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Sample records for quantum wells coherent

  1. Instantaneous amplitude and frequency dynamics of coherent wave mixing in semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-06-30

    This article reviews recent investigations of nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors. Section II discusses theory of coherent wave mixing in semiconductors, with emphasis on resonant excitation with only one exciton state. Section III reviews recent experimental investigations of amplitude and phase of coherent wave-mixing resonant with quasi-2d excitons in GaAs quantum wells.

  2. Coherent nanocavity structures for enhancement in internal quantum efficiency of III-nitride multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.

    2014-04-21

    A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.

  3. Enhancement of coherent acoustic phonons in InGaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, Shopan D.; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Enhancement of coherent zone folded longitudinal acoustic phonon (ZFLAP) oscillations at terahertz frequencies was demonstrated in InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by using wavelength degenerate time resolved differential transmission spectroscopy. Screening of the piezoelectric field in InGaN MQWs by photogenerated carriers upon femtosecond pulse excitation gave rise to terahertz ZFLAPs, which were monitored at the Brillouin zone center in the transmission geometry. MQWs composed of 10 pairs InxGa1-xN wells and In0.03Ga0.97N barriers provided coherent phonon frequencies of 0.69-0.80 THz depending on the period of MQWs. Dependences of ZFLAP amplitude on excitation density and wavelength were also investigated. Possibility of achieving phonon cavity, incorporating a MQW placed between two AlN/GaN phonon mirrors designed to exhibit large acoustic gaps at the zone center, was also explored.

  4. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  5. Coherent Pump-Probe Interactions and Terahertz Intersubband Gain in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in intersubband-transition-based infrared semiconductor quantum well (QW) lasers because of their potential applications. In the mid-infrared range, both electrically-injected quantum cascade lasers [1] and optically-pumped multiple QW lasers [2] have been experimentally realized. In these studies, optical gain is due to population inversion between the lasing subbands. It was also proposed that stimulated Raman scattering in QW systems can produce net infrared optical gain [3j. In such a nonlinear optical scheme, the appearance of optical gain that may lead to intersubband Raman lasers does not rely on the population inversion. Since, in tile resonant Raman process (Raman gain is the largest in this case), the pump field induces population redistribution among subbands in the QW s ystem, it seems that a realistic estimate of the optical gain has to include this effect. Perturbative calculations used in the previous work [3] may overestimate the Raman gain. In this paper we present a nonperturbative calculation of terahertz gain of optically-pumped semiconductor step quantum wells. Limiting optical transitions within the conduction band of QW, we solve the pump-field-induced nonequilibrium distribution function for each subband of the QW system from a set of coupled rate equations. Both intrasubband and intersubband relaxation processes in the quantum well system are included. Taking into account the coherent interactions between pump and THz (signal) waves, we we derive the susceptibility of the QW system for the THz field. For a GaAs/AlGaAs step QW, we calculate the Thz gain spectrum for different pump frequencies and intensities. Under moderately strong pumping (approximately 0.3 MW/sq cm), a significant THz gain (approximately 300/m) is predicted. It is also shown that the coherent wave interactions (resonant stimulated Raman processes) contribute significantly to the THz gain.

  6. Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, A. V.

    2015-01-15

    The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.

  7. Real-time contrast-enhanced holographic imaging using phase coherent photorefractive quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Dongol, A; Thompson, J; Schmitzer, H; Tierney, D; Wagner, H P

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate wide-field real-time and depth-resolved contrast enhanced holographic imaging (CEHI) using the all-optical phase coherent photorefractive effect in ZnSe quantum wells. Moving objects are imaged at large depth-of-field by the local enhancement of a static reference hologram. The high refresh rate of the holographic films enables direct-to-video monitoring of floating glass beads and of living Paramecium and Euglena cells moving in water. Depth resolution is achieved by tilting the incident laser beam with respect to the normal of the cuvette. This creates double images of the objects, which are analyzed geometrically and with Fresnel diffraction theory. A two-color CEHI set-up further enables the visualization of a concealed 95 µm thick wire behind a thin layer of chicken skin. PMID:26074534

  8. Real-time contrast-enhanced holographic imaging using phase coherent photorefractive quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Dongol, A; Thompson, J; Schmitzer, H; Tierney, D; Wagner, H P

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate wide-field real-time and depth-resolved contrast enhanced holographic imaging (CEHI) using the all-optical phase coherent photorefractive effect in ZnSe quantum wells. Moving objects are imaged at large depth-of-field by the local enhancement of a static reference hologram. The high refresh rate of the holographic films enables direct-to-video monitoring of floating glass beads and of living Paramecium and Euglena cells moving in water. Depth resolution is achieved by tilting the incident laser beam with respect to the normal of the cuvette. This creates double images of the objects, which are analyzed geometrically and with Fresnel diffraction theory. A two-color CEHI set-up further enables the visualization of a concealed 95 µm thick wire behind a thin layer of chicken skin.

  9. Phase control of Goos-Hänchen shift via biexciton coherence in a multiple quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Nasehi, Rajab; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The behavior of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe and signal pulses through a cavity containing four-level GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells with 15 periods of 17.5 nm GaAs wells and 15-nm Al0.3Ga0.7As barriers is theoretically discussed. The biexciton coherence set up by two coupling fields can induce the destructive interference to control the absorption and gain properties of probe field under appropriate conditions. It is realized that for the specific values of the intensities and the relative phase of applied fields, the simultaneous negative or positive GH shift in the transmitted and reflected light beam can be obtained via amplification in a probe light. It is found that by adjusting the controllable parameters, the GH shifts can be switched between the large positive and negative values in the medium. Moreover, the effect of exciton spin relaxation on the GH shift has also been discussed. We find that the exciton spin relaxation can manipulate the behavior of GH shift in the reflected and transmitted probe beam through the cavity. We show that by controlling the incident angles of probe beam and under certain conditions, the GH shifts in the reflected and transmitted probe beams can become either negative or positive corresponding to the superluminal or subluminal light propagation. Our proposed model may supply a new prospect in technological applications for the light amplification in optical sensors working on quantum coherence impacts in solid-state systems.

  10. Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by polarized electron-hole pairs in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A. V. Alekseev, P. S.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Shcheglov, V. L.; Sedova, M. A.; Zakhar'in, A. O.

    2013-11-15

    The generation of coherent terahertz radiation upon the band-to-band femtosecond laser photoexcitation of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures in a transverse electric field at room temperature is investigated. The properties of the observed terahertz radiation suggest that it is generated on account of the excitation of a time-dependent dipole moment as a result of the polarization of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in quantum wells by the electric field. The proposed theoretical model taking into account the dynamic screening of the electric field in the quantum wells by nonequilibrium charge carriers describes the properties of the observed terahertz signal.

  11. Excitons in Semiconductor Quantum Wells Studied Using Two-Dimensional Coherent Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohan

    Correlated electron-hole pairs, or excitons, in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied extensively over the past few decades. The optical response of excitons is complicated due to inhomogeneous broadening, presence of multiple states, and exciton-exciton interactions. In this work we bring new perspectives to exciton physics in semiconductor quantum wells (QWs) through two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (2DCS). The effect of QW growth direction on the optical properties of excitons is explored by studying (110)-oriented GaAs QWs. The homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths of the heavy-hole exciton resonance are measured. By probing the optical nonlinear response for polarization along the in-plane crystal axes [110] and [001], we measure different homogeneous linewidths for the two orthogonal directions. This difference is found to be due to anisotropic excitation-induced dephasing, caused by a crystal-axis-dependent absorption coefficient. The extrapolated zero-excitation density homogeneous linewidth exhibits an activation-like temperature dependence. Spectral diffusion of excitons in (001)-oriented QWs has been studied. We show that the spectral diffusion characteristics depend strongly on the sample temperature. Spectral diffusion is generally assumed to follow the strong-redistribution approximation, partly because of lack of any evidence to the contrary. We find that this assumption is violated at low sample temperatures for excitons in QWs; high-energy excitons preferentially relax due to a negligible phonon population at low temperatures. The frequency-frequency correlation function is measured through a numerical fitting procedure to quantify spectral diffusion for sample temperatures >20 K. Exciton-exciton interactions affect the light-matter interactions in QWs significantly. We present an intuitive and simple model for these interactions by treating excitons as interacting bosons. We show that the polarization-dependent exciton dephasing

  12. Extended coherence length of spatially oscillating electron-spin polarization in dilute-magnetic-semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Takuma

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated the possibility that the coherence length of spatially oscillating electron-spin polarization is improved in dilute magnetic semiconductors. In usual nonmagnetic quantum wells, the spin polarization of the electrons injected from a ferromagnetic source electrode oscillates spatially because of the spin precession due to spin-orbit effective magnetic fields, i.e., the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields. However, the polarization is damped within an oscillation period by the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation. In paramagnetic dilute magnetic semiconductors, impurity spin polarization is induced under the electron-spin polarization, and this impurity polarization influences the electron-spin precession and possibly improves the spatial electron-spin coherence. The validity of this effect is demonstrated by a numerical simulation for a CdMnTe quantum well.

  13. Carrier Dynamics and Application of the Phase Coherent Photorefractive Effect in ZnSe Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Amit

    The intensity dependent diffraction efficiency of a phase coherent photorefractive (PCP) ZnSe quantum well (QW) is investigated at 80 K in a two-beam four-wave mixing (FWM) configuration using 100 fs laser pulses with a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The observed diffraction efficiencies of the first and second-order diffracted beam are on the order of 10-3 and 10-5, respectively, revealing nearly no intensity dependence. The first-order diffraction is caused by the PCP effect where the probe-pulse is diffracted due to a long-living incoherent electron density grating in the QW. The second-order diffraction is created by a combination of diffraction processes. For negative probe-pulse delay, the exciton polarization is diffracted at the electron grating twice by a cascade effect. For positive delay, the diffracted signal is modified by the destructive interference with a chi(5) generated signal due to a dynamical screening effect. Model calculations of the signal traces based on the optical Bloch equations considering inhomogeneous broadening of exciton energies are in good agreement with the experimental data. To study the carrier dynamics responsible for the occurrence of the PCP effect, threebeam FWM experiments are carried out. The non-collinear wave-vectors k1 , k2 and k3 at central wavelength of 441 nm (~2.81 eV) were resonantly tuned to the heavy-hole exciton transition energy at 20 K. In the FWM experiment the time coincident strong pump pulses k1 and k2 create both an exciton density grating in the QW and an electron-hole pair grating in the GaAs while the delayed weak pulse k3 simultaneously probes the exciton lifetime as well as the electron grating capture time. The model calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results also providing information about the transfer delay of electrons arriving from the substrate to the QW. For negative probe-pulse delay we still observe a diffracted signal due to the long living electron density grating in

  14. Multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2009-08-20

    Multiple quantum coherences provide a powerful approach for studies of complex systems because increasing the number of quantum states in a quantum mechanical superposition state increases the selectivity of a spectroscopic measurement. We show that frequency domain multiple quantum coherence multidimensional spectroscopy can create these superposition states using different frequency excitation pulses. The superposition state is created using two excitation frequencies to excite the symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes in a rhodium dicarbonyl chelate and the dynamic Stark effect to climb the vibrational ladders involving different overtone and combination band states. A monochromator resolves the free induction decay of different coherences comprising the superposition state. The three spectral dimensions provide the selectivity required to observe 19 different spectral features associated with fully coherent nonlinear processes involving up to 11 interactions with the excitation fields. The different features act as spectroscopic probes of the diagonal and off-diagonal parts of the molecular potential energy hypersurface. This approach can be considered as a coherent pump-probe spectroscopy where the pump is a series of excitation pulses that prepares a multiple quantum coherence and the probe is another series of pulses that creates the output coherence. PMID:19507812

  15. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-01

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  16. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-22

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  17. Model for the effect of finite phase-coherence length on resonant transmission and capture by quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraff, G. A.

    1998-11-01

    We study the effect of an imaginary potential and (separately) of a finite coherence length on the transmission, reflection, and capture fractions for a thermal distribution of carriers incident on a single quantum well. The formalism used is closely related to one used by Kuhn and Mahler for the same purpose. Closed-form expressions are obtained for the three transport fractions resulting from a single incident beam. Three independent fitting parameters are used in this formalism, namely, the size of the imaginary potential, the extent it penetrates into the barriers adjacent to the well, and the phase-coherence length. This last is a length scale associated with a correlation function that appears when the phase of the wave function is treated as a stochastic variable. We show that the parameters can be chosen so that the transport fractions agree with those calculated from first principles, and show how a shortening of the coherence length, e.g., by electron-electron interactions that have been left out of the first-principles calculation, destroys the resonant behavior of these fractions predicted by Brum and Bastard [Phys. Rev. B 33, 1420 (1986)].

  18. Extracting quantum coherence via steering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xueyuan; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As the precious resource for quantum information processing, quantum coherence can be created remotely if the involved two sites are quantum correlated. It can be expected that the amount of coherence created should depend on the quantity of the shared quantum correlation, which is also a resource. Here, we establish an operational connection between coherence induced by steering and the quantum correlation. We find that the steering-induced coherence quantified by such as relative entropy of coherence and trace-norm of coherence is bounded from above by a known quantum correlation measure defined as the one-side measurement-induced disturbance. The condition that the upper bound saturated by the induced coherence varies for different measures of coherence. The tripartite scenario is also studied and similar conclusion can be obtained. Our results provide the operational connections between local and non-local resources in quantum information processing. PMID:27682450

  19. Total quantum coherence and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Yang, Si-ren; Guo, Bao-qing

    2016-09-01

    Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and l_2 norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive l_2 norm are also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.

  20. Unified view of quantum correlations and quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok Chuan; Kwon, Hyukjoon; Park, Chae-Yeun; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we argue that quantum coherence in a bipartite system can be contained either locally or in the correlations between the subsystems. The portion of quantum coherence contained within correlations can be viewed as a kind of quantum correlation which we call correlated coherence. We demonstrate that the framework provided by correlated coherence allows us to retrieve the same concepts of quantum correlations as defined by the asymmetric and symmetric versions of quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement, providing a unified view of these correlations. We also prove that correlated coherence can be formulated as an entanglement monotone, thus demonstrating that entanglement may be viewed as a specialized form of coherence.

  1. Multiparticle states and the factors that complicate an experimental observation of the quantum coherence in the exciton gas of SiGe/Si quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaev, V. S.; Davletov, E. T.; Krivobok, V. S. Nikolaev, S. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Skorikov, M. L.

    2015-12-15

    The measured stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence is used to study the properties of the exciton gas in a second-order 5-nm-thick Si{sub 0.905}Ge{sub 0.095}/Si quantum well. It is shown that, despite the presence of an electron barrier in the Si{sub 0.905}Ge{sub 0.095} layer, a spatially indirect biexciton is the most favorable energy state of the electron–hole system at low temperatures. This biexciton is characterized by a lifetime of 1100 ns and a binding energy of 2.0–2.5 meV and consists of two holes localized in the SiGe layer and two electrons mainly localized in silicon. The formation of biexcitons is shown to cause low-temperature (5 K) luminescence spectra over a wide excitation density range and to suppress the formation of an exciton gas, in which quantum statistics effects are significant. The Bose statistics can only be experimentally observed for a biexciton gas at a temperature of 1 K or below because of the high degree of degeneracy of biexciton states (28) and a comparatively large effective mass (about 1.3m{sub e}). The heat energy at such temperatures is much lower than the measured energy of localization at potential fluctuations (about 1 meV). This feature leads to biexciton localization and fundamentally limits the possibility of observation of quantum coherence in the biexciton gas.

  2. Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-07-10

    Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.

  3. Complementarity relations for quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shuming; Hall, Michael J. W.

    2015-10-01

    Various measures have been suggested recently for quantifying the coherence of a quantum state with respect to a given basis. We first use two of these, the l1-norm and relative entropy measures, to investigate tradeoffs between the coherences of mutually unbiased bases. Results include relations between coherence, uncertainty, and purity; tight general bounds restricting the coherences of mutually unbiased bases; and an exact complementarity relation for qubit coherences. We further define the average coherence of a quantum state. For the l1-norm measure this is related to a natural "coherence radius" for the state and leads to a conjecture for an l2-norm measure of coherence. For relative entropy the average coherence is determined by the difference between the von Neumann entropy and the quantum subentropy of the state and leads to upper bounds for the latter quantity. Finally, we point out that the relative entropy of coherence is a special case of G-asymmetry, which immediately yields several operational interpretations in contexts as diverse as frame alignment, quantum communication, and metrology, and suggests generalizing the property of quantum coherence to arbitrary groups of physical transformations.

  4. Evolution equation for quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-07-01

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures.

  5. Evolution equation for quantum coherence

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures. PMID:27382933

  6. Evolution equation for quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the decoherence process of an open quantum system is of both theoretical significance and experimental appealing. Practically, the decoherence can be easily estimated if the coherence evolution satisfies some simple relations. We introduce a framework for studying evolution equation of coherence. Based on this framework, we prove a simple factorization relation (FR) for the l1 norm of coherence, and identified the sets of quantum channels for which this FR holds. By using this FR, we further determine condition on the transformation matrix of the quantum channel which can support permanently freezing of the l1 norm of coherence. We finally reveal the universality of this FR by showing that it holds for many other related coherence and quantum correlation measures. PMID:27382933

  7. Quantum coherence of steered states

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214

  8. The extraction of work from quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Lostaglio, Matteo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Jennings, David

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between quantum-mechanical properties, such as coherence, and classical notions, such as energy, is a subtle topic at the forefront of quantum thermodynamics. The traditional Carnot argument limits the conversion of heat to work; here we critically assess the problem of converting coherence to work. Through a careful account of all resources involved in the thermodynamic transformations within a fully quantum-mechanical treatment, we show that there exist thermal machines extracting work from coherence arbitrarily well. Such machines only need to act on individual copies of a state and can be reused. On the other hand, we show that for any thermal machine with finite resources not all the coherence of a state can be extracted as work. However, even bounded thermal machines can be reused infinitely many times in the process of work extraction from coherence.

  9. Remote creation of quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-10-01

    We study remote creation of coherence (RCC) for a quantum system, A, with the help of quantum operations on another system, B, and one-way classical communication. We show that all the nonincoherent quantum states are useful for RCC and all the incoherent-quantum states are not. The necessary and sufficient conditions of RCC for the quantum operations on system B are presented for pure states. The upper bound of average RCC is derived, giving a relation among the entanglement (concurrence), the RCC of the given quantum state, and the RCC of the corresponding maximally entangled state. Moreover, for two-qubit systems we find a simple factorization law for the average remote-created coherence.

  10. Photoelectric devices with quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanhe, Su

    A phtotoelectric device consisting of a three-level system contacted with two fermionic baths and a photon bath is built. Making the Born-Markov approximation, the equation of motion for the density operator in a Lindblad-like form is derived. We obtain the coherence and the efficiency of the system under the steady-state condition. Results show that quantum coherence can enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The efficiency at maximum power can be larger than the CA efficiency bound with the existence of coherence.

  11. Quantum variance: A measure of quantum coherence and quantum correlations for many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frérot, Irénée; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental common trait of quantum phenomena, from the interference of matter waves to quantum degeneracy of identical particles. Despite its importance, estimating and measuring quantum coherence in generic, mixed many-body quantum states remains a formidable challenge, with fundamental implications in areas as broad as quantum condensed matter, quantum information, quantum metrology, and quantum biology. Here, we provide a quantitative definition of the variance of quantum coherent fluctuations (the quantum variance) of any observable on generic quantum states. The quantum variance generalizes the concept of thermal de Broglie wavelength (for the position of a free quantum particle) to the space of eigenvalues of any observable, quantifying the degree of coherent delocalization in that space. The quantum variance is generically measurable and computable as the difference between the static fluctuations and the static susceptibility of the observable; despite its simplicity, it is found to provide a tight lower bound to most widely accepted estimators of "quantumness" of observables (both as a feature as well as a resource), such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information and the quantum Fisher information. When considering bipartite fluctuations in an extended quantum system, the quantum variance expresses genuine quantum correlations among the two parts. In the case of many-body systems, it is found to obey an area law at finite temperature, extending therefore area laws of entanglement and quantum fluctuations of pure states to the mixed-state context. Hence the quantum variance paves the way to the measurement of macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum correlations in most complex quantum systems.

  12. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences. PMID:27300826

  13. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  14. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  15. Coherent state operators in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Dapor, Andrea; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Mäkinen, Ilkka; Sikorski, Jan

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method for constructing operators in loop quantum gravity. The construction is an application of the general idea of "coherent state quantization," which allows one to associate a unique quantum operator with every function on a classical phase space. Using the heat kernel coherent states of Hall and Thiemann, we show how to construct operators corresponding to functions depending on holonomies and fluxes associated with a fixed graph. We construct the coherent state versions of the fundamental holonomy and flux operators, as well as the basic geometric operators of area, angle, and volume. Our calculations show that the corresponding canonical operators are recovered from the coherent state operators in the limit of large spins.

  16. Quantum coherence and quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Chao; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2016-05-01

    We study the connections between local quantum coherence (LQC) based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transitions (QPTs). When applied on the one-dimensional Hubbard, XY spin chain with three-spin interaction, and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger models, the LQC and its derivatives are used successfully to detect different types of QPTs in these spin and fermionic systems. Furthermore, the LQC is effective as the quantum discord (QD) in detecting QPTs at finite temperatures, where the entanglement has lost its effectiveness. We also demonstrate that the LQC can exhibit different behaviors in many forms compared with the QD.

  17. Quantum coherent states in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2015-07-01

    Coherent states consist of superposition of infinite number of particles and do not have a classical analogue. We study their evolution in a FLRW cosmology and show that only when full quantum corrections are considered, they may survive the expansion of the Universe and form a global condensate. This state of matter can be the origin of accelerating expansion of the Universe, generally called dark energy, and inflation in the early universe. Additionally, such a quantum pool may be the ultimate environment for decoherenceat shorter distances. If dark energy is a quantum coherent state, its dominant contribution to the total energy of the Universe at present provides a low entropy state which may be necessary as an initial condition for a new Big Bang in the framework of bouncing cosmology models.

  18. Coherent dynamics of Landau-Levels in modulation doped GaAs quantum wells at high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cunming; Paul, Jagannath; Reno, John; McGill, Stephen; Hilton, David; Karaiskaj, Denis

    By using two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy, we investigate the dynamics of Landau-Levels formed in modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells of 18 nm thickness at high magnetic fields and low temperature. The measurements show interesting dephasing dynamics and linewidth dependency as a function of the magnetic field. The work at USF and UAB was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number DMR-1409473. The work at NHMFL, FSU was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers DMR-1157490 and DMR-1229217. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Distribution of Quantum Coherence in Multipartite Systems.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Chandrashekar; Parthasarathy, Manikandan; Jambulingam, Segar; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-04-15

    The distribution of coherence in multipartite systems is examined. We use a new coherence measure with entropic nature and metric properties, based on the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence. The metric property allows for the coherence to be decomposed into various contributions, which arise from local and intrinsic coherences. We find that there are trade-off relations between the various contributions of coherence, as a function of parameters of the quantum state. In bipartite systems the coherence resides on individual sites or is distributed among the sites, which contribute in a complementary way. In more complex systems, the characteristics of the coherence can display more subtle changes with respect to the parameters of the quantum state. In the case of the XXZ Heisenberg model, the coherence changes from a monogamous to a polygamous nature. This allows us to define the shareability of coherence, leading to monogamy relations for coherence. PMID:27127948

  20. Quantum computation with optical coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, T.C.; Gilchrist, A.; Milburn, G.J.; Munro, W.J.; Glancy, S.

    2003-10-01

    We show that quantum computation circuits using coherent states as the logical qubits can be constructed from simple linear networks, conditional photon measurements, and 'small' coherent superposition resource states.

  1. Coherent Control of Quantum Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalleri, Andrea

    2011-10-05

    This talk addresses some recent work aimed at controlling the low-lying electrodynamics of quantum solids using strong field transients. The excitation of selected vibrational resonances to manipulate the many-body physics of one dimensional Mott Hubbard Insulators and to perturb competing orders in High-Tc superconductors is also covered. Finally, the speaker shows how the electrodynamics of layered superconductors can be driven through the orderparameter phase gradient, demonstrating ultrafast transistor action in a layered superconductor. Advances in the use of coherent optics, from tabletop sources to THz and x-ray free-electron lasers are also discussed.

  2. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-15

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  3. Coherent and incoherent contributions to the carrier-envelope phase control of wave packet localization in quantum double wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hader, K.; Engel, V.

    2014-05-14

    We study laser excitation processes in a double well potential. The possibility to influence localization via the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of a laser pulse is investigated for various situations which differ in the nature of the initial state prior to the laser interactions. In more detail, the CEP-dependence of asymmetries in the case where initially the system is described by localized wave packets, eigenstates, or incoherent mixtures are calculated and interpreted within time-dependent perturbation theory. It is investigated which contributions to the asymmetry exist and how they can be modified to reveal a more or less pronounced CEP-effect.

  4. Quantum coherence down the wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1987-09-01

    It is shown that pure quantum states will appear to decay into mixed states in any theory of quantum gravity that allows the topology of spacetime to be non simply connected. The reason is that the final state may contain little closed universes. There is no way one can detect the existence of these closed universes, or measure their quantum state. This means that the part of the final state that is in asymptotically flat spacetime, appears to be in a mixed state. The loss of quantum coherence in particle collisions is estimated. It comes from a wormhole connecting two asymptotically euclidean regions. The effect would be significant for scalar particles. It would make any scalar field that was not coupled to a Yang-Mills field constant throughout spacetime. It could have an important effect on Higgs particles but the effect would be small for particles of higher spin. I am grateful to Raymond Laflamme for checking my calculations and to Sidney Coleman for discussions. Further details will be published elsewhere.

  5. Room temperature quantum coherence in a potential molecular qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Katharina; Dengler, Dominik; Lenz, Samuel; Endeward, Burkhard; Jiang, Shang-Da; Neugebauer, Petr; van Slageren, Joris

    2014-10-01

    The successful development of a quantum computer would change the world, and current internet encryption methods would cease to function. However, no working quantum computer that even begins to rival conventional computers has been developed yet, which is due to the lack of suitable quantum bits. A key characteristic of a quantum bit is the coherence time. Transition metal complexes are very promising quantum bits, owing to their facile surface deposition and their chemical tunability. However, reported quantum coherence times have been unimpressive. Here we report very long quantum coherence times for a transition metal complex of 68 μs at low temperature (qubit figure of merit QM=3,400) and 1 μs at room temperature, much higher than previously reported values for such systems. We show that this achievement is because of the rigidity of the lattice as well as removal of nuclear spins from the vicinity of the magnetic ion.

  6. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, H; Doherty, A C

    2002-11-15

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  7. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics: Coherence in Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, H.; Doherty, A. C.

    2002-11-01

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  8. Strong Quantum Coherence between Fermi Liquid Mahan Excitons.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Stevens, C E; Liu, C; Dey, P; McIntyre, C; Turkowski, V; Reno, J L; Hilton, D J; Karaiskaj, D

    2016-04-15

    In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the interactions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the so-called "Mahan excitons." The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly reduced and any quantum coherence destroyed as a result of the screening and electron-electron interactions. Surprisingly, we observe strong quantum coherence between the heavy hole and light hole excitons. Such correlations are revealed by the dominating cross-diagonal peaks in both one-quantum and two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra. Theoretical simulations based on the optical Bloch equations where many-body effects are included phenomenologically reproduce well the experimental spectra. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations provide insight into the underlying physics and attribute the observed strong quantum coherence to a significantly reduced screening length and collective excitations of the many-electron system.

  9. Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Francisco Elohim

    2014-05-01

    Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.

  10. Coherent and incoherent tunneling in asymmetric double-well potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ranfagni, A.; Cacciari, I.; Vitali, M. A.; Viliani, G.; Moretti, P.; Ruggeri, R.

    2006-07-15

    The determination of the time scale for coherent and incoherent tunneling in asymmetric double-well potentials is reconsidered according to the instanton-bounce method. In particular, by making use of Feynman's transition elements, a different, relatively simpler approach to this problem, with respect to conventional quantum-mechanical treatments, is obtained.

  11. Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here, we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semiclassical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early Universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. The underlying quantum superpositions are typically very fragile but may persist in the early Universe giving rise to quantum interference phenomena in cosmology.

  12. Quantum coherence, wormholes, and the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, W.G. )

    1989-08-15

    Coleman has argued that if wormhole solutions to the Euclidean action coupled to matter dominate the Euclidean path integral for quantum gravity, they do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence for wave functions in our Universe. Furthermore, they also lead to the prediction that the ultimate'' cosmological constant is zero. I analyze the assumptions that go into this result and argue that the presence of wormhole solutions does lead to a loss of quantum coherence and, furthermore, completely destroys the Euclidean quantum theory by producing a highly nonlocal effective Euclidean action which is violently unbounded from below.

  13. Free coherent spinons in quantum square ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtis, Stefanos; Castelnovo, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of monopolelike excitations in quantum square ice, as captured by the strongly anisotropic spin-1/2 XXZ model on the checkerboard lattice. We obtain exact results for excitation dynamics in both analytically solvable effective models and a fully interacting model of quantum square ice on finite clusters. We find that the dispersive lower bound of the dynamic response of freely propagating spinons is recovered in the dynamic structure factor of the interacting system, yielding a marked fingerprint of coherent spinon dispersion. Our results provide unbiased evidence for the formation of coherent quasiparticles propagating freely in the correlated "vacuum" of quantum square ice.

  14. Quantum receiver beyond the standard quantum limit of coherent optical communication.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Kenji; Fukuda, Daiji; Fujii, Go; Inoue, Shuichiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2011-06-24

    The most efficient modern optical communication is known as coherent communication, and its standard quantum limit is almost reachable with current technology. Though it has been predicted for a long time that this standard quantum limit could be overcome via quantum mechanically optimized receivers, such a performance has not been experimentally realized so far. Here we demonstrate the first unconditional evidence surpassing the standard quantum limit of coherent optical communication. We implement a quantum receiver with a simple linear optics configuration and achieve more than 90% of the total detection efficiency of the system. Such an efficient quantum receiver will provide a new way of extending the distance of amplification-free channels, as well as of realizing quantum information protocols based on coherent states and the loophole-free test of quantum mechanics.

  15. Cohering and decohering power of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Azam; Karimipour, Vahid

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the concepts of cohering and decohering power of quantum channels. Using the axiomatic definition of the coherence measure, we show that the optimization required for calculations of these measures can be restricted to pure input states and hence greatly simplified. We then use two examples of this measure, one based on the skew information and the other based on the l1 norm; we find the cohering and decohering measures of a number of one-, two-, and n -qubit channels. Contrary to the view at first glance, it is seen that quantum channels can have cohering power. It is also shown that a specific property of a qubit unitary map is that it has equal cohering and decohering power in any basis. Finally, we derive simple relations between cohering and decohering powers of unitary qubit gates and their tensor products, results which have physically interesting implications.

  16. Coherent states in noncommutative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Geloun, J.; Scholtz, F. G.

    2009-04-15

    Gazeau-Klauder coherent states in noncommutative quantum mechanics are considered. We find that these states share similar properties to those of ordinary canonical coherent states in the sense that they saturate the related position uncertainty relation, obey a Poisson distribution, and possess a flat geometry. Using the natural isometry between the quantum Hilbert space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators and the tensor product of the classical configuration space and its dual, we reveal the inherent vector feature of these states.

