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Sample records for quark delocalization colour

  1. ND and NB systems in quark delocalization color screening model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lifang; Huang, Hongxia; Ping, Jialun

    2017-02-01

    The ND and NB systems with I = 0 and 1, JP=1/2^{±}, 3/2^{±}, and 5/2^{±} are investigated within the framework of the quark delocalization color screening model. The results show that all the positive-parity states are unbound. By coupling to the ND^{ast} channel, the state ND with I = 0, JP=1/2- can form a bound state, which can be invoked to explain the observed Σ(2800) state. The mass of the ND^{ast} with I = 0, JP=3/2- is close to that of the reported Λc(2940)+, which indicates that Λc(2940)+ can be explained as a ND^{ast} molecular state in QDCSM. Besides, the Δ D^{ast} with I = 1, JP=5/2- is also a possible resonance state. The results of the bottom case of the NB system are similar to those of the ND system. Searching for these states will be a challenging subject of experiments.

  2. New results with colour-sextet quarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, D. K.; Kogut, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    We study QCD with 2 and 3 flavours of colour-sextet quarks. The 2-flavour theory is a candidate Walking Technicolor theory. Since we are attempting to distinguish whether this theory is walking or conformal, we also study the 3-flavour theory, which is believed to be conformal, for comparison. We simulate lattice QCD with 2 and 3 flavours of colour-sextet staggered quarks at finite temperatures to determine the scales of confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking from the positions of the deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoration transitions. Unlike the case with fundamental quarks, these transitions are far apart. For 2 flavours the values of {beta} = 6/g{sup 2} for both transitions increase as Ta is decreased from 1/4 to 1/6 to 1/8, as expected for a theory whose coupling runs to smaller values as the lattice spacing is decreased. However, for the chiral transition, the increase in {beta} between Ta = 1/4 and Ta = 1/6 is much larger than the increase between Ta = 1/6 and Ta = 1/8. This suggests that between Ta = 1/4 and Ta = 1/6 we are at strong coupling where the theory is effectively quenched, while between Ta = 1/6 and Ta = 1/8 we are emerging into the weak coupling regime. It will require even smaller Ta values to determine whether the running of the chiral-transition coupling is controlled by asymptotic freedom and the theory walks, or if it reaches a non-zero limit when the transition becomes a bulk transition and the theory is conformal. The 3 flavour case at Ta = 1/4 and Ta = 1/6 behaves similarly to the 2 flavour case. Since this theory is expected to be conformal, the interpretation that we are seeing strong-coupling behaviour, inaccessible from the weak-coupling limit (continuum) is the most likely interpretation.

  3. Quantum entanglement of quark colour states

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.

    2010-03-24

    An analysis of quantum entanglement between the states of static colour charges in the vacuum of pure Yang-Mills theory is carried out. Hilbert space of physical states of the fields and the charges is endowed with a direct product structure by attaching an infinite Dirac string to each charge.

  4. Insights from the ALICE quark-gluon coloured world at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifarelli, L.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Scapparone, , E.; Zichichi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions among heavy ions at the CERN LHC collider recreate the state of matter as it was a few micro-seconds after the Big Bang: the Quark Gluon Coloured World (QGCW). At a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76TeV the produced QGCW reaches unprecedented temperatures, volumes and durations allowing more refined studies of its properties. Data collected during LHC Run1 (from 2010 to 2013) already provided new and sometimes unexpected results, and pointed to intriguing similarities among high multiplicity events produced in different colliding systems, namely pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb. A comprehensive review of these results is presented, showing how heavy-ion physics is a powerful tool to shed light on QCD in such extreme conditions when multiple phase transitions should occur to go from the QGCW to our present non-coloured world.

  5. Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell-Mann, M.

    In these lectures I want to speak about at least two interpretations of the concept of quarks for hadrons and the possible relations between them. First I want to talk about quarks as "constituent quarks". These were used especially by G. Zweig (1964) who referred to them as aces. One has a sort of a simple model by which one gets elementary results about the low-lying bound and resonant states of mesons and baryons, and certain crude symmetry properties of these states, by saying that the hadrons act as if they were made up of subunits, the constituent quarks q. These quarks are arranged in an isotopic spin doublet u, d and an isotopic spin singlet s, which has the same charge as d and acts as if it had a slightly higher mass…

  6. BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li

    1996-03-01

    Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.

  7. How far do electrons delocalize?

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-10-14

    Electron delocalization is central to chemical bonding, but it is also a fundamentally nonclassical and nonintuitive quantum mechanical phenomenon. Tools to quantify and visualize electron delocalization help to understand, teach, and predict chemical reactivity. We develop a new approach to quantify and visualize electron delocalization in real space. Our electron delocalization range function EDR(r{sup -vector};u) quantifies the degree to which electrons at point r{sup -vector} in a calculated wavefunction delocalize over length scale u. Its predictions are physically reasonable. For example, EDR(r{sup -vector};u=0.25 bohr) is close to one at points r{sup -vector} in the cores of first-row atoms, consistent with the localization of core electrons to ∼0.25 bohr. EDR(r{sup -vector};u=1 bohr) is close to one at points r{sup -vector} in typical covalent bonds, consistent with electrons delocalizing over the length of the bond. Our approach provides a rich representation of atomic shell structure; covalent and ionic bonding; the delocalization of excited states, defects, and solvated electrons; metallic and insulating systems; and bond stretching and strong correlation.

  8. Stochastic delocalization of finite populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyrhofer, Lukas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the

  9. Applying colour science in colour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  10. Particles, Quarks, Leptons and Coloured Glue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Explains the current situation in particle physics by reviewing the three major periods in the development of atomic theory. Outlines the current picture of fundamental particles and identifies five major problems with this model. (GS)

  11. Runaway quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gurarie, V.

    1995-08-01

    When heavy nuclei collide, a quark-gluon plasma is formed. The plasma is subject to a strong electric field due to the charge of the colliding nuclei. The electric field can influence the behavior of the quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we might observe an increased number of quarks moving in the direction of that field, as we do in the standard electron-ion plasma. In this paper we show that this phenomenon, called the runaway quarks, does not exist.

  12. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    PubMed

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  13. Covert colour processing in colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2006-01-01

    Patients with colour agnosia can perceive colours and are able to match coloured patches on hue, but are unable to identify or categorise colours. It is a rare condition and there is as yet no agreement on the clinical definition or a generally accepted explanation. In line with observations from object agnosia and prosopagnosia, we hypothesised that (some of) these patients might still be able to process colour information at an implicit level. In this study, we investigated this possibility of implicit access to colour semantics and colour names in a man (MAH) who suffers from developmental colour agnosia. We designed two experimental computer tasks: an associative colour priming task with a lexical decision response and a reversed Stroop task. The results of these experiments suggest that there is indeed automatic processing of colour, although MAH was unable to explicitly use colour information.

  14. Does chaos assist localization or delocalization?

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jintao; Luo, Yunrong; Hai, Wenhua; Lu, Gengbiao

    2014-12-01

    We aim at a long-standing contradiction between chaos-assisted tunneling and chaos-related localization study quantum transport of a single particle held in an amplitude-modulated and tilted optical lattice. We find some near-resonant regions crossing chaotic and regular regions in the parameter space, and demonstrate that chaos can heighten velocity of delocalization in the chaos-resonance overlapping regions, while chaos may aid localization in the other chaotic regions. The degree of localization enhances with increasing the distance between parameter points and near-resonant regions. The results could be useful for experimentally manipulating chaos-assisted transport of single particles in optical or solid-state lattices.

  15. Developmental colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  16. Interactions between colour and synaesthetic colour: an effect of simultaneous colour contrast on synaesthetic colours.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Gebuis, Titia; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether simultaneous colour contrast affects the synaesthetic colour experience and normal colour percept in a similar manner. We simultaneously presented a target stimulus (i.e. grapheme) and a reference stimulus (i.e. hash). Either the grapheme or the hash was presented on a saturated background of the same or opposite colour category as the synaesthetic colour and the other stimulus on a grey background. In both conditions, grapheme-colour synaesthetes were asked to colour the hash in a colour similar to the synaesthetic colour of the grapheme. Controls that were pair-matched to the synaesthetes performed the same experiment, but for them, the grapheme was presented in the colour induced by the grapheme in synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on a grey and the hash on a coloured background, a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect was found for controls as well as synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on colour and the hash on grey, the controls again showed a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect, whereas the synaesthetes showed the opposite effect. Our results show that synaesthetic colour experiences differ from normal colour perception; both are susceptible to different surrounding colours, but not in a comparable manner.

  17. Synaesthesia and colour constancy.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-04-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy.

  18. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  19. Colour particle states behaviour in the QCD vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, V. I.; Bagashov, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    The results of an interaction of a quantum state of quark with QCD vacuum, where the latter plays a role of environment, could be treated as decoherence. This may have direct implications for the confinement of quarks phenomenon. The general description and discussion of this process is given. Characteristics from quantum optics and information theory (purity, fidelity, von Neumann entropy) are proposed as means for numerical analysis of the process of interaction of quark colour state with stochastic vacuum. Problems of stability of colour particles motion and order-chaos transitions are briefly discussed. It is shown that there should be a connection between the properties of QCD stochastic vacuum and Higgs boson mass and self interaction coupling constant. The behaviour of squeezed and entangled quantum states, the interaction of colour superpositions and multiparticle states with stochastic QCD vacuum is described. It is shown that it leads to a fully mixed quantum state with equal probabilities for different colours. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the product of the distance between colour charges and the time during which this interaction has taken place. I.e. such an interaction seems to lead naturally to confinement of quarks.

