F. M.; da Silva, E. C. F.; Quivy, A. A.
2015-11-01
We propose a new way to assess the output signal of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). Instead of measuring the photocurrent produced by the device, as usually done, we show that the noise induced by the absorption process can be used to generate a useful detection signal. We built a simple electronic circuit able to quantify the noise of an AlGaAs/GaAs QWIP that was intentionally designed to produce no photocurrent at all, and we demonstrated that such a circuit was able to generate a strong output signal whenever an infrared radiation of a specific wavelength was shed on the detector. This concept opens new possibilities for the design of novel types of photodetection systems.
Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures
Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.
2007-09-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n{sup +}-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4 {mu}m thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C for 60 s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51 eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-11-01
We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs /GaAs quantum dot structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.
2007-09-01
Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n+-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4μm thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1×1016cm-3. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700°C for 60s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au /n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.
Correlated input-port, matter-wave interferometer: Quantum-noise limits to the atom-laser gyroscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowling, Jonathan P.
1998-06-01
I derive the quantum phase-noise limit to the sensitivity of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which the incident quantum particles enter via both input ports. I show that if the incident particles are entangled and correlated properly, then the phase sensitivity scales asymptotically like the Heisenberg-limited Δφ=O(1/N), for large N, where N is the number of particles incident per unit time. (In a one-input-port device, the sensitivity can be at best Δφ=1/N.) My calculation applies to bosons or fermions of arbitrary integer or half-integer spin. Applications to optical, atom-beam, and atom-laser gyroscopes are discussed-in particular, an atom-laser can be used to obtain the required entanglements for achieving this Heisenberg-limited sensitivity with atomic matter waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le
2016-10-01
Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.
Probing Spatial Spin Correlations of Ultracold Gases by Quantum Noise Spectroscopy
Bruun, G. M.; Andersen, Brian M.; Demler, Eugene; Soerensen, Anders S.
2009-01-23
Spin noise spectroscopy with a single laser beam is demonstrated theoretically to provide a direct probe of the spatial correlations of cold fermionic gases. We show how the generic many-body phenomena of antibunching, pairing, antiferromagnetic, and algebraic spin liquid correlations can be revealed by measuring the spin noise as a function of laser width, temperature, and frequency.
Implications of simultaneous requirements for low-noise exchange gates in double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Erik; Young, Ralph W.; Muller, Richard P.; Carroll, M. S.
2010-08-01
Achieving low-error, exchange-interaction operations in quantum dots for quantum computing imposes simultaneous requirements on the exchange energy’s dependence on applied voltages. A double quantum dot qubit, approximated with a quadratic potential, is solved using a full configuration interaction method. This method is more accurate than Heitler-London and Hund-Mulliken approaches and captures new and significant qualitative behavior. We show that multiple regimes can be found in which the exchange energy’s dependence on the bias voltage between the dots is compatible with current quantum error correction codes and state-of-the-art electronics. Identifying such regimes may prove valuable for the construction and operation of quantum gates that are robust to charge fluctuations, particularly in the case of dynamically corrected gates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2004-08-01
This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of fluctuational phenomena in photonics and quantum optics. The topics discussed in this issue extend from fundamental physics to applications of noise and fluctuational methods from quantum to classical systems, and include: bullet Quantum measurement bullet Quantum squeezing bullet Solitons and fibres bullet Gravitational wave inferometers bullet Fluorescence phenomena bullet Cavity QED bullet Photon statistics bullet Noise in lasers and laser systems bullet Quantum computing and information bullet Quantum lithography bullet Teleportation. This Special Issue is published in connection with the SPIE International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on 1-4 June 2003. The symposium contained six parallel conferences, and the papers in this Special Issue are connected to the conference entitled `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics'. This was the first in a series of symposia organized with the support of the SPIE that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The co-founders of the symposium series were Laszlo B Kish (Texas A&M University) and Derek Abbott (The University of Adelaide). The Chairs of the `Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics' conference were Derek Abbott, Jeffrey H Shapiro and Yoshihisa Yamamoto. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Kristi Kelso and Marilyn Gorsuch of the SPIE, USA. Sadly, less than two weeks before the conference, Hermann A Haus passed away. Hermann Haus was a founding father of the field of noise in optics and quantum optics. He submitted three papers to the conference and was very excited to attend; as can be seen in the collection of papers, he was certainly present in spirit. In honour of his creativity and pioneering work in this field, we have
Lossy cardiac x-ray image compression based on acquisition noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Bruijn, Frederik J.; Slump, Cornelis H.
1997-05-01
In lossy medical image compression, the requirements for the preservation of diagnostic integrity cannot be easily formulated in terms of a perceptual model. Especially since, in reality, human visual perception is dependent on numerous factors such as the viewing conditions and psycho-visual factors. Therefore, we investigate the possibility to develop alternative measures for data loss, based on the characteristics of the acquisition system, in our case, a digital cardiac imaging system. In general, due to the low exposure, cardiac x-ray images tend to be relatively noisy. The main noise contributions are quantum noise and electrical noise. The electrical noise is not correlated with the signal. In addition, the signal can be transformed such that the correlated Poisson-distributed quantum noise is transformed into an additional zero-mean Gaussian noise source which is uncorrelated with the signal. Furthermore, the systems modulation transfer function imposes a known spatial-frequency limitation to the output signal. In the assumption that noise which is not correlated with the signal contains no diagnostic information, we have derived a compression measure based on the acquisition parameters of a digital cardiac imaging system. The measure is used for bit- assignment and quantization of transform coefficients. We present a blockwise-DCT compression algorithm which is based on the conventional JPEG-standard. However, the bit- assignment to the transform coefficients is now determined by an assumed noise variance for each coefficient, for a given set of acquisition parameters. Experiments with the algorithm indicate that a bit rate of 0.6 bit/pixel is feasible, without apparent loss of clinical information.
... of the arachnid family, which also includes mites, spiders, and scorpions . A tick attaches itself to the ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Going ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-08-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-Kang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jian
2016-11-01
The dynamic properties of a quantum dot (QD) coupled with Majorana fermions under the perturbation of microwave fields (MWFs) have been investigated through the nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. The photon-assisted differential conductance, current, shot noise, and Fano factor have been evaluated in the Nambu representation. The normal electron tunneling and Andreev reflections contribute to the transport effectively, and novel conductance peaks appear around each photon-induced side channel. The shot noise is enhanced by increasing the interaction strength of Majorana fermions evidently, while it is suppressed accompanying with peak-valley structures by the MWFs. For the symmetric transmission where the QD energy Ed = 0, terminal current disappears when the source-drain bias eV is removed. For the asymmetric transmission where Ed ≠ 0, there exists nonzero pumping current induced by the applied MWF. The saturate pumping current increases with increasing Ed as eV = 0 and Ed ≠ 0, but the shot noise increases with decreasing Ed. As the coupling energy between the Majorana fermions becomes zero, the Fano factor reaches the robust value F ≈ 0.38 as eV → 0.
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins.
Casanova, J; Wang, Z-Y; Plenio, M B
2016-09-23
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
1991-12-01
integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...returning its MIL-STD-1553B data tables and BIT status to normal (no fault) data. When the scenario requires sensory -caused faults, the UUT computer sets...uncorrelated faults. Information Enhanced BIT is a technique that uses additional sensory data to complement the standard BIT information. Sensory information
Quantum Measurement of Two-Qubit System in Damping Noise Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-03-01
It is known that the inevitable interaction of the entangled qubits with their environments may result in the degradation of quantum correlation. We study the decoherence of two remote qubits under general local single- and two-sided amplitude-damping channel (ADC). By using concurrence, quantum discord and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, we find that the relation between the residual quantum correlations and the initial ones are different. Recently, Wang et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54 (2015) 5] showed that there exist a set of partially entangled states that are more robust than maximally entangled states in terms of the residual quantum correlation measured by concurrence, fully entangled fraction and quantum discord, respectively. Here we find that both in single- and two-sided ADC, only the evolution of CHSH inequality with the initial parameter is proportional to that of the initial nonlocality. That means the initial state with maximally nonlocality will retain its role in the evolution. It implies that the evolution of nonlocality may reveal the characteristics of quantum state better. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutions of the three different quantum measurements with the initial parameter under generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) and find that they are all proportional to that of the initial state. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204002, 11274010, 61073048, 11005029, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20123401120003, 20113401110002), the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Nos. 211080, 210092), the Key Program of the Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No. KJ2012A020, the “211” Project of Anhui University, the Talent Foundation of Anhui University, the personnel department of Anhui province
An Efficient Quantum Private Comparison of Equality over Collective-Noise Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta
2016-04-01
This article proposes a collective-noise resistant QPC protocol with the help of an almostdishonest third party (TP) who may try to perform any sort of attacks to derive participants' private secrets except colluding with any participant. The proposed scheme has some considerable advantages over the state-of-the-art QPC protocols over collective-noise channels, where it does not require any pre-shared key between the participants (Alice and Bob). Nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist Trojan horse attacks without consuming half of the transmitted qubits and any additional equipment (wavelength filter and PNS) support. As a consequence, the proposed QPC protocol can guarantee higher qubit efficiency as compared to the others over collective noise channels.