  17. Emergence of coherence and the dynamics of quantum phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Simon; Friesdorf, Mathis; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Ronzheimer, Jens Philipp; Riera, Arnau; del Rey, Marco; Bloch, Immanuel; Eisert, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum phase transitions pose one of the most challenging problems in modern many-body physics. Here, we study a prototypical example in a clean and well-controlled ultracold atom setup by observing the emergence of coherence when crossing the Mott insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition. In the 1D Bose–Hubbard model, we find perfect agreement between experimental observations and numerical simulations for the resulting coherence length. We, thereby, perform a largely certified analog quantum simulation of this strongly correlated system reaching beyond the regime of free quasiparticles. Experimentally, we additionally explore the emergence of coherence in higher dimensions, where no classical simulations are available, as well as for negative temperatures. For intermediate quench velocities, we observe a power-law behavior of the coherence length, reminiscent of the Kibble–Zurek mechanism. However, we find nonuniversal exponents that cannot be captured by this mechanism or any other known model. PMID:25775515

  18. Quantifying the coherence of pure quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Grogan, Shane; Johnston, Nathaniel; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, several measures have been proposed for characterizing the coherence of a given quantum state. We derive several results that illuminate how these measures behave when restricted to pure states. Notably, we present an explicit characterization of the closest incoherent state to a given pure state under the trace distance measure of coherence. We then use this result to show that the states maximizing the trace distance of coherence are exactly the maximally coherent states. We define the trace distance of entanglement and show that it coincides with the trace distance of coherence for pure states. Finally, we give an alternate proof to a recent result that the ℓ1 measure of coherence of a pure state is never smaller than its relative entropy of coherence.

  19. Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van

    2007-09-15

    We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F{sub 1}=0.70{+-}0.02 and F{sub 2}=0.75{+-}0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F{sup (2)}=0.57{+-}0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states.

  20. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state. PMID:27367369

  1. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A.; Chitambar, E.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Winter, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.

  2. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.

  3. Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.

  4. Coherent spaces, Boolean rings and quantum gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent spaces spanned by a finite number of coherent states, are introduced. Their coherence properties are studied, using the Dirac contour representation. It is shown that the corresponding projectors resolve the identity, and that they transform into projectors of the same type, under displacement transformations, and also under time evolution. The set of these spaces, with the logical OR and AND operations is a distributive lattice, and with the logical XOR and AND operations is a Boolean ring (Stone's formalism). Applications of this Boolean ring into classical CNOT gates with n-ary variables, and also quantum CNOT gates with coherent states, are discussed.

  5. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.

  6. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.

  7. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability. PMID:27447493

  8. Energy cost of creating quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.

  9. Signatures of Quantum Coherences in Rydberg Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünwald, P.; Aßmann, M.; Heckötter, J.; Fröhlich, D.; Bayer, M.; Stolz, H.; Scheel, S.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent optical control of individual particles has been demonstrated both for atoms and semiconductor quantum dots. Here we demonstrate the emergence of quantum coherent effects in semiconductor Rydberg excitons in bulk Cu2O . Because of the spectral proximity between two adjacent Rydberg exciton states, a single-frequency laser may pump both resonances with little dissipation from the detuning. As a consequence, additional resonances appear in the absorption spectrum that correspond to dressed states consisting of two Rydberg exciton levels coupled to the excitonic vacuum, forming a V -type three-level system, but driven only by one laser light source. We show that the level of pure dephasing in this system is extremely low. These observations are a crucial step towards coherently controlled quantum technologies in a bulk semiconductor.

  10. Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field.

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Zaheen S; Brumer, Paul

    2014-02-21

    The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal "toy" model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.

  11. Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeq, Zaheen S.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-02-21

    The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal “toy” model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.

  12. Quantum Coherence Down the Wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    It is shown that pure quantum states will appear to decay into mixed states in any theory of quantum gravity that allows the topology of spacetime to be non simply connected. The reason is that the final state may contain little closed universes. There is no way one can detect the existence of these closed universe, or measure their quantum state. This means that the part of the final state that is in asymptotically flat spacetime, appears to be in a mixed state.

  13. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping.

    PubMed

    Martens, Craig C

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) "probability" of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  14. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Craig C.

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  15. Intense monochromatic terahertz electromagnetic waves from coherent GaAs-like longitudinal optical phonons in (11n)-oriented GaAs/In0.1Al0.9As strained multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hideo; Asai, Souta; Tsuruta, Syuichi; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that, in (11n)-oriented GaAs/In0.1Al0.9As strained multiple quantum wells, the terahertz electromagnetic wave from the coherent GaAs-like longitudinal optical (LO) phonon is enhanced by a piezoelectric field originating from a tensile strain in the GaAs layer. The presence of the tensile strain is confirmed using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The Fourier power spectrum of the terahertz waveform shows that the intensity of the terahertz band of the coherent GaAs-like LO phonon increases as the index n approaches 1. The amplitude of the GaAs-like LO phonon is proportional to the piezoelectric field in the strained GaAs layer.

  16. Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Saiyun; Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao; Serafini, Alessio

    2010-07-15

    The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

  17. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  18. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  19. Magnetic-field control of photon echo from the electron-trion system in a CdTe quantum well: shuffling coherence between optically accessible and inaccessible states.

    PubMed

    Langer, L; Poltavtsev, S V; Yugova, I A; Yakovlev, D R; Karczewski, G; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J; Akimov, I A; Bayer, M

    2012-10-12

    We report on magnetic field-induced oscillations of the photon echo signal from negatively charged excitons in a CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te semiconductor quantum well. The oscillatory signal is due to Larmor precession of the electron spin about a transverse magnetic field and depends sensitively on the polarization configuration of the exciting and refocusing pulses. The echo amplitude can be fully tuned from the maximum down to zero depending on the time delay between the two pulses and the magnetic-field strength. The results are explained in terms of the optical Bloch equations accounting for the spin level structure of electrons and trions.

  20. Coherent control in simple quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prants, Sergey V.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

  1. Low-temperature thermodynamics with quantum coherence

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhachar, Varun; Gour, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Thermal operations are an operational model of non-equilibrium quantum thermodynamics. In the absence of coherence between energy levels, exact state transition conditions under thermal operations are known in terms of a mathematical relation called thermo-majorization. But incorporating coherence has turned out to be challenging, even under the relatively tractable model wherein all Gibbs state-preserving quantum channels are included. Here we find a mathematical generalization of thermal operations at low temperatures, ‘cooling maps', for which we derive the necessary and sufficient state transition condition. Cooling maps that saturate recently discovered bounds on coherence transfer are realizable as thermal operations, motivating us to conjecture that all cooling maps are thermal operations. Cooling maps, though a less-conservative generalization to thermal operations, are more tractable than Gibbs-preserving operations, suggesting that cooling map-like models at general temperatures could be of use in gaining insight about thermal operations. PMID:26138621

  2. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerlander, P.; Anders, J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.

  3. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, P; Anders, J

    2016-02-26

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.

  4. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, P; Anders, J

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed. PMID:26916503

  5. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kammerlander, P.; Anders, J.

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed. PMID:26916503

  6. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    PubMed

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  7. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    PubMed

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  8. Quantum measurement in coherence-vector representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We consider the quantum measurements on a finite quantum system in coherence-vector representation. In this representation, all the density operators of an N-level ( N ⩾ 2) quantum system constitute a convex set M (N) embedded in an ( N 2 - 1)-dimensional Euclidean space R^{N^2 - 1}, and we find that an orthogonal measurement is an ( N - 1)-dimensional projector operator on R^{N^2 - 1}. The states unchanged by an orthogonal measurement form an ( N - 1)-dimensional simplex, and in the case when N is prime or power of prime, the space of the density operator is a direct sum of ( N + 1) such simplices. The mathematical description of quantum measurement is plain in this representation, and this may have further applications in quantum information processing.

  9. Strong quantum coherence between Fermi liquid Mahan excitons

    DOE PAGES

    Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Liu, C.; Dey, P.; McIntyre, C.; Turkowski, V.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2016-04-14

    In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the interactions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the so-called “Mahan excitons.” The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly reduced and any quantum coherence destroyed as a result of the screening and electron-electron interactions. Surprisingly, we observe strong quantum coherence between the heavy hole and light hole excitons. Such correlations are revealed by the dominating cross-diagonal peaks in both one-quantum and two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra. Theoretical simulations based on the opticalmore » Bloch equations where many-body effects are included phenomenologically reproduce well the experimental spectra. Furthermore, time-dependent density functional theory calculations provide insight into the underlying physics and attribute the observed strong quantum coherence to a significantly reduced screening length and collective excitations of the many-electron system.« less

  10. Strong Quantum Coherence between Fermi Liquid Mahan Excitons.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Stevens, C E; Liu, C; Dey, P; McIntyre, C; Turkowski, V; Reno, J L; Hilton, D J; Karaiskaj, D

    2016-04-15

    In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the interactions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the so-called "Mahan excitons." The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly reduced and any quantum coherence destroyed as a result of the screening and electron-electron interactions. Surprisingly, we observe strong quantum coherence between the heavy hole and light hole excitons. Such correlations are revealed by the dominating cross-diagonal peaks in both one-quantum and two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra. Theoretical simulations based on the optical Bloch equations where many-body effects are included phenomenologically reproduce well the experimental spectra. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations provide insight into the underlying physics and attribute the observed strong quantum coherence to a significantly reduced screening length and collective excitations of the many-electron system. PMID:27127985

  11. Quantum Coherence Arguments for Cosmological Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, James; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    Homogeneity and correlations in the observed CMB are indicative of some form of cosmological coherence in early times. Quantum coherence in the early universe would be expected to give space-like phase coherence to any effects sourced to those times. If dark energy de-coherence is assumed to occur when the rate of expansion of the relevant cosmological scale parameter in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations is no longer supra-luminal, a critical energy density is immediately defined. It is shown that the general class of dynamical models so defined necessarily requires a spatially flat cosmology in order to be consistent with observed structure formation. The basic assumption is that the dark energy density which is fixed during de-coherence is to be identified with the cosmological constant. It is shown for the entire class of models that the expected amplitude of fluctuations driven by the dark energy de-coherence process is of the order needed to evolve into the fluctuations observed in cosmic microwave background radiation and galactic clustering. The densities involved during de-coherence which correspond to the measured dark energy density turn out to be of the electroweak symmetry restoration scale. In an inflationary cosmology, this choice of the scale parameter in the FL equations directly relates the scale of dark energy decoherence to the De Sitter scales (associated with the positive cosmological constants) at both early and late times.

  12. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  13. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  14. Irreversible degradation of quantum coherence under relativistic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum coherence under Unruh thermal noise and seek under which condition the coherence can be frozen in a relativistic setting. We find that the frozen condition is either (i) the initial state is prepared as an incoherence state or (ii) the detectors have no interaction with the external field. That is to say, the decoherence of the detectors' quantum state is irreversible under the influence of thermal noise induced by Unruh radiation. It is shown that quantum coherence approaches zero only in the limit of an infinite acceleration, while quantum entanglement could reduce to zero for a finite acceleration. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence is better than entanglement under the influence of the atom-field interaction for an extremely large acceleration. Therefore, quantum coherence is more robust than entanglement in an accelerating system and the coherence-type quantum resources are more accessible for relativistic quantum information processing tasks.

  15. Quantum Zeno control of coherent dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Khripkov, C.; Vardi, A.

    2011-08-15

    We study the effect of dephasing on the coherent dissociation dynamics of an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that when phase-noise intensity is strong with respect to the inverse correlation time of the stimulated process, dissociation is suppressed via a Bose enhanced quantum Zeno effect. This is complementary to the quantum Zeno control of phase-diffusion in a bimodal condensate by symmetric noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220403 (2008)] in that the controlled process here is phase formation and the required decoherence mechanism for its suppression is purely phase noise.

  16. Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.

    PubMed

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-02-01

    We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.

  17. Quantum memory with millisecond coherence in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Wang, Chen; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Hatridge, Michael J.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    Significant advances in coherence render superconducting quantum circuits a viable platform for fault-tolerant quantum computing. To further extend capabilities, highly coherent quantum systems could act as quantum memories for these circuits. A useful quantum memory must be rapidly addressable by Josephson-junction-based artificial atoms, while maintaining superior coherence. We demonstrate a superconducting microwave cavity architecture that is highly robust against major sources of loss that are encountered in the engineering of circuit QED systems. The architecture allows for storage of quantum superpositions in a resonator on the millisecond scale, while strong coupling between the resonator and a transmon qubit enables control, encoding, and readout at MHz rates. This extends the maximum available coherence time attainable in superconducting circuits by almost an order of magnitude compared to earlier hardware. Our design is an ideal platform for studying coherent quantum optics and marks an important step towards hardware-efficient quantum computing in Josephson-junction-based quantum circuits.

  18. Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2008-11-01

    A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.

  19. Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states for quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sua Yongmeng; Scanlon, Erin; Beaulieu, Travis; Bollen, Viktor; Lee, Kim Fook

    2011-03-15

    Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states are observed between two parties through a novel detection scheme, which can be used as a supplement to the existence decoy-state Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the differential phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we generate bipartite correlations of weak coherent states using weak local oscillator fields in two spatially separated balanced homodyne detections. We employ a nonlinearity of postmeasurement method to obtain the bipartite correlations from two single-field interferences at individual homodyne measurements. This scheme is then used to demonstrate bits correlations between two parties over a distance of 10 km through a transmission fiber. We believe that the scheme can add another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution.

  20. Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.

  1. Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wenchong

    Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have

  2. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  3. Quantum theory of optical coherence of nonstationary light in the space-frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Wolf, Emil

    2010-10-15

    Classical theories of coherence for statistically stationary, as well as, nonstationary optical fields are frequently discussed both in the space-time and in the space-frequency domains. However, the quantum treatment of coherence theory is generally carried out in the space-time domain. In this paper, we present a quantum-mechanical theory of first-order coherence for statistically nonstationary light in the space-frequency domain.

  4. Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence in Finite Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, Davide

    2014-10-01

    Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

  5. Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Davide

    2014-10-24

    Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

  6. Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Davide

    2014-10-24

    Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903

  7. Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise.

  8. Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891

  9. Loss of coherence and memory effects in quantum dynamics Loss of coherence and memory effects in quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Scholes, Greg

    2012-08-01

    The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, especially in metrology, in the developments of nano-devices and in understanding highly efficient transport processes. The consequent theoretical and experimental outcomes are now driving new experimental tests of quantum mechanical effects with unprecedented accuracies that carry with themselves the concrete possibility of novel technological spin-offs. Indeed, the manifold advances in quantum optics, atom and ion manipulations, spintronics and nano-technologies are allowing direct experimental verifications of new ideas and their applications to a large variety of fields. All of these activities have revitalized interest in quantum mechanics and created a unique framework in which theoretical and experimental physics have become fruitfully tangled with information theory, computer, material and life sciences. This special issue aims to provide an overview of what is currently being pursued in the field and of what kind of theoretical reference frame is being developed together with the experimental and theoretical results. It consists of three sections: 1. Memory effects in quantum dynamics and quantum channels 2. Driven open quantum systems 3. Experiments concerning quantum coherence and/or decoherence The first two sections are theoretical and concerned with open quantum systems. In all of the above mentioned topics, the presence of an external environment needs to be taken into account, possibly in the presence of external controls and/or forcing, leading to driven open quantum systems. The open system paradigm has proven to be central in the analysis and understanding of many basic issues of quantum mechanics, such as the measurement problem, quantum communication and coherence, as well as for an ever growing number of applications. The theory is, however, well-settled only when the so-called Markovian or memoryless

  10. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. F.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a lot of interest in III-V long wavelength detectors in the lambda = 8 to 12 micron spectral range as alternatives to HgCdTe. Recently high performance quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been demonstrated. They have a responsivity of R = 1.2 A/W, and a detectivity D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at 68 K for a QWIP with a cutoff wavelength of lambda sub c = 10.7 micron and a R = 1.0 A/W, and D(exp asterisk) sub lambda = 2 times 10(exp 10) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W at T = 77 K for lambda sub c = 8.4 micron. These detectors consist of 50 periods of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown layers doped n = 1 times 10(exp 18)cm(exp -3) having GaAs quantum well widths of 40 A and barrier widths of 500 A of Al sub x Ga sub 1-x As. Due to the well-established GaAs growth and processing techniques, these detectors have the potential for large, highly uniform, low cost, high performance arrays as well as monolithic integration with GaAs electronics, high speed and radiation hardness. Latest results on the transport physics, device performance and arrays are discussed.

  11. Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2008-11-01

    A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed. PMID:18978887

  12. External cavity coherent quantum cascade laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallon, Raphael; Parvitte, Bertrand; Bizet, Laurent; De Naurois, Guy Mael; Simozrag, Bouzid; Maisons, Grégory; Carras, Mathieu; Zeninari, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a coherent quantum cascade laser array that consists in the fabrication of multi-stripes array. The main characteristic of this kind of source is that an anti-symmetrical signature with two lobes is obtained in the far field. Taking advantage of this drawback, a grating is aligned with one lobe of the source. Thus a Littrow configuration is designed that permit to obtain a wide tunability of the source. First results are presented and a preliminary test of the source is realized by measurements on acetone.

  13. Single-atom based coherent quantum interference device structure.

    PubMed

    Naydenov, Borislav; Rungger, Ivan; Mantega, Mauro; Sanvito, Stefano; Boland, John J

    2015-05-13

    We describe the fabrication, operation principles, and simulation of a coherent single-atom quantum interference device (QID) structure on Si(100) controlled by the properties of single atoms. The energy and spatial distribution of the wave functions associated with the device are visualized by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and the amplitude and phase of the evanescent wave functions that couple into the quantum well states are directly measured, including the action of an electrostatic gate. Density functional theory simulations were employed to simulate the electronic structure of the device structure, which is in excellent agreement with the measurements. Simulations of device transmission demonstrate that our coherent single-atom QID can have ON-OFF ratios in excess of 10(3) with potentially minimal power dissipation.

  14. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-11-01

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  15. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  16. Single-atom based coherent quantum interference device structure.

    PubMed

    Naydenov, Borislav; Rungger, Ivan; Mantega, Mauro; Sanvito, Stefano; Boland, John J

    2015-05-13

    We describe the fabrication, operation principles, and simulation of a coherent single-atom quantum interference device (QID) structure on Si(100) controlled by the properties of single atoms. The energy and spatial distribution of the wave functions associated with the device are visualized by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and the amplitude and phase of the evanescent wave functions that couple into the quantum well states are directly measured, including the action of an electrostatic gate. Density functional theory simulations were employed to simulate the electronic structure of the device structure, which is in excellent agreement with the measurements. Simulations of device transmission demonstrate that our coherent single-atom QID can have ON-OFF ratios in excess of 10(3) with potentially minimal power dissipation. PMID:25826690

  17. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  18. Robustness of Coherence: An Operational and Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Carmine; Bromley, Thomas R; Cianciaruso, Marco; Piani, Marco; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-04-15

    Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavor for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. Here, the robustness of coherence is defined and proven to be a full monotone in the context of the recently introduced resource theories of quantum coherence. The measure is shown to be observable, as it can be recast as the expectation value of a coherence witness operator for any quantum state. The robustness of coherence is evaluated analytically on relevant classes of states, and an efficient semidefinite program that computes it on general states is given. An operational interpretation is finally provided: the robustness of coherence quantifies the advantage enabled by a quantum state in a phase discrimination task. PMID:27127946

  19. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    PubMed

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  20. Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, Ross; Goold, John; Heaney, Libby; Farrow, Tristan; Vedral, Vlatko

    2012-09-01

    Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior.

  1. Ballistic effects and intersubband excitations in multiple quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, H.; Schönbein, C.; Schwarz, K.; Walther, M.

    1998-07-01

    We have studied the transport properties of electrons in asymmetric quantum well structures upon far-infrared optical excitation of carriers from the lowest subband into the continuum. Here the photocurrent consists of a coherent component originating from ballistic transport upon excitation, and of an incoherent part associated with asymmetric diffusion and relaxation processes, which occur after the coherence has been lost. The signature of the coherent contribution is provided by a sign reversal of the photocurrent upon changing the excitation energy. This sign reversal arises from the energy-dependent interference between continuum states, which have a twofold degeneracy characterized by positive and negative momenta. The interference effect also allows us to estimate the coherent mean free path ( >20 nm at 77K). In specifically designed device structures, we use both the coherent and incoherent components in order to achieve a pronounced photovoltaic infrared response for detector applications.

  2. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  3. Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.

  4. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would

  5. Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Peter

    Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells

  6. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Scholak, Torsten Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a “coherent control interferometer” as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of “quantum delayed-choice” in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  7. Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.

    PubMed

    Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.

  8. Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment

    PubMed Central

    Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin–photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704

  9. Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.

    PubMed

    Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704

  10. Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.

  11. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  12. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  13. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-08-25

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  14. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  15. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Takeno, Yuishi; Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira

    2007-09-15

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51{+-}0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any nonclassical effect. For squeezed and entangled states the effect may be larger but depends critically on the state purity.

  16. Measuring finite quantum geometries via quasi-coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, Lukas; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or ‘fuzzy’ geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional Hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in {{{R}}}d including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.

  17. Quantum Correlations, Separability, and Quantum Coherence Length in Equilibrium Many-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpetti, Daniele; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    Nonlocality is a fundamental trait of quantum many-body systems, both at the level of pure states, as well as at the level of mixed states. Because of nonlocality, mixed states of any two subsystems are correlated in a stronger way than what can be accounted for by considering the correlated probabilities of occupying some microstates. In the case of equilibrium mixed states, we explicitly build two-point quantum correlation functions, which capture the specific, superior correlations of quantum systems at finite temperature, and which are directly accessible to experiments when correlating measurable properties. When nonvanishing, these correlation functions rule out a precise form of separability of the equilibrium state. In particular, we show numerically that quantum correlation functions generically exhibit a finite quantum coherence length, dictating the characteristic distance over which degrees of freedom cannot be considered as separable. This coherence length is completely disconnected from the correlation length of the system—as it remains finite even when the correlation length of the system diverges at finite temperature—and it unveils the unique spatial structure of quantum correlations.

  18. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media.

  19. Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna

    2003-03-01

    From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics

  20. Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan

    2007-07-15

    To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

  1. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, H.; Cheng, J.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam.

  2. Coherence susceptibility as a probe of quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Jun; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a coherence susceptibility method, based on the fact that it signals quantum fluctuations, for identifying quantum phase transitions, which are induced by quantum fluctuations. This method requires no prior knowledge of order parameter, and there is no need for careful considerations concerning the choice of a bipartition of the system. It can identify different types of quantum phase transition points exactly. At finite temperatures, where quantum criticality is influenced by thermal fluctuations, our method can pinpoint the temperature frame of quantum criticality, which perfectly coincides with recent experiments.

  3. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  4. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine.

    PubMed

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  5. Coherent States of Quantum Free Particle on the Spherical Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehdashti, Shahram; Roknizadeh, Rasoul; Mahdifar, Ali; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum free particle on the spherical space by applying da costa approach for quantum particle on the curved space. We obtain the discrete energy eigenvalues and associated normalized eigenfunctions of the free particle on the sphere. In addition, we introduce the Gazeau-Klauder coherent states of free particle on the sphere. Then, the Gaussian coherent states is defined, which is used to describe the localized particle on the spherical space. Finally, we study the relation between the f-deformed coherent states and Gazeau-Klauder ones for this system.

  6. Quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers: comparison to quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2016-03-01

    We review a microscopic laser theory for quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers, in which carrier collisions are treated at the level of quantum kinetic equations. The computed characteristics of such a quantum-dot active material are compared to a state-of-the-art quantum-well quantum cascade laser. We find that the current requirement to achieve a comparable gain-length product is reduced compared to that of the quantum-well quantum cascade laser.

  7. Focus on coherent control of complex quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Birgitta; Milburn, Gerard

    2015-10-01

    The rapid growth of quantum information sciences over the past few decades has fueled a corresponding rise in high profile applications in fields such as metrology, sensors, spintronics, and attosecond dynamics, in addition to quantum information processing. Realizing this potential of today’s quantum science and the novel technologies based on this requires a high degree of coherent control of quantum systems. While early efforts in systematizing methods for high fidelity quantum control focused on isolated or closed quantum systems, recent advances in experimental design, measurement and monitoring, have stimulated both need and interest in the control of complex or large scale quantum systems that may also be coupled to an interactive environment or reservoir. This focus issue brings together new theoretical and experimental work addressing the formulation and implementation of quantum control for a broad range of applications in quantum science and technology today.

  8. Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate

    PubMed Central

    Kira, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom–atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom–atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies. PMID:25767044

  9. Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate.

    PubMed

    Kira, M

    2015-03-13

    Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom-atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom-atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies.

  10. Quantum Detection and Invisibility in Coherent Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Fransson, J.

    2010-04-28

    We address quantum invisibility in the context of electronics in nanoscale quantum structures. In analogy with metamaterials, we use the freedom of design that quantum corrals provide and show that quantum mechanical objects can be hidden inside the corral, with respect to inelastic electron scattering spectroscopy in combination with scanning tunneling microscopy, and we propose a design strategy. A simple illustration of the invisibility is given in terms of an elliptic quantum corral containing a molecule, with a local vibrational mode, at one of the foci. Our work has implications to quantum information technology and presents new tools for nonlocal quantum detection and distinguishing between different molecules.

  11. Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.

    2006-01-15

    We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.

  12. Fast coherent manipulation of quantum states in open systems.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xia, Yan; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Jiang, Yong-Yuan

    2016-09-19

    We present a method to manipulate quantum states in open systems. It is shown that a high-fidelity quantum state may be generated by designing an additional Hamiltonian without rotating wave approximation. Moreover, we find that a coherent transfer is possible using quantum feedback control even when feedback parameters and noise strength can not be exactly controlled. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing the shortcuts to adiabatic passage beyond rotating wave approximation in open systems. PMID:27661905

  13. Considerations for the extension of coherent optical processors into the quantum computing regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Rupert C. D.; Birch, Philip M.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2016-04-01

    Previously we have examined the similarities of the quantum Fourier transform to the classical coherent optical implementation of the Fourier transform (R. Young et al, Proc SPIE Vol 87480, 874806-1, -11). In this paper, we further consider how superposition states can be generated on coherent optical wave fronts, potentially allowing coherent optical processing hardware architectures to be extended into the quantum computing regime. In particular, we propose placing the pixels of a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) individually in a binary superposition state and illuminating them with a coherent wave front from a conventional (but low intensity) laser source in order to make a so-called `interaction free' measurement. In this way, the quantum object, i.e. the individual pixels of the SLM in their superposition states, and the illuminating wavefront would become entangled. We show that if this were possible, it would allow the extension of coherent processing architectures into the quantum computing regime and we give an example of such a processor configured to recover one of a known set of images encrypted using the well-known coherent optical processing technique of employing a random Fourier plane phase encryption mask which classically requires knowledge of the corresponding phase conjugate key to decrypt the image. A quantum optical computer would allow interrogation of all possible phase masks in parallel and so immediate decryption.

  14. Quantum correlations and coherence in spin-1 Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvezzi, A. L.; Karpat, G.; ćakmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.; Debarba, T.; Vianna, R. O.

    2016-05-01

    We explore quantum and classical correlations along with coherence in the ground states of spin-1 Heisenberg chains, namely the one-dimensional XXZ model and the one-dimensional bilinear biquadratic model, with the techniques of density matrix renormalization group theory. Exploiting the tools of quantum information theory, that is, by studying quantum discord, quantum mutual information, and three recently introduced coherence measures in the reduced density matrix of two nearest neighbor spins in the bulk, we investigate the quantum phase transitions and special symmetry points in these models. We point out the relative strengths and weaknesses of correlation and coherence measures as figures of merit to witness the quantum phase transitions and symmetry points in the considered spin-1 Heisenberg chains. In particular, we demonstrate that, as none of the studied measures can detect the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the XXZ model, they appear to be able to signal the existence of the same type of transition in the biliear biquadratic model. However, we argue that what is actually detected by the measures here is the SU(3) symmetry point of the model rather than the infinite-order quantum phase transition. Moreover, we show in the XXZ model that examining even single site coherence can be sufficient to spotlight the second-order phase transition and the SU(2) symmetry point.

  15. Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna

    2003-03-01

    From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics

  16. Persistent Inter-Excitonic Quantum Coherence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    The creation and manipulation of quantum superpositions is a fundamental goal for the development of materials with novel optoelectronic properties. In this letter, we report persistent (~80 fs lifetime) quantum coherence between the 1S and 1P excitonic states in zinc-blende colloidal CdSe quantum dots at room temperature, measured using Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy. We demonstrate that this quantum coherence manifests as an intradot phenomenon, the frequency of which depends on the size of the dot excited within the ensemble of QDs. We model the lifetime of the coherence and demonstrate that correlated interexcitonic fluctuations preserve relative phase between excitonic states. These observations suggest an avenue for engineering long-lived interexcitonic quantum coherence in colloidal quantum dots. PMID:24719679

  17. Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I. K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.

    2005-06-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is a new experimental method for studying perfect and imperfect crystals. Instead of incoherent averaging, a coherent sum of amplitudes produces a coherent diffraction pattern originating from the real space arrangement of the sample. We applied this method for studying quantum dot samples that were specially fabricated GeSi islands of nanometer size and in a regular array embedded into a Si substrate. A coherent beam was focused by special Kirkpatric-Baez optics to a micrometer size. In the experiment it was observed that such a microfocused coherent beam produced coherent diffraction pattern with Bragg spots and broad diffuse maxima. The diffuse peak breaks up into a fine speckle pattern. The grazing incidence diffraction pattern has a typical shape resulting from the periodic array of identical islands. We used this diffraction pattern to reconstruct the average shape of the islands using a model independent approach.

  18. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  19. Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2014-03-31

    The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins.

  20. Coherent states and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debergh, Nathalie

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that Parafermi and Parabose statistics are natural extensions of the usual Fermi and Bose ones, enhancing trilinear (anti)commutation relations instead of bilinear ones. Due to this generalization, positive parameters appear: the so-called orders of paraquantization p (= 1, 2, 3, ...) and h sub 0 (= 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...), respectively, the first value leading in each case to the usual statistics. The superpostion of the parabosonic and parafermionic operators gives rise to parasupermultiplets for which mixed trilinear relations have already been studied leading to two (nonequivalent) sets: the relative Parabose and the relative Parafermi ones. For the specific values p = 1 = 2h sub 0, these sets reduce to the well known supersymmetry. Coherent states associated with this last model have been recently put in evidence through the annihilation operator point of view and the group theoretical approach or displacement operator context. We propose to realize the corresponding studies within the new context p = 2 = 2h sub 0, being then directly extended to any order of paraquantization.

  1. Ultrabroad stimulated emission from quantum well laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huolei; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Mi, Junping; Wang, Jiaqi; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing; Ding, Ying; Chen, Weixi

    2014-06-23

    Observation of ultrabroad stimulated emission from a simplex quantum well based laser at the center wavelength of 1.06 μm is reported. With increased injection current, spectrum as broad as 38 nm and a pulsed output power of ∼50 mW have been measured. The experiments show evidence of an unexplored broad emission regime in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum well material system, which still needs theoretical modeling and further analysis.

  2. Generation of infrared entangled light in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Li-Li; Huang, Pei

    2010-12-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve two-mode CV entanglement with the frequencies of entangled modes in the infrared range in an asymmetric semiconductor double-quantum-wells (DQW), where the required quantum coherence is obtained by inducing the corresponding intersubband transitions (ISBTs) with a classical field. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the entanglement period can be prolonged via enhancing the intensity of classical field, and the generation of entanglement doesn't depend intensively on the initial condition of system in our scheme. Moreover, we also show that a bipartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in our scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve infrared entangled light in the semiconductor nanostructure, which may have significant impact on the progress of solid-state quantum information theory.