  20. Glimpsing Colour in a World of Black and White

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pennington

    2012-09-01

    The past 40 years have taught us that nucleons are built of constituents that carry colour charges with interactions governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). How experiments (past, present and future) at Jefferson Lab probe colourless nuclei to map out these internal colour degrees of freedom is presented. When combined with theoretical calculations, these will paint a picture of how the confinement of quarks and gluons, and the structure of the QCD vacuum, determine the properties of all (light) strongly interacting states.

  1. Delocalization and new phase in Americium: theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlind, P

    1999-04-23

    Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the high pressure behavior of Am. At about 80 kbar (8 GPa) calculations reveal a monoclinic phase similar to the ground state structure of plutonium ({alpha}-Pu). The experimentally suggested {alpha}-U structure is found to be substantially higher in energy. The phase transition from fcc to the low symmetry structure is shown to originate from a drastic change in the nature of the electronic structure induced by the elevated pressure. A calculated volume collapse of about 25% is associated with the transition. For the low density phase, an orbital polarization correction to the local spin density (LSD) theory was applied. Gradient terms of the electron density were included in the calculation of the exchange/correlation energy and potential, according to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results are consistent with a Mott transition; the 5f electrons are delocalized and bonding on the high density side of the transition and chemically inert and non-bonding (localized) on the other. Theory compares rather well with recent experimental data which implies that electron correlation effects are reasonably modeled in our orbital polarization scheme.

  2. Enhanced Sensitivity of Delocalized Plasmonic Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Madu N.; Mandal, Himadri S.; Waldeck, David H.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the observation of a delocalized surface plasmon resonance (DSPR) phenomenon in linear chains of square-shaped silver nanoparticles (NP) as a function of the chain length and the distance between the nanoparticles in the chain. Transmission spectra of the silver nanoparticle chains reveal the emergence of new, red-shifted extinction peaks that depend strongly on the spacing between the nanoparticles and the polarization of the exciting light with respect to the chain axis. As the spacing between the nanoparticles in the linear chain decreases and the number of nanoparticles in the linear chain increases, the strength of the new extinction features increase strongly. These changes can be described by a tight-binding model for the coupled chain, which indicates that the origin of the phenomenon is consistent with an increased coupling between the nanoparticles. FDTD calculations reveal that the electric field is strongly enhanced between the nanoparticles in the chain. The DSPR response is found to be much more sensitive to dielectric changes than the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). PMID:24470837

  3. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  4. Rethinking Colour Constancy

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Alexander D.; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching’s effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions—metamer mismatching and colour constancy—must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy’s false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object. PMID:26356217

  5. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  6. Proof of a new colour decomposition for QCD amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Johansson and Ochirov conjectured the form of a new colour decom-position for QCD tree-level amplitudes. This note provides a proof of that conjecture. The proof is based on `Mario World' Feynman diagrams, which exhibit the hierarchical Dyck structure previously found to be very useful when dealing with multi-quark amplitudes.

  7. Practical colour management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Spectrophotometers have been successfully used for colour measurement. This paper addresses digital imaging as a complementary and alternative method of colour measurement and appearance and an effective communication tool as part of a practical colour management programme within the supply chain of a textile retailer. The specific needs—to measure and communicate textured dyed material and printed fabric—are discussed, as well as the colour specification and quality control (QC) of currently un-measurable fabrics and accessories. A unique method of using digital imaging for the assessment of colour fastness will also be discussed.

  8. Dynamical Calculation of Θ+ Mass and Decay width in the Quark Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostampour, M.; Saadat, H.; Farahani, H.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the mass splitting and the decay width of pentaquark (Θ+) at the ground states in the framework of flux tube, quark delocalization and color screening model. We consider the pentaquark as diquark-triquark configuration and obtained closer values of mass splitting and the decay width of Θ+ to the experimental data.

  9. Colour Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

  10. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  11. Is colour cognitive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  12. Application of the model of delocalized atoms to metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Darmaev, M. V.; Sanditov, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    The parameters of the model of delocalized atoms applied to metallic glasses have been calculated using the data on empirical constants of the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation (for the temperature dependence of viscosity). It has been shown that these materials obey the same glass-formation criterion as amorphous organic polymers and inorganic glasses. This fact qualitatively confirms the universality of the main regularities of the liquid-glass transition process for all amorphous materials regardless of their origin. The energy of the delocalization of an atom in metallic glasses, Δɛ e ≈ 20-25 kJ/mol, coincides with the results obtained for oxide inorganic glasses. It is substantially lower than the activation energies for a viscous flow and for ion diffusion. The delocalization of an atom (its displacement from the equilibrium position) for amorphous metallic alloys is a low-energy small-scale process similar to that for other glass-like systems.

  13. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can be well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.

  14. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  15. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  16. Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.

  17. The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

  18. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  19. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  20. Plasmonic colour generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-11-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk-hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large-area printing and nanoscale lithography compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies, including nanoimprint lithography and self-assembly. Finally, we review recent developments in dynamically reconfigurable plasmonic colours and in the laser-induced post-processing of plasmonic colour surfaces.

  1. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  2. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  3. Localization-delocalization wavepacket transition in Pythagorean aperiodic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Changming; Ye, Fangwei; Chen, Xianfeng; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a composite optical lattice created by two mutually rotated square patterns and allowing observation of continuous transformation between incommensurate and completely periodic structures upon variation of the rotation angle θ. Such lattices acquire periodicity only for rotation angles cos θ = a/c, sin θ = b/c, set by Pythagorean triples of natural numbers (a, b, c). While linear eigenmodes supported by lattices associated with Pythagorean triples are always extended, composite patterns generated for intermediate rotation angles allow observation of the localization-delocalization transition of eigenmodes upon modification of the relative strength of two sublattices forming the composite pattern. Sharp delocalization of supported modes for certain θ values can be used for visualization of Pythagorean triples. The effects predicted here are general and also take place in composite structures generated by two rotated hexagonal lattices. PMID:27586011

  4. Delocalization of disturbances and the stability of ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    In order to study how local disturbances affect the ac grid stability, we start from nonlinear power balance equations and map them to complex linear wave equations. Having obtained stationary solutions with phases φ_{i} at generator and consumer nodes i, we next study the dynamics of deviations. Starting with an initially localized perturbation, it is found to spread in a periodic grid diffusively throughout the grid. We find the parametric dependence of diffusion constant D. We apply the same solution strategy to general grid topologies and analyze their stability against local perturbations. The perturbation remains either localized or becomes delocalized, depending on grid topology, power capacity, and distribution of consumers and generator power P_{i}. Delocalization is found to increase the lifetime of perturbations and thereby their influence on grid stability, whereas localization results in an exponentially fast decay of perturbations at all grid sites. These results may therefore lead to new strategies to control the stability of electricity grids.

  5. Delocalization of disturbances and the stability of ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    In order to study how local disturbances affect the ac grid stability, we start from nonlinear power balance equations and map them to complex linear wave equations. Having obtained stationary solutions with phases φi at generator and consumer nodes i , we next study the dynamics of deviations. Starting with an initially localized perturbation, it is found to spread in a periodic grid diffusively throughout the grid. We find the parametric dependence of diffusion constant D . We apply the same solution strategy to general grid topologies and analyze their stability against local perturbations. The perturbation remains either localized or becomes delocalized, depending on grid topology, power capacity, and distribution of consumers and generator power Pi. Delocalization is found to increase the lifetime of perturbations and thereby their influence on grid stability, whereas localization results in an exponentially fast decay of perturbations at all grid sites. These results may therefore lead to new strategies to control the stability of electricity grids.

  6. Nonequilibrium quantum relaxation across a localization-delocalization transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roósz, Gergő; Divakaran, Uma; Rieger, Heiko; Iglói, Ferenc

    2014-11-01

    We consider the one-dimensional X X model in a quasiperiodic transverse field described by the Harper potential, which is equivalent to a tight-binding model of spinless fermions with a quasiperiodic chemical potential. For weak transverse field (chemical potential), h delocalized, but become localized for h >hc . We study the nonequilibrium relaxation of the system by applying two protocols: a sudden change of h (quench dynamics) and a slow change of h in time (adiabatic dynamics). For a quench into the delocalized (localized) phase, the entanglement entropy grows linearly (saturates) and the order parameter decreases exponentially (has a finite limiting value). For a critical quench the entropy increases algebraically with time, whereas the order parameter decreases with a stretched exponential. The density of defects after an adiabatic field change through the critical point is shown to scale with a power of the rate of field change and a scaling relation for the exponent is derived.

  7. Exploration of exciton delocalization in organic crystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Kim; Manning, Lane; Rawat, Naveen; Ainsworth, Victoria; Furis, Madalina

    The electronic properties of organic semiconductors play a crucial role in designing new materials for specific applications. Our group recently found evidence for a rotation of molecular planes in phthalocyanines that is responsible for the disappearance of a delocalized exciton in these systems for T >150K.................()().......1 In this study, we attempt to tune the exciton delocalization of small organic molecules using strain effects and alloying different molecules in the same family. The exciton behavior is monitored using time- and polarization resolved photolumniscence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Specifically, organic crystalline thin films of octabutoxy phthalocyanine (H2OBPc), octyloxy phthalocyanines and H-bonded semiconductors such as the quinacridone and indigo derivatives are deposited on flexible substrates (i.e. Kapton and PEN) using an in-house developed pen-writing method.........2 that results in crystalline films with macroscopic long range order. The room temperature PL studies show redshift and changes in polarization upon bending of the film. Crystalline thin films of alloyed H2OBPc and octabutoxy naphthalocyanine with ratios ranging from 1:1 to 100:1 fabricated on both sapphire and flexible substrates are also explored using the same PL spectroscopy to elucidate the behaviors of delocalized excitons. .1N. Rawat, et al., J Phys Chem Lett 6, 1834 (2015). 2R. L. Headrick, et al., Applied Physics Letters 92, 063302 (2008). NSF DMR-1056589, NSF DMR-1062966.