Tsujino, Kenji; Fukuda, Daiji; Fujii, Go; Inoue, Shuichiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2010-04-12
We demonstrate a sub-shot-noise-limit discrimination of on-off keyed coherent signals by an optimal displacement quantum receiver in which a superconducting transition edge sensor is installed. Use of a transition edge sensor and a fiber beam splitter realizes high total detection efficiency and high interference visibility of the receiver and the observed average error surpasses the shot-noise-limit in a wider range of the signal power. Our technique opens up a new technology for the sub-shot-noise-limit detection of coherent signals in optical communication channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suelzer, Joseph S.; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Rupamanjari; Vemuri, Gautam
2016-07-01
We report on a theoretical and computational investigation of the complex dynamics that arise in a semiconductor laser that is subject to two external, time-delayed, filtered optical feedbacks with special attention to the effect of quantum noise. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of the instantaneous optical frequency (wavelength) and its behavior for a wide range of feedback strengths and filter parameters. In the case of two intermediate filter bandwidths, the most significant results are that in the presence of noise, the feedback strengths required for the onset of chaos in a period doubling route are higher than in the absence of noise. We find that the inclusion of noise changes the dominant frequency of the wavelength oscillations, and that certain attractors do not survive in the presence of noise for a range of filter parameters. The results are interpreted by use of a combination of phase portraits, rf spectra, and first return maps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas
2016-08-01
We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.
The Wonders of Supersymmetry: From Quantum Mechanics, Topology, and Noise, to (maybe) the LHC
Poppitz, Erich [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2016-07-12
Supersymmetry, relating bosons and fermions was discovered almost 40 years ago in string theory and in quantum field theory, but the seeds of its 'miraculous' properties could have been seen already in quantum mechanics - which is also where it has found some of its more important applications. This talk introduces supersymmetry via the supersymmetric anharmonic oscillator. We shall see that this seemingly trivial example is sufficiently rich, allowing us to illustrate the uses of supersymmetric concepts in a variety of fields: mathematics, elementary particle physics, critical phenomena, and stochastic dynamics.
Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise
Ralph, T. C.
2011-08-15
We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Kuanshou; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
1996-01-01
The dependence of the quantum fluctuation of the output fundamental and second-harmonic waves upon cavity configuration has been numerically calculated for the intracavity frequency-doubled laser. The results might provide a direct reference for the design of squeezing system through the second-harmonic-generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Zou, Jian; Yang, Zi-Yi; Li, Longwu; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin
2016-08-01
The dynamics of N-qubit GHZ state quantum Fisher information (QFI) under phase noise lasers (PNLs) driving is investigated in terms of non-Markovian master equation. We first investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of the QFI of N-qubit GHZ state and show that when the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength is very small, the oscillations of the QFIs decay slower which corresponds to the non-Markovian region; yet when it becomes large, the QFIs monotonously decay which corresponds to the Markovian region. When the atom number N increases, QFIs in both regions decay faster. We further find that the QFI flow disappears suddenly followed by a sudden birth depending on the ratio of the PNL rate and the system-environment coupling strength and the atom number N, which unveil a fundamental connection between the non-Markovian behaviors and the parameters of system-environment couplings. We discuss two optimal positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) for two different strategies of our model and find the condition of the optimal measurement. At last, we consider the QFI of two atoms with qubit-qubit interaction under random telegraph noises (RTNs).
Kopnin, N. B.; Galperin, Y. M.; Vinokur, V.; Materials Science Division; Helsinki Univ. Tech.; L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Oslo; A.F. Ioffe Physico-Tech. Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences
2007-01-01
The current noise in long superconductor/insulator/normal-metal/insulator/superconductor junctions at low temperatures is sensitive to the population of the subgap states, which is far from equilibrium even at low bias voltages. A nonequilibrium distribution is established due to an interplay between voltage-driven interlevel Landau-Zener transitions and intralevel inelastic relaxation. The Fano factor (the ratio of the zero-frequency noise to the dc current) is enhanced drastically, being proportional to the number of times which a particle flies along the Andreev trajectory before it escapes from the level due to inelastic scattering. For weak Landau-Zener transitions, the enhancement is even larger due to a smaller dc current.
Quantum 1/f Noise in High Technology Applications Including Ultrasmall Structures and Devices
1992-07-14
dimensional Schr dinger equation describes the longitudinal fluctuations in the concentration of particles. Considering the non-relativistic case which is...to quartz resonators and to Infrared detectors present in this report allows us for the first time to understand and to extend the stability limits of...present in this report allows us for the first time to understand and to extend the stability limits of quartz resonators. It also explains 1/f noise in
Quantum noise in digital x-ray image detectors with optically coupled scintillators
Flynn, M.J.; Hames, S.M. |; Wilderman, S.J.; Ciarelli, J.J.
1996-08-01
Digital x-ray imaging detectors designed to soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) are significant for medical mammography, dental radiography, microradiography, and microtomography. Detector designs involve either direct absorption of x-rays in solid state devices or thin scintillator screens optically coupled to solid state sensors. Well designed scintillator systems produce 10 or more electrons per detected x-ray and, used with charge coupled devices (CCD), detect 100,000 x-rays per pixel before saturation. However, if the scintillator is directly coupled to the detector, radiation can penetrate to the semiconductor detector with a small number of events producing large charge and noise. The authors have investigated the degradation of image noise by these direct absorption events using numerical models for a laboratory detector system consisting of a 60 {micro}m CsI scintillator optically coupled to a scientific CCD. Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the charge deposition signal and noise for both the CsI and the semiconductor. Without a fiber optic coupler, direct absorptions dominate the signal and increase the signal variance by a factor of about 30 at energies above 10 keV. With a 3 mm fiber optic coupler, no significant degradation is observed for input energies below 45 keV.
Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.
Slepoy, Alexander
2006-07-01
Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.
Optimizing journal bearing bit performance
Moerbe, O.E.; Evans, W.
1986-10-01
This article explains that continuous progress in the field of rock bit technology has produced many new designs and improved features in the tri-cone rock bits used today. Much of the research and advancements have centered around journal bearing systems, seals and lubricants leading to greatly extended bearing life. These improved bearing systems, incorporated into both tooth and insert-type bits, have not only increased the effective life of a rock bit, but have also allowed greater energy levels to be applied. This, in turn, has allowed for higher rates of penetration and lower costs per foot of hole drilled. Continuous improvements in journal bearing bits allowing them to run longer and harder have required similar advancements to be made in cutting structures. In tooth bit designs, these improvements have been basically limited to the areas of gauge protection and to application of hardfacing materials.
Conductance noise of submicron wires in the regime of quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wróbel, J.; Jaroszyń Ski, J.; Dietl, T.; Regiń Ski, K.; Bugajski, M.
1998-12-01
A detailed study of low-temperature magnetoconductance in between quantized Hall plateaux is presented. The data are obtained for disordered two-terminal submicron wires defined in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modulation-doped by Si. Slow time evolution of conductance G is observed on the high-field side of the quantized plateaux - for filling factors ν<3 and ν<2. This surprising noise is attributed to glassy dynamics of localized electrons in the wire centre, and to the corresponding time dependence of the impurity-assisted tunnelling probability between the current carrying regions.
Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter
Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.
2002-01-01
A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.
Capacity of optical communication in loss and noise with general quantum Gaussian receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat
2014-04-01
Laser-light (coherent-state) modulation is sufficient to achieve the ultimate (Holevo) capacity of classical communication over a lossy and noisy optical channel, but requires a receiver that jointly detects long modulated code words with highly nonlinear quantum operations, which are near-impossible to realize using current technology. We analyze the capacity of the lossy-noisy optical channel when the transmitter uses coherent-state modulation but the receiver is restricted to a general quantum-limited Gaussian receiver, i.e., one that may involve arbitrary combinations of Gaussian operations [passive linear optics: beam splitters and phase shifters; second-order nonlinear optics (or active linear optics): squeezers, along with homodyne or heterodyne detection measurements] and any amount of classical feedforward within the receiver. Under these assumptions, we show that the Gaussian receiver that attains the maximum mutual information is either homodyne detection, heterodyne detection, or time sharing between the two, depending upon the received power level. In other words, our result shows that to exceed the theoretical limit of conventional coherent optical communication, one has to incorporate non-Gaussian, i.e., third- or higher-order nonlinear operations in the receiver. Finally we compare our Gaussian receiver limit with experimentally feasible non-Gaussian receivers and show that in the regime of low received photon flux, it is possible to overcome the Gaussian receiver limit by relatively simple non-Gaussian receivers based on photon counting.
Characterization of a 16-Bit Digitizer for Lidar Data Acquisition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williamson, Cynthia K.; DeYoung, Russell J.
2000-01-01
A 6-MHz 16-bit waveform digitizer was evaluated for use in atmospheric differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of ozone. The digitizer noise characteristics were evaluated, and actual ozone DIAL atmospheric returns were digitized. This digitizer could replace computer-automated measurement and control (CAMAC)-based commercial digitizers and improve voltage accuracy.
... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Flea ...
... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Bee Stung Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung ...
Nonlinear acoustics in a dispersive continuum: Random waves, radiation pressure, and quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabot, M. A.
The nonlinear interaction of sound with sound is studied using dispersive hydrodynamics which derived from a variational principle and the assumption that the internal energy density depends on gradients of the mass density. The attenuation of sound due to nonlinear interaction with a background is calculated and is shown to be sensitive to both the nature of the dispersion and decay bandwidths. The theoretical results are compared to those of low temperature helium experiments. A kinetic equation which described the nonlinear self-inter action of a background is derived. When a Deybe-type cutoff is imposed, a white noise distribution is shown to be a stationary distribution of the kinetic equation. The attenuation and spectrum of decay of a sound wave due to nonlinear interaction with zero point motion is calculated. In one dimension, the dispersive hydrodynamic equations are used to calculate the Langevin and Rayleigh radiation pressures of wave packets and solitary waves.
Quantum tomography of an electron.