  3. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-30

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  4. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  5. Promoting Conceptual Coherence in Quantum Learning through Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-02-01

    In order to explain phenomena at the quantum level, scientists use multiple representations in verbal, pictorial, mathematical, and computational forms. Conceptual coherence among these multiple representations is used as an analytical framework to describe student learning trajectories in quantum physics. A series of internet-based curriculum modules are designed to address topics in quantum mechanics, semiconductor physics, and nano-scale engineering applications. In these modules, students are engaged in inquiry-based activities situated in a highly interactive computational modeling environment. This study was conducted in an introductory level solid state physics course. Based on in-depth interviews with 13 students, methods for identifying conceptual coherence as a function of students' level of understanding are presented. Pre-post test comparisons of 20 students in the course indicate a statistically significant improvement in students' conceptual coherence of understanding quantum phenomena before and after the course, Effect Size = 1.29 SD. Additional analyses indicate that students who responded to the modules more coherently improved their conceptual coherence to a greater extent than those who did less to the modules after controlling for their course grades.

  6. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui

    Turbulence-free Imaging System, which provides high contrast as well as high resolution. Based on the experiments of the simulations of quantum interference in thermal light and the dramatically improvement of the contrast in quantum imaging, this study of the high-order coherence of thermal light has a great significance both for fundamental physics and applications.

  7. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis

    2013-02-07

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  8. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Maniadis, Panagiotis; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  9. Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.

  10. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    SciTech Connect

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-12-04

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  11. Finite-temperature scaling of quantum coherence near criticality in a spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiwen; Zhang, Zhijun; Gong, Longyan; Zhao, Shengmei

    2016-06-01

    We explore quantum coherence, inherited from Wigner-Yanase skew information, to analyze quantum criticality in the anisotropic XY chain model at finite temperature. Based on the exact solutions of the Hamiltonian, the quantum coherence contained in a nearest-neighbor spin pairs reduced density matrix ρ is obtained. The first-order derivative of the quantum coherence is non-analytic around the critical point at sufficient low temperature. The finite-temperature scaling behavior and the universality are verified numerically. In particular, the quantum coherence can also detect the factorization transition in such a model at sufficient low temperature. We also show that quantum coherence contained in distant spin pairs can characterize quantum criticality and factorization phenomena at finite temperature. Our results imply that quantum coherence can serve as an efficient indicator of quantum criticality in such a model and shed considerable light on the relationships between quantum phase transitions and quantum information theory at finite temperature.

  12. Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, G. R. M.; Bonifacio, R.

    2013-03-15

    We extend previous analyses of spontaneous emission in a quantum free electron laser (QFEL) and competition between spontaneous and coherent QFEL emission to include a broad distribution of photon frequencies and momenta appropriate for spontaneous undulator radiation. We show that although the predictions of monochromatic and broadband models predict different electron momentum distributions for the quantum regime due to spontaneous emission alone after many photon emissions, the inclusion of broadband spontaneous emission has a negligible effect on the competition between spontaneous and coherent emission in the QFEL. Numerical results from both models are well described by the same condition for the threshold/critical value of spontaneous emission rate.

  13. Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Munhoz, P. P.; Semiao, F. L.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2010-04-15

    We propose a particular encoding for bipartite entangled states derived from multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECSs). We investigate the effects of amplitude damping on the entanglement content of this bipartite state, as well as its usefulness as a quantum channel for teleportation. We find interesting relationships among the amplitude of the coherent states constituting the CTECSs, the number of subsystems forming the logical qubits (redundancy), and the extent to which amplitude damping affects the entanglement of the channel. For instance, in the sense of sudden death of entanglement, given a fixed value of the initial coherent state amplitude, the entanglement life span is shortened if redundancy is increased.

  14. Correlation and coherence in quantum-dot cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Geza

    In this thesis we investigate the role of correlation and coherence in two possible realizations of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA): realizations as a semiconductor multi-quantum-dot structure and as a metal-island single electron tunneling circuit. The two are different from the point of view of the underlying physics. The metal island circuits are very strongly connected to the heat bath and they can be modeled semi-classically, using classical quantities such as charging energy and capacitance. To model the semiconductor realization, a quantum mechanical treatment is necessary. The quantum mechanical state of the cells evolves coherently, at least for time scales smaller than the decoherence time. In the first part of the thesis the theory of metal island circuits is used to design a cell structure permitting adiabatic clocking. It is also used to analyze the conductance suppression of coupled double-dots and reproduce the corresponding experimental results from the theory by modeling coherent electron motion inside the QCA cell. In the second part the semiconductor QCA realization is studied. Using Hartree-Fock approximation the basic phenomena in the one dimensional QCA array (large and small amplitude polarization wave propagation and collision) is investigated. The approach is also used to define Quantum Cellular Neural Networks. In the last part of the thesis intermediate approximations are constructed between the Hartree-Fock and the exact model. An alternative of the density matrix description, the coherence vector formalism is reviewed and used to investigate possibility of quantum computing with QCA. Using the coherence vector formalism as a basis an approximation is presented that includes all two-point correlations while neglects the higher order correlations. Another approach is shown for improving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock model for a majority gate by including correlation effects. The method fixes the qualitatively wrong results obtained

  15. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph

    PubMed Central

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media. PMID:26311434

  16. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    DOEpatents

    Harrison; Neil , Singleton; John , Migliori; Albert

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  17. Optical injection enables coherence resonance in quantum-dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, D.; Aust, R.; Lingnau, B.; Schöll, E.; Lüdge, K.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate that optically injected semiconductor quantum-dot lasers operated in the frequency-locked regime exhibit the counterintuitive effect of coherence resonance, i.e., the regularity of noise-induced spiking is a non-monotonic function of the spontaneous emission noise, and it is optimally correlated at a non-zero value of the noise intensity. We uncover the mechanism of coherence resonance from a microscopically based model of the quantum-dot laser structure, and show that it is related to excitability under optical injection and to a saddle-node infinite period (SNIPER) bifurcation occurring for small injection strength at the border of the frequency locking regime. By a model reduction we argue that the phenomenon of coherence resonance is generic for a wide class of optically injected lasers.

  18. On the semiclassical description of quantum coherence in thermal rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiong; Wang, Haobin; Miller, William H.

    1998-09-01

    An earlier paper of ours [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9726 (1998)] used an approximate (linearized) version of the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of unimolecular isomerization, namely a 1-d double well potential coupled to an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, obtaining excellent agreement with accurate quantum results for this system. Here we analyze this linearized approximation (LA) further, however, and show that it is not capable of describing quantum interference/coherence effects in the longer time recrossing behavior of the isomerization dynamics. (The recrossing effects seen in our earlier work were due to classical mechanics.) To accentuate quantum effects in the recrossing dynamics, the present article considers the double well potential without the harmonic bath, using both the LA and the full SC-IVR. The results of the calculations show that the flux correlation functions given by the LA agrees well with the exact quantum correlation function for times up to ≈ℏβ, meaning that it describes quantum effects in the direct or transition state theory like dynamics accurately. For the longer time recrossing dynamics, however, it agrees with the classical rather than the quantum correlation function, i.e., it does not describe quantum coherence effects on this time scale. The full SC-IVR calculations, however, are in reasonably good agreement with the quantum correlation function for these longer times.

  19. On the semiclassical description of quantum coherence in thermal rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Wang, H.; Miller, W.H. |

    1998-09-01

    An earlier paper of ours [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 9726 (1998)] used an approximate (linearized) version of the semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) to calculate reactive flux correlation functions for a model of unimolecular isomerization, namely a 1-d double well potential coupled to an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, obtaining excellent agreement with accurate quantum results for this system. Here we analyze this linearized approximation (LA) further, however, and show that it is not capable of describing quantum interference/coherence effects in the longer time recrossing behavior of the isomerization dynamics. (The recrossing effects seen in our earlier work were due to classical mechanics.) To accentuate quantum effects in the recrossing dynamics, the present article considers the double well potential without the harmonic bath, using both the LA and the full SC-IVR. The results of the calculations show that the flux correlation functions given by the LA agrees well with the exact quantum correlation function for times up to {approx}{h_bar}{beta}, meaning that it describes quantum effects in the direct or transition state theory like dynamics accurately. For the longer time recrossing dynamics, however, it agrees with the {ital classical} rather than the {ital quantum} correlation function, i.e., it does not describe quantum coherence effects on this time scale. The full SC-IVR calculations, however, are in reasonably good agreement with the quantum correlation function for these longer times. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Photovoltaic driven multiple quantum well optical modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Multiple quantum well (MQW) structures (12) are utilized to provide real-time, reliable, high-performance, optically-addressed spatial-light modulators (SLM) (10). The optically-addressed SLM comprises a vertical stack of quantum well layers (12a) within the penetration depth of an optical write signal 18, a plurality of space charge barriers (12b) having predetermined tunneling times by control of doping and thickness. The material comprising the quantum well layers has a lower bandgap than that of the space charge barrier layers. The write signal modulates a read signal (20). The modulation sensitivity of the device is high and no external voltage source is required. In a preferred embodiment, the SLM having interleaved doped semiconductor layers for driving the MQW photovoltaically is characterized by the use of a shift analogous to the Moss-Burnstein shift caused by the filling of two-dimensional states in the multiple quantum wells, thus allowing high modulation sensitivity in very narrow wells. Arrays (30) may be formed with a plurality of the modulators.

  1. Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong

    2015-01-01

    While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893

  2. Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong

    2015-09-01

    While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime.

  3. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  4. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337

  5. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Anthony J; Lee, James P; Ellis, David J P; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F; Griffths, Jonathan P; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit.

  6. Cavity-enhanced coherent light scattering from a quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Ellis, David J. P.; Meany, Thomas; Murray, Eoin; Floether, Frederik F.; Griffths, Jonathan P.; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Shields, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of coherent and indistinguishable single photons is a critical step for photonic quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. A promising system is the resonant optical excitation of solid-state emitters embedded in wavelength-scale three-dimensional cavities. However, the challenge here is to reject the unwanted excitation to a level below the quantum signal. We demonstrate this using coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micropillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light that is resonantly scattered toward unity, generating antibunched indistinguishable photons that are 16 times narrower than the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create two-photon N00N states with which we make superresolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit. PMID:27152337

  7. Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-03-26

    Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species.

  8. Fractional quantum conductance in edge channels of silicon quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, Nikolay; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Malyarenko, Anna

    2013-12-04

    We present the findings for the fractional quantum conductance of holes that is caused by the edge channels in the silicon nanosandwich prepared within frameworks of the Hall geometry. This nanosandwich represents the ultra-narrow p-type silicon quantum well (Si-QW), 2 nm, confined by the δ-barriers heavily doped with boron on the n-type Si (100) surface. The edge channels in the Si-QW plane are revealed by measuring the longitudinal quantum conductance staircase, G{sub xx}, as a function of the voltage applied to the Hall contacts, V{sub xy}, to a maximum of 4e{sup 2}/h. In addition to the standard plateau, 2e{sup 2}/h, the variations of the V{sub xy} voltage appear to exhibit the fractional form of the quantum conductance staircase with the plateaus and steps that bring into correlation respectively with the odd and even fractions.

  9. Coherent and conventional gravidynamic quantum 1/f noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.

    2008-04-01

    Quantum 1/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of currents, physical cross sections or process rates, caused by infrared coupling of the current carriers to very low frequency (soft) quanta, also known as infraquanta. The latter are soft gravitons in the gravidynamic case with the coupling constant g= pGM2/Nch considered here -- soft photons in the electrodynamic case and soft transversal piezo-phonons in the lattice-dynamical case. Here p=3.14 and F=psi. Quantum 1/f noise is a new aspect of quantum mechanics expressed mainly through the coherent quantum 1/f effect 2g/pf derived here for large systems, and mainly through the conventional quantum 1/f effect for small systems or individual particles. Both effects are present in general, and their effects are superposed in a first approximation with the help of a coherence (weight) parameter s" that will be derived elsewhere for the gravitational case. The spectral density of fractional fluctuations S(dj/j,f) for j=e(hk/2pm)|F|2 is S(F2,f)/<|F|2> = S(j,f)/2 = [4ps"/(1+s")]GM2/pfNch = 4.4 10E9 M2/(pfNgram2). Here s" = 2N'GM/c2=N'rs, where N' is the number of particles of mass M per unit length of the current, rs their Schwarzschild radius, and s" is our coherence (weight) parameter giving the ratio of coherent to conventional quantum 1/f contributions.

  10. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Infrared Multiple-Quantum-Well Phototransistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, Shmuel I.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed npn AlxGa1-xAs phototransistor incorporates multiple-quantum-well (MQW) infrared photodetector. Has n-doped contacts and is embedded between p-doped base region and n-doped collector region of transistor. Photocurrent amplified, and dark current suppressed.

  12. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2015-02-01

    We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium described by a generalized Rabi model which consists of a two-level system coupled to a single-mode bosonic field. The model is constructed to be a continuum limit of a quantum biological description of light-harvesting complexes so that it can amplify quantum coherence by a mechanism which is a quantum analog of classical Huygens clocks. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle where the working medium is coupled to classical heat baths in the isochoric processes of the four-stroke cycle, while either the coupling strength or the resonance frequency is changed in the adiabatic stages. We found that such an engine can produce work with an efficiency close to the Carnot bound when it operates at low temperatures and in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. The interplay of the effects of quantum coherence and quantum correlations on the engine performance is discussed in terms of second-order coherence, quantum mutual information, and the logarithmic negativity of entanglement. We point out that the proposed quantum Otto engine can be implemented experimentally with modern circuit quantum electrodynamic systems where flux qubits can be coupled ultrastrongly to superconducting transmission-line resonators.

  13. Semiconductor Lasers Containing Quantum Wells in Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Qiu, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    In a recent improvement upon In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP semiconductor lasers of the bipolar cascade type, quantum wells are added to Esaki tunnel junctions, which are standard parts of such lasers. The energy depths and the geometric locations and thicknesses of the wells are tailored to exploit quantum tunneling such that, as described below, electrical resistances of junctions and concentrations of dopants can be reduced while laser performances can be improved. In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP bipolar cascade lasers have been investigated as sources of near-infrared radiation (specifically, at wavelengths of about 980 and 1,550 nm) for photonic communication systems. The Esaki tunnel junctions in these lasers have been used to connect adjacent cascade stages and to enable transport of charge carriers between them. Typically, large concentrations of both n (electron-donor) and p (electron-acceptor) dopants have been necessary to impart low electrical resistances to Esaki tunnel junctions. Unfortunately, high doping contributes free-carrier absorption, thereby contributing to optical loss and thereby, further, degrading laser performance. In accordance with the present innovation, quantum wells are incorporated into the Esaki tunnel junctions so that the effective heights of barriers to quantum tunneling are reduced (see figure).

  14. EDITORIAL: Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

    2011-08-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance

  15. Extending quantum coherence of superconducting flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Kamal, Archana; Orlando, Terry; Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William; Engineering Quantum Systems, MIT Team

    We present the design of a superconducting qubit with multiple Josephson junctions. The design starts with a capacitively shunted flux qubit, and it incorporates particular junction parameter choices for the purpose of simultaneously optimizing over transition frequency, anharmonicity, flux- and charge-noise sensitivity around flux degeneracy. By studying the scaling properties with design parameters, we identify directions to extend coherence substantially. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  16. Molecular Spintronics: Wiring Spin Coherence between Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2004-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive candidates for scalable solid state implementations of quantum information processing based on electron spin states, where a crucial requirement for practical devices is to have efficient and tunable spin coupling between them. We focus on recent femtosecond time-resolved Faraday rotation studies of self-assembled multilayer spintronic devices based on colloidal quantum dots bridged by conjugated molecules (M. Ouyang et al., Science 301, 1074 (2003)). The data reveal the instantaneous transfer of spin coherence through conjugated molecular bridges spanning quantum dots of different size over a broad range of temperature. The room temperature spin transfer efficiency exceeds 20%, which approximately doubles the value measured at T=4.5K. A molecular π-orbital mediated spin coherence transfer mechanism is proposed to provide a qualitative insight into the experimental observations, suggesting a correlation between the stereochemistry of molecules and the transfer process. The results show that conjugated molecules can be used not only as physical links for the assembly of functional networks, but also as efficient channels for shuttling quantum information. This class of structures may be useful as two-spin quantum devices operating at ambient temperatures and may offer promising opportunities for future versatile molecule-based spintronic technologies.

  17. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-09-09

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability.

  18. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004

  19. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability.

  20. Interacting Electrodynamics of Short Coherent Conductors in Quantum Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altimiras, C.; Portier, F.; Joyez, P.

    2016-07-01

    When combining lumped mesoscopic electronic components to form a circuit, quantum fluctuations of electrical quantities lead to a nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between the components, which is generally not understood. The Landauer-Büttiker formalism that is frequently used to describe noninteracting coherent mesoscopic components is not directly suited to describe such circuits since it assumes perfect voltage bias, i.e., the absence of fluctuations. Here, we show that for short coherent conductors of arbitrary transmission, the Landauer-Büttiker formalism can be extended to take into account quantum voltage fluctuations similarly to what is done for tunnel junctions. The electrodynamics of the whole circuit is then formally worked out disregarding the non-Gaussianity of fluctuations. This reveals how the aforementioned nonlinear interaction operates in short coherent conductors: Voltage fluctuations induce a reduction of conductance through the phenomenon of dynamical Coulomb blockade, but they also modify their internal density of states, leading to an additional electrostatic modification of the transmission. Using this approach, we can quantitatively account for conductance measurements performed on quantum point contacts in series with impedances of the order of RK=h /e2 . Our work should enable a better engineering of quantum circuits with targeted properties.

  1. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  2. Enlarged Symmetry and Coherence in Arrays of Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onufriev, Alexey; Marston, Brad

    1997-03-01

    Advances in fabrication techniques have made nanostructures a promising arena for the study of many-body correlations(C.A. Stafford and S. Das Sarma Phys. Rev. Lett. 72), 3590 (1993). and the persistence of quantum coherence. We find conditions under which enhanced symmetry characterized by the group SU occurs in isolated semiconducting quantum dots. A Hubbard model then describes a pillar array of coupled dots and at half-filling it can be mapped onto a SU(4) spin chain. The physics of these new structures is rich as novel phases may be attainable. The chain spontaneously dimerizes which we confirm numerically by using the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) technique. Our DMRG analysis also shows that this state is robust to perturbations which break SU(4) symmetry. We propose ways to experimentally verify the phases and comment on the possible application of quantum dot arrays to the problem of quantum computation(Seth Lloyd, Science, 23) 1073 (1996)..

  3. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  4. Nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double well potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, ChunMei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-08-01

    Previous results for nuclear fluxes during coherent tunnelling of molecules with symmetric double well potentials are extended to fluxes in asymmetric double well potentials. The theory is derived using the two-state approximation (TSA). The symmetric system serves as a reference. As an example, we consider the one-dimensional model of the tunnelling inversion of oriented ammonia, with semiclassical dipole coupling to an electric field. The tunnelling splitting increases with the dipole coupling by a factor f≥slant 1. The tunnelling time decreases by 1/f. The nuclear density appears as the sum of two parts: The tunnelling part decreases as {1/f}2 times the density of the symmetric reference, whereas the non-tunnelling part is the initial density times ≤ft({{1-1}/f}2\\right). Likewise, the nuclear flux decreases by 1/f, with essentially the same shape as for the symmetric reference, with maximum value at the potential barrier. Coherent nuclear tunnellings starting from the upper or lower wells of the asymmetric potential are equivalent. The results are universal, in the frame of the TSA, hence they allow straightforward extrapolations from one system to others. This is demonstrated by the prediction of isotope effects for five isotopomers of ammonia.

  5. Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, O. A.; d'Ambrumenil, N.; Dobbie, A.; Leadley, D. R.; Suslov, A. V.; Green, E.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe /(001 )Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.

  6. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  7. Realization of a scalable coherent quantum Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Shantanu; Linke, Norbert; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin; Wright, Ken; Monroe, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The exponential speed-up in some quantum algorithms is a direct result of parallel function-evaluation paths that interfere through a quantum Fourier transform (QFT). We report the implementation of a fully coherent QFT on five trapped Yb+ atomic qubits using sequences of fundamental quantum logic gates. These modular gates can be used to program arbitrary sequences nearly independent of system size and distance between qubits. We use this capability to first perform a Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm where several instances of three-qubit balanced and constant functions are implemented and then examined using single qubit QFTs. Secondly, we apply a fully coherent five-qubit QFT as a part of a quantum phase estimation protocol. Here, the QFT operates on a five-qubit superposition state with a particular phase modulation of its coefficients and directly produces the corresponding phase to five-bit precision. Finally, we examine the performance of the QFT in the period finding problem in the context of Shor's factorization algorithm. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program and the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Measurement and Verification.

  8. Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.

  9. Coherent-state quantum key distribution without random basis switching

    SciTech Connect

    Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2006-02-15

    The random switching of measurement bases is commonly assumed to be a necessary step of quantum key distribution protocols. In this paper we present a no-switching protocol and show that switching is not required for coherent-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution. Further, this protocol achieves higher information rates and a simpler experimental setup compared to previous protocols that rely on switching. We propose an optimal eavesdropping attack against this protocol, assuming individual Gaussian attacks. Finally, we investigate and compare the no-switching protocol applied to the original Bennett-Brassard 1984 scheme.

  10. Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-03-21

    We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.

  11. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z.; Hasan, S. T.; Sharma, A. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  12. Coherent Superconductor-Semiconductor Coupling In The Quantum Hall Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexner, Soren; Eckstein, James N.

    2004-03-01

    We present experiments exploring the coherent coupling of the superconducting wave function in niobium nitride, a high critical magnetic field superconductor, to edge states in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the integer quantum hall regime. The 2DEG is created using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunctions. Silicon doped InGaAs capping layers are used to facilitate ohmic connection between the 2DEG and niobium nitride superconducting contacts. Both in situ, and ex situ deposited niobium nitride contacts are investigated. The edge states associated with the quantum hall effect provide degenerate channels with very long coherence lengths (>um). The consequences of cooper pair transport through these channels, in the form of Andeev reflection and the Josephson effects, are considered.

  13. Probing mechanical quantum coherence with an ultracold-atom meter

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Gullo, N.; Busch, Th.; Palma, G. M.; Paternostro, M.

    2011-12-15

    We propose a scheme to probe quantum coherence in the state of a nanocantilever based on its magnetic coupling (mediated by a magnetic tip) with a spinor Bose Einstein condensate (BEC). By mapping the BEC into a rotor, its coupling with the cantilever results in a gyroscopic motion whose properties depend on the state of the cantilever: the dynamics of one of the components of the rotor angular momentum turns out to be strictly related to the presence of quantum coherence in the state of the cantilever. We also suggest a detection scheme relying on Faraday rotation, which produces only a very small back-action on the BEC and is thus suitable for a continuous detection of the cantilever's dynamics.

  14. Continuous measurements of coherent quantum oscillations in two qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenjin; Averin, Dmitri V.; Plastina, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario

    2005-02-01

    We develop a theory of coherent quantum oscillations in two, in general interacting, qubits measured continuously by a mesoscopic detector with arbitrary nonlinearity and discuss an example of SQUID magnetometer that can operate as such a detector. Calculated spectra of the detector output show that the detector nonlinearity should lead to mixing of the oscillations of the two qubits. For noninteracting qubits oscillating with frequencies Ω1 and Ω2 , the mixing manifests itself as spectral peaks at the combination frequencies Ω1±Ω2 . Additional nonlinearity introduced by the qubit-qubit interaction shifts all the frequencies. In particular, for identical qubits, the interaction splits coherent superposition of the single-qubit peaks at Ω1=Ω2 . Quantum mechanics of the measurement imposes limitations on the height of the spectral peaks.

  15. Coherent two-dimensional photocurrent spectroscopy in a PbS quantum dot photocell.

    PubMed

    Karki, Khadga J; Widom, Julia R; Seibt, Joachim; Moody, Ian; Lonergan, Mark C; Pullerits, Tõnu; Marcus, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in the role of coherence in electronic dynamics. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy has been used to reveal coherent phenomena in numerous material systems. Here we utilize a recent implementation of coherent multidimensional spectroscopy--two-dimensional photocurrent spectroscopy--in which we detect the photocurrent from a PbS quantum dot photocell resulting from its interactions with a sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses. We observe sub-picosecond evolution of two-dimensional spectra consistent with multiple exciton generation. Moreover, a comparison with two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional photocurrent spectroscopy to elucidate detailed origins of photocurrent generating electronic state coherence pathways. Since the measurement is based on detecting the photocell current in situ, the method is well suited to study the fundamental ultrafast processes that affect the function of the device. This opens new avenues to investigate and implement coherent optimization strategies directly within devices. PMID:25519819

  16. Control of Population Flow in Coherently Driven Quantum Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Bergmann, Klaas; Ekers, Aigars; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2005-07-22

    A technique for adiabatic control of the population flow through a preselected decaying excited level in a three-level quantum ladder is presented. The population flow through the intermediate or upper level is controlled efficiently and robustly by varying the pulse delay between a pair of partly overlapping coherent laser pulses. The technique is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated in an experiment with Na{sub 2} molecules.

  17. Quantum control in silicon using coherent THz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Stephen A.; Greenland, P. Thornton; van der Meer, Alexander F. G.; Murdin, Benedict N.; Pidgeon, Carl R.; Redlich, Britta; Vinh, Nguyen Q.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    It has long been known that shallow donors such as phosphorous and the other group-V elements, have a hydrogen-like optical spectrum. The main difference is that while the spectrum of atomic hydrogen lies in the visible band, the spectrum of shallow donors in silicon is downshifted to the THz frequency band. This is a direct consequence of the reduced Coulomb attraction seen by the loosely bound electron because the core electrons shield the positive donor atom nucleus, and because the electron is now moving in a dielectric material. While spectroscopy has already revealed much about the energy level structure, very little was known about the temporal dynamics of the system until now. We have used THz pulses from the FELIX free electron laser to probe these hydrogen-like levels. By exploiting the well-known pump-probe technique we have measured the characteristic lifetimes of the excited Rydberg states and found them to be of the order 200 ps. Then, by making subtle changes to the geometry of the pump-probe experimental setup we demonstrate the existence of a THz photon echo. The photon echo is a purely quantum phenomenon with no classical analogue, and it allows us to study the quantum state of the donor electron. We then show, using the photon echo, that it is possible to create a coherent superposition of the ground and excited state of the donor. Measuring the photon echo is important because it can also be used to measure a second important characteristic lifetime of the silicon-donor system, the phase decoherence time.

  18. Quantum-coherence quantifiers based on the Tsallis relative α entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.

    2016-03-01

    The concept of coherence is one of cornerstones in physics. The development of quantum information science has lead to renewed interest in properly approaching the coherence at the quantum level. Various measures could be proposed to quantify coherence of a quantum state with respect to the prescribed orthonormal basis. To be a proper measure of coherence, each candidate should enjoy certain properties. It seems that the monotonicity property plays a crucial role here. Indeed, there is known an intuitive measure of coherence that does not share this condition. We study coherence measures induced by quantum divergences of the Tsallis type. Basic properties of the considered coherence quantifiers are derived. Tradeoff relations between coherence and mixedness are examined. The property of monotonicity under incoherent selective measurements has to be reformulated. The proposed formulation can naturally be treated as a parametric extension of its standard form. Finally, two coherence measures quadratic in moduli of matrix elements are compared from the monotonicity viewpoint.

  19. Coherent quantum transport features in carbon superlattice structures

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, R.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst resonant transmission is well understood and can be fully harnessed for crystalline superlattices, a complete picture has not yet emerged for disordered superlattices. It has proven difficult to tune resonant transmission in disordered diamond-like carbon (DLC) superlattices as conventional models are not equipped to incorporate significant structural disorder. In this work, we present concurrent experimental and theoretical analysis which addresses resonant transmission in DLC superlattices. Devices were fabricated by growing alternate layers of DLC with different percentages of sp3 hybridized carbon.Coherent quantum transport effects were demonstrated in these structurally disordered DLC superlattices through distinct current modulation with negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage (I-V) measurements. A model was developed using tight-binding calculations assuming a random variation of the hopping integral to simulate structural (bond-length) disorder. Calculations of the I-V characteristics compliment the interpretation of the measurements and illustrate that while DLC superlattice structures are unlike their classical counterparts, the near-field structural order will help with the confinement of quantised states. The present model provides an empirical guide for tailoring the properties of future devices, giving rise to much hope that carbon electronics operating at high frequencies over large areas can now be developed. PMID:27759047

  20. Electron transfer and capture dynamics in ZnSe quantum wells grown on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Dongol, A.; Wagner, H. P.

    2013-12-04

    We investigate the transfer and capture dynamics of electrons in phase coherent photorefractive ZnSe quantum wells grown on GaAs using degenerate three-beam four-wave-mixing. The measurements reveal electron capture times by the quantum well in the order of several tens of picoseconds and a transit time of approximately 5 picoseconds from the GaAs substrate through the ZnMgSe barrier.

  1. Coherence-Induced Reversibility and Collective Operation of Quantum Heat Machines via Coherence Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdin, Raam

    2016-08-01

    Collective behavior, where a set of elements interact and generate effects that are beyond the reach of the individual noninteracting elements, is always of great interest in physics. Quantum collective effects that have no classical analog are even more intriguing. In this work, we show how to construct collective quantum heat machines and explore their performance boosts with respect to regular machines. Without interactions between the machines, the individual units operate in a stochastic, nonquantum manner. The construction of the collective machine becomes possible by introducing two simple quantum operations: coherence extraction and coherence injection. Together, these operations can harvest coherence from one engine and use it to boost the performance of a slightly different engine. For weakly driven engines, we show that the collective work output scales quadratically with the number of engines rather than linearly. Eventually, the boost saturates and then becomes linear. Nevertheless, even in saturation, work is still significantly boosted compared to individual operation. To study the reversibility of the collective machine, we introduce the "entropy-pollution" measure. It is shown that there is a regime where the collective machine is N times more reversible while producing N times more work, compared to the individual operation of N units. Moreover, the collective machine can even be more reversible than the most reversible unit in the collective. This high level of reversibility becomes possible due to a special symbiotic mechanism between engine pairs.

  2. Quantum state transfer in double-quantum-well devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakumeit, Jurgen; Tutt, Marcel; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of double-quantum-well (DQW) devices is presented in view of analyzing the quantum state transfer (QST) effect. Different structures, based on the AlGaAs/GaAs system, were simulated at 77 and 300 K and optimized in terms of electron transfer and device speed. The analysis revealed the dominant role of the impurity scattering for the QST. Different approaches were used for the optimization of QST devices and basic physical limitations were found in the electron transfer between the QWs. The maximum transfer of electrons from a high to a low mobility well was at best 20%. Negative differential resistance is hampered by the almost linear rather than threshold dependent relation of electron transfer on electric field. By optimizing the doping profile the operation frequency limit could be extended to 260 GHz.

  3. Can quantum coherent solar cells break detailed balance?

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Alexander P.

    2015-07-21

    Carefully engineered coherent quantum states have been proposed as a design attribute that is hypothesized to enable solar photovoltaic cells to break the detailed balance (or radiative) limit of power conversion efficiency by possibly causing radiative recombination to be suppressed. However, in full compliance with the principles of statistical mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics, specially prepared coherent quantum states do not allow a solar photovoltaic cell—a quantum threshold energy conversion device—to exceed the detailed balance limit of power conversion efficiency. At the condition given by steady-state open circuit operation with zero nonradiative recombination, the photon absorption rate (or carrier photogeneration rate) must balance the photon emission rate (or carrier radiative recombination rate) thus ensuring that detailed balance prevails. Quantum state transitions, entropy-generating hot carrier relaxation, and photon absorption and emission rate balancing are employed holistically and self-consistently along with calculations of current density, voltage, and power conversion efficiency to explain why detailed balance may not be violated in solar photovoltaic cells.