  8. Tunable structural colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2009-10-01

    Strain gauges that change colour when stressed, bright backlight-free displays and highly sensitive biological sensors are all potential applications of tunable photonic crystal materials, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  9. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  10. Colour reconnections in Herwig++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseke, Stefan; Röhr, Christian; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    We describe the implementation details of the colour reconnection model in the event generator Herwig++. We study the impact on final-state observables in detail and confirm the model idea from colour preconfinement on the basis of studies within the cluster hadronization model. Moreover, we show that the description of minimum bias and underlying event data at the LHC is improved with this model and present results of a tune to available data.

  11. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  12. Tetrachromatic colour space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    We derive colour spaces of the hue-colourfulness-luminance type, on the basis of a four-dimensional hypercube I4 (I = [0, 1]). The hypercube corresponds to a tetrachromatic colour system, analogous to the three-dimensional RGB cube. In the first derived space the colourfulness is chromatic saturation while in the second one, colourfulness refers to the vividness of the colour, even if it is achromatic. The hue is defined on the basis of an icositetrahedron of 24 triangles that is embedded in the boundary of the hypercube. The boundary of the hypercube is the polytope {4 3 3} (in Sclafli notation) that is a topological 3-sphere. Out of the 24 square faces in the boundary of the hypercube, 6 meet the black vertex and 6 meet the white vertex; the remaining 12 faces form a dodecahedron which is a topological 2-sphere. This equatorial or chromatic dodecahedron is used to define a hue for each point in the hypercube that is not on the achromatic segment; the icositetrahedron results from a division of each of the square faces of the dodecahedron into two triangles. In addition, a hexdecahedron of 16 square faces with the topology of a torus that is also embedded in the boundary of the hypercube, is used to define an alternate two-dimensional hue space.

  13. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  14. Colour-Octet-Annihilation in Leading Neutral Systems of Gluon Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Buschbeck, B.; Mandl, F.

    2007-11-19

    Using data of the DELPHI collaboration the electric charges of Leading Systems (defined by a rapidity gap) in quark and gluon jets are measured and are compared with the results from Monte Carlo simulations which do not contain colour-octet neutralistion processes. In the data an enhanced production of neutral Leading Systems compared to the Monte Carlo predictions is found in gluon jets. This excess and its location at low masses ({<=}2 GeV/c{sup 2}) of the neutral Leading System is expected for colour-octet neutralistion. The quark jets are found to be in agreement with the simulation.

  15. The Unquenched Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, E.; Bijker, R.

    2008-10-13

    We present a new generation of unquenched quark models for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, pair creation mechanism. As an application, we study the effect of quark-antiquark pairs on the spin of the proton.

  16. Observability of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Even if stable hadrons with fractional charge do not exist, most of the criteria of observability used for ordinary elementary particles apply in principle to quarks as well. This is especially true in a simplified world containing only hadrons made of top quarks and gluons. In the real world containing light quarks, essential complications do occur, but most of the conclusions survive.

  17. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  18. [ALCHEMI formulated for delocalization and anti-site defects

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1994-06-01

    ALCHEMI (atom location by channeling enhanced microanalysis) provides a useful method for determining the site distributions of impurity atoms in crystals with multiple sublattices. Delocalization of low energy excitations and the dubious statistical confidence level of the technique are problems; a recent formulation of ALCHEMI analysis (Walls, 1992) addresses both problems. This paper extends this analysis for the distribution of atoms over two sublattices; expressions are derived for the fit parameters that are exact given the assumptions of the model, which allows for arbitrary localization constants, and for the possibility of anti-site defects.

  19. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  20. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification.

  1. Orbital Delocalization and Enhancement of Magnetic Interactions in Perovskite Oxyhydrides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Hou, Yusheng; Gong, Xingao; Xiang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments showed that some perovskite oxyhydrides have surprisingly high magnetic-transition temperature. In order to unveil the origin of this interesting phenomenon, we investigate the magnetism in SrCrO2H and SrVO2H on the basis of first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Our work indicates that the Cr-O-Cr superexchange interaction in SrCrO2H is unexpectedly strong. Different from the previous explanation in terms of the H− ion substitution induced increase of the Cr-O-Cr bond angle, we reveal instead that this is mainly because the 3d orbitals in perovskite oxyhydrides becomes more delocalized since H− ions have weaker electronegativity and less electrons than O2− ions. The delocalized 3d orbitals result in stronger Cr-O interactions and enhance the magnetic-transition temperature. This novel mechanism is also applicable to the case of SrVO2H. Furthermore, we predict that SrFeO2H will have unprecedented high Neel temperature because of the extraordinarily strong Fe-H-Fe σ-type interactions. Our work suggests the anion substitution can be used to effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of perovskite compounds. PMID:26804825

  2. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Delocalized Excited States of the Hydrated Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Paul F. Barbara

    2005-09-28

    Research under support of this grant has been focused on the understanding of highly delocalized ''conduction-band-like'' excited states of solvated electrons in bulk water, in water trapped in the core of reverse micelles, and in alkane solvents. We have strived in this work to probe conduction-band-like states by a variety of ultrafast spectroscopy techniques. (Most of which were developed under DOE support in a previous funding cycle.) We have recorded the optical spectrum of the hydrated electron for the first time. This was accomplished by applying a photo-detrapping technique that we had developed in a previous funding cycle, but had not yet been applied to characterize the actual spectrum. In the cases of reverse micelles, we have been investigating the potential role of conduction bands in the electron attachment process and the photoinduced detrapping, and have published two papers on this topic. Finally, we have been exploring solvated electrons in isooctane from various perspectives. All of these results strongly support the conclusion that optically accessible, highly delocalized electronic states exist in these various media.

  3. Orbital Delocalization and Enhancement of Magnetic Interactions in Perovskite Oxyhydrides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Hou, Yusheng; Gong, Xingao; Xiang, Hongjun

    2016-01-25

    Recent experiments showed that some perovskite oxyhydrides have surprisingly high magnetic-transition temperature. In order to unveil the origin of this interesting phenomenon, we investigate the magnetism in SrCrO2H and SrVO2H on the basis of first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. Our work indicates that the Cr-O-Cr superexchange interaction in SrCrO2H is unexpectedly strong. Different from the previous explanation in terms of the H(-) ion substitution induced increase of the Cr-O-Cr bond angle, we reveal instead that this is mainly because the 3d orbitals in perovskite oxyhydrides becomes more delocalized since H(-) ions have weaker electronegativity and less electrons than O(2-) ions. The delocalized 3d orbitals result in stronger Cr-O interactions and enhance the magnetic-transition temperature. This novel mechanism is also applicable to the case of SrVO2H. Furthermore, we predict that SrFeO2H will have unprecedented high Neel temperature because of the extraordinarily strong Fe-H-Fe σ-type interactions. Our work suggests the anion substitution can be used to effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of perovskite compounds.

  4. Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Michaela; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Otto, Andreas; Zweytick, Dagmar; May, Caroline; Schumacher, Catherine; Gust, Ronald; Albada, H. Bauke; Penkova, Maya; Krämer, Ute; Erdmann, Ralf; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Straus, Suzana K.; Bremer, Erhard; Becher, Dörte; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Short antimicrobial peptides rich in arginine (R) and tryptophan (W) interact with membranes. To learn how this interaction leads to bacterial death, we characterized the effects of the minimal pharmacophore RWRWRW-NH2. A ruthenium-substituted derivative of this peptide localized to the membrane in vivo, and the peptide also integrated readily into mixed phospholipid bilayers that resemble Gram-positive membranes. Proteome and Western blot analyses showed that integration of the peptide caused delocalization of peripheral membrane proteins essential for respiration and cell-wall biosynthesis, limiting cellular energy and undermining cell-wall integrity. This delocalization phenomenon also was observed with the cyclic peptide gramicidin S, indicating the generality of the mechanism. Exogenous glutamate increases tolerance to the peptide, indicating that osmotic destabilization also contributes to antibacterial efficacy. Bacillus subtilis responds to peptide stress by releasing osmoprotective amino acids, in part via mechanosensitive channels. This response is triggered by membrane-targeting bacteriolytic peptides of different structural classes as well as by hypoosmotic conditions. PMID:24706874

  5. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  6. Fun with Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  7. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  8. Quark models of dibaryon resonances in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, J. L.; Huang, H. X.; Pang, H. R.; Wang Fan; Wong, C. W.

    2009-02-15

    We look for {delta}{delta} and N{delta} resonances by calculating NN scattering phase shifts of two interacting baryon clusters of quarks with explicit coupling to these dibaryon channels. Two phenomenological nonrelativistic chiral quark models giving similar low-energy NN properties are found to give significantly different dibaryon resonance structures. In the chiral quark model (ChQM), the dibaryon system does not resonate in the NNS waves, in agreement with the experimental SP07 NN partial-wave scattering amplitudes. In the quark delocalization and color screening model (QDCSM), the S-wave NN resonances disappear when the nucleon size b falls below 0.53 fm. Both quark models give an IJ{sup P}=03{sup +}{delta}{delta} resonance. At b=0.52 fm, the value favored by the baryon spectrum, the resonance mass is 2390 (2420) MeV for the ChQM with quadratic (linear) confinement, and 2360 MeV for the QDCSM. Accessible from the {sup 3}D{sub 3}{sup NN} channel, this resonance is a promising candidate for the known isoscalar ABC structure seen more clearly in the pn{yields}d{pi}{pi} production cross section at 2410 MeV in the recent preliminary data reported by the CELSIUS-WASA Collaboration. In the isovector dibaryon sector, our quark models give a bound or almost bound {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup {delta}}{sup {delta}} state that can give rise to a {sup 1}D{sub 2}{sup NN} resonance. None of the quark models used have bound N{delta}P states that might generate odd-parity resonances.