Jullien, T; Roulleau, P; Roche, B; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Glattli, D C
2014-10-30
The complete knowledge of a quantum state allows the prediction of the probability of all possible measurement outcomes, a crucial step in quantum mechanics. It can be provided by tomographic methods which have been applied to atomic, molecular, spin and photonic states. For optical or microwave photons, standard tomography is obtained by mixing the unknown state with a large-amplitude coherent photon field. However, for fermions such as electrons in condensed matter, this approach is not applicable because fermionic fields are limited to small amplitudes (at most one particle per state), and so far no determination of an electron wavefunction has been made. Recent proposals involving quantum conductors suggest that the wavefunction can be obtained by measuring the time-dependent current of electronic wave interferometers or the current noise of electronic Hanbury-Brown/Twiss interferometers. Here we show that such measurements are possible despite the extreme noise sensitivity required, and present the reconstructed wavefunction quasi-probability, or Wigner distribution function, of single electrons injected into a ballistic conductor. Many identical electrons are prepared in well-controlled quantum states called levitons by repeatedly applying Lorentzian voltage pulses to a contact on the conductor. After passing through an electron beam splitter, the levitons are mixed with a weak-amplitude fermionic field formed by a coherent superposition of electron-hole pairs generated by a small alternating current with a frequency that is a multiple of the voltage pulse frequency. Antibunching of the electrons and holes with the levitons at the beam splitter changes the leviton partition statistics, and the noise variations provide the energy density matrix elements of the levitons. This demonstration of quantum tomography makes the developing field of electron quantum optics with ballistic conductors a new test-bed for quantum information with fermions. These results may
Arias, A; Shlyagin, M G; Miridonov, S V; Manuel, Rodolfo Martinez
2015-11-16
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple approach to realize a phase-sensitive correlation optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) suitable for detection and localization of dynamic perturbations along a single-mode optical fiber. It is based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a coherent light emitted by a telecom DFB diode laser. Truly random probe signals are generated by an interferometer with the optical path difference exceeding the coherence length of the laser light. Speckle-like OTDR traces were obtained by calculating cross-correlation functions between the probe light and the light intensity signals returned back from the sensing fiber. Perturbations are detected and localized by monitoring time variations of correlation amplitude along the fiber length. Results of proof-of-concept experimental testing are presented using an array of ultra-low-reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings as weak reflectors.
Arpaia, R.; Arzeo, M.; Nawaz, S.; Charpentier, S.; Lombardi, F.; Bauch, T.
2014-02-17
We present results on ultra low noise YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7–δ} (YBCO) nano Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (nanoSQUIDs). To realize such devices, we implemented high quality YBCO nanowires, working as weak links between two electrodes. We observe critical current modulation as a function of an externally applied magnetic field in the full temperature range below the transition temperature T{sub C}. The white flux noise below 1μΦ{sub 0}/√(Hz) at T=8 K makes our nanoSQUIDs very attractive for the detection of small spin systems.
Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement
Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.
2011-08-15
We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ai-Jun; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-02-01
In this work, we investigate the dynamic features of the entropic uncertainty for two incompatible measurements under local unital and nonunital channels. Herein, we choose Pauli operators σ _x and σ _z as a pair of observables of interest measuring on particle A, and the uncertainty can be predicted when particle A is entangled with quantum memory B. We explore the dynamics of the uncertainty for the measurement under local unitary (phase-damping) and nonunitary (amplitude-damping) channels, respectively. Remarkably, we derive the entropic uncertainty relation under three different kinds of measurements of Pauli-observable pair under various realistic noisy environments; it has been found that the entropic uncertainty has the same tendency of its evolution during the AD and PD channel when we choose σ _x and σ _y measurement. Besides, we find out that the entropic uncertainty will have an optimal value if one chooses σ _x and σ _z as the measurement incompatibility, comparing with others. Furthermore, in order to reduce the entropic uncertainty in noisy environment, we propose an effective strategy to steer the amount by means of implementing a filtering operation on the particle under the two types of channels, respectively. It turns out that this operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty by modulation of the operation strength. Thus, our investigations might offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of the entropic uncertainty in an open system.
Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.
2014-04-15
Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an
Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving.
Zhang, J; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-12-21
A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2017-03-01
We study the profiles of electro-optic effect (EOE) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) taking into account the presence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is elegantly reflected through prominent change of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/ıdecrease) of above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as temperature and pressure are varied over a range. Interestingly, all such changes subtly depend on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The noteworthy influence of the interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said NLO properties has also been critically scrutinized. The findings highlight remarkable role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the prominent presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.
Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V
2011-10-10
Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback.
Cramer, J; Kalb, N; Rol, M A; Hensen, B; Blok, M S; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R; Taminiau, T H
2016-05-05
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Rock drill bit lubrication system
Johansson, C.
1980-07-08
A drill bit is described that includes a body part, a first chamber in said body part for containing a fluid lubricat under pressure higher than atmosphere during operation of the drill bit, at least one bit segment extending from said body part, a generally conical cutting element mounted on said bit segment and freely rotatable thereon thus forming a cutting element assembly, the improvement in combination therewith, wherein: said bit segment iclujdes an annular part having inner and outer circumferential bearing surfaces, said conical cutting element has corresponding bearing surfaces adjacent those of said annular part thereby forming two pairs of bearing surfaces defining first and second raceways, the second raceway being radially outward of the first raceway, said second raceway further includes a plurlaity of ball bearing elements distributed therein, this second raceway and ball bearing elements forming a locking bearing for retaining said conical cutting element coupled to said annular part of said bit segment, said cutting element assembly further comprising a plurality of rolling bearing elements distributed in said second raceway forming an inner bearing, and lubrication mens for lubricating said raceways and bearing elements therein.
String bit models for superstring
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-12-31
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
String bit models for superstring
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-11-15
We extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. We mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string we work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei-invariant theory in [({ital D}{minus}2)+1]-dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in {ital D}{minus}2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in {ital D}-dimensional space-time enjoying the full {ital N}=2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
Calculation of the number of bits required for the estimation of the bit error ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Álvaro J.; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.
2014-08-01
We present a calculation of the required number of bits to be received in a system of communications in order to achieve a given level of confidence. The calculation assumes a binomial distribution function for the errors. The function is numerically evaluated and the results are compared with the ones obtained from Poissonian and Gaussian approximations. The performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio is also studied. We conclude that for higher number of errors in detection the use of approximations allows faster and more efficient calculations, without loss of accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yanbei
2003-12-01
This thesis deals with the planning for advanced interferometeric gravitational-wave detectors, as well as the detection of inspiral waves using first-generation interferometers. In Chapters 2 4 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno), the signal recycling interferometer proposed for LIGO-II is studied in the two-photon formalism. This study reveals the optical spring effect, which allows the interferometer to beat the standard quantum limit, while in the same time introduces a dynamical instability. A classical control system is designed to suppress this instability. In Chapter 5 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Nergis Mavalvala), the quantum noise in heterodyne readout schemes for advanced interferometers is studied. In Chapter 6 (in collaboration with Patricia Purdue), a QND Speed-Meter interferometer with Michelson topology is proposed, analyzed and shown to be a promising candidate for third-generation interferometers (LIGO-III or EURO). This design requires adding a kilometer-scale cavity into the interferometer. In Chapter 7, Sagnac interferometers are analyzed and shown to exhibit a similar broadband QND performance without the need of additional cavity—as expected since these interferometers are sensitive only to time-dependent mirror displacement, and are automatic speed meters. In Chapter 8 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), the Post-Newtonian (PN) breakdown at late-stage inspirals of non-spinning binary black holes (with 5 M⊙ < m1, m2 < 20 M⊙ ) is studied. We propose the use of Detection Template Families (DTFs)—extensions of ordinary PN templates that can mimic all different PN waveforms and hence are plausible to catch the real waveform, yet do not provide straightforward parameter estimation. In Chapter 9 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), binaries carrying spins are studied using an adiabatic PN model. Based on features of the precession dynamics, we
Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo
2014-06-14
White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 10{sup 4} ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 10{sup 4} and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √S{sub I} = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S{sub 21} enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers P{sub MR} make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √S{sub I} is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of P{sub MR}) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of P{sub MR}). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo
2014-06-01
White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 104 ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 104 and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √SI = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S21 enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers PMR make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √SI is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of PMR) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of PMR). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the microwave RF-SQUID multiplexer can exhibit √SI ≤ 5 pA/√Hz, i.e., close to √SI of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas
2017-04-01
The profiles of self-polarization effect (SPE) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) have been investigated under the governance of variable effective mass, variable dielectric constant and anisotropy of the system. Presence of noise has also been considered to inspect how it interplays with above parameters in modulating SPE. Noise term possesses a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. The spatially-varying effective mass and spatially-varying dielectric constant mainly affect SPE quantitatively in comparison with the fixed ones. A changing anisotropy of the system also affects SPE. However, the extent to which SPE is being affected evidently depends on presence/absence of noise and also on the pathway through which noise has been applied. The findings of the study reveal authentic routes to tailor the SPE of doped QD system through the interplay between noise, anisotropy and spatially-varying effective mass and dielectric constant of the system.
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels.
Bash, Boulat A; Gheorghe, Andrei H; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-10-19
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-10-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth—that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary—for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation—the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089
Object tracking based on bit-planes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng
2016-01-01
Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.
Bit storage and bit flip operations in an electromechanical oscillator.
Mahboob, I; Yamaguchi, H
2008-05-01
The Parametron was first proposed as a logic-processing system almost 50 years ago. In this approach the two stable phases of an excited harmonic oscillator provide the basis for logic operations. Computer architectures based on LC oscillators were developed for this approach, but high power consumption and difficulties with integration meant that the Parametron was rendered obsolete by the transistor. Here we propose an approach to mechanical logic based on nanoelectromechanical systems that is a variation on the Parametron architecture and, as a first step towards a possible nanomechanical computer, we demonstrate both bit storage and bit flip operations.