  4. Electronic quantum confinement in cylindrical potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltenkov, Arkadiy S.; Msezane, Alfred Z.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limiting cases of the ratio of the cylinder length H and its radius R0 have been considered; when the cylinder length H significantly exceeds its radius R0 and when the cylinder radius is much greater than its length. The cylindrical quantum confinement effects on the momentum distribution of electrons in these potential wells have been analyzed. The possible application of the results obtained here for the description of the general features in the behavior of electrons in nanowires with metallic type of conductivity (or nanotubes) and ultrathin epitaxial films (or graphene sheets) are discussed. Possible experiments are suggested where the quantum confinement can be manifested. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  5. Quantum-well lasers for direct solar photopumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnikrishnan, Sreenath; Anderson, Neal G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers directly photopumped by focused sunlight may be viable sources of coherent light for intersatellite communications and other low-power spaceborne applications. In this work, we theoretically explore the possibility of realizing such devices. We specifically assess solar pumped operation of separate-confinement-quantum-well heterostructure (SCQWH) lasers based on InGaAs, GaAs, and AlGaA, as fabrication technology for these lasers is mature and they can operate at very low thresholds. We develop a model for step-index single-well SCQWH lasers photopumped by sunlight, examine how threshold solar photoexcitation intensities depend upon material and structure parameters, design optimum structures for solar-pumped operation, and identify design tradeoffs. Our results suggest that laser action should be possible in properly designed structures at readily achievable solar concentrations and that optimum designs for solar-pumped SCQWH lasers differ significantly from those for analogous current injection devices.

  6. Coherence-Driven Topological Transition in Quantum Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj K; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-22

    We introduce and theoretically demonstrate a quantum metamaterial made of dense ultracold neutral atoms loaded into an inherently defect-free artificial crystal of light, immune to well-known critical challenges inevitable in conventional solid-state platforms. We demonstrate an all-optical control, on ultrafast time scales, over the photonic topological transition of the isofrequency contour from an open to closed topology at the same frequency. This atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables a dynamic manipulation of the decay rate branching ratio of a probe quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal may lead to practically lossless, tunable, and topologically reconfigurable quantum metamaterials, for single or few-photon-level applications as varied as quantum sensing, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations using metamaterials. PMID:27152810

  7. Coherence-Driven Topological Transition in Quantum Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    We introduce and theoretically demonstrate a quantum metamaterial made of dense ultracold neutral atoms loaded into an inherently defect-free artificial crystal of light, immune to well-known critical challenges inevitable in conventional solid-state platforms. We demonstrate an all-optical control, on ultrafast time scales, over the photonic topological transition of the isofrequency contour from an open to closed topology at the same frequency. This atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables a dynamic manipulation of the decay rate branching ratio of a probe quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal may lead to practically lossless, tunable, and topologically reconfigurable quantum metamaterials, for single or few-photon-level applications as varied as quantum sensing, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations using metamaterials.

  8. Coherence-Driven Topological Transition in Quantum Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj K; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-22

    We introduce and theoretically demonstrate a quantum metamaterial made of dense ultracold neutral atoms loaded into an inherently defect-free artificial crystal of light, immune to well-known critical challenges inevitable in conventional solid-state platforms. We demonstrate an all-optical control, on ultrafast time scales, over the photonic topological transition of the isofrequency contour from an open to closed topology at the same frequency. This atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables a dynamic manipulation of the decay rate branching ratio of a probe quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal may lead to practically lossless, tunable, and topologically reconfigurable quantum metamaterials, for single or few-photon-level applications as varied as quantum sensing, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations using metamaterials.

  9. Terahertz detection using double quantum well devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodier, Majid; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the principle of operation of an electrically tunable THz detector, working around 2.54 THz, integrated with a bowtie antenna. The detection is based on the idea of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) in a double quantum well (DQW) device. The bowtie antenna is used to collect the THz radiation and feed it to the detector for processing. The Bowtie antenna geometry is integrated with the DQW device to achieve broadband characteristic, easy design, and compatibility with the detector fabrication process. The principle of operation of the detector is introduced first. Then, results of different bowtie antenna layouts are presented and discussed.

  10. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) for Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Luong, E.; Bock, J. J.; Ressler, M. E.; Werner, M. W.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, many research groups in the world have demonstrated large format Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays for various thermal imaging applications. QWIPs as opposed to conventional low bandgap infrared detectors, are limited by thermionic dark current and not tunneling currents down to 30K or less. As a result the performance of QWIPs can be substantially improved (orders of magnitude) by cooling from 70K to 30K. Cooling does not induce any nonuniformity or 1/f noise in QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we discuss the development of highly uniform long- wavelength QWIPs for astronomical applications.

  11. Quantum discord with weak measurement operators of quasi-Werner states based on bipartite entangled coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.

    2013-11-01

    Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.

  12. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  13. Assistance of molecular vibrations on coherent energy transfer in photosynthesis from the view of a quantum heat engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cells and light-harvesting complexes has attracted much attention as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intramolecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy-transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has nontrivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the QHE at steady state by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with the exciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally, we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation energy transfer in the PEB50 dimer.

  14. Observation of an Excitonic Quantum Coherence in CdSe Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuo; Trivedi, Dhara; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chan, Yinthai; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Loh, Zhi-Heng

    2015-10-14

    Recent observations of excitonic coherences within photosynthetic complexes suggest that quantum coherences could enhance biological light harvesting efficiencies. Here, we employ optical pump-probe spectroscopy with few-femtosecond pulses to observe an excitonic quantum coherence in CdSe nanocrystals, a prototypical artificial light harvesting system. This coherence, which encodes the high-speed migration of charge over nanometer length scales, is also found to markedly alter the displacement amplitudes of phonons, signaling dynamics in the non-Born-Oppenheimer regime.

  15. Approximation of reachable sets for coherently controlled open quantum systems: Application to quantum state engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-07-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.

  16. Magnetic quantum coherence effect in Ni4 molecular transistors.

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of electron transport in Ni4 molecular transistors in the presence of Zeeman spin splitting and magnetic quantum coherence (MQC). The Zeeman interaction is extended along the leads which produces gaps in the energy spectrum which allow electron transport with spin polarized along a certain direction. We show that the coherent states in resonance with the spin up or down states in the leads induces an effective coupling between localized spin states and continuum spin states in the single molecule magnet and leads, respectively. We investigate the conductance at zero temperature as a function of the applied bias and magnetic field by means of the Landauer formula, and show that the MQC is responsible for the appearence of resonances. Accordingly, we name them MQC resonances. PMID:24918902

  17. Coherent Josephson Qubit Suitable for Scalable Quantum Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Sank, D.; Jeffrey, E.; Chen, Y.; Yin, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Roushan, P.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a planar, tunable superconducting qubit with energy relaxation times up to 44μs. This is achieved by using a geometry designed to both minimize radiative loss and reduce coupling to materials-related defects. At these levels of coherence, we find a fine structure in the qubit energy lifetime as a function of frequency, indicating the presence of a sparse population of incoherent, weakly coupled two-level defects. We elucidate this defect physics by experimentally varying the geometry and by a model analysis. Our “Xmon” qubit combines facile fabrication, straightforward connectivity, fast control, and long coherence, opening a viable route to constructing a chip-based quantum computer.

  18. Magnetic quantum coherence effect in Ni4 molecular transistors.

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of electron transport in Ni4 molecular transistors in the presence of Zeeman spin splitting and magnetic quantum coherence (MQC). The Zeeman interaction is extended along the leads which produces gaps in the energy spectrum which allow electron transport with spin polarized along a certain direction. We show that the coherent states in resonance with the spin up or down states in the leads induces an effective coupling between localized spin states and continuum spin states in the single molecule magnet and leads, respectively. We investigate the conductance at zero temperature as a function of the applied bias and magnetic field by means of the Landauer formula, and show that the MQC is responsible for the appearence of resonances. Accordingly, we name them MQC resonances.

  19. Universe’s memory and spontaneous coherence in loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    The quantum bounce a priori connects several (semi)classical epochs of universe evolution, however determining if and how well the semiclassicality is preserved in this transition is highly nontrivial. We review the present state of knowledge in that regards in the isotropic sector of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). This knowledge is next extended by studies of an isotropic universe admitting positive cosmological constant (featuring an infinite chain of large universe epochs). It is also shown, that such universe always admits a semiclassical epoch thanks to spontaneous coherence, provided it is semiclassical in certain constant of motion playing the role of energy.

  20. Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors and Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. K.; Chen, C. J.; Rohkinson, L. P.; Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.

    1999-01-01

    Quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) have many advantages in infrared detection, mainly due to the mature Ill-V material technology. The employment of the corrugation structure further advances the technology by providing a simple, yet efficient light-coupling scheme. A C-QWIP enjoys the same flexibility as a detector with intrinsic normal incident absorption. In this paper, we will discuss the utilities of C-QWIPs in different applications, including two-color detection and polarization-sensitive detection. Besides practical applications, C-QWIPs are also useful in detector characterization. They can be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of light propagating parallel to the layers under bias and providing information on the energy resolved photoconductive gain. These two quantities have never been measured before. Based on the corrugation design, we have made several modifications that further improve the detector sensitivity without increasing its complexity. Other than the C-QWIP structure, we also continue searching for other sensitive detector architectures. In a quantum grid infrared photodetector, 3-dimensional electron confinement can be achieved, with which the detector is able to absorb light in all directions. At the same time, the photoconductive gain can also be improved. We further improve the design using a blazed structure. All the experimental results are supported by a rigorous electromagnetic modal transmission-line theory developed especially for these types of structures. Preliminary thermal imaging using C-QWIP FPAs validates the advantages of the present approach.

  1. Requirement of optical coherence for continuous-variable quantum teleportation.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, T; Sanders, B C

    2001-08-13

    We show that the sender and the receiver each require coherent devices in order to achieve unconditional continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT), and this requirement cannot be achieved with conventional laser sources, linear optics, ideal photon detectors, and perfect Fock state sources. The appearance of successful CVQT in recent experiments is due to interpreting the measurement record fallaciously in terms of one preferred ensemble (or decomposition) of the correct density matrix describing the state. Our analysis is unrelated to technical problems such as laser phase drift or finite squeezing bandwidth.

  2. Trapping and transport of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuenschell, Jeffrey K.

    Spatially indirect excitons are optically generated composite bosons with a radiative lifetime sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium. This work explores the physics of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, specifically in the low-temperature, high-density regime. Particular attention is paid to a technique whereby a spatially inhomogeneous strain field is used as a trapping potential. In the process of modeling the trapping profile in wide quantum wells, dramatic effects due to intersubband coupling were observed at high strain. Experimentally, this regime coincides with the abrupt appearance of a dark population of indirect excitons at trap center, an effect originally suspected to be related to Bose-Einstein condensation. Here, the role of band mixing due to the strain-induced distortion of the crystal symmetry will be explored in detail in the context of this effect. Experimental studies presented here and in the literature suggest that Bose-Einstein condensation in indirect exciton systems may be difficult to detect with optical means (e.g., coherence measurements, momentum-space narrowing), possibly due to the strong dipole interaction between indirect excitons. Due to similarities between this system and liquid helium, it may be more fruitful to look for transport-related signatures of condensation, such as super fluidity. Here, a method for performing transport measurements on optically generated indirect excitons is also outlined and preliminary results are presented.

  3. Spin-orbit interaction in multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Ya-Fei

    2015-01-07

    In this paper, we investigate how the structure of multiple quantum wells affects spin-orbit interactions. To increase the interface-related Rashba spin splitting and the strength of the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, we designed three kinds of multiple quantum wells. We demonstrate that the structure of the multiple quantum wells strongly affected the interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction, increasing the interface-related Rashba spin splitting to up to 26% larger in multiple quantum wells than in a stepped quantum well. We also show that the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction similarly influenced the spin relaxation time of multiple quantum wells and that of a stepped quantum well. The increase in the interface-related Rashba spin splitting originates from the relationship between interface-related Rashba spin splitting and electron probability density. Our results suggest that multiple quantum wells can be good candidates for spintronic devices.

  4. Conversion of Type of Quantum Well Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for converting a Type 2 quantum well semiconductor material to a Type 1 material. A second layer of undoped material is placed between first and third layers of selectively doped material, which are separated from the second layer by undoped layers having small widths. Doping profiles are chosen so that a first electrical potential increment across a first layer-second layer interface is equal to a first selected value and/or a second electrical potential increment across a second layer-third layer interface is equal to a second selected value. The semiconductor structure thus produced is useful as a laser material and as an incident light detector material in various wavelength regions, such as a mid-infrared region.

  5. Conversion of type of quantum well structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for converting a Type 2 quantum well semiconductor material to a Type 1 material. A second layer of undoped material is placed between first and third layers of selectively doped material, which are separated from the second layer by undoped layers having small widths. Doping profiles are chosen so that a first electrical potential increment across a first layer-second layer interface is equal to a first selected value and/or a second electrical potential increment across a second layer-third layer interface is equal to a second selected value. The semiconductor structure thus produced is useful as a laser material and as an incident light detector material in various wavelength regions, such as a mid-infrared region.

  6. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  7. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.

    PubMed

    Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-29

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  8. Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kwek, L.C.

    2005-10-15

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.

  9. Coherent-state linear optical quantum computing gates using simplified diagonal superposition resource states

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, A.P.; Ralph, T.C.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of fundamental tests for coherent-state optical quantum computing gates [T. C. Ralph et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 042319 (2003)] using sophisticated but not unrealistic quantum states. The major resource required in these gates is a state diagonal to the basis states. We use the recent observation that a squeezed single-photon state [S(r) vertical bar 1>] approximates well an odd superposition of coherent states (vertical bar {alpha}>- vertical bar -{alpha}>) to address the diagonal resource problem. The approximation only holds for relatively small {alpha}, and hence these gates cannot be used in a scalable scheme. We explore the effects on fidelities and probabilities in teleportation and a rotated Hadamard gate.

  10. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corndorf, Eric

    objectives of key generation and direct data-encryption, a new quantum cryptographic principle is demonstrated wherein keyed coherent-state signal sets are employed. Taking advantage of the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states, these schemes do not require the users to measure the influence of an attacker. Experimental key-generation and data encryption schemes based on these techniques, which are compatible with today's WDM fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, are implemented and analyzed.

  11. Topological Quantum Buses: Coherent Quantum Information Transfer between Topological and Conventional Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2011-04-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  12. Topological quantum buses: coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional qubits.

    PubMed

    Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M

    2011-04-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems. PMID:21517366

  13. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-01

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  14. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  15. Concerted Electronic and Nuclear Fluxes During Coherent Tunnelling in Asymmetric Double-Well Potentials.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Manz, Jörn; Zhao, Jian-Ming

    2016-05-19

    The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) during coherent periodic tunnelling from reactants (R) to products (P) and back to R in molecules with asymmetric double-well potentials is developed. The results are deduced from the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation as a coherent superposition of two eigenstates; here, these are the two states of the lowest tunnelling doublet. This allows the periodic time evolutions of the resulting electronic and nuclear probability densities (EPDs and NPDs) as well as the CENFs to be expressed in terms of simple sinusodial functions. These analytical results reveal various phenomena during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double-well potentials, e.g., all EPDs and NPDs as well as all CENFs are synchronous. Distortion of the symmetric reference to a system with an asymmetric double-well potential breaks the spatial symmetry of the EPDs and NPDs, but, surprisingly, the symmetry of the CENFs is conserved. Exemplary application to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene shows that tunnelling of the ideal symmetric system can be suppressed by asymmetries induced by rather small external electric fields. The amplitude for the half tunnelling, half nontunnelling border is as low as 0.218 × 10(-8) V/cm. At the same time, the delocalized eigenstates of the symmetric reference, which can be regarded as Schrödinger's cat-type states representing R and P with equal probabilities, get localized at one or the other minima of the asymmetric double-well potential, representing either R or P.

  16. Normal incidence intersubband absorption in vertical quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, V.; Vermeire, G.; Demeester, P.; Weisbuch, C.

    1995-01-01

    N-doped vertical AlGaAs quantum wells have been fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a single-doped AlGaAs layer on a submicron grating. Intersubband absorption at normal incidence is demonstrated in those quantum wells. This opens new possibilities for infrared quantum well devices using intersubband transitions.

  17. Coherent-state transfer via highly mixed quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellaro, Paola; Viola, Lorenza; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-03-15

    Spin chains have been proposed as quantum wires in many quantum-information processing architectures. Coherent transmission of quantum information in spin chains over short distances is enabled by their internal dynamics, which drives the transport of single-spin excitations in perfectly polarized chains. Given the practical challenge of preparing the chain in a pure state, we propose to use a chain that is initially in the maximally mixed state. We compare the transport properties of pure and mixed-state chains and find similarities that enable the experimental study of pure-state transfer via mixed-state chains. We also demonstrate protocols for the perfect transfer of quantum information in these chains. Remarkably, mixed-state chains allow the use of Hamiltonians that do not preserve the total number of single-spin excitations and are more readily obtainable from the naturally occurring magnetic dipolar interaction. We discuss experimental implementations using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and defect centers in diamond.

  18. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719

  19. The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y

    2013-06-18

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline

  20. The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y

    2013-06-18

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline

  1. Magnetophonon resonance in double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploch, D.; Sheregii, E. M.; Marchewka, M.; Wozny, M.; Tomaka, G.

    2009-05-01

    The experimental results obtained for the magnetotransport in pulsed magnetic fields in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells and different values of the electron density are reported. The magnetophonon resonance (MPR) was observed for both types of structures within the temperature range 77-125 K. Four kinds of LO phonons are taken into account to interpret the MPR oscillations in the DQW and a method of the Landau level calculation in the DQW is elaborated for this aim. The peculiarity of the MPR in the DQW is the large number of the Landau levels caused by SAS splitting of the electron states (splitting on the symmetric and anti-symmetric states) and the large number of the phonon assistance electron transitions between Landau levels. The significant role of the carrier statistics is shown too. The behavior of the electron states in the DQWs at comparably high temperatures has been studied using the MPR. It is shown that the Huang and Manasreh [Manasreh [Phys. Rev. B 54, 2044 (1996)] model involving screening of exchange interaction is confirmed.

  2. Quantum energy and coherence exchange with discrete baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiceanu, M.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Coherence and quantum average energy exchange are studied for a system particle as a function of the number N of constituents of a discrete bath model. The time evolution of the energy and coherence, determined via the system purity (proportional to the linear entropy of the quantum statistical ensemble), are obtained solving numerically the Schrödinger equation. A new simplified stochastic Schrödinger equation is derived which takes into account the discreteness of the bath. The environment (bath) is composed of a finite number N of uncoupled harmonic oscillators (HOs), characterizing a structured bath, for which a non-Markovian behavior is expected. Two distinct physical situations are assumed for the system particle: the HO and the Morse potential. In the limit N→∞ the bath is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. In the case of the HO, for very low values of N (≲10) the mean energy and purity oscillate between HO and bath indefinitely in time, while for intermediate and larger values (N∼10→500) they start to decay with two distinct time regimes: exponential for relatively short times and power-law for larger times. In the case of the Morse potential we only observe an exponential decay for large values of N while for small N’s, due to the anharmonicity of the potential, no recurrences of the mean energy and coherences are observed. Wave packet dynamics is used to determine the evolution of the particle inside the system potentials. For both systems the time behavior of a non-Markovianity measure is analyzed as a function of N and is shown to be directly related to the time behavior of the purity.

  3. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born- Oppenheimer approximation. II. Compact Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the second of three, we discuss and develop the basis of a Weyl quantisation for compact Lie groups aiming at loop quantum gravity-type models. This Weyl quantisation may serve as the main mathematical tool to implement the program of space adiabatic perturbation theory in such models. As we already argued in our first article, space adiabatic perturbation theory offers an ideal framework to overcome the obstacles that hinder the direct implementation of the conventional Born-Oppenheimer approach in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Additionally, we conjecture the existence of a new form of the Segal-Bargmann-Hall "coherent state" transform for compact Lie groups G, which we prove for G = U(1)n and support by numerical evidence for G = SU(2). The reason for conjoining this conjecture with the main topic of this article originates in the observation that the coherent state transform can be used as a basic building block of a coherent state quantisation (Berezin quantisation) for compact Lie groups G. But, as Weyl and Berezin quantisation for ℝ2d are intimately related by heat kernel evolution, it is natural to ask whether a similar connection exists for compact Lie groups as well. Moreover, since the formulation of space adiabatic perturbation theory requires a (deformation) quantisation as minimal input, we analyse the question to what extent the coherent state quantisation, defined by the Segal-Bargmann-Hall transform, can serve as basis of the former.

  4. Wavelength limits for InGaN quantum wells on GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Pristovsek, Markus

    2013-06-17

    The emission wavelength of coherently strained InGaN quantum wells (QW) is limited by the maximum thickness before relaxation starts. For high indium contents x>40% the resulting wavelength decreases because quantum confinement dominates. For low indium content x<40% the electron hole wave function overlap (and hence radiative emission) is strongly reduced with increasing QW thickness due to the quantum confined Stark effect and imposes another limit. This results in a maximum usable emission wavelength at around 600 nm for QWs with 40%-50% indium content. Relaxed InGaN buffer layers could help to push this further, especially on non- and semi-polar orientations.

  5. Comment on Kirk's “Analysis of quantum coherent solar photovoltaic cells”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, K. R.; Cohen, D.; Das, S.; Dorfman, K.; Jha, P. K.; Kim, M.; Svidzinsky, A.; Vetter, P.; Voronine, D. V.

    2013-05-01

    We present our scientific and philosophical analysis of the comments made in the recent paper of A.P. Kirk, “An Analysis of Quantum Coherent Solar Photovoltaic Cells” Physica B 407 (2012) 544. We highlight the key role of quantum coherence in the enhancement of the photocell power without violating the laws of thermodynamics.

  6. Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiao-jie

    2016-05-01

    We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.

  7. Quantum well intermixing and radiation effects in InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, K.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Lourenço, M. B.; Sequeira, M. C.; Peres, M.; Freitas, A.; Alves, L. C.; Alves, E.; Leitão, M. P.; Rodrigues, J.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Correia, M. R.; Monteiro, T.

    2016-02-01

    Compositional grading of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells (QWs) was proposed to mitigate polarization effects and Auger losses in InGaN-based light emitting diodes [K. P. O'Donnell et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6 (2012) 49]. In this paper we are reviewing our recent attempts on achieving such gradient via quantum well intermixing. Annealing up to 1250 °C resulted in negligible interdiffusion of QWs and barriers revealing a surprising thermal stability well above the typical MOCVD growth temperatures. For annealing at 1400 °C results suggest a decomposition of the QWs in regions with high and low InN content. The defect formation upon nitrogen implantation was studied in detail. Despite strong dynamic annealing effects, which keep structural damage low, the created defects strongly quench the QW luminescence even for low implantation fluences. This degradation could not be reversed during thermal annealing and is hampering the use of implantation induced quantum well intermixing in InGaN/GaN structures.

  8. Magnetic breakdown in double quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Harff, N.E. |; Simmons, J.A.; Klem, J.F.; Boebinger, G.S.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors find that a sufficiently large perpendicular magnetic field (B{sub {perpendicular}}) causes magnetic breakdown (MB) in coupled double quantum wells (QWs) that are subject to an in-plane magnetic field (B{sub {parallel}}). B{sub {parallel}} shifts one QW dispersion curve with respect to that of the other QW, resulting in an anticrossing and an energy gap. When the gap is below the Fermi level the resulting Fermi surface (FS) consists of two components, a lens-shaped inner orbit and an hour-glass shaped outer orbit. B{sub {perpendicular}} causes Landau level formation and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for each component of the FS. MB occurs when the magnetic forces from B{sub {perpendicular}} become dominant and the electrons move on free-electron circular orbits rather than on the lens and hour-glass orbits. MB is observed by identifying the peaks present in the Fourier power spectrum of the longitudinal resistance vs. 1/B{sub {perpendicular}} at constant B{sub {parallel}}, an arrangement achieved with an in-situ tilting sample holder. Results are presented for two strongly coupled GaAs/AlGaAs DQW samples.

  9. Coherent-state analysis of the quantum bouncing ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, William H.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2006-03-01

    Gaussian-Klauder coherent states are applied to the bound “quantum bouncer,” a gravitating particle above an infinite potential boundary. These Gaussian-Klauder states, originally created for Rydberg atoms, provide an overcomplete set of wave functions that mimic classical trajectories for extended times through the utilization of energy localization. For the quantum bouncer, analytic methods are applied presently to compute first and second moments of position and momentum operators, and from these results, at least two scalings of Gaussian-Klauder parameters are highlighted, one of which tends to remains localized for markedly more bounces than comparable states that are Gaussian in position (by an order of magnitude in some cases). We close with a connection that compares Gaussian-Klauder states and positional Gaussian states directly for the quantum bouncer, relating the two through a known energy-position duality of Airy functions. Our results, taken together, ultimately reemphasize the primacy of energy localization as a key ingredient for long-lived classical correspondence in systems with smooth spectra.

  10. Quantum dot mode locked lasers for coherent frequency comb generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; Calò, C.; Rosales, R.; Watts, R. T.; Merghem, K.; Accard, A.; Lelarge, F.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic semiconductor passively mode locked lasers (MLL) are very attractive components for many applications including high bit rate telecommunications, microwave photonics and instrumentation. Owing to the three dimensional confinement of the charge carriers, quantum dot based mode-locked lasers have been the subject of intense investigations because of their improved performance compared to conventional material systems. Indeed, the inhomogeneous gain broadening and the ultrafast absorption recovery dynamics are an asset for short pulse generation. Moreover, the weak coupling of amplified spontaneous emission with the guided modes plus low loss waveguide leads to low timing jitter. Our work concentrates on InAs quantum dash nanostructures grown on InP substrate, intended for applications in the 1.55 μm telecom window. InAs/InP quantum dash based lasers, in particular, have demonstrated efficient mode locking in single section Fabry-Perot configurations. The flat optical spectrum of about 12 nm, combined with the narrow RF beat note linewidth of about 10 kHz make them a promising technology for optical frequency comb generation. Coherence between spectral modes was assessed by means of spectral phase measurements. The parabolic spectral phase profile indicates that short pulses can be obtained provided the intracavity dispersion can be compensated by inserting a single mode fiber.

  11. Quantum computation mediated by ancillary qudits and spin coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Timothy J.; Dooley, Shane; Kendon, Viv

    2015-01-01

    Models of universal quantum computation in which the required interactions between register (computational) qubits are mediated by some ancillary system are highly relevant to experimental realizations of a quantum computer. We introduce such a universal model that employs a d -dimensional ancillary qudit. The ancilla-register interactions take the form of controlled displacements operators, with a displacement operator defined on the periodic and discrete lattice phase space of a qudit. We show that these interactions can implement controlled phase gates on the register by utilizing geometric phases that are created when closed loops are traversed in this phase space. The extra degrees of freedom of the ancilla can be harnessed to reduce the number of operations required for certain gate sequences. In particular, we see that the computational advantages of the quantum bus (qubus) architecture, which employs a field-mode ancilla, are also applicable to this model. We then explore an alternative ancilla-mediated model which employs a spin ensemble as the ancillary system and again the interactions with the register qubits are via controlled displacement operators, with a displacement operator defined on the Bloch sphere phase space of the spin coherent states of the ensemble. We discuss the computational advantages of this model and its relationship with the qubus architecture.

  12. Ising Quantum Hall Ferromagnetism in AlAs Quantum Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Poortere, Etienne

    2002-03-01

    Though quantum Hall ferromagnetic transitions in two-dimensional (2D) systems are observed in several materials, such transitions in AlAs 2D electrons offer a unique combination of two remarkable properties: (1) the resistance of the carrier system increases sharply at the transition, and (2) these resistance spikes are hysteretic at low temperatures [1]. We have been able to uncover these properties thanks to recent improvements in the quality of our AlAs samples [2], which now attain a mobility as high as 31 m^2/Vs at a density 5 × 10^11 cm-2. These transport phenomena at Ising transitions result in part from the electronic properties of AlAs, which favor a strong competition between exchange, cyclotron and Zeeman energies. Indeed, 2D electrons in AlAs have a high and anisotropic effective band mass comparable to that of Si, and a band g-factor close to 2. In addition, high-density AlAs 2D electrons occupy two X-point valleys of the Brillouin zone, allowing for inter-valley Ising transitions. In this talk we present results from our study of Ising transitions in AlAs 2D electrons. We observe that the hysteretic resistance of a given transition depends sensitively on the occupation of the two levels involved in the transition, increasing in amplitude as these levels are depleted. We also analyze the spike temperature dependence, which shows that unlike the nearby quantum Hall resistance minima, the resistance spikes themselves are not activated. Other parameters are also varied, such as total carrier density and transverse electric field in the AlAs quantum well. A Hartree-Fock picture of these Ising transitions has been drawn, involving magnetic domains and increased scattering at the domain boundaries [3]. Nevertheless, many of the measured dependencies of the Ising transition resistance spikes are not yet qualitatively understood, forming thus a jigsaw puzzle of many parts. [1] E. P. De Poortere et al., Science 290, 1546 (2000). [2] E. P. De Poortere et al

  13. Time-delayed quantum coherent Pyragas feedback control of photon squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.

  14. Material Processing of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Jay Ira

    1995-01-01

    The material and device characterization of furnace and rapid thermally annealed (RTA) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) infrared (IR) photodetectors (QWIPs) epitaxially grown on GaAs and Si substrates is presented. The advances in epitaxial growth allow the precise control of the dimensions, doping, and matrix concentration of the MQW. Therefore, the design of a QWIP with particular electrical and optical characteristics may be undertaken. To utilize a post-growth anneal to improve the QWIP's performance, the trade-offs must be considered to determine its usefulness. Depending on the application, the anneal may be deemed unnecessary due to its detrimental effect on a particular aspect of the operation. The availability of high quality GaAs and Si substrates, complemented by the maturity of GaAs device processing techniques, makes the QWIP an ideal candidate for 8-14 μm long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. An extensive exploration of the interdiffusion process leads to the development of a suitable technique for shifting the optical response without harming the electrical characteristics. This, however, is a difficult task in light of the out-diffusion of the dopant from the wells into the barriers, which results in a high dark current. Reading-out the QWIP focal plane array (FPA) (on GaAs substrate) is accomplished by indium bump-bonding the FPA to a Si multiplexer. Thermal cycling the hybrid, unfortunately, results in destroyed bonds due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the two substrates. Growing the QWIP on a Si substrate better satisfies the packaging requirements; however, the dark current is higher. The technique of annealing for the purpose of defect annihilation results in improvements in the absolute response and a reduction in the dark current.

  15. Transport through quantum wells and superlattices on topological insulator surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, J-T; Li, Y-X; Sun, Q-F

    2014-05-01

    We investigate electron transmission coefficients through quantum wells and quantum superlattices on topological insulator surfaces. The quantum well or superlattice is not constituted by general electronic potential barriers but by Fermi velocity barriers which originate in the different topological insulator surfaces. It is found that electron resonant modes can be renormalized by quantum wells and more clearly by quantum superlattices. The depth and width of a quantum well and superlattice, the incident angle of an electron, and the Fermi energy can be used to effectively tune the electron resonant modes. In particular, the number N of periodic structures that constitute a superlattice can further strengthen these regulating effects. These results suggest that a device could be developed to select and regulate electron propagation modes on topological insulator surfaces. Finally, we also study the conductance and the Fano factor through quantum wells and quantum superlattices. In contrast to what has been reported before, the suppression factors of 0.4 in the conductance and 0.85 in the Fano factor are observed in a quantum well, while the transport for a quantum superlattice shows strong oscillating behavior at low energy and reaches the same saturated values as in the case of a quantum well at sufficiently large energies.