  9. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  10. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  11. Extreme electron polaron spatial delocalization in π-conjugated materials

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jeff; Angiolillo, Paul J.; Therien, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The electron polaron, a spin-1/2 excitation, is the fundamental negative charge carrier in π-conjugated organic materials. Large polaron spatial dimensions result from weak electron-lattice coupling and thus identify materials with unusually low barriers for the charge transfer reactions that are central to electronic device applications. Here we demonstrate electron polarons in π-conjugated multiporphyrin arrays that feature vast areal delocalization. This finding is evidenced by concurrent optical and electron spin resonance measurements, coupled with electronic structure calculations that suggest atypically small reorganization energies for one-electron reduction of these materials. Because the electron polaron dimension can be linked to key performance metrics in organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and a host of other devices, these findings identify conjugated materials with exceptional optical, electronic, and spintronic properties. PMID:26512097

  12. Ionization delocalization and ALCHEMI of B2-ordered alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the major assumption underlying the ALCHEMI formulation is justified: that the degree of ionization localization of an elemental shell can be accounted for by a linear coefficient; and to introduce a potential method, which would be applicable to B2-ordered alloys, of independently extracting the ratio of coefficients L{sub jk} necessary for delocalization correction. A Cr-doped FeAl alloy and a series of Fe-doped NiAl alloys with 0.25-12 at. % Fe were analyzed. Excellent linearity of the data substantiates the use of linear coefficients to model ionization localization. It was investigated whether the L{sub jk} acquired at a (110) systematics orientation could be accurately applied to ALCHEMI data acquired at (200).

  13. Coherent delocalization: views of entanglement in different scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, R. de J.; Vallés, A.; Moya-Cessa, H. M.; Torres, J. P.

    2015-08-01

    The concept of entanglement was originally introduced to explain correlations existing between two spatially separated systems, that cannot be described using classical ideas. Interestingly, in recent years, it has been shown that similar correlations can be observed when considering different degrees of freedom of a single system, even a classical one. Surprisingly, it has also been suggested that entanglement might be playing a relevant role in certain biological processes, such as the functioning of pigment-proteins that constitute light-harvesting complexes of photosynthetic bacteria. The aim of this work is to show that the presence of entanglement in all of these different scenarios should not be unexpected, once it is realized that the very same mathematical structure can describe all of them. We show this by considering three different, realistic cases in which the only condition for entanglement to exist is that a single excitation is coherently delocalized between the different subsystems that compose the system of interest.

  14. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  15. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reflected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and five brackets of each brand were tested. Reflected colour and spectral reflectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) colour scale and transmitted colour and diffuse spectral transmittance measured with a spectrophotometer. One-way analyses of variance were performed for the reflected and transmitted colour co-ordinates (CIE L*, a*, and b*) and for light transmittance according to bracket brand. The range for CIE L* (lightness) was 36.2-50.3, for a* (red-green parameter) -1.3-3.8 and for b* (yellow-blue parameter) -2.9-11.2. All these colour co-ordinates were influenced by bracket brand (P < 0.05). Diffuse light transmittance was also influenced by bracket brand and ranged from 44.9 to 75.9 per cent (P < 0.05). Colour and transmittance varied by bracket brand. Variations in optical properties influenced the aesthetic performance of the brackets and the degree of cure of the adhesive that is possible through the brackets. Further studies on the clinical implications of colour matching of tooth-coloured brackets with teeth should now be performed.

  16. Colour preferences and colour vision in poultry chicks.

    PubMed

    Ham, A D; Osorio, D

    2007-08-22

    The dramatic colours of biological communication signals raise questions about how animals perceive suprathreshold colour differences, and there are long-standing questions about colour preferences and colour categorization by non-human species. This study investigates preferences of foraging poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) as they peck at coloured objects. Work on colour recognition often deals with responses to monochromatic lights and how animals divide the spectrum. We used complementary colours, where the intermediate is grey, and related the chicks' choices to three models of the factors that may affect the attractiveness. Two models assume that attractiveness is determined by a metric based on the colour discrimination threshold either (i) by chromatic contrast against the background or (ii) relative to an internal standard. An alternative third model is that categorization is important. We tested newly hatched and 9-day-old chicks with four pairs of (avian) complementary colours, which were orange, blue, red and green for humans. Chromatic contrast was more relevant to newly hatched chicks than to 9-day-old birds, but in neither case could contrast alone account for preferences; especially for orange over blue. For older chicks, there is evidence for categorization of complementary colours, with a boundary at grey.

  17. Colour flux-tubes in static pentaquark and tetraquark systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Nuno; Cardoso, Marco

    2012-04-01

    The colour fields created by the static tetraquark and pentaquark systems are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, with gauge invariant lattice operators, in a 243×48 lattice at β=6.2. We generate our quenched configurations with GPUs, and detail the respective benchmarks in different SU(N) groups. While at smaller distances the Coulomb potential is expected to dominate, at larger distances it is expected that fundamental flux tubes, similar to the flux-tube between a quark and an antiquark, emerge and confine the quarks. In order to minimize the potential the fundamental flux tubes should connect at 120° angles. We compute the square of the colour fields utilizing plaquettes, and locate the static sources with generalized Wilson loops and with APE smearing. The tetraquark system is well described by a double-Y-shaped flux-tube, with two Steiner points, but when quark-antiquark pairs are close enough the two junctions collapse and we have an X-shaped flux-tube, with one Steiner point. The pentaquark system is well described by a three-Y-shaped flux-tube where the three flux junctions are Steiner points.

  18. The Quark - A Decade Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  19. Evidence of Delocalization in Charge-Transfer State Manifold for Donor:Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhiqiang; Li, Ho-Wa; Zhang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Yuanhang; Yang, Qingdan; Lo, Ming-Fai; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-24

    How charge-transfer states (CTSs) assist charge separation of a Coulombically bound exciton in organic photovoltaics has been a hot topic. It is believed that the delocalization feature of a CTS plays a crucial role in the charge separation process. However, the delocalization of the "hot" and the "relaxed" CTSs is still under debate. Here, with a novel frequency dependent charge-modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS) technique, we elucidate clearly that both "hot" and "relaxed" CTSs are loosely bound and delocalized states. This is confirmed by comparing the CMEAS results of CTSs with those of localized polaron states. Our results reveal the role of CTS delocalization on charge separation and indicate that no substantial delocalization gradient exists in CTSs.

  20. Measuring changes in internal meat colour, colour lightness and colour opacity as predictors of cooking time.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Christiane; Stamminger, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Consumers and cooks often assess the degree of doneness of roasted beef by the internal meat colour. Real-time colour measurement of the cooking process is therefore developed in order to determine the degree of doneness, and thus the end of the cooking process, by the internal meat colour. The colour values (X, Y, Z) provided by the true colour sensor show significant variation within initial values and end values. Change in colour lightness caused by the increase of meat colour opacity is dominant. Calculating the first deviation of the Y values (dY/dt) indicates that most rapid changes in lightness are within a temperature range of 42°C and 56°C. At this temperature, the degree of meat doneness is still assumed to be rare, but it is possible to predict the time needed from this point until the desired degree of doneness is reached.

  1. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  2. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  3. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  4. Erratum to: ``Heavy quark production via supersymmetric interaction at a neutrino factory''[Phys. Lett. B 508 (2001) 74-78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, Debrupa; Datta, Anindya; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

    2001-11-01

    In this Erratum, we incorporate the following minor corrections to the original Letter: On p. 75, in the line after pii:Eq. (1) "where Li and Qi are SU(2) doublet leptons and quarks, Eci and Dci are SU(2) singlet charged lepton and down quarks, and Hu is the Higgs superfield responsible for the generation of the up-type quark masses. i, j and k are generation indices, while colour and SU(2) indices are not explicitly shown above" should be replaced by "where L̂i and Q̂i are SU(2) doublet leptons and quarks, Êci and D̂ci are SU(2) singlet charged lepton and down quarks, and Ĥu is the Higgs superfield responsible for the generation of the up-type quark masses. i, j and k are generation indices, while colour indices are not explicitly shown above".

  5. Analysis of the delocalized Raman modes of conformationally disordered polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L X; Strauss, H L; Snyder, R G

    1993-01-01

    Bands associated with delocalized vibrational modes were identified in the isotropic Raman spectra of a series of polyglycine oligomers in aqueous solution as zwitterions and as cations. The dependence of these bands on conformational disorder and chain length was determined. The observed dependence is closely mimicked in spectra calculated for a series of corresponding model polypeptides. The simulated spectra were calculated in a skeletal approximation for ensembles of conformationally disordered chains. As the chain length of the conformationally disordered polypeptides increases, the observed isotropic spectra rapidly approach the spectrum of the infinitely long disordered chain. Convergence is nearly complete at the tripeptide for both the zwitterion and the cation. The stimulated spectra behave in essentially the same way. Convergence to the spectrum of the infinitely long chain is much more rapid for the conformationally disordered polyglycines than for the ordered polyglycines because of the mode localization that results from disorder. In the low-frequency region the bands in the calculated spectra have frequencies that are systematically dependent on chain length. These bands are related to the longitudinal acoustic modes of the ordered chain. PMID:8324189

  6. Communication: Spectroscopic consequences of proton delocalization in OCHCO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Yu, Qi; Mancini, John S.; Bowman, Joel M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Klemperer, William F.; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2015-08-01

    Even though quartic force fields (QFFs) and highly accurate coupled cluster computations describe the OCHCO+ cation at equilibrium as a complex between carbon monoxide and the formyl cation, two notable and typical interstellar and atmospheric molecules, the prediction from the present study is that the equilibrium C∞v structure is less relevant to observables than the saddle-point D∞h structure. This is the conclusion from diffusion Monte Carlo and vibrational self-consistent field/virtual state configuration interaction calculations utilizing a semi-global potential energy surface. These calculations demonstrate that the proton "rattle" motion (ν6) has centrosymmetric delocalization of the proton over the D∞h barrier lying only 393.6 cm-1 above the double-well OCHCO+ C∞v minima. As a result, this molecule will likely appear D∞h, and the rotational spectrum will be significantly dimmer than the computed equilibrium 2.975 D center-of-mass dipole moment indicates. However, the proton transfer fundamental, determined to be at roughly 300 cm-1, has a very strong intensity. This prediction as well as those of other fundamentals should provide useful guides for laboratory detection of this cation. Finally, it is shown that the two highest energy QFF-determined modes are actually in good agreement with their vibrational configuration interaction counterparts. These high-level quantum chemical methods provide novel insights into this fascinating and potentially common interstellar molecule.