Bit by bit: the Darwinian basis of life.
Joyce, Gerald F
2012-01-01
All known examples of life belong to the same biology, but there is increasing enthusiasm among astronomers, astrobiologists, and synthetic biologists that other forms of life may soon be discovered or synthesized. This enthusiasm should be tempered by the fact that the probability for life to originate is not known. As a guiding principle in parsing potential examples of alternative life, one should ask: How many heritable "bits" of information are involved, and where did they come from? A genetic system that contains more bits than the number that were required to initiate its operation might reasonably be considered a new form of life.
Rate Distortion Analysis and Bit Allocation Scheme for Wavelet Lifting-Based Multiview Image Coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasang, Pongsak; Kumwilaisak, Wuttipong
2009-12-01
This paper studies the distortion and the model-based bit allocation scheme of wavelet lifting-based multiview image coding. Redundancies among image views are removed by disparity-compensated wavelet lifting (DCWL). The distortion prediction of the low-pass and high-pass subbands of each image view from the DCWL process is analyzed. The derived distortion is used with different rate distortion models in the bit allocation of multiview images. Rate distortion models including power model, exponential model, and the proposed combining the power and exponential models are studied. The proposed rate distortion model exploits the accuracy of both power and exponential models in a wide range of target bit rates. Then, low-pass and high-pass subbands are compressed by SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) with a bit allocation solution. We verify the derived distortion and the bit allocation with several sets of multiview images. The results show that the bit allocation solution based on the derived distortion and our bit allocation scheme provide closer results to those of the exhaustive search method in both allocated bits and peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). It also outperforms the uniform bit allocation and uniform bit allocation with normalized energy in the order of 1.7-2 and 0.3-1.4 dB, respectively.
Quantum computing: Efficient fault tolerance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottesman, Daniel
2016-12-01
Dealing with errors in a quantum computer typically requires complex programming and many additional quantum bits. A technique for controlling errors has been proposed that alleviates both of these problems.
Kim, E.; Safavi-Naini, A.; Hite, D. A.; ...
2017-03-01
The decoherence of trapped-ion quantum bits due to heating of their motional modes is a fundamental science and engineering problem. This heating is attributed to electric-field noise arising from processes on the trap-electrode surfaces. In this work, we address the source of this noise by focusing on the diffusion of carbon-containing adsorbates on the surface of Au(110). We show by detailed scanned probe microscopy and density functional theory how the carbon adatom diffusion on the gold surface changes the energy landscape, and how the adatom dipole moment varies with the diffusive motion. Lastly, a simple model for the diffusion noise,more » which varies quadratically with the variation of the dipole moment, qualitatively reproduces the measured noise spectrum, and the estimate of the noise spectral density is in accord with measured values.« less
A bit serial sequential circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.
1990-01-01
Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.
QAM quantum stream cipher using digital coherent optical transmission.
Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke
2014-02-24
A Quantum Stream Cipher (QSC) using Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is presented to greatly increase the secure degree compared with ASK or PSK/QSC. We propose encoding multi-bit data in one symbol with a multi-bit basis state, resulting in QAM/QSC, which employs amplitude and phase encryption of the light beam simultaneously. A 16 QAM/QSC experiment at 10 Gbit/s was successfully carried out over 160 km using a digital coherent optical transmission technique, where 16 QAM data were encrypted in a constellation with 32 × 32~4096 × 4096 symbols. We show experimentally that the Number of Masked Signals (NMS) in the quantum noise Γ(QAM) for QAM/QSC becomes a square multiple larger than Γ(ASK) for ASK/QSC. Γ(QAM) exceeds 10,000. This result indicates that the QSC technique is more robust against eavesdroppers than ASK or PSK/QSC.
A Complete Graphical Calculus for Spekkens' Toy Bit Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backens, Miriam; Duman, Ali Nabi
2016-01-01
While quantum theory cannot be described by a local hidden variable model, it is nevertheless possible to construct such models that exhibit features commonly associated with quantum mechanics. These models are also used to explore the question of ψ -ontic versus ψ -epistemic theories for quantum mechanics. Spekkens' toy theory is one such model. It arises from classical probabilistic mechanics via a limit on the knowledge an observer may have about the state of a system. The toy theory for the simplest possible underlying system closely resembles stabilizer quantum mechanics, a fragment of quantum theory which is efficiently classically simulable but also non-local. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between those two theories can thus yield new insights into what distinguishes quantum theory from classical theories, and ψ -ontic from ψ -epistemic theories. In this paper, we develop a graphical language for Spekkens' toy theory. Graphical languages offer intuitive and rigorous formalisms for the analysis of quantum mechanics and similar theories. To compare quantum mechanics and a toy model, it is useful to have similar formalisms for both. We show that our language fully describes Spekkens' toy theory and in particular, that it is complete: meaning any equality that can be derived using other formalisms can also be derived entirely graphically. Our language is inspired by a similar graphical language for quantum mechanics called the ZX-calculus. Thus Spekkens' toy bit theory and stabilizer quantum mechanics can be analysed and compared using analogous graphical formalisms.
Quantum Information, Computation and Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Jonathan A.; Jaksch, Dieter
2012-07-01
Part I. Quantum Information: 1. Quantum bits and quantum gates; 2. An atom in a laser field; 3. Spins in magnetic fields; 4. Photon techniques; 5. Two qubits and beyond; 6. Measurement and entanglement; Part II. Quantum Computation: 7. Principles of quantum computing; 8. Elementary quantum algorithms; 9. More advanced quantum algorithms; 10. Trapped atoms and ions; 11. Nuclear magnetic resonance; 12. Large scale quantum computers; Part III. Quantum Communication: 13. Basics of information theory; 14. Quantum information; 15. Quantum communication; 16. Testing EPR; 17. Quantum cryptography; Appendixes; References; Index.
Low-bit-rate subband image coding with matching pursuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabiee, Hamid; Safavian, S. R.; Gardos, Thomas R.; Mirani, A. J.
1998-01-01
In this paper, a novel multiresolution algorithm for low bit-rate image compression is presented. High quality low bit-rate image compression is achieved by first decomposing the image into approximation and detail subimages with a shift-orthogonal multiresolution analysis. Then, at the coarsest resolution level, the coefficients of the transformation are encoded by an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm with a wavelet packet dictionary. Our dictionary consists of convolutional splines of up to order two for the detail and approximation subbands. The intercorrelation between the various resolutions is then exploited by using the same bases from the dictionary to encode the coefficients of the finer resolution bands at the corresponding spatial locations. To further exploit the spatial correlation of the coefficients, the zero trees of wavelets (EZW) algorithm was used to identify the potential zero trees. The coefficients of the presentation are then quantized and arithmetic encoded at each resolution, and packed into a scalable bit stream structure. Our new algorithm is highly bit-rate scalable, and performs better than the segmentation based matching pursuit and EZW encoders at lower bit rates, based on subjective image quality and peak signal-to-noise ratio.
Bit-array alignment effect of perpendicular SOMA media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Peiying; Yuan, Zhimin; Kuan Lee, Hwee; Guo, Guoxiao
2006-08-01
One effective way to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of magnetic recording system is to reduce the grain number per bit at given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by using uniformed media grains. The self organized magnetic array (SOMA) is designed to have uniform grains with perfect grain array structure. It is believed that high enough SNR with small number of grains per bit can be acheived. But in the engineering application, the recorded bit on SOMA media may align with the regular array at different locations and angles due to non-grain synchronized writing, skew angle, and circular track. This induces the bit-array alignment effect and degrades system performance of SOMA media. In this paper, the micromagnetic simulation results show that the bit array alignment effect causes large level SNR fluctuation on the same media. The SOMA media is not preferred to be used in the conventional recording configuration. It is only suitable for the configuration of patterned media.
Quantum states tomography with noisy measurement channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bantysh, B. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.; Kvasnyy, A. B.; Lukichev, V. F.
2016-12-01
We consider realistic measurement systems, where measurements are accompanied by decoherence processes. The aim of this work is the construction of methods and algorithms for precise quantum measurements with fidelity close to the fundamental limit. In the present work the notions of ideal and non-ideal quantum measurements are strictly formalized. It is shown that non-ideal quantum measurements could be represented as a mixture of ideal measurements. Based on root approach the quantum state reconstruction method is developed. Informational accuracy theory of non-ideal quantum measurements is proposed. The monitoring of the amount of information about the quantum state parameters is examined, including the analysis of the information degradation under the noise influence. The study of achievable fidelity in non-ideal quantum measurements is performed. The results of simulation of fidelity characteristics of a wide class of quantum protocols based on polyhedrons geometry with high level of symmetry are presented. The impact of different decoherence mechanisms, including qubit amplitude and phase relaxation, bit-flip and phase-flip, is considered.
Dwyer, Sheila
2014-11-01
You can’t beat the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, but you can engineer systems so that most of the uncertainty is in the variable of your choice. Doing so can improve the precision of delicate measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panapakkam, V.; Anthur, A.; Vujicic, V.; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Lelarge, F.; Viktorov, E.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.
2016-10-01
We experimentally investigate the corner frequency in the 1/f frequency noise of the longitudinal modes of an InAs/InP quantum-dash based single-section passive mode-locked laser. The corner frequency features a strong asymmetry across the optical frequency comb with the values ranging from 10 MHz in the low-frequency side to 180 MHz in the high-frequency side. Actively mode-locking the laser induces a reduction in the corner frequency as it changes from 3 MHz in the low-frequency side to 70 MHz in the high-frequency side and the asymmetry persists.
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... leave you alone. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2016 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Brown Recluse ...
Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits
Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.
1988-01-01
The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.
Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report
Forgy, Charles C.; Mazziotti, David A.
2014-12-14
Recent studies have indicated that environmental noise may increase energy-transfer efficiency in quantum systems. For homogeneous networks of chromophores previous studies have primarily considered excitonic transport in one-dimensional (linear) networks. In our study, we expand previous research to a two-dimensional fully coupled topology of chromophore molecules. We demonstrate that not only does an optimal dephasing rate exist in both one- and two-dimensional networks but also that it increases in magnitude with increasing coupling strength between chromophores. Optimal transport occurs when the noise quenches the entanglement between local modes that prevent the exciton from moving efficiently to the target site. We find that these results are insensitive to minor site defects such as those found in realistic systems. We contrast these findings to systems with a high degree of inhomogeneity, in which the optimal dephasing rate is largely set by the system topology and does not vary significantly with respect to coupling strength. Our findings have potential applications to systems such as quantum dot arrays and carbon nanotube structures.
Zhu, Rui Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong
2015-04-28
Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained with transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.
An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.
Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2013-12-12
Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution.
Stability of single skyrmionic bits
Hagemeister, J.; Romming, N.; von Bergmann, K.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.
2015-01-01
The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26465211
An 18-bit high performance audio σ-Δ D/A converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zhang; Xiaowei, Huang; Yan, Han; Cheung, Ray C.; Xiaoxia, Han; Hao, Wang; Guo, Liang
2010-07-01
A multi-bit quantized high performance sigma-delta (σ-Δ) audio DAC is presented. Compared to its single-bit counterpart, the multi-bit quantization offers many advantages, such as simpler σ-Δ modulator circuit, lower clock frequency and smaller spurious tones. With the data weighted average (DWA) mismatch shaping algorithm, element mismatch errors induced by multi-bit quantization can be pushed out of the signal band, hence the noise floor inside the signal band is greatly lowered. To cope with the crosstalk between digital and analog circuits, every analog component is surrounded by a guard ring, which is an innovative attempt. The 18-bit DAC with the above techniques, which is implemented in a 0.18 μm mixed-signal CMOS process, occupies a core area of 1.86 mm2. The measured dynamic range (DR) and peak SNDR are 96 dB and 88 dB, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas
2016-10-01
We examine the profiles of optical rectification (OR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped QDs under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In order to study the above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties the doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is nicely reflected through alteration of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/decrease) of above NLO properties as temperature and pressure are varied. All such changes again sensitively depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The remarkable influence of interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said profiles has also been addressed. The findings illuminate fascinating role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the active presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jiawei; Wang, Shizhuo; Xia, Ke; Ke, Youqi
2017-03-01
Because disorders are inevitable in realistic nanodevices, the capability to quantitatively simulate the disorder effects on electron transport is indispensable for quantum transport theory. Here, we report a unified and effective first-principles quantum transport method for analyzing effects of chemical or substitutional disorder on transport properties of nanoelectronics, including averaged transmission coefficient, shot noise, and disorder-induced device-to-device variability. All our theoretical formulations and numerical implementations are worked out within the framework of the tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital method. In this method, we carry out the electronic structure calculation with the density functional theory, treat the nonequilibrium statistics by the nonequilbrium Green's function method, and include the effects of multiple impurity scattering with the generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction (NVC) method in coherent potential approximation (CPA). The generalized NVC equations are solved from first principles to obtain various disorder-averaged two-Green's-function correlators. This method provides a unified way to obtain different disorder-averaged transport properties of disordered nanoelectronics from first principles. To test our implementation, we apply the method to investigate the shot noise in the disordered copper conductor, and find all our results for different disorder concentrations approach a universal Fano factor 1 /3 . As the second test, we calculate the device-to-device variability in the spin-dependent transport through the disordered Cu/Co interface and find the conductance fluctuation is very large in the minority spin channel and negligible in the majority spin channel. Our results agree well with experimental measurements and other theories. In both applications, we show the generalized nonequilibrium vertex corrections play a determinant role in electron transport simulation. Our results demonstrate the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Scarani, Valerio
2016-12-01
We extend covert communication to the quantum regime by showing that covert quantum communication is possible over optical channels with noise arising either from the environment or from the sender's lab. In particular, we show that sequences of qubits can be transmitted covertly by using both a single photon and a coherent state encoding. We study the possibility of performing covert quantum key distribution (QKD) and show that positive key rates and covertness can be achieved simultaneously. Covert communication requires a secret key between the sender and receiver, which raises the problem of how this key can be regenerated covertly. We show that covert QKD consumes more secret bits than it can generate and propose instead a hybrid protocol for covert key regeneration that uses pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) together with covert QKD to regenerate secret keys. The security of the new key is guaranteed by QKD while the security of the covert communication is at least as strong as the security of the PRNG.
Development of PDC Bits for Downhole Motors
Karasawa, H.; Ohno, T.
1995-01-01
To develop polycrystalline hamond compact (PDC) bits of the full-face type which can be applied to downhole motor drilling, drilling tests for granite and two types of andesite were conducted using bits with 98.43 and 142.88 mm diameters. The bits successfully drilled these types of rock at rotary speeds from 300 to 400 rpm.
Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao
2015-01-01
We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.
High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata
2016-03-01
A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design.
BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi
2008-01-01
BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Ruschhaupt, A.; Alonso, D.; Guérin, S.; Muga, J. G.
2013-09-01
We design, by invariant-based inverse engineering, driving fields that invert the population of a two-level atom in a given time, robustly with respect to dephasing noise and/or systematic frequency shifts. Without imposing constraints, optimal protocols are insensitive to the perturbations but need an infinite energy. For a constrained value of the Rabi frequency, a flat π pulse is the least sensitive protocol to phase noise but not to systematic frequency shifts, for which we describe and optimize a family of protocols.
Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Westcott, P.A.
1994-12-31
Four 3-in. (76.2-mm) diameter experimental bits utilizing large TSP cutters were manufactured in an attempt to develop improved hard rock drill bits. The bits were tested on a 2 3/8-in. (60.3-mm) downhole motor that operated at speeds up to 2,700 rpm and delivered up to 48 hp (36 kW). The TSP bits drilled Batesville marble at rates up to 550 ft/hr (168 m/hr) compared to 50 to 100 ft/hr (15 to 30 m/hr) for conventional roller cone bit drilling in this type of rock. The high penetration rates were achieved because the large cutters cut deep grooves in the rock and there was good clearance beneath the bits due to the large bit/rock standoff distance. None of the large cutters broke during the tests despite the severe drilling conditions and high power levels delivered to the bits, thus overcoming cutter breakage problems experienced with smaller TSP bits on earlier tests. The large cutter TSP bits were capable of operating at much higher power levels than the 48 hp (36 kW) delivered by the drilling motor, showing the need for improved high-power motors for use with these improved TSP bits.
Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) for high data rate satellite communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanderaar, Mark; Wagner, Paul; Budinger, James
1992-01-01
An analysis and discussion of a bandwidth efficient multi-level/multi-stage block coded modulation technique called Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) is presented. LRBC uses simple multi-level component codes that provide increased error protection on increasingly unreliable modulated bits in order to maintain an overall high code rate that increases spectral efficiency. Further, soft-decision multi-stage decoding is used to make decisions on unprotected bits through corrections made on more protected bits. Using analytical expressions and tight performance bounds it is shown that LRBC can achieve increased spectral efficiency and maintain equivalent or better power efficiency compared to that of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Bit error rates (BER) vs. channel bit energy with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) are given for a set of LRB Reed-Solomon (RS) encoded 8PSK modulation formats with an ensemble rate of 8/9. All formats exhibit a spectral efficiency of 2.67 = (log2(8))(8/9) information bps/Hz. Bit by bit coded and uncoded error probabilities with soft-decision information are determined. These are traded with with code rate to determine parameters that achieve good performance. The relative simplicity of Galois field algebra vs. the Viterbi algorithm and the availability of high speed commercial Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) for block codes indicates that LRBC using block codes is a desirable method for high data rate implementations.
Efficient bit allocation using new intra and inter-frame modeling for H.264/AVC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrarti, Miryem; Saadane, Abdelhakim; Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Tamtaoui, Ahmed; Aboutajdine, Driss
2012-01-01
Rate control is a critical issue in H.264/AVC video coding standard because it suffers from some shortcomings that make the bit allocation process not optimal. This leads to a video quality that may vary significantly from frame to frame. Our aim is to enhance the rate control efficiency in H.264/AVC baseline profile by handling two of its defects: the initial quantization parameter (QP) estimation for Intra-Frames (I-Frames) and the target number of bits determination for Inter-Frames (P-Frames) encoding. First, we propose a Rate-Quantization (R-Q) model for the I-Frame constructed empirically after extensive experiments. The optimal initial QP calculation is based on both target bit-rate and I-Frame complexity. The I-Frame target bit-rate is derived from the global target bit-rate by using a new non-linear model. Secondly, we propose an enhancement of the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. The target number of bits determination for P-Frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: the first is a motion ratio based on actual bits used to encode previous frames; the second measure exploits the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. The simulation results, carried out using the JM15.0 reference software and the JVT-O016 rate control algorithm, show that the right choice of initial QP for I-Frame and first P-Frame allows improvement of both the bit-rate and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Finally, the Inter-Frame bit allocation process further improves the bit-rates while keeping the same PSNR improvement (up to +1.33 dB/+2 dB for QCIF/CIF resolutions). Moreover, this process reduces the buffer level variation leading to a more consistent quality of reconstructed videos.
Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2015-12-01
We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.
Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.
Griffiths, Robert B.
2007-12-15
Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of 'classical information.' Various examples (some updating earlier work) are given of theorems which relate different incompatible kinds of information, and thus have no counterparts in classical information theory.
Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanter, Yaroslav M.
This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cheng-Yan; Wang, Guan-Yu; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo
2017-03-01
Hyperentanglement is a significant resource for high-capacity quantum communication. Here we present a robust spatial-polarization hyperentanglement distribution scheme for two-photon systems. The error on the polarization states of two-photon systems transmitted from two paths can be corrected resorting to the robust time-bin entanglement which suffers little from the channel noise. The spatial bit-flip error takes place with a very small probability and the spatial phase-flip error can be precluded by adjusting the path-length of spatial modes. Using this scheme, the two parties in quantum communication can share a maximally hyperentangled state of two-photon systems in a deterministic way, which will improve the efficiency of quantum communication largely.
Multiple-Bit Differential Detection of OQPSK
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Marvin
2005-01-01
A multiple-bit differential-detection method has been proposed for the reception of radio signals modulated with offset quadrature phase-shift keying (offset QPSK or OQPSK). The method is also applicable to other spectrally efficient offset quadrature modulations. This method is based partly on the same principles as those of a multiple-symbol differential-detection method for M-ary QPSK, which includes QPSK (that is, non-offset QPSK) as a special case. That method was introduced more than a decade ago by the author of the present method as a means of improving performance relative to a traditional (two-symbol observation) differential-detection scheme. Instead of symbol-by-symbol detection, both that method and the present one are based on a concept of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE). As applied to the modulations in question, MLSE involves consideration of (1) all possible binary data sequences that could have been received during an observation time of some number, N, of symbol periods and (2) selection of the sequence that yields the best match to the noise-corrupted signal received during that time. The performance of the prior method was shown to range from that of traditional differential detection for short observation times (small N) to that of ideal coherent detection (with differential encoding) for long observation times (large N).
Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew
2017-05-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.
Stability of single skyrmionic bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vedmedenko, Olena; Hagemeister, Julian; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland
The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. Financial support from the DFG in the framework of the SFB668 is acknowledged.
Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew
2016-11-01
The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.
Olejniczak, Lukasz; Panajotov, Krassimir; Thienpont, Hugo; Sciamanna, Marc
2010-08-15
We study the dynamics of an optically injected quantum-dot laser accounting for excited states. Mapping of the bifurcations in the plane frequency detuning vs. injection strength shows that the relaxation rate scales the regions of locking and single- and double-period solutions, while the capture rate has a minor effect. Within the regions of time-periodic solutions, close to the saddle-node bifurcation boundary, we identify subregions where the output signal resembles excitable pulses as a result of the bottleneck phenomenon. We show that such emission is determined mainly by fluctuations in the occupation of the excited states. The interpulse time follows an inverse square root scaling law as a function of the detuning. In a deterministic system the pulses are periodic regardless of the detuning, but in the presence of noise, close to the locking region, the interpulse time follows a positively skewed normal distribution. For a fixed frequency detuning, increasing the noise strength can shift the mean of the interpulse time distribution and make the pulsations more periodic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shtanko, O.; Snizhko, K.; Cheianov, V.
2014-03-01
In a recent experimental paper [Bid et al., Nature 466, 585 (2010), 10.1038/nature09277] a qualitative confirmation of the existence of upstream neutral modes at the ν =2/3 quantum Hall edge was reported. Using the chiral Luttinger liquid theory of the quantum Hall edge we develop a quantitative model of the experiment of Bid et al. A good quantitative agreement of our theory with the experimental data reinforces the conclusion of the existence of the upstream neutral mode. Our model also enables us to extract important quantitative information about nonequilibrium processes in Ohmic and tunneling contacts from the experimental data. In particular, for ν =2/3, we find a power-law dependence of the neutral mode temperature on the charge current injected from the Ohmic contact.
Linear ramps of the mass in the O (N ) model: Dynamical transition and quantum noise of excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraga, Anna; Smacchia, Pietro; Silva, Alessandro
2016-12-01
Nonthermal dynamical critical behavior can arise in isolated quantum systems brought out of equilibrium by a change in time of their parameters. While this phenomenon has been studied in a variety of systems in the case of a sudden quench, we consider here its sensitivity to a change of protocol by considering the experimentally relevant case of a linear ramp in time. Focusing on the O (N ) model in the large-N limit, we will show that a dynamical phase transition is always present for all durations of the ramp, and we discuss the crossover between the sudden quench transition and one dominated by the equilibrium quantum critical point. We show that the critical behavior of the statistics of the excitations, signaling the nonthermal nature of the transition, is also robust. An intriguing crossover in the equal-time correlation function, related to an anomalous coarsening, is also discussed.
Error-thresholds for qudit-based topological quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrist, Ruben S.; Wootton, James R.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-03-01
Extending the quantum computing paradigm from qubits to higher-dimensional quantum systems allows for increased channel capacity and a more efficient implementation of quantum gates. However, to perform reliable computations an efficient error-correction scheme adapted for these multi-level quantum systems is needed. A promising approach is via topological quantum error correction, where stability to external noise is achieved by encoding quantum information in non-local degrees of freedom. A key figure of merit is the error threshold which quantifies the fraction of physical qudits that can be damaged before logical information is lost. Here we analyze the resilience of generalized topological memories built from d-level quantum systems (qudits) to bit-flip errors. The error threshold is determined by mapping the quantum setup to a classical Potts-like model with bond disorder, which is then investigated numerically using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that topological error correction with qutrits exhibits an improved error threshold in comparison to qubit-based systems.
Towards hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, Jérémie J.; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Baillergeau, Matthieu; Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis
2016-08-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics allows one to study the interaction between light and matter at the most elementary level. The methods developed in this field have taught us how to probe and manipulate individual quantum systems like atoms and superconducting quantum bits with an exquisite accuracy. There is now a strong effort to extend further these methods to other quantum systems, and in particular hybrid quantum dot circuits. This could turn out to be instrumental for a noninvasive study of quantum dot circuits and a realization of scalable spin quantum bit architectures. It could also provide an interesting platform for quantum simulation of simple fermion-boson condensed matter systems. In this short review, we discuss the experimental state of the art for hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots, and we present a simple theoretical modeling of experiments.
Wu, Kesheng
2007-08-02
An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.
Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-05-15
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanashi, Yuki; Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
2016-11-01
The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.
Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS
Durrand, Christopher J.; Skeem, Marcus R.; Crockett, Ron B.; Hall, David R.
2013-04-29
The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.
Mine roof drill bits that save money
Ford, L.M.
1982-04-01
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, has developed advanced technology roof bolt drill bits which have demonstrated longer life, higher penetration rates at lower thrust and torque, and lower specific energy than conventional roof bolt drill bits. This is achieved through use of advanced technology cutting materials and novel bit body designs. These bits have received extensive laboratory and mine testing. Their performance has been evaluated and estimates of their value in reducing coal production costs have been made. The work was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy.
Quantum steganography and quantum error-correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Bilal A.
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be stripped away from the operations of a quantum computer, the natural way forward was to think about importing classical coding theory into the quantum arena to give birth to quantum error-correcting codes which could help in mitigating the debilitating effects of decoherence on quantum data. We first talk about the six-qubit quantum error-correcting code and show its connections to entanglement-assisted error-correcting coding theory and then to subsystem codes. This code bridges the gap between the five-qubit (perfect) and Steane codes. We discuss two methods to encode one qubit into six physical qubits. Each of the two examples corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The first example is a degenerate six-qubit quantum error-correcting code. We explicitly provide the stabilizer generators, encoding circuits, codewords, logical Pauli operators, and logical CNOT operator for this code. We also show how to convert this code into a non-trivial subsystem code that saturates the subsystem Singleton bound. We then prove that a six-qubit code without entanglement assistance cannot simultaneously possess a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer and correct an arbitrary single-qubit error. A corollary of this result is that the Steane seven-qubit code is the smallest single-error correcting CSS code. Our second example is the construction of a non-degenerate six-qubit CSS entanglement-assisted code. This code uses one bit of entanglement (an ebit) shared between the sender (Alice) and the receiver (Bob) and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The code we obtain is globally equivalent to the Steane seven-qubit code and thus
N-bits all-optical circular shift register based on semiconductor optical amplifier buffer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazzeri, Emma; Berrettini, Gianluca; Meloni, Gianluca; Bogoni, Antonella; Potì, Luca
2011-03-01
In the perspective of a future all-optical communication network optical shift register will play an important role especially for what concerns several binary functions, such as serial to parallel conversion and cyclic operations, that are involved in techniques allowing error detection and correction as parity check, or cyclic redundancy check. During the last decades, several attempts of realizing circulating memories or shift register in the optical domain were made, with some limits in terms of functionality, number of bit to be stored (under three), scalability or photonic integrability. In this paper, we present a new approach to realize a circulating optical shift register consisting on an SOA-based optical buffer (OB) and a bit selecting circuit (BSC). The OB is potentially integrable and is able to store a finite number of bit at high bit rate. The BSC returns consecutive bits at a lower clock rate, achieving proper shift register function. The bit selection is realized by means of four wave mixing (FWM) in a Kerr medium, and the sequence cancellation is allowed to enable new sequence storing. Experimental validation of the scheme for fB=59MHz and fB=236MHz shows optical signal to noise ratio per bit penalty of 5.6dB at BER=10-9.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Zwolak, Michael
2014-08-01
We compare the Landauer, Kubo, and microcanonical [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 8025 (2005), 10.1088/0953-8984/16/45/024] approaches to quantum transport for the average current, the entanglement entropy, and the semiclassical full-counting statistics (FCS). Our focus is on the applicability of these approaches to isolated quantum systems such as ultracold atoms in engineered optical potentials. For two lattices connected by a junction, we find that the current and particle number fluctuations from the microcanonical approach compare well with the values predicted by the Landauer formalism and FCS assuming a binomial distribution. However, we demonstrate that well-defined reservoirs (i.e., particles in Fermi-Dirac distributions) are not present for a substantial duration of the quasi-steady state. Thus, on the one hand, the Landauer assumption of reservoirs and/or inelastic effects is not necessary for establishing a quasi-steady state. Maintaining such a state indefinitely requires an infinite system, and in this limit well-defined Fermi-Dirac distributions can occur. On the other hand, as we show, the existence of a finite speed of particle propagation preserves the quasi-steady state irrespective of the existence of well-defined reservoirs. This indicates that global observables in finite systems may be substantially different from those predicted by an uncritical application of the Landauer formalism, with its underlying thermodynamic limit. Therefore, the microcanonical formalism which is designed for closed, finite-size quantum systems seems more suitable for studying particle dynamics in ultracold atoms. Our results highlight both the connection and differences with more traditional approaches to calculating transport properties in condensed matter systems, and will help guide the way to their simulations in cold-atom systems.
Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.
Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard
2011-03-01
One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.
Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!
... putting them on. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2016 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Contact Us Print Resources ...
Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements
Radtke, R. P.; Morris, W. V.
1985-02-19
A drag blade bit for connection on a drill string has a hollow body on which there are welded a plurality of cutting or drilling blades. The blades extend longitudinally and radially of the bit body and terminate in relatively flat, radially extending cutting edges. A plurality of cutters are positioned in and spaced along the cutting edges and consists of cylindrical sintered carbide inserts with polycrystalline diamond cutting elements mounted thereon. Hardfacing is provided on the cutting edges between the cutters and on the other surfaces of the blades and the bit body subject to abrasive wear. One or more nozzles are positioned in passages from the interior of the bit body for directing flow of drilling fluid for flushing cuttings from the well bore and for cooling the bit.
Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters
Brandenstein, M.; Ernst, H.M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.
1981-03-31
A rotary drill bit is described that has a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one pair of radial rolling bearings on the trunnion. The rolling elements of at least one bearing are guided on at last one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. A filling opening is provided for assembly of the rolling elements comprising a channel which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening. The filling opening is arranged to provide a common filling means for each radial bearing.
Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters
Lachonius, L.
1981-04-28
A rotary drill bit is described having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one pair of filler piece for sealing the opening. One of the filler pieces is made of an elastically compressible material.
Rotary drill bit with rotary cutter
Brandenstein, M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.
1981-03-17
A rotary drill bit having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening.
Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything
Noyes, H.P.
1994-08-01
We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``
Novel Parity-Preserving Designs of Reversible 4-Bit Comparator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Xue-mei; Chen, Fu-long; Wang, Hong-tao; Sun, Yun-xiang; Guo, Liang-min
2014-04-01
Reversible logic has attracted much attention in recent years especially when the calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. This paper presents two novel approaches for designing reversible 4-bit comparator based on parity-preserving gates, which can detect any fault that affects no more than a single logic signal. In order to construct the comparator, three variable EX-OR gate (TVG), comparator gate (CPG), four variable EX-OR gate block (FVGB) and comparator gate block (CPGB) are designed, and they are parity-preserving and reversible. Their quantum equivalent implementations are also proposed. The design of two comparator circuits is completed by using existing reversible gates and the above new reversible circuits. All these comparators have been modeled and verified in Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL). The Quartus II simulation results indicate that their circuits' logic structures are correct. The comparative results are presented in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs.
Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB.
Mehmet, Moritz; Ast, Stefan; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Schnabel, Roman
2011-12-05
Continuous-wave squeezed states of light at the wavelength of 1550 nm have recently been demonstrated, but so far the obtained factors of noise suppression still lag behind today's best squeezing values demonstrated at 1064 nm. Here we report on the realization of a half-monolithic nonlinear resonator based on periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate which enabled the direct detection of up to 12.3 dB of squeezing at 5 MHz. Squeezing was observed down to a frequency of 2 kHz which is well within the detection band of gravitational wave interferometers. Our results suggest that a long-term stable 1550 nm squeezed light source can be realized with strong squeezing covering the entire detection band of a 3rd generation gravitational-wave detector such as the Einstein Telescope.
1998-04-01
information representation and processing technology, although faster than the wheels and gears of the Charles Babbage computation machine, is still in...the same computational complexity class as the Babbage machine, with bits of information represented by entities which obey classical (non-quantum...nuclear double resonances Charles M Bowden and Jonathan P. Dowling Weapons Sciences Directorate, AMSMI-RD-WS-ST Missile Research, Development, and
Numerical generation of laser-resonance phase noise for optical communication simulators.
Ó Dúill, Seán P; Anthur, Aravind P; Huynh, Tam N; Naimi, Sepideh T; Nguyen, Lim; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P
2015-04-10
We generate random numerical waveforms that mimic laser phase noise incorporating laser-resonance enhanced phase noise. The phase noise waveforms are employed in system simulators to estimate the resulting bit error rate penalties for differential quadrature phase shift keying signals. The results show that baudrate dependence of the bit error rate performance arises from laser-resonance phase noise. In addition, we show with supporting experimental results that the laser-resonance phase noise on the pumps in four-wave-mixing-based wavelength converters is responsible for large bit error rate floors.
Simple quantum password checking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2015-06-01
We present a quantum password checking protocol where secrecy is protected by the laws of quantum mechanics. The passwords are encoded in quantum systems that can be compared but have a dimension too small to allow reading the encoded bits. We study the protocol under different replay attacks and show it is robust even for poorly chosen passwords. We also describe a possible implementation with conventional optical elements.
Noyes, H.P.
1990-01-29
We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.
Liao, Jinxin; Wen, He; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Guo, Yili; Zhou, Bingkun
2012-05-01
A novel 2N bit bipolar photonic digital-to-analog converter (PDAC) scenario based on the optical differential quadrature phase shift keying (ODQPSK) modulation coupled with differential detection is proposed. Compared with other proposed schemes, this bipolar PDAC has a greater dynamic range and a larger noise margin with good scalabilities both in speed and resolution. We demonstrate a 4 bit PDAC in a proof-of-principle experiment at a sampling rate of 2.5 GS/s.
Add 16-bit processing to any computer
Fry, W.
1983-01-01
A zoom computer is a simple, fast, and friendly computer in a very small package. Zoom architecture provides an easy migration path from existing 8-bit computers to today's 16-bit and tomorrow's 32-bit designs. With zoom, the benefits of the VLSI technological explosion can be attained with your present peripherals-there is no need to purchase new peripherals because all your old applications run unhindered on zoom. And in addition to all your old applications, zoom offers a whole new world of processing power at your fingertips.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-04-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna
2016-01-01
Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302
Spatio-Temporal Waveform Design for Multiuser Massive MIMO Downlink With 1-bit Receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gokceoglu, Ahmet; Bjornson, Emil; Larsson, Erik G.; Valkama, Mikko
2017-03-01
Internet-of-Things (IoT) refers to a high-density network of low-cost low-bitrate terminals and sensors where also low energy consumption is one central feature. As the power-budget of classical receiver chains is dominated by the high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), there is a growing interest towards deploying receiver architectures with reduced-bit or even 1-bit ADCs. In this paper, we study waveform design, optimization and detection aspects of multi-user massive MIMO downlink where user terminals adopt very simple 1-bit ADCs with oversampling. In order to achieve spectral efficiency higher than 1 bit/s/Hz per real-dimension, we propose a two-stage precoding, namely a novel quantization precoder followed by maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) type spatial channel precoder which jointly form the multi-user-multiantenna transmit waveform. The quantization precoder outputs are optimized, under appropriate transmitter and receiver filter bandwidth constraints, to provide controlled inter-symbol-interference (ISI) enabling the input symbols to be uniquely detected from 1-bit quantized observations with a low-complexity symbol detector in the absence of noise. An additional optimization constraint is also imposed in the quantization precoder design to increase the robustness against noise and residual inter-user-interference (IUI). The purpose of the spatial channel precoder, in turn, is to suppress the IUI and provide high beamforming gains such that good symbol-error rates (SERs) can be achieved in the presence of noise and interference. Extensive numerical evaluations illustrate that the proposed spatio-temporal precoder based multiantenna waveform design can facilitate good multi-user link performance, despite the extremely simple 1-bit ADCs in the receivers, hence being one possible enabling technology for the future low-complexity IoT networks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Li-Jun; Bacon, A. M.; Zhao, H.-Z.; Thomas, J. E.
1994-01-01
In the optical measurement of the Bloch vector components describing a system of N two-level atoms, the quantum fluctuations in these components are coupled into the measuring optical field. This paper develops the quantum theory of optical measurement of Bloch vector projection noise. The preparation and probing of coherence in an effective two-level system consisting of the two ground states in an atomic three-level lambda-scheme are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalili, Farid Ya.; Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman
2016-07-01
We analyze the radiation-pressure-induced interaction of mirror motion and light fields in Michelson-type interferometers used for the detection of gravitational waves and for fundamental research in tabletop quantum optomechanical experiments, focusing on the asymmetric regime with a (slightly) unbalanced beam splitter and a (small) offset from the dark port. This regime, as it was shown recently, provides new interesting features, in particular a stable optical spring and optical cooling on cavity resonance. We show that, generally, the nature of optomechanical coupling in Michelson-type interferometers does not fit into the standard dispersive-dissipative dichotomy. In particular, a symmetric Michelson interferometer with signal-recycling but without power-recycling cavity is characterized by a purely dissipative optomechanical coupling; only in the presence of asymmetry, additional dispersive coupling arises. In gravitational waves detectors possessing signal- and power-recycling cavities, yet another coherent type of optomechanical coupling takes place. We develop here a generalized framework for the analysis of asymmetric Michelson-type interferometers, which also covers the possibility of the injection of carrier light into both ports of the interferometer. Using this framework, we analyze in depth the anomalous features of the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which have been discussed and observed experimentally previously [A. Xuereb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213604 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.213604; S. P. Tarabrin et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 023809 (2013);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023809 A. Sawadsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 043601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.043601].