  16. Coherent state transfer through a multi-channel quantum network: Natural versus controlled evolution passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Li, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Quantum state transfer (QST) is an important task in quantum information processing. In this study, we describe two approaches for the high-fidelity transfer of a quantum state between two opposite quantum dots attached to a multi-channel quantum network. First, we demonstrate that a high-efficiency QST can be achieved with the coherent time evolution of a quantum system without any external control. Second, we present an approach that uses an alternative mechanism for a high-fidelity QST. By adiabatically varying tunnel couplings, it is possible to implement the complete transmission of a quantum state based on this quantum mechanical mechanism.

  17. Terahertz quantum cascade laser based optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alan W. M.; Kao, Tsung-Yu; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2013-02-01

    The interfaces of a dielectric sample are resolved in reflection geometry using light from a frequency agile array of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers. The terahertz source is a 10-element linear array of third-order distributed feedback QCLs emitting at discrete frequencies from 2.08 to 2.4 THz. Emission from the array is collimated and sent through a Michelson interferometer, with the sample placed in one of the arms. Interference signals collected at each frequency are used to reconstruct an interferogram and detect the interfaces in the sample. Due to the long coherence length of the source, the interferometer arms need not be adjusted to the zero-path delay. A depth resolution of 360 μm in the dielectric is achieved with further potential improvement through improved frequency coverage of the array. The entire experiment footprint is <1 m x 1 m with the source operated in a compact, closed-cycle cryocooler.

  18. A study of non-equilibrium phonons in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng

    1996-11-01

    In this thesis we have studied the non-equilibrium phonons in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells via Raman scattering. We have demonstrated experimentally that by taking into account the time-reversal symmetry relation between the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman cross sections, one can successfully measure the non-equilibrium phonon occupancy in quantum wells. Using this technique, we have studied the subject of resonant intersubband scattering of optical phonons. We find that interface roughness plays an important role in resonant Raman scattering in quantum wells. The lateral size of the smooth regions in such interface is estimated to be of the order of 100 {Angstrom}. Through a study of photoluminescence of GaAs/AlAs quantum wells under high intensity laser excitation, we have found that band nonparabolicity has very little effect on the electron subband energies even for subbands as high as a few hundred meV above the lowest one. This finding may require additional theoretical study to understand its origin. We have also studied phonon confinement and propagation in quantum wells. We show that Raman scattering of non-equilibrium phonons in quantum wells can be a sensitive measure of the spatial extent of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons. We deduce the coherence length of LO phonons in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum wells as a function of the Al concentration x.

  19. Single and coupled quantum wells: SiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, N.; Shiraki, Y.

    This document is part of subvolume C3 'Optical Properties' of volume 34 'Semiconductor quantum structures' of Landolt-Börnstein, Group III, Condensed Matter, on the optical properties of quantum structures based on group IV semiconductors. It discusses single and coupled quantum wells based on SiGe. Topics include the photoluminescence from SiGe/Si quantum wells (spectral features, dependence on excitation power and temperature), effects of quantum confinement, post-growth annealing, electric fields and external stress, the Fermi-edge singularity, time-resolved photoluminescence, growth mode transition, type-II strained Si quantum wells, coupled quantum wells, electroluminescence, interband absorption and intraband absorption, second-harmonic generation, and phonon modes.

  20. Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.

  1. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture

    SciTech Connect

    Killoran, N.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system’s power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle’s relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  2. Quantum entropy and uncertainty for two-mode squeezed, coherent and intelligent spin states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Mundarain, D.

    1993-01-01

    We compute the quantum entropy for monomode and two-mode systems set in squeezed states. Thereafter, the quantum entropy is also calculated for angular momentum algebra when the system is either in a coherent or in an intelligent spin state. These values are compared with the corresponding values of the respective uncertainties. In general, quantum entropies and uncertainties have the same minimum and maximum points. However, for coherent and intelligent spin states, it is found that some minima for the quantum entropy turn out to be uncertainty maxima. We feel that the quantum entropy we use provides the right answer, since it is given in an essentially unique way.

  3. Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N

    2013-05-31

    The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)

  4. Security improvement by using a modified coherent state for quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.J.; Zhu, Luobei; Ou, Z.Y.

    2005-03-01

    Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have a limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multiphoton events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4-dB improvement in the secure data rate or a nearly twofold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible.

  5. Optical communication with two-photon coherent stages. I - Quantum-state propagation and quantum-noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.

  6. Quantum coherence rather than quantum correlations reflect the effects of a reservoir on a system's work capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Zou, Jian; Yu, Wen-Li; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin

    2014-05-01

    We consider a model of an optical cavity with a nonequilibrium reservoir consisting of a beam of identical two-level atom pairs (TLAPs) in the general X state. We find that coherence of multiparticle nonequilibrium reservoir plays a central role on the potential work capability of the cavity. We show that no matter whether there are quantum correlations in each TLAP (including quantum entanglement and quantum discord) or not, the coherence of the TLAPs has an effect on the work capability of the cavity. Additionally, constructive and destructive interferences could be induced to influence the work capability of the cavity by adjusting only the relative phase, with which quantum correlations have nothing to do. In this paper, the coherence of the reservoir, rather than the quantum correlations, effectively reflecting the effects of the reservoir on the system's work capability is demonstrated clearly. PMID:25353764

  7. Energy level spectroscopy of InSb quantum wells using quantum-well LED emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenev, T. G.; Palyi, A.; Mirza, B. I.; Nash, G. R.; Fearn, M.; Smith, S. J.; Buckle, L.; Emeny, M. T.; Ashley, T.; Jefferson, J. H.; Lambert, C. J.

    2009-02-01

    We have investigated the low-temperature optical properties of InSb quantum-well (QW) light-emitting diodes, with different barrier compositions, as a function of well width. Three devices were studied: QW1 had a 20 nm undoped InSb quantum well with a barrier composition of Al0.143In0.857Sb , QW2 had a 40 nm undoped InSb well with a barrier composition of Al0.077In0.923Sb , and QW3 had a 100 nm undoped InSb well with a barrier composition of Al0.025In0.975Sb . For QW1, the signature of two transitions (CB1-HH1 and CB1-HH2) can be seen in the measured spectrum, whereas for QW2 and QW3 the signature of a large number of transitions is present in the measured spectra. In particular transitions to HH2 can be seen, the first time this has been observed in AlInSb/InSb heterostructures. To identify the transitions that contribute to the measured spectra, the spectra have been simulated using an eight-band k.p calculation of the band structure together with a first-order time-dependent perturbation method (Fermi golden rule) calculation of spectral emittance, taking into account broadening. In general there is good agreement between the measured and simulated spectra. For QW2 we attribute the main peak in the experimental spectrum to the CB2-HH1 transition, which has the highest overall contribution to the emission spectrum of QW2 compared with all the other interband transitions. This transition normally falls into the category of “forbidden transitions,” and in order to understand this behavior we have investigated the momentum matrix elements, which determine the selection rules of the problem.

  8. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-14

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.

  9. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E.; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V.; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven `quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.

  10. Gate fidelity and coherence of an electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot with micromagnet

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Erika; Jullien, Thibaut; Scarlino, Pasquale; Ward, Daniel R.; Savage, Donald E.; Lagally, Max G.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Eriksson, Mark A.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The gate fidelity and the coherence time of a quantum bit (qubit) are important benchmarks for quantum computation. We construct a qubit using a single electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot and control it electrically via an artificial spin-orbit field from a micromagnet. We measure an average single-qubit gate fidelity of ∼99% using randomized benchmarking, which is consistent with dephasing from the slowly evolving nuclear spins in the substrate. The coherence time measured using dynamical decoupling extends up to ∼400 μs for 128 decoupling pulses, with no sign of saturation. We find evidence that the coherence time is limited by noise in the 10-kHz to 1-MHz range, possibly because charge noise affects the spin via the micromagnet gradient. This work shows that an electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot is a good candidate for quantum information processing as well as for a quantum memory, even without isotopic purification. PMID:27698123

  11. Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms. PMID:27112420

  12. Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms.

  13. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821

  14. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821

  15. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-20

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.

  16. Limitations on the Evolution of Quantum Coherences: Towards Fully Quantum Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ćwikliński, Piotr; Studziński, Michał; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2015-11-20

    The second law of thermodynamics places a limitation into which states a system can evolve into. For systems in contact with a heat bath, it can be combined with the law of energy conservation, and it says that a system can only evolve into another if the free energy goes down. Recently, it's been shown that there are actually many second laws, and that it is only for large macroscopic systems that they all become equivalent to the ordinary one. These additional second laws also hold for quantum systems, and are, in fact, often more relevant in this regime. They place a restriction on how the probabilities of energy levels can evolve. Here, we consider additional restrictions on how the coherences between energy levels can evolve. Coherences can only go down, and we provide a set of restrictions which limit the extent to which they can be maintained. We find that coherences over energy levels must decay at rates that are suitably adapted to the transition rates between energy levels. We show that the limitations are matched in the case of a single qubit, in which case we obtain the full characterization of state-to-state transformations. For higher dimensions, we conjecture that more severe constraints exist. We also introduce a new class of thermodynamical operations which allow for greater manipulation of coherences and study its power with respect to a class of operations known as thermal operations. PMID:26636834

  17. Limitations on the Evolution of Quantum Coherences: Towards Fully Quantum Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ćwikliński, Piotr; Studziński, Michał; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2015-11-20

    The second law of thermodynamics places a limitation into which states a system can evolve into. For systems in contact with a heat bath, it can be combined with the law of energy conservation, and it says that a system can only evolve into another if the free energy goes down. Recently, it's been shown that there are actually many second laws, and that it is only for large macroscopic systems that they all become equivalent to the ordinary one. These additional second laws also hold for quantum systems, and are, in fact, often more relevant in this regime. They place a restriction on how the probabilities of energy levels can evolve. Here, we consider additional restrictions on how the coherences between energy levels can evolve. Coherences can only go down, and we provide a set of restrictions which limit the extent to which they can be maintained. We find that coherences over energy levels must decay at rates that are suitably adapted to the transition rates between energy levels. We show that the limitations are matched in the case of a single qubit, in which case we obtain the full characterization of state-to-state transformations. For higher dimensions, we conjecture that more severe constraints exist. We also introduce a new class of thermodynamical operations which allow for greater manipulation of coherences and study its power with respect to a class of operations known as thermal operations.

  18. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  19. Chemical Compass Model for Avian Magnetoreception as a Quantum Coherent Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianming; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies, particularly behavior experiments with birds, provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting global quantum coherence rather than any subsystem coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify global quantum coherence and correlate it with the function of chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm a direct connection between quantum coherence and the function of a chemical compass.

  20. Chemical compass model for avian magnetoreception as a quantum coherent device.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianming; Plenio, Martin B

    2013-12-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies, particularly behavior experiments with birds, provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting global quantum coherence rather than any subsystem coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify global quantum coherence and correlate it with the function of chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm a direct connection between quantum coherence and the function of a chemical compass. PMID:24476240

  1. Generalized purity and quantum phase transition for Bose-Einstein condensates in a symmetric double well

    SciTech Connect

    Viscondi, T. F.; Furuya, K.; Oliveira, M. C. de

    2009-07-15

    The generalized purity is employed for investigating the process of coherence loss and delocalization of the Q function in the Bloch sphere of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetrical double well with cross collision. Quantum phase transition of the model is signaled by the generalized purity as a function of an appropriate parameter of the Hamiltonian and the number of particles (N). A power-law dependence of the critical parameter with N is derived.

  2. Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hai-Bin

    2013-12-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: •The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. •Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. •The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. •The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. •The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

  3. Ordering states with coherence measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.

  4. Ordering states with coherence measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.

  5. Impact of Vibrational Coherence on the Quantum Yield at a Conical Intersection.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Miller, R J Dwayne; Thorwart, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the vibrationally coherent quantum dynamics of an electronic wave packet in the vicinity of a conical intersection within a three-state two-mode model. By transforming the coherent tuning and coupling modes into the bath, the underdamped dynamics of the resulting effective three-state model is solved efficiently by the numerically exact hierarchy equation of motion approach. The transient excited-state absorption and two-dimensional spectra reveal the impact of vibrational coherence on the relaxation pathways of the wave packet. We find that both the quantum yield and the isomerization rate are crucially influenced by the vibrational coherence of the wave packet. A less coherent wave packet can traverse the conical intersection more rapidly, while the resulting quantum yield is smaller. Finally, we show that repeated passages of the wave packet through the conical intersection can lead to measurable interference effects in the form of Stueckelberg oscillations. PMID:27547995

  6. Electronic Enhancement of the Exciton Coherence Time in Charged Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, G.; McDonald, C.; Feldman, A.; Harvey, T.; Mirin, R. P.; Silverman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing decoherence due to coupling of a quantum system to its fluctuating environment is at the forefront of quantum information and photonics research. Nature sets the ultimate limit, however, given by the strength of the system's coupling to the electromagnetic field. Here, we establish the ability to electronically control this coupling and enhance the optical coherence time of the charged exciton transition in quantum dots embedded in a photonic waveguide. By manipulating the electronic wave functions through an applied lateral electric field, we increase the coherence time from ˜1.4 to ˜2.7 ns . Numerical calculations reveal that longer coherence arises from the separation of charge carriers by up to ˜6 nm , which leads to a 30% weaker transition dipole moment. The ability to electronically control the coherence time opens new avenues for quantum communication and novel coupling schemes between distant qubits.

  7. Electronic Enhancement of the Exciton Coherence Time in Charged Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Moody, G.; McDonald, C.; Feldman, A.; Harvey, T.; Mirin, R. P.; Silverman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing decoherence due to coupling of a quantum system to its fluctuating environment is at the forefront of quantum information and photonics research. Nature sets the ultimate limit, however, given by the strength of the system’s coupling to the electromagnetic field. Here, we establish the ability to electronically control this coupling and enhance the optical coherence time of the charged exciton transition in quantum dots embedded in a photonic waveguide. By manipulating the electronic wavefunctions through an applied lateral electric field, we increase the coherence time from ~ 1.4 ns to ~ 2.7 ns. Numerical calculations reveal that longer coherence arises from the separation of charge carriers by up to ~ 6 nm, which leads to a 30% weaker transition dipole moment. The ability to electronically control the coherence time opens new avenues for quantum communication and novel coupling schemes between distant qubits. PMID:26849614

  8. Coherent adiabatic theory of two-electron quantum dot molecules in external spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepstad, R.; Sælen, L.; Hansen, J. P.

    2008-03-01

    We derive an accurate molecular orbital based expression for the coherent time evolution of a two-electron wave function in a quantum dot molecule where the electrons interact with each other, with external time-dependent electromagnetic fields and with a surrounding nuclear spin reservoir. The theory allows for direct numerical modeling of the decoherence in quantum dots due to hyperfine interactions. Calculations result in good agreement with recent singlet-triplet dephasing experiments by Laird [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 056801 (2006)], as well as analytical model calculations. Furthermore, it is shown that using a much faster electric switch than applied in these experiments will transfer the initial state to excited states where the hyperfine singlet-triplet mixing is negligible.

  9. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander; Niset, Julien; Leuchs, Gerd; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-10-01

    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information technologies, it is believed that quantum error-correcting code will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Our quantum code is based on linear optics, and it protects a four-mode entangled mesoscopic state of light against erasures. We investigate two approaches for circumventing in-line losses, and demonstrate that both approaches exhibit transmission fidelities beyond what is possible by classical means. Because in-line attenuation is generally the strongest limitation to quantum communication, such an erasure-correcting code provides a new tool for establishing quantum optical coherence over longer distances.

  10. Controlling the Electronic Structures and Properties of in-Plane Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Quantum Wells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Huang, Baibiao

    2015-01-01

    In-plane transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) quantum wells have been studied on the basis of first-principles density functional calculations to reveal how to control the electronic structures and the properties. In collection of quantum confinement, strain and intrinsic electric field, TMD quantum wells offer a diverse of exciting new physics. The band gap can be continuously reduced ascribed to the potential drop over the embedded TMD and the strain substantially affects the band gap nature. The true type-II alignment forms due to the coherent lattice and strong interface coupling suggesting the effective separation and collection of excitons. Interestingly, two-dimensional quantum wells of in-plane TMD can enrich the photoluminescence properties of TMD materials. The intrinsic electric polarization enhances the spin-orbital coupling and demonstrates the possibility to achieve topological insulator state and valleytronics in TMD quantum wells. In-plane TMD quantum wells have opened up new possibilities of applications in next-generation devices at nanoscale. PMID:26616013

  11. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  12. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  13. Polarization-dependent exciton linewidth in semiconductor quantum wells: A consequence of bosonic nature of excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rohan; Suzuki, Takeshi; Autry, Travis M.; Moody, Galan; Siemens, Mark E.; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2016-08-01

    The exciton coherent signal decay rate in GaAs quantum wells, as measured in four-wave mixing experiments, depends on the polarization of the excitation pulses. Using polarization-dependent two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, we show that this behavior is due to the bosonic character of excitons. Interference between two different quantum mechanical pathways results in a smaller decay rate for cocircular and colinear polarization of the optical excitation pulses. This interference does not exist for cross-linearly polarized excitation pulses resulting in a larger decay rate. Our result shows that the bosonic nature of excitons must be considered when interpreting ultrafast spectroscopic studies of exciton dephasing in semiconductors. This behavior should be considered while interpreting results of ultrafast spectroscopy experiments involving bosonlike excitations.

  14. Quantum random walks in a coherent atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yun; Hang Chao; Ma Lei; Zhang Weiping; Huang Guoxiang

    2008-12-15

    We propose a scheme to realize the quantum random walk in a coherent five-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). From optical Bloch equations describing the dynamics of the electromagnetic field and atomic population and coherence, we show that two circular-polarized components of a probe field display different dispersion properties and hence acquire different phase-shift modifications when passing through atomic cells. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence and interference owing to the EIT effect result in a low absorption of the probe field and hence provide a possibility of realizing a many-step phase-shift quantum random walk. The scheme may be used to experimentally highlight the characteristics of quantum random walk and lead to a promising application for quantum computation.

  15. The assistance of molecular vibrations on coherent energy transfer in photosynthesis from the view of quantum heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recently the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cell and light-harvesting complexes have attracted much attention, by being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine and study the effect of the undamped intra-molecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy transfer and quantum transport. Possibly this system can be artificially simulated by atom-cavity setup. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has non-trivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the quantum heat engine at steady state, by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, assisted by exciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation energy transfer in PEB50 dimer.

  16. Modeling of THz Lasers Based on Intersubband Transitions in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In semiconductor quantum well structures, the intersubband energy separation can be adjusted to the terahertz (THz) frequency range by changing the well width and material combinations. The electronic and optical properties of these nanostructures can also be controlled by an applied dc electric field. These unique features lead to a large frequency tunability of the quantum well devices. In the on-going project of modeling of the THz lasers, we investigate the possibility of using optical pumping to generate THz radiation based on intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells. We choose the optical pumping because in the electric current injection it is difficult to realize population inversion in the THz frequency range due to the small intersubband separation (4-40 meV). We considered both small conduction band offset (GaAs/AlGaAs) and large band offset (InGaAs/AlAsSb) quantum well structures. For GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, mid-infrared C02 lasers are used as pumping sources. For InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells, the resonant intersubband transitions can be excited by the near-infrared diode lasers. For three- and four-subband quantum wells, we solve the pumpfield-induced nonequilibrium distribution function for each subband of the quantum well system from a set of rate equations that include both intrasubband and intersubband relaxation processes. Taking into account the coherent interactions between pump and THz (signal) waves, we calculate the optical gain for the THz field. The gain arising from population inversion and stimulated Raman processes is calculated in a unified manner. A graph shows the calculated THz gain spectra for three-subband GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We see that the coherent pump and signal wave interactions contribute significantly to the gain. The pump intensity dependence of the THz gain is also studied. The calculated results are shown. Because of the optical Stark effect and pump-induced population redistribution, the maximum

  17. Polaron mass of charge carriers in semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, A. Yu. Proshina, O. V.

    2015-10-15

    A theory of the interaction of charge carriers with optical phonons in a quantum well is developed with consideration for interface optical phonons. The dependence of the polaron effective mass on the quantum-well dimensions and dielectric characteristics of barriers is analyzed in detail. It is shown that, in narrow quantum wells, a quasi-two-dimensional polaron can be formed. In this case, however, the interaction parameters are defined by the charge-carrier effective mass in the quantum well and by the frequencies of interface optical phonons. If barriers are made of a nonpolar material, the polaron effective mass depends on the quantum-well width. As the quantum-well width is increased, a new mechanism of enhancement of the electron–phonon interaction develops. The mechanism is implemented, if the optical phonon energy is equal to the energy of one of the electronic transitions. This condition yields an unsteady dependence of the polaron effective mass on the quantum-well width.

  18. Double well potentials and quantum phase transitions in ion traps.

    PubMed

    Retzker, A; Thompson, R C; Segal, D M; Plenio, M B

    2008-12-31

    We demonstrate that the radial degree of freedom of strings of trapped ions in the quantum regime may be prepared and controlled accurately through the variation of the external trapping potential while at the same time its properties are measurable with high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides a new testbed giving access to static and dynamical properties of the physics of quantum-many-body systems and quantum phase transitions that are hard to simulate on classical computers. Furthermore, it allows for the creation of double well potentials with experimentally accessible tunneling rates, with applications in testing the foundations of quantum physics and precision sensing. PMID:19437628

  19. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  20. Optimal discrimination of M coherent states with a small quantum computer

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Marcus P. da; Guha, Saikat; Dutton, Zachary

    2014-12-04

    The ability to distinguish between coherent states optimally plays in important role in the efficient usage of quantum resources for classical communication and sensing applications. While it has been known since the early 1970’s how to optimally distinguish between two coherent states, generalizations to larger sets of coherent states have so far failed to reach optimality. In this work we outline how optimality can be achieved by using a small quantum computer, building on recent proposals for optimal qubit state discrimination with multiple copies.

  1. Preparing and preserving the double quantum coherence in NV- centers in Diamond at low fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Osama; Hincks, Ian; Cory, David G.

    2014-12-01

    We present and demonstrate a simple idea to excite and preserve the double-quantum-coherence (DQC) in the ground state of the electron spin of the Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond. We measure the coherence time of the DQC and compare it to the single quantum coherence time, both, in a Ramsey fringe experiment and under a Hahn echo sequence. We also demonstrate a robust pulse sequence based on the DANTE pulse sequence for selectively isolating the signal from the electron transitions conditional on the state of the always-present Nitrogen spin.

  2. Geometry of classical periodic orbits and quantum coherent states in coupled oscillators with SU(2) transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. F.

    2011-03-15

    The geometry of classical dynamics in coupled oscillators with SU(2) transformations is explored and found to be relevant to a family of continuous-transformation orbits between Lissajous and trochoidal curves. The quantum wave-packet coherent states are derived analytically to correspond exactly to the transformation geometry of classical dynamics. By using the quantum wave-packet coherent states derived herein, stationary coherent states are constructed and are shown to possess spatial patterns identical to the transformation geometry between Lissajous and trochoidal orbits.

  3. Single electron tunneling in double and triple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, I.; Karoui, A.; Vlahovic, B.

    2016-03-01

    Electron localization and tunneling in laterally distributed double quantum well (DQW) and triple quantum well (TQW) are studied. Triangular configuration for the TQWs as well as various quantum well (QW) shapes and asymmetry are considered. The effect of adding a third well to a DQW is investigated as a weakly coupled system. InAs/GaAs DQWs and TQWs were modeled using single subband effective mass approach with effective potential simulating the strain effect. Electron localization dynamics in DQW and TQW over the whole spectrum is studied by varying the inter-dot distances. The electron tunneling appeared highly sensitive to small violations of the DQW mirror symmetry. We show that the presence of a third dot increases the tunneling in the DQW. The dependence of the tunneling in quantum dot (QD) arrays on inter-dot distances is also discussed.

  4. Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Shuro; Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio

    2014-12-04

    We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.

  5. Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Shuro; Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-12-01

    We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.

  6. Quantum heat transport of a two-qubit system: Interplay between system-bath coherence and qubit-qubit coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akihito Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-08-14

    We consider a system consisting of two interacting qubits that are individually coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures. The quantum effects in heat transport are investigated in a numerically rigorous manner with a hierarchial equations of motion (HEOM) approach for non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath coupling cases under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. For a weak interqubit interaction, the total system is regarded as two individually thermostatted systems, whereas for a strong interqubit interaction, the two-qubit system is regarded as a single system coupled to two baths. The roles of quantum coherence (or entanglement) between the two qubits (q-q coherence) and between the qubit and bath (q-b coherence) are studied through the heat current calculated for various strengths of the system-bath coupling and interqubit coupling for high and low temperatures. The same current is also studied using the time convolutionless (TCL) Redfield equation and using an expression derived from the Fermi golden rule (FGR). We find that the HEOM results exhibit turnover behavior of the heat current as a function of the system-bath coupling strength for all values of the interqubit coupling strength, while the results obtained with the TCL and FGR approaches do not exhibit such behavior, because they do not possess the capability of treating the q-b and q-q coherences. The maximum current is obtained in the case that the q-q coherence and q-b coherence are balanced in such a manner that coherence of the entire heat transport process is realized. We also find that the heat current does not follow Fourier’s law when the temperature difference is very large, due to the non-perturbative system-bath interactions.

  7. Quantum coherent energy transfer over varying pathways in single light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Hildner, Richard; Brinks, Daan; Nieder, Jana B; Cogdell, Richard J; van Hulst, Niek F

    2013-06-21

    The initial steps of photosynthesis comprise the absorption of sunlight by pigment-protein antenna complexes followed by rapid and highly efficient funneling of excitation energy to a reaction center. In these transport processes, signatures of unexpectedly long-lived coherences have emerged in two-dimensional ensemble spectra of various light-harvesting complexes. Here, we demonstrate ultrafast quantum coherent energy transfer within individual antenna complexes of a purple bacterium under physiological conditions. We find that quantum coherences between electronically coupled energy eigenstates persist at least 400 femtoseconds and that distinct energy-transfer pathways that change with time can be identified in each complex. Our data suggest that long-lived quantum coherence renders energy transfer in photosynthetic systems robust in the presence of disorder, which is a prerequisite for efficient light harvesting.

  8. Description of quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes requires constraints beyond free energy

    PubMed Central

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have developed fundamental limitations on nanoscale thermodynamics, in terms of a set of independent free energy relations. Here we show that free energy relations cannot properly describe quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes. By casting time-asymmetry as a quantifiable, fundamental resource of a quantum state, we arrive at an additional, independent set of thermodynamic constraints that naturally extend the existing ones. These asymmetry relations reveal that the traditional Szilárd engine argument does not extend automatically to quantum coherences, but instead only relational coherences in a multipartite scenario can contribute to thermodynamic work. We find that coherence transformations are always irreversible. Our results also reveal additional structural parallels between thermodynamics and the theory of entanglement. PMID:25754774

  9. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors for Low Background Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Singh, A.; Liu, J. K.; Luong, E. M.; Mumolo, J. M.; McKelvey, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    High performance long-wavelength GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As quantum well infrared photodetectors for low background applications have been demonstrated. This is the first theoretical analysis of quantum well infrared photodetectors for low background applications and the detectivity D* of 6 x 10(exp 13) cm.square root of Hz/W has been achieved at T = 40 K with 2 x 10(exp 9) photons/cm2/sec background. In addition, this paper describes the demonstration of mid-wavelength/long-wavelength dualband quantum well infrared photodetectors and long-wavelength/very long-wavelength dualband quantum well infrared photodetectors in 4-26 micrometers wavelength region.

  10. Piezo-Phototronic Effect in a Quantum Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Du, Chunhua; Zhou, Yongli; Jiang, Chunyan; Pu, Xiong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Weiguo; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-05-24

    With enhancements in the performance of optoelectronic devices, the field of piezo-phototronics has attracted much attention, and several theoretical works have been reported based on semiclassical models. At present, the feature size of optoelectronic devices are rapidly shrinking toward several tens of nanometers, which results in the quantum confinement effect. Starting from the basic piezoelectricity equation, Schrödinger equation, Poisson equation, and Fermi's golden rule, a self-consistent theoretical model is proposed to study the piezo-phototronic effect in the framework of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics. The validity and universality of this model are well-proven with photoluminescence measurements in a single GaN/InGaN quantum well and multiple GaN/InGaN quantum wells. This study provides important insight into the working principle of nanoscale piezo-phototronic devices as well as guidance for the future device design.

  11. Homodyne detection of coherence and phase shift of a quantum dot in a cavity.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Morten P; Snijders, Henk; Löffler, Wolfgang; Barve, Ajit V; Coldren, Larry A; Bouwmeester, Dirk; van Exter, Martin P

    2015-07-01

    A homodyne measurement technique is demonstrated that enables direct observation of the coherence and phase of light that passed through a coupled quantum dot (QD)-microcavity system, which in turn enables clear identification of coherent and incoherent QD transitions. As an example, we study the effect of power-induced decoherence, where the QD transition saturates and incoherent emission from the excited state dominates at higher power. Further, we show that the same technique allows measurement of the quantum phase shift induced by a single QD in the cavity, which is strongly enhanced by cavity quantum electrodynamics effects. PMID:26125395

  12. Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent States.

    PubMed

    Lund, A P; Ralph, T C; Haselgrove, H L

    2008-01-25

    Quantum computing using two coherent states as a qubit basis is a proposed alternative architecture with lower overheads but has been questioned as a practical way of performing quantum computing due to the fragility of diagonal states with large coherent amplitudes. We show that using error correction only small amplitudes (alpha>1.2) are required for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We study fault tolerance under the effects of small amplitudes and loss using a Monte Carlo simulation. The first encoding level resources are orders of magnitude lower than the best single photon scheme.

  13. Homodyne detection of coherence and phase shift of a quantum dot in a cavity.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Morten P; Snijders, Henk; Löffler, Wolfgang; Barve, Ajit V; Coldren, Larry A; Bouwmeester, Dirk; van Exter, Martin P

    2015-07-01

    A homodyne measurement technique is demonstrated that enables direct observation of the coherence and phase of light that passed through a coupled quantum dot (QD)-microcavity system, which in turn enables clear identification of coherent and incoherent QD transitions. As an example, we study the effect of power-induced decoherence, where the QD transition saturates and incoherent emission from the excited state dominates at higher power. Further, we show that the same technique allows measurement of the quantum phase shift induced by a single QD in the cavity, which is strongly enhanced by cavity quantum electrodynamics effects.

  14. Thermoelectric transport in quantum well superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Broido, D.A.; Reinecke, T.L.

    1997-05-01

    A full theory of thermoelectric transport in superlattices, including the well width and energy dependence of the optical and acoustic phonon scattering and the effects of confinement in raising valley degeneracy is developed. It is shown that these features result in qualitatively significant modifications in the predicted figure of merit of superlattice systems. Results are given for PbTe superlattices, and comments are made on recent experimental results for such systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet

    PubMed Central

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose–Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport. PMID:26852803

  16. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet.

    PubMed

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-02-08

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose-Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport.

  17. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet.

    PubMed

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose-Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport. PMID:26852803

  18. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.