  7. How do electron localization functions describe π-electron delocalization?

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Stephan N; Mo, Yirong; Corminboeuf, Clemence

    2011-12-14

    Scalar fields provide an intuitive picture of chemical bonding. In particular, the electron localization function (ELF) has proven to be highly valuable in interpreting a broad range of bonding patterns. The discrimination between enhanced or reduced electron (de)localization within cyclic π-conjugated systems remains, however, challenging for ELF. In order to clearly distinguish between the local properties of ten highly and weakly π-(de)localized prototype systems, we compare the ELFs of both the canonical wave functions and electron-localized states (diabatic) with those of two closely related scalar fields: the electron localizability indicator (ELI-D) and the localized orbital locator (LOL). The simplest LOL function distinguishes enhanced from weak π-(de)localization in an insightful and reliable manner. LOL offers the finest contrast between annulenes with 4n/4n + 2 π electrons and their inorganic analogues as well as between hyperconjugated cyclopentadiene derivatives. LOL(π) also gives an appealing and intuitive picture of the π-bond. In contrast, the most popular ELF fails to capture subtle contrasting local electronic properties and suffers from the arbitrariness of the σ/π dissection. The orbital separation of the most recent ELI-D is clear-cut but the interpretations sometime less straightforward in the present context.

  8. Recurrent Delocalization and Quasiequilibration of Photons in Coupled Systems in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Kim, M S; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-04-15

    We explore the photon population dynamics in two coupled circuit QED systems. For a sufficiently weak intercavity photon hopping, as the photon-cavity coupling increases, the dynamics undergoes double transitions first from a delocalized to a localized phase and then from the localized to another delocalized phase. The latter delocalized phase is distinguished from the former one; instead of oscillating between the two cavities, the photons rapidly quasiequilibrate over the two cavities. These intriguing features are attributed to an interplay between two qualitatively distinctive nonlinear behaviors of the circuit QED systems in the utrastrong coupling regime, whose distinction has been widely overlooked.

  9. Assessment of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals through electron momentum spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Cheung, Ling-Fung; Ning, Chuan-Gang

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there was a hot controversy about the concept of localized orbitals, which was triggered by Grushow's work titled “Is it time to retire the hybrid atomic orbital?” [J. Chem. Educ. 88, 860 (2011)]. To clarify the issue, we assess the delocalized and localized molecular orbitals from an experimental view using electron momentum spectroscopy. The delocalized and localized molecular orbitals based on various theoretical models for CH4, NH3, and H2O are compared with the experimental momentum distributions. Our results show that the delocalized molecular orbitals rather than the localized ones can give a direct interpretation of the experimental (e, 2e) results.

  10. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  11. The colours of cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenneau, Sébastien; McPhedran, Ross C.; Enoch, Stefan; Movchan, Alexander B.; Farhat, Mohamed; Nicorovici, Nicolae-Alexandru P.

    2011-02-01

    We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air-fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed.

  12. Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

  13. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  14. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  15. Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's…

  16. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought.

  17. Role of coherence and delocalization in photo-induced electron transfer at organic interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Abramavicius, V.; Pranculis, V.; Melianas, A.; Inganäs, O.; Gulbinas, V.; Abramavicius, D.

    2016-01-01

    Photo-induced charge transfer at molecular heterojunctions has gained particular interest due to the development of organic solar cells (OSC) based on blends of electron donating and accepting materials. While charge transfer between donor and acceptor molecules can be described by Marcus theory, additional carrier delocalization and coherent propagation might play the dominant role. Here, we describe ultrafast charge separation at the interface of a conjugated polymer and an aggregate of the fullerene derivative PCBM using the stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE) and reveal the complex time evolution of electron transfer, mediated by electronic coherence and delocalization. By fitting the model to ultrafast charge separation experiments, we estimate the extent of electron delocalization and establish the transition from coherent electron propagation to incoherent hopping. Our results indicate that even a relatively weak coupling between PCBM molecules is sufficient to facilitate electron delocalization and efficient charge separation at organic interfaces. PMID:27605035

  18. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  19. Communication: Spectroscopic consequences of proton delocalization in OCHCO{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Yu, Qi; Mancini, John S.; Bowman, Joel M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Klemperer, William F.; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2015-08-21

    Even though quartic force fields (QFFs) and highly accurate coupled cluster computations describe the OCHCO{sup +} cation at equilibrium as a complex between carbon monoxide and the formyl cation, two notable and typical interstellar and atmospheric molecules, the prediction from the present study is that the equilibrium C{sub ∞v} structure is less relevant to observables than the saddle-point D{sub ∞h} structure. This is the conclusion from diffusion Monte Carlo and vibrational self-consistent field/virtual state configuration interaction calculations utilizing a semi-global potential energy surface. These calculations demonstrate that the proton “rattle” motion (ν{sub 6}) has centrosymmetric delocalization of the proton over the D{sub ∞h} barrier lying only 393.6 cm{sup −1} above the double-well OCHCO{sup +} C{sub ∞v} minima. As a result, this molecule will likely appear D{sub ∞h}, and the rotational spectrum will be significantly dimmer than the computed equilibrium 2.975 D center-of-mass dipole moment indicates. However, the proton transfer fundamental, determined to be at roughly 300 cm{sup −1}, has a very strong intensity. This prediction as well as those of other fundamentals should provide useful guides for laboratory detection of this cation. Finally, it is shown that the two highest energy QFF-determined modes are actually in good agreement with their vibrational configuration interaction counterparts. These high-level quantum chemical methods provide novel insights into this fascinating and potentially common interstellar molecule.

  20. Genetics of colouration in birds.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues.

  1. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  2. Delocalizing transition in one-dimensional condensates in optical lattices due to inhomogeneous interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.

    2007-08-15

    It is shown that inhomogeneous nonlinear interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in an optical lattice can result in a delocalizing transition in one dimension, which sharply contrasts to the known behavior of discrete and periodic systems with homogeneous nonlinearity. The transition can be originated either by decreasing the amplitude of the linear periodic potential or by the change of the mean value of the periodic nonlinearity. The dynamics of the delocalizing transition is studied.

  3. Generating colour and texture verniers.

    PubMed

    Brelstaff, G J; Wilson, J B

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes computer graphics techniques for presenting visual stimuli in a vernier format composed out of coloured texture patterns. Such stimuli can be used to investigate the performance at the task of localising boundaries mediated by changes in colour and/or texture. We summarise the contents as follows: (1) Techniques for presenting visual stimuli are reviewed with a view to how they might be used to present colour and texture verniers. (2) The design of the vernier stimuli for the localisation task is considered. (3) Significant elements of this design are: (a) the use of non-isoplanatic textures to avoid interference effects at boundaries, (b) the modulation of the texture patterns along axes in MacLeod-Boynton colour space so that relative retinal cone contributions are controlled, and (c) the use of double-buffering, colour map manipulation, and contrast randomisation techniques to avoid problems commonly encountered when presenting computer graphics stimuli on colour monitors. (4) Results of a psychophysical experiment that presents colour and texture verniers are reported elsewhere.

  4. Colour Reconnection in WW Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, J.

    2003-07-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the κ parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of Colour Reconnection in {W}+{W}^- -> qbar {q}'bar {q}q^' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of Colour Reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different mW estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised Colour Reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about κ.

  5. Alternative to colour feature classification using colour contrast ocurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, R. A.; Richard, N.; Fernandez, C.

    2015-04-01

    Texture discrimination was the second more important task studied after colour perception and characterization. Nevertheless, colour texture assessment and characterization was few studied and no vector processing was proposed to assess this important visual information. In this work we show the construction of a new vector that integrates fully the information of texture and color. This vector is based on Julesz psico-physics conjectures and the Haralick cooccurrence matrix. A colour texture image in the CIEL*a* b* colour space is characterizing in a 3D matrix, from which it is possible to visually some variations in chromaticity. The performance of this vector had evaluated in tasks of classification in front of other developments that mix the texture and colour information. The colour contrast occurrence matrix (C2O) has the best classification rates in three of the four image database evaluated as OUTEX, VISTEX, STEX and ALOT. C2O texture classification was evaluated in front of co-occurrence matrix (GLMC), run-length matrix (RLM) and local binary patterns (LBP) approaches.