Practical round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng
2017-03-01
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with which legitimate users are able to estimate information leakage by monitoring the disturbance of the transmitted quantum signals. Normally, the disturbance is reflected as bit flip errors in the sifted key; thus, privacy amplification, which removes any leaked information from the key, generally depends on the bit error rate. Recently, a round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol for which privacy amplification does not rely on the bit error rate (Sasaki et al 2014 Nature 509 475) was proposed. The amount of leaked information can be bounded by the sender during the state-preparation stage and hence, is independent of the behavior of the unreliable quantum channel. In our work, we apply the tagging technique to the protocol and present a tight bound on the key rate and employ a decoy-state method. The effects of background noise and misalignment are taken into account under practical conditions. Our simulation results show that the protocol can tolerate channel error rates close to 50% within a typical experiment setting. That is, there is a negligible restriction on the error rate in practice.
Quantum Boolean image denoising
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mastriani, Mario
2015-05-01
A quantum Boolean image processing methodology is presented in this work, with special emphasis in image denoising. A new approach for internal image representation is outlined together with two new interfaces: classical to quantum and quantum to classical. The new quantum Boolean image denoising called quantum Boolean mean filter works with computational basis states (CBS), exclusively. To achieve this, we first decompose the image into its three color components, i.e., red, green and blue. Then, we get the bitplanes for each color, e.g., 8 bits per pixel, i.e., 8 bitplanes per color. From now on, we will work with the bitplane corresponding to the most significant bit (MSB) of each color, exclusive manner. After a classical-to-quantum interface (which includes a classical inverter), we have a quantum Boolean version of the image within the quantum machine. This methodology allows us to avoid the problem of quantum measurement, which alters the results of the measured except in the case of CBS. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too. After filtering of the inverted version of MSB (inside quantum machine), the result passes through a quantum-classical interface (which involves another classical inverter) and then proceeds to reassemble each color component and finally the ending filtered image. Finally, we discuss the more appropriate metrics for image denoising in a set of experimental results.
FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data
Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming
2009-06-23
As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.
Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!
... in the Operating Room? Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown ... picó una reclusa parda! What's a Brown Recluse Spider? The brown recluse spider is one of the ...
28-Bit serial word simulator/monitor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, J. W.
1979-01-01
Modular interface unit transfers data at high speeds along four channels. Device expedites variable-word-length communication between computers. Operation eases exchange of bit information by automatically reformatting coded input data and status information to match requirements of output.
A Study of a Standard BIT Circuit.
1977-02-01
availability through improved fault detection and isolation techniques. The particular approach taken in this study involves the use of built-in-test (BIT...circuits at the replaceable unit level to facilitate fault detection and isolation .
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.
Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits
Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.
1983-01-01
A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.
Neural network implementation using bit streams.
Patel, Nitish D; Nguang, Sing Kiong; Coghill, George G
2007-09-01
A new method for the parallel hardware implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using digital techniques is presented. Signals are represented using uniformly weighted single-bit streams. Techniques for generating bit streams from analog or multibit inputs are also presented. This single-bit representation offers significant advantages over multibit representations since they mitigate the fan-in and fan-out issues which are typical to distributed systems. To process these bit streams using ANNs concepts, functional elements which perform summing, scaling, and squashing have been implemented. These elements are modular and have been designed such that they can be easily interconnected. Two new architectures which act as monotonically increasing differentiable nonlinear squashing functions have also been presented. Using these functional elements, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) can be easily constructed. Two examples successfully demonstrate the use of bit streams in the implementation of ANNs. Since every functional element is individually instantiated, the implementation is genuinely parallel. The results clearly show that this bit-stream technique is viable for the hardware implementation of a variety of distributed systems and for ANNs in particular.
Quantum trade-off coding for bosonic communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat
2012-12-01
The trade-off capacity region of a quantum channel characterizes the optimal net rates at which a sender can communicate classical, quantum, and entangled bits to a receiver by exploiting many independent uses of the channel, along with the help of the same resources. Similarly, one can consider a trade-off capacity region when the noiseless resources are public, private, and secret-key bits. We identified [see Wilde, Hayden, and Guha, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.140501 108, 140501 (2012)] these trade-off rate regions for the pure-loss bosonic channel and proved that they are optimal provided that a long-standing minimum-output entropy conjecture is true. Additionally, we showed that the performance gains of a trade-off coding strategy when compared to a time-sharing strategy can be quite significant. In this paper, we provide detailed derivations of the results announced there, and we extend the application of these ideas to thermal-noise and amplifying bosonic channels. We also derive a “rule of thumb” for trade-off coding, which determines how to allocate photons in a coding strategy if a large mean photon number is available at the channel input. Our results on the amplifying bosonic channel also apply to the “Unruh channel” considered in the context of relativistic quantum information theory.
Proper bit design improves penetration rate in abrasive horizontal wells
Gentges, R.J. )
1993-08-09
Overall drilling penetration rates nearly tripled, and drill bit life nearly doubled compared to conventional bits when specially designed natural diamond and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits were used during a seven-well horizontal drilling program. The improvement in drilling performance from better-designed bits lowered drilling costs at ANR Pipeline Co.'s Reed City gas storage field in Michigan. Laboratory tests with scaled down bits used on abrasive cores helped determine the optimum design for drilling the gas storage wells. The laboratory test results and actual field data were used to develop a matrix-body natural diamond bit, which was later modified to become a matrix-body, blade-type polycrystalline diamond compact bit. This bit had excellent penetration rates and abrasion resistance. The paper describes the background to the project, bit selection, natural diamond bits, field results, new bit designs, and field results from the new design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-01
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Pseudo-random-bit-sequence phase modulation for reduced errors in a fiber optic gyroscope.
Chamoun, Jacob; Digonnet, Michel J F
2016-12-15
Low noise and drift in a laser-driven fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) are demonstrated by interrogating the sensor with a low-coherence laser. The laser coherence was reduced by broadening its optical spectrum using an external electro-optic phase modulator driven by either a sinusoidal or a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) waveform. The noise reduction measured in a FOG driven by a modulated laser agrees with the calculations based on the broadened laser spectrum. Using PRBS modulation, the linewidth of a laser was broadened from 10 MHz to more than 10 GHz, leading to a measured FOG noise of only 0.00073 deg/√h and a drift of 0.023 deg/h. To the best of our knowledge, these are the lowest noise and drift reported in a laser-driven FOG, and this noise is below the requirement for the inertial navigation of aircraft.
Advanced quantum communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeffrey, Evan Robert
Quantum communication provides several examples of communication protocols which cannot be implemented securely using only classical communication. Currently, the most widely known of these is quantum cryptography, which allows secure key exchange between parties sharing a quantum channel subject to an eavesdropper. This thesis explores and extends the realm of quantum communication. Two new quantum communication protocols are described. The first is a new form of quantum cryptography---relativistic quantum cryptography---which increases communication efficiency by exploiting a relativistic bound on the power of an eavesdropper, in addition to the usual quantum mechanical restrictions intrinsic to quantum cryptography. By doing so, we have observed over 170% improvement in communication efficiency over a similar protocol not utilizing relativity. A second protocol, Quantum Orienteering, allows two cooperating parties to communicate a specific direction in space. This application shows the possibility of using joint measurements, or projections onto an entangled state, in order to extract the maximum useful information from quantum bits. For two-qubit communication, the maximal fidelity of communication using only separable operations is 73.6%, while joint measurements can improve the efficiency to 78.9%. In addition to implementing these protocols, we have improved several resources for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we have developed improved sources of polarization-entangled photons, a low-loss quantum memory for polarization qubits, and a quantum random number generator. These tools may be applied to a wide variety of future quantum and classical information systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huston, R. J. (Compiler)
1982-01-01
The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.
Zeeman energy and spin relaxation in a one-electron quantum dot.
Hanson, R; Witkamp, B; Vandersypen, L M K; van Beveren, L H Willems; Elzerman, J M; Kouwenhoven, L P
2003-11-07
We have measured the relaxation time, T1, of the spin of a single electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot (a proposed quantum bit). In a magnetic field, applied parallel to the two-dimensional electron gas in which the quantum dot is defined, Zeeman splitting of the orbital states is directly observed by measurements of electron transport through the dot. By applying short voltage pulses, we can populate the excited spin state with one electron and monitor relaxation of the spin. We find a lower bound on T1 of 50 micros at 7.5 T, only limited by our signal-to-noise ratio. A continuous measurement of the charge on the dot has no observable effect on the spin relaxation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milić, Dejan N.; Đorđević, Goran T.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the effects of imperfect reference signal recovery on the bit error rate (BER) performance of dual-branch switch and stay combining receiver over Nakagami-m fading/gamma shadowing channels with arbitrary parameters. The average BER of quaternary phase shift keying is evaluated under the assumption that the reference carrier signal is extracted from the received modulated signal. We compute numerical results illustrating simultaneous influence of average signal-to-noise ratio per bit, fading severity, shadowing, phase-locked loop bandwidth-bit duration (BLTb) product, and switching threshold on BER performance. The effects of BLTb on receiver performance under different channel conditions are emphasized. Optimal switching threshold is determined which minimizes BER performance under given channel and receiver parameters.