  19. Assistance of molecular vibrations on coherent energy transfer in photosynthesis from the view of a quantum heat engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cells and light-harvesting complexes has attracted much attention as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intramolecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy-transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has nontrivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the QHE at steady state by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with the exciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally, we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation energy transfer in the PEB50 dimer. PMID:25776946

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Semiconductor Quantum Well Structures and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Saini, Subbash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will cover two aspects of modeling and simulation efforts at NASA Ames Research Center. In the quantum well structure simulation, we typically start from the quantum mechanical calculation of the quantum well structures for the confined/and unconfined eigen states and functions. A bandstructure calculation of the k*p type is then performed for the confined valence states. This information is then used to computer the optical gain and refractive index of the quantum well structures by solving the linearized multiband semiconductor Bloch equations with the many-body interactions included. In our laser simulation, we typically solve the envelope equations for the laser field in space-time domain, coupled with a reduced set of material equations using the microscopic calculation of the first step. Finally I will show some examples of both aspects of simulation and modeling.

  1. Theory of femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman backscattering enhanced by quantum coherence for standoff detection of bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Beadie, Guy; Kattawar, George W.; Reintjes, John F.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Scully, Marlan O.

    2005-08-01

    Backscattered signal of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy can be an extremely useful tool for remote identification of airborne particles, provided the signal is sufficiently large. We formulate a semiclassical theory of nonlinear scattering to estimate the number of detectable photons from a bacterial spore at a distance. For the first time, the theory incorporates enhanced quantum coherence via femtosecond pulses and a nonlinear process into the classical scattering problem. Our result shows a large backscattered signal in the far field, using typical parameters of an anthrax spore with maximally prepared vibrational coherence. Using train pulses of 1 kHz of repetition rate each with energy of 10 mJ, we estimate that about 107 photons can be detected by a 1 m diameter detector placed 1 km away from the spore in the backward scattering direction. The result shows the feasibility of developing a real time remote detection of hazardous microparticles in the atmosphere, particularly biopathogenic spores.

  2. Theory of femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman backscattering enhanced by quantum coherence for standoff detection of bacterial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C.H. Raymond; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Scully, Marlan O.; Beadie, Guy; Reintjes, John F.; Kattawar, George W.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-08-15

    Backscattered signal of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy can be an extremely useful tool for remote identification of airborne particles, provided the signal is sufficiently large. We formulate a semiclassical theory of nonlinear scattering to estimate the number of detectable photons from a bacterial spore at a distance. For the first time, the theory incorporates enhanced quantum coherence via femtosecond pulses and a nonlinear process into the classical scattering problem. Our result shows a large backscattered signal in the far field, using typical parameters of an anthrax spore with maximally prepared vibrational coherence. Using train pulses of 1 kHz of repetition rate each with energy of 10 mJ, we estimate that about 10{sup 7} photons can be detected by a 1 m diameter detector placed 1 km away from the spore in the backward scattering direction. The result shows the feasibility of developing a real time remote detection of hazardous microparticles in the atmosphere, particularly biopathogenic spores.

  3. Control of the probe absorption in coupled quantum wells in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chengxian; Ma, Yangcheng; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the probe absorption of a weak probe field in two dimensions (the so-called two-dimensional probe absorption) in an asymmetric two coupled quantum wells. It is found that, due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and coherent coupling fields, the probe absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters in two dimensions. Most importantly, the pattern of probe absorption can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the pattern in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state optoelectronics and quantum information science.

  4. Atmospheric and low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of vertical quantum wells and quantum well wires on submicron gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeire, G.; Moerman, I.; Yu, Z. Q.; Vermaerke, F.; van Daele, P.; Demeester, P.

    1994-02-01

    Nonplanar metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth on submicron gratings has been studied. Growth conditions have been determined to preserve the grating structure and also to enhance the formation of crescent shaped quantum well wire-like GaAs layers. These growth parameters have been used to grow the layer structure of a quantum well wire (QWW) laser, only needing one growth run. Although there is not yet clear evidence for two-dimensional quantum confinement, this technique offers some interesting perspectives for the realization of QWW lasers.

  5. Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-05-14

    Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers. PMID:25971512

  6. Force sensing based on coherent quantum noise cancellation in a hybrid optomechanical cavity with squeezed-vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.

  7. Photocurrents in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells analyzed by k.p-based Bloch equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzimski, Reinold; Duc, Huynh Thanh; Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Schmidt, Christian; Bieler, Mark; Meier, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Using a microscopic theory that combines k.p band structure calculations with multisubband semiconductor Bloch equations we are capable of computing coherent optically-induced rectification, injection, and shift currents in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures. A 14-band k.p theory has been employed to obtain electron states in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor systems. Numerical solutions of the multisubband Bloch equations provide a detailed and transparent description of the dynamics of the material excitations in terms of interband and intersubband polarizations/coherences and occupations. Our approach allows us to calculate and analyze photocurrents in the time and the frequency domains for bulk as well as quantum well and quantum wire systems with various growth directions. As examples, we present theoretical results on the rectification and shift currents in bulk GaAs and GaAs-based quantum wells. Moreover, we compare our results with experiments on shift currents. In the experiments the terahertz radiation emitted from the transient currents is detected via electro-optic sampling. This comparison is important from two perspectives. First, it helps to validate the theoretical model. Second, it allows us to investigate the microscopic origins of interesting features observed in the experiments.

  8. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.

    PubMed

    Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D

    2016-03-01

    Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.

  9. Luminescence studies on nitride quaternary alloys double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. C. P.; dos Santos, O. F. P.; Scolfaro, L. M. R.; Sipahi, G. M.; da Silva, E. F., Jr.

    2008-09-01

    We present theoretical photoluminescence (PL) spectra of undoped and p-doped Al xIn 1- x- yGa yN/Al XIn 1- X- YGa YN double quantum wells (DQWs). The calculations were performed within the k.p method by means of solving a full eight-band Kane Hamiltonian together with the Poisson equation in a plane wave representation, including exchange-correlation effects within the local density approximation. Strain effects due to the lattice mismatch are also taken into account. We show the calculated PL spectra, analyzing the blue and red-shifts in energy as one varies the spike and the well widths, as well as the acceptor doping concentration. We found a transition between a regime of isolated quantum wells and that of interacting DQWs. Since there are few studies of optical properties of quantum wells based on nitride quaternary alloys, the results reported here will provide guidelines for the interpretation of forthcoming experiments.

  10. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  11. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit. PMID:27562055

  12. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit. PMID:27562055

  13. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-08-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit.

  14. Quantum beats in conductance oscillations in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity wells and electrostatic wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-14

    The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.

  15. Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.

  16. Semiconductor quantum wells: old technology or new device functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbas, R. M.; Lo, Y. C.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Reed, F. E.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, T.

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of semiconductor quantum wells in the 1970s created a revolution in optoelectronic devices. A large fraction of today's lasers and light emitting diodes are based on quantum wells. It has been more than 30 years but novel ideas and new device functions have recently been demonstrated using quantum well heterostructures. This paper provides a brief overview of the subject and then focuses on the physics of quantum wells that the lead author believes holds the key to new device functionalities. The data and figures contained within are not new. They have been assembled from 30 years of work. They are presented to convey the story of why quantum wells continue to fuel the engine that drives the semiconductor optoelectronic business. My apologies in advance to my students and co-workers that contributed so much that could not be covered in such a short manuscript. The explanations provided are based on the simplest models possible rather than the very sophisticated mathematical models that have evolved over many years. The intended readers are those involved with semiconductor optoelectronic devices and are interested in new device possibilities.

  17. Quantized states in superconducting quantum wells biased by an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranjuk, Serhii; Ketterson, John

    2004-03-01

    The interest to quantized states in superconducting quantum wells (SQW) is stimulated by rapid development of qubit devices. The SQW may be formed in different ways. In this report we consider SQW at a minimum of the superconducting order parameter, which happens, e.g, at a normal core of an Abrikosov vortex or in SINIS junctions (S are the superconducting banks, I is an insulating barrier, N is a thin normal metal layer). The Andreev reflection (when an incident electron is reflected as a hole and vice versa) at opposite SN and NS interfaces (or on SIN and NIS interfaces, which have an intermediate transparency) creates quantized states, which are observed in experiments. The quantization condition depends on the sample purity and the quantum well size, which should be comparable to the superconducting coherence length. However, the quantization condition may also be changed when a bias field is applied across the quantum well, and the phase of the superfluid condensate wave function becomes time-dependent. If the time dependence is arbitrary, and the energy is a bad quantum number, then in accordance with a general quantum mechanical rules no quantized states could arise. However, if the behavior is time-homogeneous (e.g., under influence of a dc field, or of an ac field of constant amplitude), the energy is a good quantum number, and the quantized states may exist. In this work we consider the formation of the quantized states in the SINIS junction biased by a dc and ac voltages. The calculations are made using the boundary conditions in the quasiclassical approximation. The quantization conditions are analyzed versus the quantum well size, the electron mean free path, and the external bias field magnitude.

  18. Localization and topology protected quantum coherence at the edge of hot matter.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Yasaman; Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-07-10

    Topological phases are characterized by edge states confined near the boundaries by a bulk energy gap. On raising temperature, these edge states are typically lost due to mobile thermal excitations. However, disorder can localize an isolated many-body system, potentially allowing for a sharply defined topological phase even in a highly excited state. We explicitly demonstrate this in a model of a disordered, one-dimensional magnet with spin one-half edge excitations. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of a simple, highly excited state reveals quantum coherent edge spins. In particular, we demonstrate the coherent revival of an edge spin over a time scale that grows exponentially with system size. This is in sharp contrast to the general expectation that quantum bits strongly coupled with a hot many-body system will rapidly lose coherence. This result opens new directions in the study of topologically protected quantum dynamics.

  19. A New Kind of Bipartite Coherent-Entangled State and Its Applications in Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Ji-Suo; Liang, Bao-Long

    2011-03-01

    A new kind of bipartite coherent-entangled state (CES) is introduced in the two-mode Fock space which exhibits the properties of both coherent state and entangled state. The set of CESs make up a complete and partly nonorthogonal representation. A simple experimental scheme to produce the CES is proposed by using a beam splitter. Some applications of the CES are also presented in quantum optics.

  20. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold (23)Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  1. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  2. Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter

    2000-08-01

    A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA‧BB‧ spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.

  3. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-21

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold (23)Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  4. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  5. Spatial light modulators with arbitrary quantum well profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcas, George N.; Bajaj, Krishan K.

    1992-02-01

    This is the 2nd year technical report for the University Research Initiative (URI) Program, Spatial Light Modulators with Arbitrary Quantum Well Profiles. During the second year of the program, we have continued to optimize optical modulator design, growth, and fabrication. A new method for self-consistent solution of Schroedinger and Poisson equations was developed and used to predict modulator active region performance and vertical cavity surface emitting laser device performance. A comprehensive comparison of asymmetric triangular quantum wells (ATQW) using GaAs/AlGaAs, InGaAs/GaAs, and InGaAs/AlGaAs showed InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells to have the highest optical efficiency. A MBE compositional grading technique was used to achieve record narrow photoluminescence linewidths for nonrectangular quantum wells. Bragg reflectors for use in Fabry Perot modulators were measured in-situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Advances were made in the growth and fabrication of p-i-n optical modulators, including the development of via hole etching through the substrate for transmission mode modulators. A simple variational method for calculating excitonic properties in quantum confined structures with arbitrary potential profiles in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields were developed and applied to the study of energy levels of hydrogenic impurities. Also, a theory of radiative transition linewidths due to alloy disordering in semiconductor alloys has been presented and applied to AlGaAs and InGaP bulk alloys.

  6. [The photoluminescence characteristics of organic multilayer quantum wells].

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Wei; Song, Shu-Fang; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Xu-Rong

    2007-04-01

    By the use of multi-source high-vaccum organic beam deposition system, the authors prepared organic multilayer quantum well structures, which consist of alternate organic small molecule materials PBD and Alq3. Based on 4-period organic quantum wells, different samples with different thickness barriers and wells were prepared. The authors measured the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbit (HOMO) by electrochemistry cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption. From the energy diagrams, it seems like type-I quantum well structures of the inorganic semiconductor, in which PBD is used as a barrier layer and Alq3 as a well layer and emitter. From small angle X-ray diffraction measurements, the results indicate that these structures have high interface quality and uniformity. The photoluminescence characteristics of organic multilayer quantum wells were investigated. The PL peak has a blue-shift with the decrease of the well layer thickness. Meanwhile as the barrier thickness decreases the PL peaks of PBD disappear gradually. And the energy may be effectively transferred from PBD to Alq3, inducing an enhancement of the luminescence of Alq3.

  7. Global coherence of quantum evolutions based on decoherent histories: Theory and application to photosynthetic quantum energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegra, Michele; Giorda, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth

    2016-04-01

    Assessing the role of interference in natural and artificial quantum dynamical processes is a crucial task in quantum information theory. To this aim, an appropriate formalism is provided by the decoherent histories framework. While this approach has been deeply explored from different theoretical perspectives, it still lacks of a comprehensive set of tools able to concisely quantify the amount of coherence developed by a given dynamics. In this paper, we introduce and test different measures of the (average) coherence present in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions, at various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we apply them to a paradigmatic quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. To spot out the essential features that may determine the performance of the transport, we focus on a relevant trimeric subunit of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and we use a simplified (Haken-Strobl) model for the system-bath interaction. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics, that preserves and sustains the benefits of the initial fast quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network. Indeed, for intermediate levels of decoherence, the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between different exciton pathways, while retaining the initial positive one. The concepts and tools here developed show how the decoherent histories approach can be used to quantify the relation between coherence and efficiency in quantum dynamical processes.

  8. Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2004-03-19

    In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.

  9. Even-odd effect in spontaneously coherent bilayer quantum Hall droplets.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Scarola, V W; Das Sarma, S

    2003-07-11

    Using exact diagonalization in the disk geometry we predict a novel even-odd effect in the Coulomb-blockade spectra of vertically coupled double quantum dots under an external magnetic field. The even-odd effect in the tunneling conductance is a direct manifestation of spontaneous interlayer phase coherence, and is similar to the even-odd resonance in the Cooper pair box problem in mesoscopic superconducting grains. Coherent fluctuations in the number of Cooper pairs in superconductors are analogous to the fluctuations in the relative number difference between the two layers in quantum Hall droplets.

  10. Quantum-Fluctuation-Initiated Coherence in Multioctave Raman Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Chunbai; Couny, F.; Raymer, M. G.; Benabid, F.

    2010-09-01

    We show experimentally and theoretically that the spectral components of a multioctave frequency comb spontaneously created by stimulated Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber exhibit strong self-coherence and mutual coherence within each 12 ns driving laser pulse. This coherence arises in spite of the field’s initiation being from quantum zero-point fluctuations, which causes each spectral component to show large phase and energy fluctuations. This points to the possibility of an optical frequency comb with nonclassical correlations between all comb lines.

  11. Spin current injection by intersubband transitions in quantum wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Eugene

    2005-03-01

    We show that a pure spin current can be injected in quantum wells by absorption of linearly polarized infrared radiation leading to transitions between subbands. The magnitude and the direction of the spin current depend on the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling constants and light frequency and, therefore, can be manipulated by changing the light frequency and/or applying an external bias across the quantum well. The injected spin current should be observable either as a voltage generated via extrinsic spin-Hall effect, or by spatially resolved pump-probe optical spectroscopy.

  12. Microscopic Theory and Simulation of Quantum-Well Intersubband Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Ning, C. Z.

    2004-01-01

    We study the linear intersubband absorption spectra of a 15 nm InAs quantum well using the intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations with a three-subband model and a constant dephasing rate. We demonstrate the evolution of intersubband absorption spectral line shape as a function of temperature and electron density. Through a detailed examination of various contributions, such as the phase space filling effects, the Coulomb many-body effects and the non-parabolicity effect, we illuminate the underlying physics that shapes the spectra. Keywords: Intersubband transition, linear absorption, semiconductor heterostructure, InAs quantum well

  13. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  14. On the Possibility of Detecting Wormholes in a Quantum Coherence Experiment with a RF SQUID.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Subhendra

    Wormholes are tunneling events in which small closed universes branch off from our universe. Hawking has claimed that wormholes lead to a loss of quantum coherence since they carry away a part of the final state. A different avatar of this loss of quantum coherence is seen when we integrate out the wormhole variables from the path integral and obtain a non-local effective action. With this non -local action the time evolution of a quantum state is seen to violate the superposition principle. A very stringent test of the superposition principle is the macroscopic quantum coherence experiment with a SQUID proposed by Leggett. Since the ground state of a superconductor has a macroscopic number of particles in the same quantum state, we find that the effective coupling with a wormhole is enhanced by the total number of Copper pairs. For a 1mm ^3 superconducting ring the number of Copper pairs is ~10^{19 } and we find that the coherent oscillations of the flux will be suppressed at a rate of exp {-beta^2t^2} with beta~10^{-4}s ^{-1}.

  15. Monolithic arrays of grating-surface-emitting diode lasers and quantum well modulators for optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. W.; Evans, G. A.; Liew, S. K.; Kaiser, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The electro-optic switching properties of injection-coupled coherent 2-D grating-surface-emitting laser arrays with multiple gain sections and quantum well active layers are discussed and demonstrated. Within such an array of injection-coupled grating-surface-emitting lasers, a single gain section can be operated as intra-cavity saturable loss element that can modulate the output of the entire array. Experimental results demonstrate efficient sub-nanosecond switching of high power grading-surface-emitting laser arrays by using only one gain section as an intra-cavity loss modulator.

  16. Coherent Quantum Dynamics in Steady-State Manifolds of Strongly Dissipative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it has been realized that dissipative processes can be harnessed and exploited to the end of coherent quantum control and information processing. In this spirit, we consider strongly dissipative quantum systems admitting a nontrivial manifold of steady states. We show how one can enact adiabatic coherent unitary manipulations, e.g., quantum logical gates, inside this steady-state manifold by adding a weak, time-rescaled, Hamiltonian term into the system's Liouvillian. The effective long-time dynamics is governed by a projected Hamiltonian which results from the interplay between the weak unitary control and the fast relaxation process. The leakage outside the steady-state manifold entailed by the Hamiltonian term is suppressed by an environment-induced symmetrization of the dynamics. We present applications to quantum-computation in decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems and numerical analysis of nonadiabatic errors.

  17. Collapse and revival of quantum coherence for a harmonic oscillator interacting with a classical fluctuating environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapani, Jacopo; Bina, Matteo; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2015-02-01

    We address the dynamics of nonclassicality for a quantum system interacting with a noisy fluctuating environment described by a classical stochastic field. As a paradigmatic example, we consider a harmonic oscillator initially prepared in a maximally nonclassical state, e.g., a Fock number state or a Schrödinger-cat-like state, and then coupled to either a resonant or a nonresonant external field. Stochastic modeling allows us to describe the decoherence dynamics without resorting to approximated quantum master equations and to introduce non-Markovian effects in a controlled way. A detailed comparison among different nonclassicality criteria and a thorough analysis of the decoherence time reveal a rich phenomenology whose main features may be summarized as follows: (i) Classical memory effects increase the survival time of quantum coherence and (ii) a detuning between the natural frequency of the system and the central frequency of the classical field induces revivals of quantum coherence.

  18. Unified treatment of quantum coherent and incoherent hopping dynamics in electronic energy transfer: reduced hierarchy equation approach.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R

    2009-06-21

    A new quantum dynamic equation for excitation energy transfer is developed which can describe quantum coherent wavelike motion and incoherent hopping in a unified manner. The developed equation reduces to the conventional Redfield theory and Forster theory in their respective limits of validity. In the regime of coherent wavelike motion, the equation predicts several times longer lifetime of electronic coherence between chromophores than does the conventional Redfield equation. Furthermore, we show quantum coherent motion can be observed even when reorganization energy is large in comparison to intersite electronic coupling (the Forster incoherent regime). In the region of small reorganization energy, slow fluctuation sustains longer-lived coherent oscillation, whereas the Markov approximation in the Redfield framework causes infinitely fast fluctuation and then collapses the quantum coherence. In the region of large reorganization energy, sluggish dissipation of reorganization energy increases the time electronic excitation stays above an energy barrier separating chromophores and thus prolongs delocalization over the chromophores.

  19. Optical properties of transition metal oxide quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chungwei; Posadas, Agham; Choi, Miri; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-21

    Fabrication of a quantum well, a structure that confines the electron motion along one or more spatial directions, is a powerful method of controlling the electronic structure and corresponding optical response of a material. For example, semiconductor quantum wells are used to enhance optical properties of laser diodes. The ability to control the growth of transition metal oxide films to atomic precision opens an exciting opportunity of engineering quantum wells in these materials. The wide range of transition metal oxide band gaps offers unprecedented control of confinement while the strong correlation of d-electrons allows for various cooperative phenomena to come into play. Here, we combine density functional theory and tight-binding model Hamiltonian analysis to provide a simple physical picture of transition metal oxide quantum well states using a SrO/SrTiO{sub 3}/SrO heterostructure as an example. The optical properties of the well are investigated by computing the frequency-dependent dielectric functions. The effect of an external electric field, which is essential for electro-optical devices, is also considered.

  20. Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.

  1. Analogies between classical scalar wave fields in any state of spatial coherence and some quantum states of light.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román; Cañas, Gustavo; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2012-04-01

    The border between the descriptions of the classical optical fields in any state of spatial coherence and the quantum coherence state of light is revisited in the framework of the phase-space representation. Although it is established that such descriptions are not completely equivalent, the exact calculation of the marginal power spectrum leads to new analogies that suggest that some features exclusively attributed to quantum states of light can be also shared by classical optical fields due to their spatial coherence state.

  2. Theory and Experiments on Unstable Resonator and Quantum Well Gallium Arsenide/gallium Aluminum Arsenide Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstein, Michael

    Structures of GaAs/GaAlAs lasers and their performance characteristics are investigated experimentally and theoretically. A self-consistent model for the longitudinal gain and intensity distribution in injection lasers is introduced. The model is applied to unstable-resonator semiconductor lasers to evaluate their lateral losses and quantum efficiencies, and an advanced design is presented. Symmetric, unstable -resonator semiconductor lasers are manufactured and a virtual source point inside the laser more than an order of magnitude narrower than the width of the near field is demonstrated. Young's double-slit experiment is adopted for lateral coherence measurements in semiconductor lasers. A high degree of lateral coherence is found, indicating operation of the unstable-resonator lasers in predominantly one mode. In the pulsed measurements on broad-area, single -quantum-well, graded-index wave-guide, separate-confinement -heterostructure lasers, very high quantum efficiencies, very low losses, and very high output powers are observed. The devices are found to exhibit beam divergence narrower than two times the diffraction limit in single-lobed, far-field patterns. Using these single-quantum-well lasers, the "second quantized-state lasing" is found experimentally, and a simple model is developed to explain it. A general model for the gain spectrum and required current density of quantum-well lasers is introduced. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the charge carriers and optical mode of the transverse structure are used to derive the gain spectrum and current density from the Einstein coefficients. The two-dimensional density of states for the charge carriers and the effective width of the optical mode (not the width of the quantum well) are identified as the dominant parameters. The model includes a new heuristic approach to account for the observed smeared onset of subbands, eliminating convolution calculations. Applications of the model for a typical

  3. Coherence-assisted single-shot cooling by quantum absorption refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchison, Mark T.; Woods, Mischa P.; Prior, Javier; Huber, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    The extension of thermodynamics into the quantum regime has received much attention in recent years. A primary objective of current research is to find thermodynamic tasks which can be enhanced by quantum mechanical effects. With this goal in mind, we explore the finite-time dynamics of absorption refrigerators composed of three quantum bits (qubits). The aim of this finite-time cooling is to reach low temperatures as fast as possible and subsequently extract the cold particle to exploit it for information processing purposes. We show that the coherent oscillations inherent to quantum dynamics can be harnessed to reach temperatures that are colder than the steady state in orders of magnitude less time, thereby providing a fast source of low-entropy qubits. This effect demonstrates that quantum thermal machines can surpass classical ones, reminiscent of quantum advantages in other fields, and is applicable to a broad range of technologically important scenarios.

  4. Slow and fast light propagation in a triple quantum well nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, Ghahraman; Panahi, Mohsen; Ahmadi Sangachin, Elnaz; Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the absorption and dispersion properties of a weak probe field in a triple quantum well nanostructure by using the incoherent pumping fields. A deep 7.1 nm-thick GaAs well is coupled, on one side, to two shallow 6.8 nm-thick Al0.2Ga0.8As wells by a 2.5 nm-thick Al0.4Ga0.6As barrier. The two shallow wells are separated by a 2.0 nm-thick Al0.4Ga0.8As barrier. Both sides of quantum well contact with 36 nm Al0.4Ga0.6As. Therefore, this type of triple quantum well nanostructure can be used as a suitable medium for studying the effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) and interference between incoherent pumping fields on absorption and dispersion properties of weak probe light. We find that the interferences from spontaneous emission and incoherent pumping processes can change the slope of dispersion and group velocity of the probe light from slow to fast or vice versa. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the group velocity of the light pulse can be controlled with the rates of incoherent pumping fields.

  5. AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

  6. Remote Entanglement by Coherent Multiplication of Concurrent Quantum Signals.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda; Jiang, Liang; Stone, A Douglas; Devoret, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Concurrent remote entanglement of distant, noninteracting quantum entities is a crucial function for quantum information processing. In contrast with the existing protocols which employ the addition of signals to generate entanglement between two remote qubits, the continuous variable protocol we present is based on the multiplication of signals. This protocol can be straightforwardly implemented by a novel Josephson junction mixing circuit. Our scheme would be able to generate provable entanglement even in the presence of practical imperfections: finite quantum efficiency of detectors and undesired photon loss in current state-of-the-art devices.

  7. Room-temperature resonant tunneling of electrons in carbon nanotube junction quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujit K.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Jung, Yung Joon; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Vajtai, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Resonant tunneling structures [M. Bockrath, W. Liang, D. Bozovic, J. H. Hafner, C. B. Lieber, M. Tinkham, and H. Park, Science 291, 283 (2001)], formed between the junction of two single walled nanotubes and the conductive atomic force microscopy tip contact were investigated using current sensing atomic force microscopy. Oscillations in the current voltage characteristics were measured at several positions of the investigated nanotube. The oscillatory behavior is shown to follow a simple quantum mechanical model, dependent on the energy separation in the quantum well formed within the two junctions. Our model shows that these observations seen over several hundreds of nanometers, are possible only if the scattering cross section at defects is small resulting in long phase coherence length, and if the effective mass of the carrier electrons is small. We have calculated the approximate mass of the conduction electrons to be 0.003me.

  8. Theory of light-induced drift of electrons in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, Mark I.; Muratov, Leonid S.; George, Thomas F.

    1992-10-01

    A theory of the new effect of light-induced drift (LID) in coupled potential wells is developed on the basis of the density-matrix method. The effect appears when light excites intersubband electronic transitions. LID manifests itself as the photocurrent of the two-dimensional electron gas in the well plane, which depends on coherent electron tunneling between the coupled wells. The theory shows the effect to possess distinctive features such as a characteristic antisymmetric spectral contour consisting of four alternating positive and negative peaks and the change of sign of the LID current with the sign change of the bias normal to the quantum-well plane. The quantitative estimates for GaAs wells show the LID current to be readily detectable.

  9. Entanglement entropy in dynamic quantum-coherent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Konrad H.; Flindt, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement and the Rényi entropies of two electronic leads connected by a quantum point contact. For noninteracting electrons, the entropies can be related to the cumulants of the full counting statistics of transferred charge which in principle are measurable. We consider the entanglement entropy generated by operating the quantum point contact as a quantum switch which is opened and closed in a periodic manner. Using a numerically exact approach we analyze the conditions under which a logarithmic growth of the entanglement entropy predicted by conformal field theory should be observable in an electronic conductor. In addition, we consider clean single-particle excitations on top of the Fermi sea (levitons) generated by applying designed pulses to the leads. We identify a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like suppression of the entanglement entropy by interfering two levitons on a quantum point contact tuned to half transmission.

  10. Electron transport in coupled double quantum wells and wires

    SciTech Connect

    Harff, N.E.; Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.

    1997-04-01

    Due to inter-quantum well tunneling, coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) contain an extra degree of electronic freedom in the growth direction, giving rise to new transport phenomena not found in single electron layers. This report describes work done on coupled DQWs subject to inplane magnetic fields B{sub {parallel}}, and is based on the lead author`s doctoral thesis, successfully defended at Oregon State University on March 4, 1997. First, the conductance of closely coupled DQWs in B{sub {parallel}} is studied. B{sub {parallel}}-induced distortions in the dispersion, the density of states, and the Fermi surface are described both theoretically and experimentally, with particular attention paid to the dispersion anticrossing and resulting partial energy gap. Measurements of giant distortions in the effective mass are found to agree with theoretical calculations. Second, the Landau level spectra of coupled DQWs in tilted magnetic fields is studied. The magnetoresistance oscillations show complex beating as Landau levels from the two Fermi surface components cross the Fermi level. A third set of oscillations resulting from magnetic breakdown is observed. A semiclassical calculation of the Landau level spectra is then performed, and shown to agree exceptionally well with the data. Finally, quantum wires and quantum point contacts formed in DQW structures are investigated. Anticrossings of the one-dimensional DQW dispersion curves are predicted to have interesting transport effects in these devices. Difficulties in sample fabrication have to date prevented experimental verification. However, recently developed techniques to overcome these difficulties are described.

  11. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.

  12. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication. PMID:19113324

  13. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  14. Coupled-qubit Tavis-Cummings scheme for prolonging quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Qubit-qubit interactions can significantly boost quantum coherence times for Bell states. The coherence-time enhancements are, however, not monotonic and there exists a phase where further increasing the interaction is unhelpful. A resonator in a suggested circuit QED-type implementation of the Tavis-Cummings (Dicke) model, is shown to shift this transition point depending on the number of loaded photons. This allows the resonator to amplify the coherence enhancements in certain regimes. The interactions also induce unusual collapse and revival-type behavior for the entanglement dynamics. An exact open quantum system's formalism-(quasi-Hamiltonians for the Dicke model) shows how a Bell state singlet-triplet qubit in a resonator can be protected against 1 /f noise from randomly fluctuating two-level systems. Simple circuit level details are given for flux qubits.

  15. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  16. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  17. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  18. Quantum spin hall insulator state in HgTe quantum wells.

    PubMed

    König, Markus; Wiedmann, Steffen; Brüne, Christoph; Roth, Andreas; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2007-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that the quantum spin Hall effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter that exists at zero external magnetic field, may be realized in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We fabricated such sample structures with low density and high mobility in which we could tune, through an external gate voltage, the carrier conduction from n-type to p-type, passing through an insulating regime. For thin quantum wells with well width d < 6.3 nanometers, the insulating regime showed the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d > 6.3 nanometers), the nominally insulating regime showed a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e(2)/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant. The residual conductance was independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance was destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d = 6.3 nanometers, was also independently determined from the magnetic field-induced insulator-to-metal transition. These observations provide experimental evidence of the quantum spin Hall effect.

  19. Cathodoluminescence of single quantum wires and vertical quantum wells grown on a submicron grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, A.; Samuelson, L.; Malm, J.-O.; Vermeire, G.; Demeester, P.

    1994-02-01

    We present cathodoluminescence (CL) investigations of a corrugated GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well (QW) structure grown on a submicron grating. The CL spectra have four distinct emission peaks. Using plan-view and cross-sectional CL imaging together with cross-sectional transmission electron microscope imaging, we have assigned the four peaks: They originate in the nominal QW, a quantum wire (QWR), a vertical quantum well (VQW), and the barrier, respectively. We have CL-imaged and -characterized single QWRs and VQWs.

  20. Unusual Tunneling Characteristics of Double-quantum-well Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Nitta, J.; Newaz, A. K. M.; Song, W.; Mendez, E. E.