  6. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  7. The discovery of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    In the period following World War II, there was a rapid development of particle physics. With the construction of synchrotrons and the development of detector technology, many new particles were discovered and the systematics of their interactions investigated. The invention of the bubble chamber played an especially important role in uncovering the rich array of hadrons that were discovered in this period.In 1961 Murray Gell-Mann [1] and Yuval Ne'eman [2] independently introduced a classification scheme, based on SU(3) symmetry, which placed hadrons into families on the basis of spin and parity. Like the periodic table for the elements, this scheme was predictive as well as descriptive, and various hadrons, such as the - , were predicted within this framework and were later discovered.In 1964 Gell-Mann [3] and George Zweig [4] independently proposed quarks as the building blocks of hadrons as a way of generating the SU(3) classification scheme. When the quark model was first proposed, it postulated three types of quarks: up (u), down (d), and strange (s), with charges 2/3, - 1/3, and - 1/3 respectively. Each of these was hypothesized to be a spin1/2 particle. In this model the nucleon (and all other baryons) is made up of three quarks, and each meson consists of a quark and an antiquark. For example, as the proton and neutron both have ero strangeness, they are (u,u,d) and (d,d,u) systems respectively.

  8. Resurgence of natural colourants: a holistic view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J K; Sinha, A K

    2004-02-01

    Today, natural colourants are emerging globally, leaving synthetic colourants behind in the race, due to the realisation that are safer and ecofriendly in nature. In this context, a brief review of natural colourant sources, their classification, chemical constituents responsible for producing different colours, its activities and effect of different mordants on the hue is discussed.

  9. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  10. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  11. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  12. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  13. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  14. Quark confinement dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.J.; Olsson, M.G.; Veseli, S.; Williams, K. |

    1997-05-01

    Starting from Buchm{umlt u}ller{close_quote}s observation that a chromoelectric flux tube meson will exhibit only the Thomas-type spin-orbit interaction, we show that a model built upon the related assumption that a quark feels only a constant radial chromoelectric field in its rest frame implies a complete relativistic effective Hamiltonian that can be written explicitly in terms of quark canonical variables. The model yields linear Regge trajectories and exhibits some similarities to scalar confinement, but with the advantage of being more closely linked to QCD. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Functionalized Thiophene-Based [7]Helicene: Chirooptical Properties versus Electron Delocalization

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Pink, Maren; Xiao, Shuzhang; Miyasaka, Makoto; Rajca, Suchada; Das, Kausik; Plessel, Kristin

    2009-11-04

    The functionalized, enantiomerically pure [7]helicene 1 derived from bis(benzodithiophene) functionalized with four heptyl groups is prepared from 1,8-dibromo-4,5-diheptylbenzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene building block 2. Such [7]helicene structure, functionalized with bromines at the terminal positions of the helicene inner rim and multiple solubilizing alkyl groups, is an attractive building block for long [n]helicenes and oligo[7]helicenes. Chirooptical properties and the degree of electron delocalization are determined and compared to those of analogous carbon-sulfur [7]helicene and [7]helicenes derived from benzodithiophene to provide a correlation between chirooptical properties and the degree of electron delocalization. [7]Helicene 1 possesses a moderately increased electron delocalization, but its chirooptical properties are similar to those for analogous [7]helicenes with relatively lower electron delocalization, indicating that chirooptical properties are not significantly affected by electron delocalization for this series of [7]helicenes. Molecular structures of racemic [7]helicene 1 and its benzodithiophene building block 2 are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Crystals of 2 are chiral and adopt the shape of long, flexible, flat needles that can be readily bent.

  16. Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejia; Yue, Yongping; Lai, Yi; Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of force reduction is not completely understood in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dystrophin-deficient lethal disease. Nitric oxide regulates muscle force. Interestingly, neuronal nitric oxide synthase µ (nNOSµ), a major source of muscle nitric oxide, is lost from the sarcolemma in DMD muscle. We hypothesize that nNOSµ delocalization contributes to force reduction in DMD. To test this hypothesis, we generated dystrophin/nNOSµ double knockout mice. Genetic elimination of nNOSµ significantly enhanced force in dystrophin-null mice. Pharmacological inhibition of nNOS yielded similar results. To further test our hypothesis, we studied δ-sarcoglycan-null mice, a model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. These mice had minimal sarcolemmal nNOSµ delocalization and muscle force was less compromised. Annihilation of nNOSµ did not improve their force either. To determine whether nNOSµ delocalization itself inhibited force, we corrected muscle disease in dystrophin-null mice with micro-dystrophins that either restored or did not restore sarcolemmal nNOSµ. Similar muscle force was obtained irrespective of nNOSµ localization. Additional studies suggest that nNOSµ delocalization selectively inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice via nitrosative stress. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization is an important mechanism underlying force loss in DMD.

  17. A fuzzy-atom analysis of electron delocalization on hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Guillaumes, L; Salvador, P; Simon, S

    2014-02-13

    The extent of electron delocalization is quantified for set of cyclic complexes exhibiting two or more hydrogen bonds (HBs). In particular, the delocalization index (DI) between the atoms directly involved in the HB, and the ING (a normalized n-center delocalization index) have been evaluated using several fuzzy-atom schemes, namely Becke, Becke-ρ, Hirshfeld, and Hirshfeld-Iterative. The results have been compared with the widely used Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic definition. The DI values are found to correlate very well with geometrical or topological descriptors widely used in the literature to characterize HB systems. Among all fuzzy-atom methods, the ones that can better accommodate the different partial ionic character of the bonds perform particularly well. The best performing fuzzy-atom scheme for both pairwise and n-center electron delocalization is found to be the Becke-ρ method, for which similar results to QTAIM model are obtained with a much reduced computational cost. These results open up a wide range of applications of such electron delocalization descriptors based on fuzzy-atoms for noncovalent interactions in more complex and larger systems.

  18. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  19. Effect of pressure on f-electron delocalization and oxidation in actinide dioxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, L.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W. M.; Stocks, G. M.; Svane, A.

    2014-08-01

    Using first principles calculations, we have investigated f-electron delocalization and oxidation in the actinide dioxides under pressure. Whilst UO2 is found on the verge of an insulator to metal transition at the equilibrium volume, increasingly larger pressures are required to delocalize f-electrons in NpO2, PuO2, and AmO2, respectively 49, 112, and 191 GPa. Compared to this broad range of pressures, the experimentally observed structural transitions, in all four dioxides, occur between 30 and 40 GPa, which leads us to conclude that the associated volume collapse is not due to f-electron delocalization. In contrast, oxidation of the dioxides is found to be linked to the degree of f-electron localization, but it emerges that for naturally occurring pressures (<10 GPa), higher oxides only exist for UO2.

  20. Top quark mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  1. Medium-induced gluon radiation and colour decoherence beyond the soft approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinário, Liliana; Armesto, Néstor; Milhano, José Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2015-02-01

    We derive the in-medium gluon radiation spectrum off a quark within the path integral formalism at finite energies, including all next-to-eikonal corrections in the propagators of quarks and gluons. Results are computed for finite formation times, including interference with vacuum amplitudes. By rewriting the medium averages in a convenient manner we present the spectrum in terms of dipole cross sections and a colour decoherence parameter with the same physical origin as that found in previous studies of the antenna radiation. This factorisation allows us to present a simple physical picture of the medium-induced radiation for any value of the formation time, that is of interest for a probabilistic implementation of the modified parton shower. Known results are recovered for the particular cases of soft radiation and eikonal quark and for the case of a very long medium, with length much larger than the average formation times for medium-induced radiation. Technical details of the computation of the relevant n-point functions in colour space and of the required path integrals in transverse space are provided. The final result completes the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for a recoilless medium.

  2. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2004-04-30

    The existence of the top quark, discovered by CDF and D0 in 1995, has been re-established in the burgeoning dataset being collected in Run 2 of the Tevatron at Fermilab. Results from CDF on the top quark production cross section and top quark mass are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The well-characterized top data samples will make it possible in the future to probe further for new physics in the top quark sector. This report summarizes recent CDF top quark physics results.

  3. Delocalization of Weakly Interacting Bosons in a 1D Quasiperiodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, V. P.; Altshuler, B. L.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2014-07-01

    We consider weakly interacting bosons in a 1D quasiperiodic potential (Aubry-Azbel-Harper model) in the regime where all single-particle states are localized. We show that the interparticle interaction may lead to the many-body delocalization and we obtain the finite-temperature phase diagram. Counterintuitively, in a wide range of parameters the delocalization requires stronger coupling as the temperature increases. This means that the system of bosons can undergo a transition from a fluid to insulator (glass) state under heating.

  4. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  5. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-12-18

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45-25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data.

  6. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  7. Methods for describing illumination colour uniformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotscholl, Ingo; Trampert, Klaus; Herrmann, Franziska; Neumann, Cornelius

    2015-02-01

    Optimizing angular or spatial colour homogeneity has become an important task in many general lighting applications and first requires a valid description of illumination colour homogeneity. We analyse different frequently used methods to describe colour distributions in theory and with measurement data. It is described why information about chromaticity coordinates, correlated colour temperature and global chromaticity coordinate distances are not sufficient for describing colour homogeneity perception of light distributions. We present local chromaticity coordinate distances as expandable and easy implementable method for describing colour homogeneity distributions that is adaptable to the field of view by only one intuitive, physiological meaningful parameter.

  8. Implications of a high-mass diphoton resonance for heavy quark searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shankha; Barducci, Daniele; Bélanger, Geneviève; Delaunay, Cédric

    2016-11-01

    Heavy vector-like quarks coupled to a scalar S will induce a coupling of this scalar to gluons and possibly (if electrically charged) photons. The decay of the heavy quark into Sq, with q being a Standard Model quark, provides, if kinematically allowed, new channels for heavy quark searches. Inspired by naturalness considerations, we consider the case of a vector-like partner of the top quark. For illustration, we show that a singlet partner can be searched for at the 13 TeV LHC through its decay into a scalar resonance in the 2γ + ℓ + X final states, especially if the diphoton branching ratio of the scalar S is further enhanced by the contribution of non coloured particles. We then show that conventional heavy quark searches are also sensitive to this new decay mode, when S decays hadronically, by slightly tightening the current selection cuts. Finally, we comment about the possibility of disentangling, by scrutinising appropriate kinematic distributions, heavy quark decays to St from other standard decay modes.