    2005-06-01

    We report tunneling phenomena in double In0.53Ga0.47As quantum-well structures that are at odds with the conventional parallel-momentum-conserving picture of tunneling between two-dimensional systems. We found that the tunneling current was mostly determined by the correlation between the emitter and the state in one well, and not by that between those in both wells. Clear magnetic-field-dependent features were first observed before the main resonance, corresponding to tunneling channels into the Landau levels of the well near the emitter. These facts provide evidence of the violation of in-plane momentum conservation in two-dimensional systems.

  1. Magnetotransport in p-type Ge quantum well narrow wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, P. J. Llandro, J.; Mansell, R.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Holmes, S. N.; Morrison, C.; Foronda, J.; Myronov, M.; Leadley, D. R.

    2015-04-27

    We report magnetotransport measurements of a SiGe heterostructure containing a 20 nm p-Ge quantum well with a mobility of 800 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. By dry etching arrays of wires with widths between 1.0 μm and 3.0 μm, we were able to measure the lateral depletion thickness, built-in potential, and the phase coherence length of the quantum well. Fourier analysis does not show any Rashba related spin-splitting despite clearly defined Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations being observed up to a filling factor of ν = 22. Exchange-enhanced spin-splitting is observed for filling factors below ν = 9. An analysis of boundary scattering effects indicates lateral depletion of the hole gas by 0.5 ± 0.1 μm from the etched germanium surface. The built-in potential is found to be 0.25 ± 0.04 V, presenting an energy barrier for lateral transport greater than the hole confinement energy. A large phase coherence length of 3.5 ± 0.5 μm is obtained in these wires at 1.7 K.

  2. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  3. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  4. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  5. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  6. Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions.

    PubMed

    Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B

    2014-09-15

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295

  7. Quantifying coherence and entanglement in trapped ions using the multiple quantum spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaerttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Bollinger, John; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    The multiple quantum coherence (MQC) spectrum of a quantum state, originally introduced for highly mixed states in the context of NMR, quantifies coherence between different magnetization sectors. The MQC spectrum of a spin system is measurable by a sequence of rotations and evolution under an interaction Hamiltonian, provided that the evolution can be time reversed. Such a many-body echo can be realized in systems of trapped ions. We study the relation of the multiple quantum intensities with entanglement measures and witnesses such as Fisher information and concurrence and discuss the impact of decoherence mechanisms present in current trapped ion experiments on the proposed scheme for measuring the MQC spectrum. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  8. Coherent optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled semiconductor microcavity quantum-dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Kartik; Painter, Oskar

    2008-03-01

    Chip-based systems involving a semiconductor microcavity coupled to an embedded quantum dot (QD) offer a scalable, stable platform for optical cavity quantum electrodynamics. To harness this potential in a manner consistent with many protocols for quantum information processing, the system must be coherently probed and manipulated. However, experiments in these systems have largely relied on incoherent excitation through photoluminescence (PL). Here, we describe recent experiments [1] in which a fiber taper waveguide is used to perform steady-state coherent linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microcavity-QD system, probing the system on its photonic channel (rather than its matter channel, as in PL). Under weak driving, vacuum Rabi splitting is observed, while increasing the drive strength reveals saturation for an average intracavity photon number of less than one. [1] K. Srinivasan and O. Painter (2007), to appear in Nature, Dec. 6, 2007 (preprint: physics/0707.3311).

  9. Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Hong-chun

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality.

  10. Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi

    2016-10-01

    The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.

  11. Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi

    2016-07-01

    The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.

  12. Charge transport and localization in atomically coherent quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.

  13. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-2 quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Yang, R. Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S. J.; Pei, S. S.; Allerman, A. A.; Kurtz, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-2 quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 (micro)m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-2 quantum wells. The type-2 QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-2 quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 (micro)W at 80 K, and 140 (micro)W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  14. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  15. High signal-to-noise ratio quantum well bolometer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmar, Stanley; Höglund, Linda; Andersson, Jan; Vieider, Christian; Savage, Susan; Ericsson, Per

    2006-09-01

    Novel single crystalline high-performance temperature sensing materials (quantum well structures) have been developed for the manufacturing of uncooled infrared bolometers. SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells are grown epitaxially on standard Si and GaAs substrates respectively. The former use holes as charge carriers utilizing the discontinuities in the valence band structure, whereas the latter operate in a similar manner with electrons in the conduction band. By optimizing parameters such as the barrier height (by variation of the germanium/aluminium content respectively) and the fermi level E f (by variation of the quantum well width and doping level) these materials provide the potential to engineer layer structures with a very high temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR, as compared with conventional thin film materials such as vanadium oxide and amorphous silicon. In addition, the high quality crystalline material promises very low 1/f-noise characteristics promoting an outstanding signal to noise ratio and well defined and uniform material properties, A comparison between the two (SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs) quantum well structures and their fundamental theoretical limits are discussed and compared to experimental results. A TCR of 2.0%/K and 4.5%/K have been obtained experimentally for SiGe/Si and AlGaAs/GaAs respectively. The noise level for both materials is measured as being several orders of magnitude lower than that of a-Si and VOx. These uncooled thermistor materials can be hybridized with read out circuits by using conventional flip-chip assembly or wafer level adhesion bonding. The increased bolometer performance so obtained can either be exploited for increasing the imaging system performance, i. e. obtaining a low NETD, or to reduce the vacuum packaging requirements for low cost applications (e.g. automotive).

  16. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions with multi-quantum well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Tianjin; Liang, Kun; Qi, Yajun; Wang, Duofa; Wang, Jinzhao; Jiang, Juan

    2014-06-02

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) with multi-quantum well structures are proposed and the tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect is investigated theoretically. Compared with conventional FTJs with monolayer ferroelectric barriers, FTJs with single-well structures provide TER ratio improvements of one order of magnitude, while FTJs with optimized multi-well structures can enhance this improvement by another order of magnitude. It is believed that the increased resonant tunneling strength combined with appropriate asymmetry in these FTJs contributes to the improvement. These studies may help to fabricate FTJs with large TER ratio experimentally and put them into practice.

  17. Intersubband Transitions in InAs/AlSb Quantum Wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, J.; Koloklov, K.; Ning, C. Z.; Larraber, D. C.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Kono, J.; Ueda, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied intersubband transitions in InAs/AlSb quantum wells experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we performed polarization-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy to measure intersubband absorption peak frequencies and linewidths as functions of temperature (from 4 K to room temperature) and quantum well width (from a few nm to 10 nm). To understand experimental results, we performed a self-consistent 8-band k-p band-structure calculation including spatial charge separation. Based on the calculated band structure, we developed a set of density matrix equations to compute TE and TM optical transitions self-consistently, including both interband and intersubband channels. This density matrix formalism is also ideal for the inclusion of various many-body effects, which are known to be important for intersubband transitions. Detailed comparison between experimental data and theoretical simulations is presented.

  18. Proximity Effects in Nb/InAs Quantum Well Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhause, T. A.; Gwinn, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Kroemer, H.

    1997-03-01

    InAs has been widely used as a weak link in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions.(E. L. Yuh et al., Surf. Sci. 361/362), 315 (1996) Most theoretical treatments of such structures assume that proximity to InAs does not reduce the Nb gap. To test this assumption we have fabricated structures with an ultra-thin layer of Nb on the exposed surface of the InAs quantum well. After removing the cap layer from the μ = 210,000 cm/V\\cdot s, ns = 5.5 x 10^12cm-2 InAs quantum well, Nb films of ~ 100Åthickness are deposited simultaneously on the 150Åquantum well and on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate (both surfaces are sputter cleaned prior to deposition). We cap the Nb with a ~100ÅSi layer of to prevent oxidation.(S.I. Park and T.H. Geballe, Physica B 135), 108 (1985) After processing, the sheet resistances just above Tc are 23.5Ω and 67Ω in the Nb film and quantum well, respectively. We observed a ~ 0.2K lower critical temperature in the Nb/InAs sample. As the Nb films are otherwise nominally identical and the proximity effect is known to suppress the critical temperature of thin films, this suppression in Tc may be due to the reduction of the gap in Nb. Supported by NSF grant DMR-93-14899

  19. Noise gain and operating temperature of quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. C.

    1992-11-01

    The difference between the noise gain associated with dark current and the photoconductive gain in quantum well infrared photodetectors is discussed in light of recent experiments. The theoretical model is based on a single key parameter: the electron trapping probability. An empirical expression for the trapping probability or, alternatively, the electron escape probability is proposed. Using the dark current, the gain, the trapping probability expressions, and the device operating temperature for achieving background limited infrared performance is discussed.

  20. Temperature independent quantum well FET with delta channel doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. G.; Mena, R. A.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haugland, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    A temperature independent device is presented which uses a quantum well structure and delta doping within the channel. The device requires a high delta doping concentration within the channel to achieve a constant Hall mobility and carrier concentration across the temperature range 300-1.4 K. Transistors were RF tested using on-wafer probing and a constant G sub max and F sub max were measured over the temperature range 300-70 K.

  1. Quantum-well diode frequency multipliers - Varistor case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batelaan, Paul D.; Tolmunen, Timo J.; Frerking, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Local oscillators for heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths are typically made using a fundamental source followed by a harmonic frequency multiplier. An investigation of the required circuit embedding conditions for a possible new harmonic generator, the quantum-well resonant-tunneling diode, is summarized. A low-frequency multiplier has been tested that employs the resistive nonlinearity of the device as opposed to the reactive nonlinearity. The results show good agreement between practice and theory.

  2. Terahertz quantum well photodetectors with reflection-grating couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Fu, Z. L.; Gu, L. L.; Guo, X. G.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-12-08

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of terahertz (THz) quantum well photodetectors with one-dimensional reflection-grating coupler are presented. It is found that the reflection gratings could effectively couple the THz waves normally incident to the device. Compared with the 45-degree facet sample, the peak responsivity of this grating-coupled detector is enhanced by over 20%. The effects of the gratings on the photocurrent spectra are also analyzed.

  3. A Voltage-Tunable Quantum Well Detector for Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, G.; Williams, J. B.; Sherwin, M. S.; Campman, K.; Gossard, A. C.

    1997-03-01

    Intersubband transitions in quantum wells have enabled the development of sensitive quantum well infrared photoconductors (QWIP) at wavelengths shorter than 20 microns. The potential of quantum well-based detectors at wavelengths of order 100 microns (3 Terahertz (THz)) has not been realized. We propose a novel antenna-coupled intersubband detector for THz frequencies. The detector is predicted to be sensitive only in a narrow band of frequencies which can be tuned by a factor of order two by applying dc voltages of order 1V. The speed of the detector is predicted to be limited by the intersubband relaxation rate (1 ns at T=10K)(J. N. Heyman et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 2682 (1995). Prototype detectors have been constructed. The structure, dc transport characteristics and response of these devices to THz radiation will be discussed. Supported by the NSF Science and Technology Center for Quantized Electronic Structures DMR 91-20007, NSF DMR 9623874, AFOSR F-49620-94-1-0158, and the Ford Foundation (GB).

  4. Quantum Well and Quantum Dot Modeling for Advanced Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of Quantum Well Infrared Detectors (QWIP) and Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) in the development of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). The QWIP Detector being developed is a dual band detector. It is capable of running on two bands Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR). The same large-format dual-band FPA technology can be applied to Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) with no modification, once QDIP exceeds QWIP in single device performance. Details of the devices are reviewed.

  5. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Filip, Radim

    2008-02-15

    An excess noise in coherent-state preparation can prevent secure key distribution through lossy channel. The feasible single-copy and multicopy linear optical methods are proposed to purify the prepared state. The single-copy method always sufficiently reduces the excess noise to obtain the key secure against both the individual and collective attacks even through any lossy channel. To increase the secure key rate, two feasible applications of the multicopy linear optical purification are proposed. As a result, maximal secure key rate achievable through a given lossy channel can be approached.

  6. Interplay between Coulomb interaction and quantum interference in three-level resonant asymmetric double quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Alsing, P. M.; Huang, D. H.; Cardimona, D. A.; Apostolova, T.

    2003-09-01

    A many-body density-matrix theory is derived by including quasiparticle renormalization of kinetic energy and dipole coupling to an external electromagnetic field, as well as the screening and quantum-interference effects. This theory is applied to a three-level resonant asymmetric double-quantum-well system in which the ground subband is coupled to the upper tunneling-split doublet by a strong external electromagnetic field. By using this theory, the quasiparticle energy-level separations and off-diagonal radiative-decay coupling rates, absorption coefficient, refractive-index function, and scaled subband electron density are calculated as functions of incident photon energy. The effects of quasiparticle renormalization on the quantum interference between a pair of optically induced polarizations are analyzed. The quantum interference is shown to be robust against the Coulomb-interaction effect in the mean-field approximation. The roles played by the dephasing rate and electron density are explained.

  7. Magneto-optical properties of indium antimide based quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Giti Adham

    2001-08-01

    The goal of this work was to study the band structure and spin properties of the InSb quantum wells experimentally. Many new observations resulted such as spin resolved cyclotron resonance and zero field spin splitting in InSb quantum wells. Our cyclotron resonance experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical model. The values of the effective mass show the expected nonparabolicity behavior. We observed spin resolved cyclotron resonance in the high mobility samples with a rather unexpected amplitude pattern at 70.6 μm which might be a result of deviation from the Kohn theorem. More experiments using FTIR are required to understand the spin resolved cyclotron resonance in InSb. We observe electron spin resonance using FIR laser spectroscopy in symmetric and asymmetric InSb quantum wells over a wide range of magnetic field and the Landau level index. The behavior of the asymmetric wells at low magnetic fields with g-factors far in excess of the bulk g-factor of InSb is due to spin splitting at zero magnetic field. Asymmetry-induced shifts in the spin resonance at high fields depend on the Landau level index as predicted by the Bychkov-Rashba model. In an extension of this work, we plan to compare samples where the asymmetry in the confinement potential is due to differing Al concentrations in the barriers on either side of the quantum well to samples with asymmetric doping which were studied in this work. The α values measured in this work (1.5 × 10-9 eVcm) are among the largest reported as would be expected for a material like InSb with a large bulk g-factor. Recently, in gated InAs samples [61] α values ranging from 2 × 10-9 to 4 × 10-9 eV cm have been measured which suggest that we can achieve even larger α in InSb quantum wells. We are extending our spin resonance studies to gated samples. These should give us the ability to study the spin resonance in the absence of any applied magnetic field.

  8. Observation of Optical Bistability and Multi-Stability in the Dielecrtric Slab Doped with a Quantum well Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi, R.

    2016-08-01

    The optical bistability (OB) and multi-stability (OM) behavior in a dielectric slab medium doped with semiconductor quantum well nanostructure has been discussed by employing the spin coherence effect. It is shown that, by changing the relative phase of applied fields the bistable behavior switches from OB to OM or vice versa in a dielectric medium. The effect of the frequency detuning of laser fields on the OB and OM behavior are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Quantum security in homodyne reception using weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, E.; López, J. A.; Mendieta, F. J.; Arvizu, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present an experimental 8-port Balanced Homodyne Detector at 1550 nm wavelength, operating in free space, implemented with polarization devices to produce a circularly polarized local oscillator, splitting its In-Phase and Quadrature components to beat separately with the weak coherent incoming signal. This allows the simultaneous measurements of the 2 quadratures at the price of an additional noise due to the vacuum fields that leak via the unused ports, resulting in a modified Husimi function for joint probability distribution for the quadrature components. These schemes require the proper optical phase synchronization between the local oscillator and the incoming field, which constitutes a challenge for weak coherent state reception. To achieve this we designed and implemented an optical Costas loop; the feedback loop (especially the loop filter) which is a result of the optimal design has an impact on the mutual information between transmitter and receiver, being this parameter a condition to generate the cryptographic key. We present experimental and theoretical results on the performance of the mutual information between the transmitter and the receiver due the phase error for different photon numbers.

  10. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chikang

    2015-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of graphene. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system by using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the graphene and the gold cluster. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkably strong, selectable tuning and polarization dependent plasmon resonance enhanced in wide frequency regions. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect in a graphene-based photoelectric device. PMID:25874280

  11. Coherent frequency combs produced by self frequency modulation in quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Khurgin, J. B.; Dikmelik, Y.; Hugi, A.; Faist, J.

    2014-02-24

    One salient characteristic of Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) is its very short τ ∼ 1 ps gain recovery time that so far thwarted the attempts to achieve self-mode locking of the device into a train of single pulses. We show theoretically that four wave mixing, combined with the short gain recovery time causes QCL to operate in the self-frequency-modulated regime characterized by a constant power in time domain and stable coherent comb in the frequency domain. Coherent frequency comb may enable many potential applications of QCL's in sensing and measurement.

  12. A simple coherent attack and practical security of differential phase shift quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol reveals good security against such powerful attacks as unambiguous state discrimination and beam splitting attacks. Its complete security analysis is complex due to high dimensions of the supposed spaces and density operators. In this paper, we consider a particular and conceptually simple coherent attack, available in practical implementations. The main condition for this attack is the length of used coherent state tuples of order 8-12. We show that under this condition, no high level of practical distance between legitimate users can be achieved.

  13. Formation of a self-consistent double quantum well in a wide p-type quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshanskiǐ, G. A.; Yakunin, M. V.

    2004-11-01

    The process of formation of self-consistent double quantum wells (DQWs) in a wide p-type quantum well in the presence of uniaxial strain is investigated. A feature of p-type systems is the structure of the valence band, which consists of two branches of energy dispersion—light and heavy holes. It is shown that this feature leads to significant splitting of the subbands of symmetric and antisymmetric states, as a result of which it is difficult to form states of the DQW with a vanishingly small tunneling gap; a uniaxial strain, by lifting the degeneracy of the band, suppresses this property, so that the two ground subbands of the size quantization of the DQW remain degenerate to high energies.

  14. Metallic behaviour in SOI quantum wells with strong intervalley scattering.

    PubMed

    Renard, V T; Duchemin, I; Niida, Y; Fujiwara, A; Hirayama, Y; Takashina, K

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental properties of valleys are recently attracting growing attention due to electrons in new and topical materials possessing this degree-of-freedom and recent proposals for valleytronics devices. In silicon MOSFETs, the interest has a longer history since the valley degree of freedom had been identified as a key parameter in the observation of the controversial "metallic behaviour" in two dimensions. However, while it has been recently demonstrated that lifting valley degeneracy can destroy the metallic behaviour, little is known about the role of intervalley scattering. Here, we show that the metallic behaviour can be observed in the presence of strong intervalley scattering in silicon on insulator (SOI) quantum wells. Analysis of the conductivity in terms of quantum corrections reveals that interactions are much stronger in SOI than in conventional MOSFETs, leading to the metallic behaviour despite the strong intervalley scattering. PMID:23774638

  15. Electrostatic enhancement of light emitted by semiconductor quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhin, A.; Neogi, A.; Llopis, A.; Mahat, M.; Gumen, L.; Pereira, S.; Watson, I.

    2015-10-01

    Carrier dynamics in metal-semiconductor structures is driven by electrodynamic coupling of carriers to the evanescent field of surface plasmons. Useful modifications in electron and hole dynamics due to presence of metallic inclusions show promise for applications from light emitters to communications. However, this picture does not include contributions from electrostatics. We propose here an electrostatic mechanism for enhancement of light radiated from semiconductor emitter which is comparable in effect to plasmonic mechanism. Arising from Coulomb attraction of e-h pairs to their electrostatic images in metallic nanoparticles, this mechanism produces large carrier concentrations near the nanoparticle. A strong inhomogeneity in the carrier distribution and an increase in the internal quantum efficiency are predicted. In our experiments, this manifests as emission enhancement in InGaN quantum well (QW) radiating in the near-UV region. This fundamental mechanism provides a new perspective for improving the efficiency of broadband light emitters.

  16. Metallic behaviour in SOI quantum wells with strong intervalley scattering.

    PubMed

    Renard, V T; Duchemin, I; Niida, Y; Fujiwara, A; Hirayama, Y; Takashina, K

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental properties of valleys are recently attracting growing attention due to electrons in new and topical materials possessing this degree-of-freedom and recent proposals for valleytronics devices. In silicon MOSFETs, the interest has a longer history since the valley degree of freedom had been identified as a key parameter in the observation of the controversial "metallic behaviour" in two dimensions. However, while it has been recently demonstrated that lifting valley degeneracy can destroy the metallic behaviour, little is known about the role of intervalley scattering. Here, we show that the metallic behaviour can be observed in the presence of strong intervalley scattering in silicon on insulator (SOI) quantum wells. Analysis of the conductivity in terms of quantum corrections reveals that interactions are much stronger in SOI than in conventional MOSFETs, leading to the metallic behaviour despite the strong intervalley scattering.

  17. Electron bilayers in an undoped Si/SiGe double-quantum-well heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tzu-Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Nielsen, Erik; Chuang, Yen; Li, Jiun-Yun; Liu, Cheewee

    We report the design, fabrication, and the magneto-transport study of an undoped Si/SiGe double quantum well heterostructure. We show that employing asymmetric quantum wells for our single-side-gated devices allows us to observe a cross-over from single-layer-like to bi-layer-llike behavior in the mobility-density dependence. We also observe an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor ν = 2, which is expected to arise from inter-layer effects for Si electrons. This state could be due to either inter-layer coherence, or the symmetric-antisymmetric tunneling gap. This work has been supported by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Quantum Coherence of Strongly Correlated Defects in Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, Sylvain; Dutoit, Charles-Emmanuel; Van Tol, Johan; Dressel, Martin; Barbara, Bernard; Stepanov, Anatoli

    Most of qubit systems known to date are isolated paramagnetic centres in magnetically diluted samples since their dilution allows to considerably weaken the dipole-dipole inter-qubit interaction and thus to prevent the decoherence. Here we suggest an alternative approach for spin qubits which are built on spin S = 1/2 defects in magnetically concentrated strongly correlated systems - spin chains. The corresponding qubits are made of spin solitons resulting from local breaking of transitional symmetry associated with point-defects. We provide the first evidence for coherence and Rabi oscillations of spin solitons in isotropic Heisenberg chains, simple antiferromagnetic-Ńeel or spin-Peierls, proving that they can be manipulated as single spin S = 1/2. The entanglement of these many-body soliton states over macroscopic distances along chains gives rise to networks of coupled qubits which could easily be decoupled at will in extensions of this work.

  19. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf Gudmundsson, Vidar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  20. Reference trajectory tracking for locally designed coherent quantum controls.

    PubMed

    Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Turinici, Gabriel; Rouchon, Pierre

    2005-03-24

    Local time control methods are used in the simulation of quantum control phenomena because they conveniently ensure an increase of a predefined performance index and also avoid singularities associated with tracking procedures. However, the drawback of the existing implementations is that they only take into account one-photon, direct transitions and may stop at nonoptimal values of the index. We propose in this paper a modification of the currently used algorithms that addresses this issue and explain how the convergence is improved. Furthermore, when iterations are required, we show that this approach can be inserted into a monotonically convergent algorithm. PMID:16833569

  1. Recent Developments in Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic infrared (IR) detectors in the long wavelength range (8-20 Am) are based on an optically excited interband transition, which promotes an electron across the band gap (E(sub g)) from the valence band to the conduction band as shown. These photoelectrons can be collected efficiently, thereby producing a photocurrent in the external circuit. Since the incoming photon has to promote an electron from the valence band to the conduction band, the energy of the photon (h(sub upsilon)) must be higher than the E(sub g) of the photosensitive material. Therefore, the spectral response of the detectors can be controlled by controlling the E(sub g) of the photosensitive material. Examples for such materials are Hg(1-x), Cd(x), Te, and Pb(1-x), Sn(x), Te, in which the energy gap can be controlled by varying x. This means detection of very-long-wavelength IR radiation up to 20 microns requires small band gaps down to 62 meV. It is well known that these low band gap materials, characterized by weak bonding and low melting points, are more difficult to grow and process than large-band gap semiconductors such as GaAs. These difficulties motivate the exploration of utilizing the intersub-band transitions in multiquantum well (MQW) structures made of more refractory large-band gap semiconductors. The idea of using MQW structures to detect IR radiation can be explained by using the basic principles of quantum mechanics. The quantum well is equivalent to the well-known particle in a box problem in quantum mechanics, which can be solved by the time independent Schroudiner equation.

  2. Implementing a quantum cloning machine in separate cavities via the optical coherent pulse as a quantum communication bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu

    2015-04-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed to implement a quantum cloning machine in separate cavities based on a hybrid interaction between electron-spin systems placed in the cavities and an optical coherent pulse. The coefficient of the output state for the present cloning machine is just the direct product of two trigonometric functions, which ensures that different types of quantum cloning machine can be achieved readily in the same framework by appropriately adjusting the rotated angles. The present scheme can implement optimal one-to-two symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) real-state cloning, optimal one-to-three symmetric economical real-state cloning, and optimal symmetric cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution. In addition, photon loss of the qubus beams during the transmission and decoherence effects caused by such a photon loss are investigated.

  3. Superconducting proximity effect in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum well structures with Ta electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenlong; Jiang, Yuxuan; Huan, Chao; Chen, Xunchi; Jiang, Zhigang; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Klem, John F.; Pan, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We present our recent electronic transport results in top-gated InAs/GaSb quantum well hybrid structures with superconducting Ta electrodes. We show that the transport across the InAs-Ta junction depends largely on the interfacial transparency, exhibiting distinct zero-bias behavior. For a relatively resistive interface, a broad conductance peak is observed at zero bias. When a transparent InAs-Ta interface is achieved, a zero-bias conductance dip appears with two coherent-peak-like features forming at bias voltages corresponding to the superconducting gap of Ta. The conductance spectra of the transparent InAs-Ta junction at different gate voltages can be fit well using the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory.

  4. Quantum Coherence in (Brain) Microtubules and Efficient Energy and Information Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2011-12-01

    Prompted by recent experimental results in marine algae, indicating quantum entanglement at ambient temperature, with correlations between essential biological units separated by distances as long as 20 Angstroms and decoherence times, due to environmental influences, of order 400 fs, I review here a related topic proposed several years ago in connection with the possible rôle of quantum mechanics and/or field theory on dissipation-free energy transfer in (brain) microtubules (MT). The basic assumption was to view the cell MT as quantum electrodynamical cavities, providing sufficient isolation in vivo to enable the formation of electric-dipole quantum coherent solitonic states across the tubulin dimer walls. Crucial to this, were argued to be the electromagnetic interactions of the dipole moments of the tubulin dimers with the dipole quanta in the ordered water interiors of the MT, that play the rôle of quantum coherent cavity modes. Quantum entanglement between tubulin dimers was argued to be possible, provided there exists sufficient isolation from other environmental cell effects. Thus, decoherence times as long as 10-7 -10-6 s could characterise the MT systems. The model was based on certain ferroelectric aspects of MT. In the talk I revisit these decoherence time scales in light of the algae measurements and argue that, even if the environmental decoherence implies short time scales of order of a few hundreds of fs, this is a sufficient time for some kind of quantum computation to take place in (brain) MT, so that within these time scales the cell "quantum calculates" the optimal "path" along which energy and signal (information) are transported most efficiently along the MT.

  5. Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Li; Shi, Rong-Hua; Shi, Jin-Jing; Lv, Ge-Li; Guo, Ying

    2016-08-01

    A novel quantum dual signature scheme, which combines two signed messages expected to be sent to two diverse receivers Bob and Charlie, is designed by applying entanglement swapping with coherent states. The signatory Alice signs two different messages with unitary operations (corresponding to the secret keys) and applies entanglement swapping to generate a quantum dual signature. The dual signature is firstly sent to the verifier Bob who extracts and verifies the signature of one message and transmits the rest of the dual signature to the verifier Charlie who verifies the signature of the other message. The transmission of the dual signature is realized with quantum teleportation of coherent states. The analysis shows that the security of secret keys and the security criteria of the signature protocol can be greatly guaranteed. An extensional multi-party quantum dual signature scheme which considers the case with more than three participants is also proposed in this paper and this scheme can remain secure. The proposed schemes are completely suited for the quantum communication network including multiple participants and can be applied to the e-commerce system which requires a secure payment among the customer, business and bank. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012).

  6. An integrated system of SQUIDs for the study of macroscopic quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmelli, C.; Castellano, M. G.; Leoni, R.; Torrioli, R.; Carelli, P.; Chiarello, F.

    2001-12-01

    The observation and study of macroscopic quantum coherence (MQC), i.e. the coherent superposition and evolution of macroscopically distinct quantum states, is of great importance for both our understanding of nature and for quantum engineering, for example in quantum computing. Recently a first indication of MQC in a system of SQUIDs has been indirectly observed by means of spectroscopic techniques. Applications like quantum computing, however, require the manipulation and the observation of the time evolution of the MQC states. We have realized a system of SQUIDs for the study of MQC. Our system, based on trilayer Nb/AlOx/Nb technology, consists of a double rf-SQUID, source of the MQC state, inductively coupled to a non-hysteretic dc-SQUID magnetometer and to a hysteretic dc-SQUID threshold detector, used for the read-out of the magnetic flux state. The magnetometer is used to test and monitor the rf-SQUID behaviour, while the hysteretic dc-SQUID is used to perform fast measurements with a reduced back action on the rf-SQUID. We present measurements performed at 4.2 K and at 20 mK to characterize the single devices and their overall behaviour, and a scheme for the use of a set of SQUIDs as a qubit system.

  7. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Bergman, David J; Stockman, Mark I

    2003-01-17

    We make a step towards quantum nanoplasmonics: surface plasmon fields of a nanosystem are quantized and their stimulated emission is considered. We introduce a quantum generator for surface plasmon quanta and consider the phenomenon of surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser). Spaser generates temporally coherent high-intensity fields of selected surface plasmon modes that can be strongly localized on the nanoscale, including dark modes that do not couple to far-zone electromagnetic fields. Applications and related phenomena are discussed. PMID:12570577

  8. Theory of Transport Phenomena in Coherent Quantum Hall Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Allan H.; Chen, Hua; Sodemann, Inti

    2015-03-01

    We will describe a theory that allows to understand the anomalous transport properties of the excitonic condensate state occurring in quantum quantum Hall bilayers in terms of a picture in which the condensate phase is nearly uniform across the sample, and the strength of condensate coupling to interlayer tunneling processes is substantially reduced compared to the predictions of disorder-free microscopic mean-field theory. These ingredients provide a natural explanation for recently established I-V characteristics which feature a critical current above which the tunneling resistance abruptly increases and a non-local interaction between interlayer tunneling at the inner and outer edges of Corbino rings. We propose a microscopic picture in which disorder is the main agent responsible for the reduction of the effective interlayer tunneling strength. IS is supported by the Pappalardo Fellowship in Physics. HC and AHM are supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03- 02ER45958 and Welch Foundation Grant TBF1473.

  9. Coherent states for N-component fractional quantum Hall systems and their nonlinear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, Manuel; Peón-Nieto, Carlos; Pérez-Romero, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    We revise the subject of N-component fractional quantum Hall systems and its field-theoretic description in terms of U(N) -invariant nonlinear sigma models under a group-theoretical perspective. The Berry Lagrangian, which determines the dynamics and encodes the quantum commutation relations for the order parameter, is quantized and the Hilbert space is interpreted in terms of states of N-component composite fermions (M electrons bound to f magnetic flux lines) for fractional filling factor ν = M / f, in accordance with Jain's picture. An explicit bosonic realization of coherent states on the Grassmannian manifold U(N) / [ U(M) × U(N - M) ] is provided, which describes coherent excitations of these composite fermions.