  9. Chromatic induction in neon colour spreading.

    PubMed

    da Pos, Osvaldo; Bressan, Paola

    2003-03-01

    Neon colour spreading occurs when sections of a lattice are replaced by segments of a different colour. This colour appears to diffuse out of the segments, and produce a slightly tinted transparent surface floating above the lattice. In two of the four experiments reported here, observers varied the colour of an area in a test display, until it matched the neon colour perceived in a corresponding (illusory) area in a comparison display. We found that the neon colour is an additive mixture of the colour of the segments and the colour complementary to the lattice, as suggested by Bressan (Vision Research 35 (1995) 375). In the other two experiments, we separately manipulated the presence and alignment of lattice and segments, to test whether the neon effect is fully predicted by a combination of colour diffusion and simultaneous colour contrast. We found that the colour induced in a neon figure is more saturated than the colour induced in a comparable non-neon figure. We discuss the implications of these results on our current understanding of the mechanisms of neon colour spreading.

  10. Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; W. Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquarks channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.

  11. Spectroscopic fingerprints of toroidal nuclear quantum delocalization via ab initio path integral simulations.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Ole; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2013-04-05

    We investigate the quantum-mechanical delocalization of hydrogen in rotational symmetric molecular systems. To this purpose, we perform ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations of a methanol molecule to characterize the quantum properties of hydrogen atoms in a representative system by means of their real-space and momentum-space densities. In particular, we compute the spherically averaged momentum distribution n(k) and the pseudoangular momentum distribution n(kθ). We interpret our results by comparing them to path integral samplings of a bare proton in an ideal torus potential. We find that the hydroxyl hydrogen exhibits a toroidal delocalization, which leads to characteristic fingerprints in the line shapes of the momentum distributions. We can describe these specific spectroscopic patterns quantitatively and compute their onset as a function of temperature and potential energy landscape. The delocalization patterns in the projected momentum distribution provide a promising computational tool to address the intriguing phenomenon of quantum delocalization in condensed matter and its spectroscopic characterization. As the momentum distribution n(k) is also accessible through Nuclear Compton Scattering experiments, our results will help to interpret and understand future measurements more thoroughly.

  12. Exciton delocalization incorporated drift-diffusion model for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion model. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are incorporated to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.

  13. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  14. Colour Vision: Understanding #TheDress.

    PubMed

    Brainard, David H; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2015-06-29

    A widely-viewed image of a dress elicits striking individual variation in colour perception. Experiments with multiple variants of the image suggest that the individual differences may arise through the action of visual mechanisms that normally stabilise object colour.

  15. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-07-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector.

  16. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector. PMID:26139470

  17. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.

    2002-03-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method1, are yet inconclusive.

  18. The colour of fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Jakob; Briggs, Derek E G; Prum, Richard O; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

    2008-10-23

    Feathers are complex integumentary appendages of birds and some other theropod dinosaurs. They are frequently coloured and function in camouflage and display. Previous investigations have concluded that fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces composed of feather-degrading bacteria. Here, an investigation of a colour-banded feather from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil revealed that the dark bands are preserved as elongate, oblate carbonaceous bodies 1-2 microm long, whereas the light bands retain only relief traces on the rock matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the dark bands preserve a substantial amount of carbon, whereas the light bands show no carbon residue. Comparison of these oblate fossil bodies with the structure of black feathers from a living bird indicates that they are the eumelanin-containing melanosomes. We conclude that most fossil feathers are preserved as melanosomes, and that the distribution of these structures in fossil feathers can preserve the colour pattern in the original feather. The discovery of preserved melanosomes opens up the possibility of interpreting the colour of extinct birds and other dinosaurs.

  19. Electronic delocalization contribution to the anomeric effect evaluated by computational methods.

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Tenorio, J; Collera, O; Cuevas, G

    2001-05-04

    This study proposes the determination of the electronic delocalization contribution to the Anomeric Effect (EDCAE, Delta Delta E(deloc), eq 3) as a computational alternative in the evaluation of the excess of the axial preference shown by an electronegative substituent located at alpha position to the annular heteroatom of a heterocyclic compound (anomeric position) in both the presence and the absence of electronic delocalization retaining the same molecular geometry. The determination of the EDCAE is computationally accessible through the application of the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). This type of analysis allows the comparison of hypothetical molecules lacking electronic delocalization (Lewis molecules, in which the electrons are strictly located in bonds and lone pairs) with the fully delocalized molecules retaining the same geometry and the evaluation of the anomeric effect in terms of eq 3. The role of the Lewis molecules is the same as the cyclohexane used experimentally to evaluate the anomeric effect. The advantage of doing this is that Lewis molecules are stereoelectronically inert. Applying this methology to cyclic and acyclic molecules at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and HF/6-31G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory, we found that the anomeric effect shown by Cl in 1,3-dioxane; F, Cl, SMe, PH(3), and CO(2)Me groups in 1,3-dithiane is of stereoelectronic nature while the preference of F, OMe, and NH(2) in 1,3-dioxane and the P(O)Me(2) group in 1,3-dithiane is not. Furthermore, this methodology shows that anomeric effects without stereoelectronic origin can modify the molecular geometry in agreement with the geometric pattern required by the double-bond no-bond model, as recently proposed by Perrin.

  20. Quark matter or new particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  1. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  2. Exotic Signals of Vectorlike Quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Yu, Felix

    2016-12-06

    Vectorlike fermions are an important target for hadron collider searches. We show that the vectorlike quarks may predominantly decay via higher-dimensional operators into a quark plus a couple of other Standard Model fermions. Pair production of vectorlike quarks of charge 2/3 at the LHC would then lead to a variety of possible final states, including $t\\bar t + 4\\tau$, $t\\bar b\

  3. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  4. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  5. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  6. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or

  7. Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2009-04-17

    We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.

  8. Valence quark spin distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-09-01

    The hyperfine interactions of the constituent quark model provide a natural explanation for many nucleon properties, including the {Delta} - N splitting, the charge radius of the neutron, and the observation that the proton's quark distribution function ratio d(x)/u(x) {r_arrow} 0 as x {r_arrow} 1. The hyperfine-perturbed quark model also makes predictions for the nucleon spin-dependent distribution functions. Precision measurements of the resulting asymmetries A{sub 1}{sup p}(x) and A{sub 1}{sup n}(x) in the valence region can test this model and thereby the hypothesis that the valence quark spin distributions are ''normal''.

  9. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  10. Differences between heavy and light quarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.

    1997-11-10

    The quark Dyson-Schwinger equation shows that there are distinct differences between light and heavy quarks. The dynamical mass function of the light quarks is characterized by a sharp increase below 1 GeV, whereas the mass function of the heavy quarks is approximately constant in this infrared region. As a consequence, the heavy meson masses increase linearly with the current quark masses, whereas the light pseudoscalar meson masses are proportional to the square root of the current quark masses.

  11. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  12. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  13. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  14. The neural correlate of colour distances revealed with competing synaesthetic and real colours.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    Synaesthetes claim to perceive illusory colours when reading alphanumeric symbols so that two colours are said to be bound to the same letter or digit (i.e., the colour of the ink, e.g., black, and an additional, synaesthetic, colour). To explore the neural correlates of this phenomenon, we used a Stroop single-letter colour-naming task and found that distances in colour space between the illusory and real colours of a letter target (as computed from either the RGB or CIExyY coordinates of colours) systematically influenced the degree of neuronal activation in colour-processing brain regions. The synaesthetes also activated the same fronto-parietal network during the classic colour-word Stroop task and single-letter tasks. We conclude that the same neural substrate that supports the conscious experience of colour, as triggered by physical wavelength, supports the experience of synaesthetic colours. Thus, two colour attributes (one that is wavelength-dependent and one that is illusory) can be bound to the same stimulus position and simultaneously engage the colour areas in proportion to their similarity in colour space.

  15. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

  16. Cool Quark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-22

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  17. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  18. Quark Gluon Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  19. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group.

  20. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  1. What colour is a shadow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-05-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called ImageJ. The average red, green and blue pixel values in a region of interest drawn on a photograph of the paper in sunlight and shadow were 0.3, 0.32, 0.38 and 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 respectively, demonstrating that a shadow under a blue sky has a blue tint. The experiment would be a useful exercise for a science class.

  2. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  3. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin Mason et al.

    2004-01-05

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients.

  4. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Déliot, Frédéric; Hadley, Nicholas; Parke, Stephen; Schwarz, Tom

    2014-10-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed in this article.

  5. Quark Confinement and Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  6. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and

  8. Electron delocalization and aromaticity in low-lying excited states of archetypal organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Feixas, Ferran; Vandenbussche, Jelle; Bultinck, Patrick; Matito, Eduard; Solà, Miquel

    2011-12-14

    Aromaticity is a property usually linked to the ground state of stable molecules. Although it is well-known that certain excited states are unquestionably aromatic, the aromaticity of excited states remains rather unexplored. To move one step forward in the comprehension of aromaticity in excited states, in this work we analyze the electron delocalization and aromaticity of a series of low-lying excited states of cyclobutadiene, benzene, and cyclooctatetraene with different multiplicities at the CASSCF level by means of electron delocalization measures. While our results are in agreement with Baird's rule for the aromaticity of the lowest-lying triplet excited state in annulenes having 4nπ-electrons, they do not support Soncini and Fowler's generalization of Baird's rule pointing out that the lowest-lying quintet state of benzene and septet state of cyclooctatetraene are not aromatic.