  10. Interlayer coherence and entanglement in bilayer quantum Hall states at filling factor ν=2/λ.

    PubMed

    Calixto, M; Pérez-Romero, E

    2014-12-01

    We study coherence and entanglement properties of the state space of a composite bi-fermion (two electrons pierced by λ magnetic flux lines) at one Landau site of a bilayer quantum Hall system. In particular, interlayer imbalance and entanglement (and its fluctuations) are analyzed for a set of U(4) coherent (quasiclassical) states generalizing the standard pseudospin U(2) coherent states for the spin-frozen case. The interplay between spin and pseudospin degrees of freedom opens new possibilities with regard to the spin-frozen case. Actually, spin degrees of freedom make interlayer entanglement more effective and robust under perturbations than in the spin-frozen situation, mainly for a large number of flux quanta λ. Interlayer entanglement of an equilibrium thermal state and its dependence with temperature and bias voltage is also studied for a pseudo-Zeeman interaction.

  11. Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system

    PubMed Central

    Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

  12. Continuous-wave coherent imaging with terahertz quantum cascade lasers using electro-optic harmonic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaro, M.; Jagtap, V.; Santarelli, G.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Barbieri, S.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a coherent imaging system based on a terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) phase-locked to a near-infrared fs-laser comb. The phase locking enables coherent electro-optic sampling of the continuous-wave radiation emitted by the QCL through the generation of a heterodyne beat-note signal. We use this beat-note signal to demonstrate raster scan coherent imaging using a QCL emitting at 2.5 THz. At this frequency the detection noise floor of our system is of 3 pW/Hz and the long-term phase stability is <3°/h, limited by the mechanical stability of the apparatus.

  13. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  14. Theoretical Studies of the Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Calvin Yi-Ping

    The valence-band structure of a semiconductor quantum well is calculated based on the multiband effective -mass theory. A unitary transformation is found to diagonalize the six-by-six Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian into two three -by-three blocks, making the computation more efficient. With this new formulation, the effect of strain on the band structure is studied systematically for both the compressional and tensile strain. The importance of the coupling between the heavy-hole, light-hole bands and the spin-orbit split -off bands is especially pointed out. The resonant tunneling of holes through a double -barrier structure is investigated using a transfer-matrix technique. It is shown that the strong mixing between the heavy holes and the light holes results in a totally different I-V characteristic from that predicted previously by the parabolic-band model. The exciton equation in momentum space is solved by using a modified Gaussian quadrature method. The exact solutions for a pure-two-dimensional exciton are derived by means of the Mehler-Fock transform, and the accuracy of the quadrature method is checked by comparing the numerical solutions against the exact solutions. A complete theory for quantum-well excitons is developed taking into account the effects of the valence -band mixing and the intersubband Coulomb interaction. Optical absorption spectra are calculated and compared to experimental data. The comparison demonstrates that the theory explains very well the quantum-confined Stark effect, the polarization selection rule, the coupling between the interwell and intrawell excitons in a multiwell structure, and the anticrossing between the ground state of a light-hole exciton and the excited state of a heavy-hole exciton observed experimentally.

  15. Electron relaxation in quantum dot and quantum well systems by the ICD mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2014-05-01

    Electron relaxation in quantum dot (QD) and quantum well (QW) systems has a significant impact on QD and QW optoelectronic devices such as lasers, photodetectors, and solar cells. Several different fundamental relaxation mechanisms are known. We focus here on inter-coulombic decay (ICD) mechanism. In 2011 we have shown that the electron relaxation in a quantum dot dimer due to the ICD mechanism is on a picoseconds timescale (PRB 83, 113303) and therefore IR QD detectors based on ICD seems to be feasible. Here we discuss the possibility to observe electron relaxation in QWs. In QWs the effective mass of the electron is not continuous, and can affect the lifetime of the ICD process. In order for the ICD to be the dominant decay mechanism, it must prevail over all other possible competitive decay processes. We have found in our setup that the ICD lifetime is on the timescale of picoseconds. An enhancement of the ICD process occurs when the ionized electron temporarily trapped in a shape-type resonance in the continuum. An experiment based on our findings is currently in progress. In this talk another possibility to observe the ICD phenomenon in two coupled QWs is proposed, by transferring an electron through a two coupled quantum wells structure populated by only one electron. An enhancement in the electron transmission would be obtained when the energy of the incoming electrons allows them to be temporarily trapped inside one of the two quantum wells via the ICD mechanism.

  16. Algebraic approach and coherent states for a relativistic quantum particle in cosmic string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Ramírez, M.; Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    We study a relativistic quantum particle in cosmic string spacetime in the presence of a magnetic field and a Coulomb-type scalar potential. It is shown that the radial part of this problem possesses the su(1 , 1) symmetry. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this problem by using two algebraic methods: the Schrödinger factorization and the tilting transformation. Finally, we give the explicit form of the relativistic coherent states for this problem.

  17. Quantum-field coherent control: Preparation of broken-symmetry entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, Petr; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2005-08-15

    We show that entangled radiation-matter states with broken symmetries can be prepared by using nonclassical light in the coherent control techniques. We demonstrate the method by realizing the entanglement in degenerate continuum electronic momentum states of opposite directionality and discrete states of opposite handedness in chiral molecules. When the material system is excited simultaneously by classical light and quantum light in a state with several semiclassical phases, the interference conditions guide the system to such entangled radiation-matter states.

  18. Quantum well states in Rashba semiconductor BiTeI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Zhu, Zhihuai; Hamidian, Mohammad; Chen, Pengcheng; Yam, Yau Chuen; Hoffman, Jennifer

    BiTeI displays large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. In this work, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal the bipolar nature of BiTeI, confirming the previously observed p-n junction electronic structure. We also discover two-dimensional quantum well states both below and above the semiconducting gap on the Te-terminated surface. This work sheds light on the origin of the giant Rashba splitting in the system. This effort is funded by the NSF Grant DMR-1410480.

  19. Thermopower enhancement in quantum wells with the Rashba effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lihua; Yang, Jiong; Wang, Shanyu; Wei, Ping; Yang, Jihui E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Wenqing E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, Lidong

    2014-11-17

    We theoretically demonstrate that the thermopower in two-dimensional quantum wells (QWs) can be significantly enhanced by its Rashba spin-splitting effect, governed by the one-dimensional density of states in the low Fermi energy region. The thermopower enhancement is due to the lower Fermi level for a given carrier concentration in Rashba QWs, as compared with that in normal two-dimensional systems without the spin-splitting effect. The degenerate approximation directly shows that larger strength of Rashba effect leads to higher thermopower and consequently better thermoelectric performance in QWs.

  20. Reliability assessment of multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Ilgu; Menkara, Hicham M.; Wang, Yang; Oguzman, Isamil H.; Kolnik, Jan; Brennan, Kevin F.; May, Gray S.; Wagner, Brent K.; Summers, Christopher J.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of doped-barrier AlGaAs/GsAs multi-quantum well avalanche photodiodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated via accelerated life tests. Dark current and breakdown voltage were the parameters monitored. The activation energy of the degradation mechanism and median device lifetime were determined. Device failure probability as a function of time was computed using the lognormal model. Analysis using the electron beam induced current method revealed the degradation to be caused by ionic impurities or contamination in the passivation layer.

  1. Infrared supercontinuum generation in multiple quantum well nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgohain, Nitu; Belić, Milivoj; Konar, S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a theoretical study of broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation at low power in semiconductor multiple quantum wells (MQWs) facilitated by electromagnetically induced transparency. Pulses of 200 W peak power and 700 fs duration at 9.963 μm have been used to study the supercontinuum generation dynamics in a 1.374 μm long MQW system. The supercontinuum spectrum is 13.0 μm broad and asymmetric about the pump wavelength. Although the spectral broadening is dominated by self-phase modulation, four-wave mixing, modulation instability and soliton generation also contribute to the broadening.

  2. Binding energies of indirect excitons in double quantum well systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossokhaty, Alex; Schmult, Stefan; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Kukushkin, Igor

    2011-03-01

    A prerequisite towards Bose-Einstein condensation is a cold and dense system of bosons. Indirect excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (DQWs) are believed to be suitable candidates. Indirect excitons are formed in asymmetric DQW structures by mass filtering, a method which does not require external electric fields. The exciton density and the electron-hole balance can be tuned optically. Binding energies are measured by a resonant microwave absorption technique. Our results show that screening of the indirect excitons becomes already relevant at densities as low as ~ 5 × 109 cm-2 and results in their destruction.

  3. Strong photoluminescence emission from resonant Fibonacci quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J

    2013-06-17

    Strong photoluminescence (PL) emission from a resonant Fibonacci quantum well (FQW) is demonstrated. The maximum PL intensity in the FQW is significantly stronger than that in a periodic QW under the Bragg or anti-Bragg conditions. Moreover, the peaks of the squared electric field in the FQW are located very near each of the QWs. The optimal PL spectrum in the FQW has an asymmetrical form rather than the symmetrical one in the periodic case. The maximum PL intensity and the corresponding thickness filling factor in the FQW become greater with increasing generation order. PMID:23787654

  4. Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|(2) ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691

  5. Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors.

  6. Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691

  7. Mid- and Long-IR Broadband Quantum Well Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A single-stack broadband quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) has been developed that consists of stacked layers of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with absorption peaks centered at various wavelengths spanning across the 9- to-11- m spectral regions. The correct design of broadband QWIPs was a critical step in this task because the earlier implementation of broadband QWIPs suffered from a tuning of spectral response curve with an applied bias. Here, a new QWIP design has been developed to overcome the spectral tuning with voltage that results from non-uniformity and bias variation of the electrical field across the detector stacks with different absorption wavelengths. In this design, a special effort has been made to avoid non-uniformity and bias tuning by changing the doping levels in detector stacks to compensate for variation of dark current generation rate across the stacks with different absorption wavelengths. Single-pixel photodetectors were grown, fabricated, and tested using this new design. The measured dark current is comparable with the dark measured current for single-color QWIP detectors with similar cutoff wavelength, thus indicating high material quality as well as absence of performance degradation resulting from broadband design. The measured spectra clearly demonstrate that the developed detectors cover the desired special range of 8 to 12 m. Moreover, the shape of the spectral curves does not change with applied biases, thus overcoming the problem plaguing previous designs of broadband QWIPs.

  8. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauls, James A.; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.

  9. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.

    PubMed

    Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.

  10. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.

    PubMed

    Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models. PMID:23848712

  11. Quantum Well Thermoelectrics for Converting Waste Heat to Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Saeid Ghamaty

    2007-04-01

    Fabrication development of high efficiency quantum well (QW) thermoelectric continues with the P-type and N-type Si/Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} films with encouraging results. These films are fabricated on Si substrates and are being developed for low as well as high temperature operation. Both isothermal and gradient life testing are underway. One couple has achieved over 4000 hours at T{sub H} of 300 C and T{sub C} of 50 C with little or no degradation. Emphasis is now shifting towards couple and module design and fabrication, especially low resistance joining between N and P legs. These modules can be used in future energy conversion systems as well as for air conditioning.

  12. Quantum capacitance of an HgTe quantum well as an indicator of the topological phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernreiter, T.; Governale, M.; Zülicke, U.

    2016-06-01

    Varying the quantum-well width in an HgTe/CdTe heterostructure allows for realizing normal and inverted semiconducting band structures, making it a prototypical system to study two-dimensional (2D) topological-insulator behavior. We have calculated the zero-temperature thermodynamic density of states DT for the electron-doped situation in both regimes, treating interactions within the Hartree-Fock approximation. A distinctively different behavior for the density dependence of DT is revealed in the inverted and normal cases, making it possible to detect the system's topological phase through measurement of macroscopic observables, such as the quantum capacitance or electronic compressibility. Our results establish the 2D electron system in HgTe quantum wells as unique in terms of its collective electronic properties.

  13. Imaging currents in HgTe quantum wells in the quantum spin Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Katja C; Spanton, Eric M; Baenninger, Matthias; König, Markus; Kirtley, John R; Kalisky, Beena; Ames, C; Leubner, Philipp; Brüne, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Moler, Kathryn A

    2013-09-01

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a state of matter characterized by a non-trivial topology of its band structure, and associated conducting edge channels. The QSH state was predicted and experimentally demonstrated to be realized in HgTe quantum wells. The existence of the edge channels has been inferred from local and non-local transport measurements in sufficiently small devices. Here we directly confirm the existence of the edge channels by imaging the magnetic fields produced by current flowing in large Hall bars made from HgTe quantum wells. These images distinguish between current that passes through each edge and the bulk. On tuning the bulk conductivity by gating or raising the temperature, we observe a regime in which the edge channels clearly coexist with the conducting bulk, providing input to the question of how ballistic transport may be limited in the edge channels. Our results represent a versatile method for characterization of new QSH materials systems.

  14. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  15. Direct observation of long-distance coherent superexchange spin coupling in a quantum dot arraySpin Exchange oscillations between distant quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takafumi; Baart, Tim; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Vandersypen, Lieven

    Interactions mediated by long-range quantum coherence lie at the heart of important phenomena in many different fields. Charge transfer during oxidative stress in DNA, reactions in photosynthetic molecules, and behaviour of cuprate superconductors are all described by tunnelling via virtual hopping. Such mechanism may also provide new ways of using quantum dots for fault tolerant quantum information processing. In the presence of long-range tunnel coupling mediated by virtual occupation of intermediate levels, superexchange interactions can induce coherent oscillations between two distant electron spins. We implement this scheme in a linear array of three quantum dots with one electron on each of the outer dots. We observe coherent exchange oscillations between the two spins, and the oscillation frequency is controlled by the detuning of the electrochemical potential of the dot in between. Spin exchange at a distance may provide a new route for scaling up electron spin qubits using quantum dots.

  16. Resolution enhancement in MR spectroscopy of red bone marrow fat via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianfeng; Cui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuqing; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is generally inaccessible in red bone marrow (RBM) tissues using conventional MRS techniques. This is because signal from these tissues suffers from severe inhomogeneity in the main static B0 field originated from the intrinsic honeycomb structures in trabecular bone. One way to reduce effects of B0 field inhomogeneity is by using the intermolecular double quantum coherence (iDQC) technique, which has been shown in other systems to obtain signals insensitive to B0 field inhomogeneity. In the present study, we employed an iDQC approach to enhance the spectral resolution of RBM. The feasibility and performance of this method for achieving high resolution MRS was verified by experiments on phantoms and pig vertebral bone samples. Unsaturated fatty acid peaks which overlap in the conventional MRS were well resolved and identified in the iDQC spectrum. Quantitative comparison of fractions of three types of fatty acids was performed between iDQC spectra on the in situ RMB and conventional MRS on the extracted fat from the same RBM. Observations of unsaturated fatty acids with iDQC MRS may provide valuable information and may hold potential in diagnosis of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and leukemia.

  17. Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xingsheng

    2015-03-02

    For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.

  18. Optical properties of transition metal oxide quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkov, Alexander; Choi, Miri; Butcher, Matthew; Rodriguez, Cesar; He, Qian; Posadas, Agham; Borisevich, Albina; Zollner, Stefan; Lin, Chungwei; Ortmann, Elliott

    2015-03-01

    We report on the investigation of SrTiO3/LaAlO3 quantum wells (QWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on LaAlO3 substrate. Structures with different QW thicknesses ranging from two to ten unit cells were grown and characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Optical properties (complex dielectric function) were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the range of 1.0 eV to 6.0 eV at room temperature. We observed that the absorption edge was blue-shifted by approximately 0.39 eV as the STO quantum well thickness was reduced to two unit cells (uc). Density functional theory and tight-binding are used to model the optical response of these heterostructures. Our results demonstrate that the energy level of the first sub-band can be controlled by the QW thickness in a complex oxide material. We acknowledge support from Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-12-10494).

  19. Quantum heat engine power can be increased by noise-induced coherence.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O; Chapin, Kimberly R; Dorfman, Konstantin E; Kim, Moochan Barnabas; Svidzinsky, Anatoly

    2011-09-13

    Laser and photocell quantum heat engines (QHEs) are powered by thermal light and governed by the laws of quantum thermodynamics. To appreciate the deep connection between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics we need only recall that in 1901 Planck introduced the quantum of action to calculate the entropy of thermal light, and in 1905 Einstein's studies of the entropy of thermal light led him to introduce the photon. Then in 1917, he discovered stimulated emission by using detailed balance arguments. Half a century later, Scovil and Schulz-DuBois applied detailed balance ideas to show that maser photons were produced with Carnot quantum efficiency (see Fig. 1A). Furthermore, Shockley and Quiesser invoked detailed balance to obtain the efficiency of a photocell illuminated by "hot" thermal light (see Fig. 2A). To understand this detailed balance limit, we note that in the QHE, the incident light excites electrons, which can then deliver useful work to a load. However, the efficiency is limited by radiative recombination in which the excited electrons are returned to the ground state. But it has been proven that radiatively induced quantum coherence can break detailed balance and yield lasing without inversion. Here we show that noise-induced coherence enables us to break detailed balance and get more power out of a laser or photocell QHE. Surprisingly, this coherence can be induced by the same noisy (thermal) emission and absorption processes that drive the QHE (see Fig. 3A). Furthermore, this noise-induced coherence can be robust against environmental decoherence.Fig. 1.(A) Schematic of a laser pumped by hot photons at temperature T(h) (energy source, blue) and by cold photons at temperature T(c) (entropy sink, red). The laser emits photons (green) such that at threshold the laser photon energy and pump photon energy is related by Carnot efficiency (4). (B) Schematic of atoms inside the cavity. Lower level b is coupled to the excited states a and β. The laser power

  20. Scattering theory of nonlinear thermoelectricity in quantum coherent conductors.

    PubMed

    Meair, Jonathan; Jacquod, Philippe

    2013-02-27

    We construct a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear thermoelectric transport through sub-micron scale conductors. The theory incorporates the leading nonlinear contributions in temperature and voltage biases to the charge and heat currents. Because of the finite capacitances of sub-micron scale conducting circuits, fundamental conservation laws such as gauge invariance and current conservation require special care to be preserved. We do this by extending the approach of Christen and Büttiker (1996 Europhys. Lett. 35 523) to coupled charge and heat transport. In this way we write relations connecting nonlinear transport coefficients in a manner similar to Mott's relation between the linear thermopower and the linear conductance. We derive sum rules that nonlinear transport coefficients must satisfy to preserve gauge invariance and current conservation. We illustrate our theory by calculating the efficiency of heat engines and the coefficient of performance of thermoelectric refrigerators based on quantum point contacts and resonant tunneling barriers. We identify, in particular, rectification effects that increase device performance. PMID:23343784

  1. Efficiency of GaInAs/GaAs quantum-well lasers upon inhomogeneous excitation of quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, D V; Afonenko, A A; Aleshkin, V Ya

    2013-11-30

    A model for calculating the power characteristics of laser structures taking into account inhomogeneous excitation of quantum wells (QWs), recombination in the barrier regions, and nonlinear gain effects is developed. It is shown that, with increasing number of QWs, the output power of the Ga{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2}As/GaAs/InGaP structures at first considerably increases and then slightly decreases. In a wide range of injection currents, the optimal number of QWs is 5 ± 1. The inhomogeneity of QW excitation increases with increasing injection current and decreases the laser power compared to homogeneous excitation. (lasers)

  2. Barrier penetration effects on thermopower in semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R. G.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Mulimani, B. G.

    2014-01-15

    Finite confinement effects, due to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the barriers of a square well potential, on the low–temperature acoustic-phonon-limited thermopower (TP) of 2DEG are investigated. The 2DEG is considered to be scattered by acoustic phonons via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings. Incorporating the barrier penetration effects, the dependences of diffusion TP and phonon drag TP on barrier height are studied. An expression for phonon drag TP is obtained. Numerical calculations of temperature dependences of mobility and TP for a 10 nm InN/In {sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N quantum well for different values of x show that the magnitude and behavior of TP are altered. A decrease in the barrier height from 500 meV by a factor of 5, enhances the mobility by 34% and reduces the TP by 58% at 20 K. Results are compared with those of infinite barrier approximation.

  3. Anomalous spin Hall effects in Dresselhaus (110) quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Hao; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous spin Hall effects that belong to the intrinsic type in Dresselhaus (110) quantum wells are discussed. For the out-of-plane spin component, antisymmetric current-induced spin polarization induces opposite spin Hall accumulation, even though there is no spin-orbit force due to Dresselhaus (110) coupling. A surprising feature of this spin Hall induction is that the spin accumulation sign does not change upon bias reversal. Contribution to the spin Hall accumulation from the spin Hall induction and the spin deviation due to intrinsic spin-orbit force as well as extrinsic spin scattering can be straightforwardly distinguished simply by reversing the bias. For the in-plane component, inclusion of a weak Rashba coupling leads to a new type of Sy intrinsic spin Hall effect solely due to spin-orbit-force-driven spin separation.

  4. Characterization of spin-orbit fields in InGaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henn, T.; Czornomaz, L.; Salis, G.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent electron spin dynamics in 10-nm-wide InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells is studied from 10 K to room temperature using time-resolved Kerr rotation. The spin lifetime exceeds 1 ns at 10 K and decreases with temperature. By varying the spatial overlap between pump and probe pulses, a diffusive velocity is imprinted on the measured electron spins and a spin precession in the spin-orbit field is measured. A Rashba symmetry of the spin-orbit interaction is determined. By comparing the spatial precession frequency gradient with the spin decay rate, an upper limit for the Rashba coefficients α of 2 × 10-12 eVm is estimated.

  5. Ge/SiGe quantum well for photonic applications: modelling of the quantum confined Stark effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isella, Giovanni; Ballabio, Andrea; Frigerio, Jacopo

    2016-05-01

    Ge quantum wells are emerging as a relevant material system for enabling fast and power-efficient optical modulation in the framework of Si-photonics. The need for reliable designs of QW structures, matching given operating wavelengths and bias voltages, calls for the implementation of modelling tools capturing the optical properties of SiGe heterostructures. Here we report on the calculation of the quantum confined Stark effect based on an eight-band k×p model. The obtained spectra are analysed and compared with experimental data showing a good agreement between calculation and measurements.

  6. Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Quantum Phase Transition in HgCdTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    Spin Hall effect can be induced both by the extrinsic impurity scattering and by the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure. The HgTe/CdTe quantum well has a quantum phase transition where the electronic structure changes from normal to inverted. We show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect of the conduction band vanishes on the normal side, while it is finite on the inverted side. This difference gives a direct mechanism to experimentally distinguish the intrinsic spin Hall effect from the extrinsic one.

  7. Spin-boson theory for charge photogeneration in organic molecules: Role of quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The charge photogeneration process in organic molecules is investigated by a quantum heat engine model, in which two molecules are modeled by a two-spin system sandwiched between two bosonic baths. The two baths represent the high-temperature photon emission source and the low-temperature phonon environment, respectively. We utilize the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm to investigate the quantum dynamics of the model. It is found that the transient energy current flowing through the two molecules exhibits two stages. In the first stage the energy current is of a coherent feature and represents the ultrafast delocalization of the charge-transfer state, and in the second stage a steady incoherent current is established. The power conversion efficiency is significantly high and may reach the maximum value of 93 % with optimized model parameters. The long-lived quantum entanglement between the two spins is found to be primarily responsible for the hyperefficiency.

  8. Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Patrick J.; Collins, Robert J.; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called ‘one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm. PMID:23132024

  9. Coherent dynamics and parametric instabilities of microcavity polaritons in double-well systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarchi, Davide; Savona, Vincenzo; Carusotto, Iacopo; Wouters, Michiel

    2008-03-15

    We investigate the physics of coherent polaritons in a double-well configuration under a resonant pumping. For a continuous-wave pump, bistability and self-pulsing regimes are identified as a function of the pump energy and intensity. The response to an additional probe pulse is characterized in the different cases and related to the Bogoliubov modes around the stationary state. Under a pulsed pump, a crossover from Josephson-like oscillations to self-trapping is predicted for increasing pump intensity. The accurateness of the effective two-mode model is assessed by comparing its predictions to a full solution of the nonequilibrium Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  10. Room-temperature quantum cloning machine with full coherent phase control in nanodiamond.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  11. Room-Temperature Quantum Cloning Machine with Full Coherent Phase Control in Nanodiamond

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  12. Two-band electron transport in a double quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, R.; Tsaousidou, M.; Smith, T.; Coleridge, P. T.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Feng, Y.

    2005-04-01

    The carrier densities and mobilities have been measured for the first two populated subbands in a GaAs double quantum well (DQW) as a function of the top gate voltage Vg . The densities and quantum mobilities ( μiq , i=1,2 ) were obtained from the de Haas-Shubnikov oscillations. The transport mobilities (μit) were determined from the semiclassical low-field magnetoresistance with intersubband scattering taken into account. At 0.32K the experimental data on both μit and μiq , as a function of Vg , lie on two curves which cross at the resonance point as expected from theoretical considerations. At 1.09K and 4.2K the μit curves no longer cross at resonance, but show a gap. The reason for this is not known. The mobilities have been calculated in the low-temperature limit within the Boltzmann framework by assuming that they are limited by scattering due to ionized impurities located at the outside interfaces. The assumption of short-range scattering is justified by the relatively small value of the ratio μit/μiq that is measured in the present system. The theoretical values obtained for μit and μiq are in reasonable agreement with the experiment for all values of Vg examined. We have also calculated the resistivity and intersubband scattering rates of the DQW as a function of Vg and again find good agreement with measured values.

  13. Super-resolving quantum radar: Coherent-state sources with homodyne detection suffice to beat the diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Kebei; Lee, Hwang; Gerry, Christopher C.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2013-11-21

    There has been much recent interest in quantum metrology for applications to sub-Raleigh ranging and remote sensing such as in quantum radar. For quantum radar, atmospheric absorption and diffraction rapidly degrades any actively transmitted quantum states of light, such as N00N states, so that for this high-loss regime the optimal strategy is to transmit coherent states of light, which suffer no worse loss than the linear Beer's law for classical radar attenuation, and which provide sensitivity at the shot-noise limit in the returned power. We show that coherent radar radiation sources, coupled with a quantum homodyne detection scheme, provide both longitudinal and angular super-resolution much below the Rayleigh diffraction limit, with sensitivity at shot-noise in terms of the detected photon power. Our approach provides a template for the development of a complete super-resolving quantum radar system with currently available technology.

  14. Coherent Control of the Exciton-Biexciton System in an InAs Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Singh, Rohan; Bayer, Manfred; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent control of a strongly inhomogeneously broadened system, namely, InAs self-assembled quantum dots, is demonstrated. To circumvent the deleterious effects of the inhomogeneous broadening, which usually masks the results of coherent manipulation, we use prepulse two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to provide a size-selective readout of the ground, exciton, and biexciton states. The dependence on the timing of the prepulse is due to the dynamics of the coherently generated populations. To further validate the results, we performed prepulse polarization dependent measurements and confirmed the behavior expected from selection rules. All measured spectra can be excellently reproduced by solving the optical Bloch equations for a 4-level system.

  15. Excitons in semiconducting superlattices, quantum wells, and ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sturge, M.D. . Dept. of Physics); Nahory, R.E.; Tamargo, M.C. )

    1990-08-22

    It is now possible to fabricated semiconducting layered structures with precisely defined layer thicknesses of a few atomic diameters. Examples are the quantum well'' and the superlattice'' structures, in which semiconductors with different band gaps are interleaved. Microstructures'' can be produced from this material by patterning and etching them on a small ({approximately}10nm) scale. Their electronic properties are quite different from those of the constituents and offer interesting new possibilities both in device design and in basic physics. This proposal aims to improve our understanding of optically excited states ( excitons'' and electron-hole plasmas'') in these structures. Work will also continue on ternary alloys, primarily to establish if the alloy disorder produces a mobility edge for excitons, and on II-VI compounds, where the principal interest at present is in the nature of the exciton-phonon coupling.

  16. Photoluminescence characterization of single heterojunction quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aina, O.; Mattingly, M.; Juan, F. Y.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    A photoluminescence emission band at 830 nm has been detected in single heterojunction quantum well structures (modulation-doped structures) in the range of 250-400 K. This emission band is observed neither in heterojunction structures without a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), nor in n(+) AlGaAs and GaAs. The intensity of the emission band increases as the mobility of the samples with 2DEG and shows excitonic behavior in its variation with incident laser excitation intensity. This photoluminescence emission was observed in samples grown by both molecular beam epitaxy and by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. This effect may be useful as a rough identification of high quality, modulation-doped heterostructures.

  17. Magnetic quantum well states in ultrathin film and wedge structures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bader, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic quantum-well (QW) states are probed with angle- and spin-resolved photoemission to address critical issues pertaining to the origin of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) optimization and oscillatory coupling of magnetic multilayers. Two epitaxial systems are highlighted: Cu/Co(wedge)/Cu(100) and Cr/Fe(100)-whisker. The confinement of Cu sp-QW states by a Co barrier requires a characteristic Co thickness of 2.2 {+-} 0.6 {angstrom}, which is consistent with the interfacial Co thickness reported to optimize the GMR of permalloy-Cu structures. The controversial k-space origin of the 18-{angstrom} long period oscillation in Fe/Cr multilayers is identified by the vector that spans the d-derived lens feature of the Cr Fermi surface, based on the emergence of QW states with 17 {+-} 2 {angstrom} periodicity in this region.

  18. Dark current mechanism of terahertz quantum-well photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, J. Y.; Gao, J. H.; Hao, M. R.; Wang, T. M.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhang, Y. H.; Cao, J. C.; Guo, X. G.; Schneider, H.

    2014-10-21

    Dark current mechanisms of terahertz quantum-well photodetectors (THz QWPs) are systematically investigated experimentally and theoretically by measuring two newly designed structures combined with samples reported previously. In contrast to previous investigations, scattering-assisted tunneling dark current is found to cause significant contributions to total dark current. A criterion is also proposed to determine the major dark current mechanism at different peak response frequencies. We further determine background limited performance (BLIP) temperatures, which decrease both experimentally and theoretically as the electric field increases. This work gives good description of dark current mechanism for QWPs in the THz region and is extended to determine the transition fields and BLIP temperatures with response peaks from 3 to 12 THz.

  19. Interplay of Collective Excitations in Quantum Well Intersubband Resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Ning, C. Z.

    2003-01-01

    Intersubband resonances in a semiconductor quantum well (QW) display some of the most fascinating features involving various collective excitations such as Fermi-edge singularity (FES) and intersubband plasmon (ISP). Using a density matrix approach, we treated many-body effects such as depolarization, vertex correction, and self-energy consistently for a two-subband system. We found a systematic change in resonance spectra from FES-dominated to ISP-dominated features, as QW- width or electron density is varied. Such an interplay between FES and ISP significantly changes both line shape and peak position of the absorption spectrum. In particular, we found that a cancellation of FES and ISP undresses the resonant responses and recovers the single-particle features of absorption for semiconductors with a strong nonparabolicity such as InAs, leading to a dramatic broadening of the absorption spectrum.

  20. Localization and topology protected quantum coherence at the edge of `hot' matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Yasaman; Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2014-03-01

    Topological phases are often characterized by special edge states confined near the boundaries by an energy gap in the bulk. On raising temperature, these edge states are lost in a clean system due to mobile thermal excitations. Recently, however, it has been established that disorder can localize an isolated many-body system, potentially allowing for a sharply defined topological phase even in a highly excited state. Here we show this to be the case for the topological phase of a one-dimensional magnet with quenched disorder which features spin one-half excitations at the edges. The time evolution of a simple, highly excited initial state is used to reveal quantum coherent edge spins. In particular, we demonstrate, using theoretical arguments and numerical simulation, the coherent revival of an edge spin over a time scale that grows exponentially larger with system size. This is in sharp contrast to the general expectation that quantum bits strongly coupled to a `hot' many body system will rapidly lose coherence.