  9. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  10. Chaotic delocalization of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-06-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model in the regime when one-particle motion is absolutely bounded inside one cell of periodic potential. The interaction between particles breaks integrability of classical motion leading to emergence of Hamiltonian dynamical chaos. At moderate interactions and certain energies above the mobility edge this chaos leads to a chaotic propulsion of two particles with their diffusive spreading over the whole space both in one and two dimensions. At the same time the distance between particles remains bounded by one or two periodic cells demonstrating appearance of new composite quasi-particles called chaons. The effect of chaotic delocalization of chaons is shown to be rather general being present for Coulomb and short range interactions. It is argued that such delocalized chaons can be observed in experiments with cold atoms and ions in optical lattices.

  11. Electric-field-dependent charge delocalization from dopant atoms in silicon junctionless nanowire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Han, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Wang; Lyu, Qi-Feng; Ma, Liu-Hong; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    We study electric-field-dependent charge delocalization from dopant atoms in a silicon junctionless nanowire transistor by low-temperature electron transport measurement. The Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent conductance demonstrates the transport behaviors of variable-range hopping (below 30 K) and nearest-neighbor hopping (above 30 K). The activation energy for the charge delocalization gradually decreases due to the confinement potential of the conduction channel decreasing from the threshold voltage to the flatband voltage. With the increase of the source-drain bias, the activation energy increases in a temperature range from 30 K to 100 K at a fixed gate voltage, but decreases above the temperature of 100 K. Project supported partly by the National Key R & D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA02005003) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376096 and 61327813).

  12. Localization-delocalization transition in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    We address the impact of the spin-orbit (SO) coupling on the localization-delocalization-transition (LDT) in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic potential. We find that SO coupling significantly alters the threshold depth of the one of sublattices above which the lowest eigenstates transform from delocalizated into localized. For some moderate coupling strengths the threshold is strongly reduced, which is explained by the SO coupling-induced band flattening in one of the sub-lattices. We explain why simultaneous Rabi and SO coupling are necessary ingredients for LDT threshold cancellation and show that strong SO coupling drives the system into the state where its evolution becomes similar to the evolution of a one-component system. We also find that defocusing nonlinearity can lead to localization of the states which are delocalized in the linear limit. PMID:27531120

  13. Diradicals acting through diamagnetic phenylene vinylene bridges: Raman spectroscopy as a probe to characterize spin delocalization.

    PubMed

    González, Sandra Rodríguez; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; González Cano, Rafael C; Lloveras, Vega; Novoa, Juan J; Mota, Fernando; Vidal-Gancedo, José; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; del Corro, Elena; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G; López Navarrete, Juan T; Casado, Juan

    2014-04-28

    We present a complete Raman spectroscopic study in two structurally well-defined diradical species of different lengths incorporating oligo p-phenylene vinylene bridges between two polychlorinated triphenylmethyl radical units, a disposition that allows sizeable conjugation between the two radicals through and with the bridge. The spectroscopic data are interpreted and supported by quantum chemical calculations. We focus the attention on the Raman frequency changes, interpretable in terms of: (i) bridge length (conjugation length); (ii) bridge conformational structure; and (iii) electronic coupling between the terminal radical units with the bridge and through the bridge, which could delineate through-bond spin polarization, or spin delocalization. These items are addressed by using the "oligomer approach" in conjunction with pressure and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic data. In summary, we have attempted to translate the well-known strategy to study the electron (charge) structure of π-conjugated molecules by Raman spectroscopy to the case of electron (spin) interactions via the spin delocalization mechanism.

  14. Optical Signatures of Quantum Delocalization over Extended Domains in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Christopher A; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2015-08-27

    The prospect of coherent dynamics and excitonic delocalization across several light-harvesting structures in photosynthetic membranes is of considerable interest, but challenging to explore experimentally. Here we demonstrate theoretically that the excitonic delocalization across extended domains involving several light-harvesting complexes can lead to unambiguous signatures in the optical response, specifically, linear absorption spectra. We characterize, under experimentally established conditions of molecular assembly and protein-induced inhomogeneities, the optical absorption in these arrays from polarized and unpolarized excitation, and demonstrate that it can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine the resonance coupling between iso-energetic light-harvesting structures. The knowledge of these couplings would then provide further insight into the dynamical properties of transfer, such as facilitating the accurate determination of Förster rates.

  15. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose

  16. Mechanisms of proton transfer in proteins: Localized charge transfer versus delocalized soliton transfer

    PubMed Central

    Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2010-01-01

    Proton translocation coupled to redox chemistry is ubiquitous for membrane enzymes involved in energy generation in cells. In such enzymes, proton transport occurs in special proton conducting channels, which consist of a series of protonatable groups of the protein connected by chains of mobile water molecules. Here we discuss two possible mechanisms of proton transport along such structures: diffusion of a localized charge and delocalized soliton transitions, in which several protons are collectively shifted along a chain of hydrogen bonds. PMID:19391991

  17. Design of Self-Assembling Peptide Nanotubes with Delocalized Electronic States[**

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenasy, Nurit; Horne, W. Seth; Reza Ghadiri, M.

    2007-01-01

    Electronically active biomaterials via directed peptide self-assembly Redox-promoted self-assembly of an eight-residue cyclic D,L-α-peptide bearing four 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDI) side chains results in the formation of electronically delocalized peptide nanotubes hundreds of nm in length. The supramolecular approach described provides a rational basis for the design and fabrication of 1-D materials with potential utility in optical and electronic devices. PMID:17193563

  18. Quantum transport through disordered 1D wires: Conductance via localized and delocalized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gopar, Víctor A.

    2014-01-14

    Coherent electronic transport through disordered systems, like quantum wires, is a topic of fundamental and practical interest. In particular, the exponential localization of electron wave functions-Anderson localization-due to the presence of disorder has been widely studied. In fact, Anderson localization, is not an phenomenon exclusive to electrons but it has been observed in microwave and acoustic experiments, photonic materials, cold atoms, etc. Nowadays, many properties of electronic transport of quantum wires have been successfully described within a scaling approach to Anderson localization. On the other hand, anomalous localization or delocalization is, in relation to the Anderson problem, a less studied phenomenon. Although one can find signatures of anomalous localization in very different systems in nature. In the problem of electronic transport, a source of delocalization may come from symmetries present in the system and particular disorder configurations, like the so-called Lévy-type disorder. We have developed a theoretical model to describe the statistical properties of transport when electron wave functions are delocalized. In particular, we show that only two physical parameters determine the complete conductance distribution.

  19. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  20. Measurement and prediction of pork colour.

    PubMed

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-08-01

    The extent to which instrumental colour determinations by FOPu (light scattering), Göfo (reflectance) and Labscan II (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*, hue and chroma) are related to the Japanese colour grades was studied. Additionally, four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1, PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission, analogous to Capteur Gras/Maigre), were evaluated for their ability to predict subjectively and objectively colour. One hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were analysed. Of the instrumental colour determinations, CIE L* (r=-0.82), FOPu (r=-0.70) and Göfo (r=0.70) were best correlated with the Japanese colour scores. The Japanese colour grades could be predicted by the on-line instruments, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT, with determination coefficients between 15 and 28%. Ultimate meat colour, determined by Japanese colour standards, FOPu, Göfo and CIE L*, was better predicted by DDLT than by the classic on-line instruments: FOP1, pH1 and PQM1, although the standard error of the estimate was similar for all instruments. This means that DDLT, although originally designed for estimating lean meat percentage, can additionally give information about meat quality, in particular colour. However, it must be stressed that the colour estimate by DDLT refers to a population of animals, rather than to individual pigs, because of the number of erroneously assigned samples.

  1. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  2. Wigner Distributions of Quarks for Different Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Jai; Mukherjee, Asmita; Nair, Sreeraj

    2017-03-01

    We calculate quark Wigner distributions using the light-front wave functions in a dressed quark model. In this model, a proton target is replaced by a simplified spin-1/2 state, namely a quark dressed with a gluon. We calculate the Wigner distributions for different polarization configuration of quark and the target state in this model.

  3. Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E; Garrard, Georgia E; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M; Moore, Joslin L

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management.

  4. Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  5. Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice.

  6. Ferromagnetic nanoscale electron correlation promoted by organic spin-dependent delocalization.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Martin L; Shultz, David A; Schmidt, Robert D; Habel-Rodriguez, Diana; Lee, Hyoyoung; Lee, Junghyun

    2009-12-30

    We describe the electronic structure and the origin of ferromagnetic exchange coupling in two new metal complexes, NN-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-NN (1) and NN-Ph-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-Ph-NN (2) (NN = nitronylnitroxide radical, Ph = 1,4-phenylene, SQ = S = (1)/(2) semiquinone radical, Cat = S = 0 catecholate, and py = pyridine). Near-IR electronic absorption spectroscopy for 1 and 2 reveals a low-energy optical band that has been assigned as a Psi(u) --> Psi(g) transition involving bonding and antibonding linear combinations of delocalized dioxolene (SQ/Cat) valence frontier molecular orbitals. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction in 1 is so strong that only the high-spin quartet state (S(T) = (3)/(2)) is thermally populated at temperatures up to 300 K. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for 2 reveals that an excited state spin doublet (S(T) = (1)/(2)) is populated at higher temperatures, indicating that the phenylene spacer modulates the magnitude of the magnetic exchange. The valence delocalization within the dioxolene dyad of 2 results in ferromagnetic alignment of two localized NN radicals separated by over 22 A. The ferromagnetic exchange in 1 and 2 results from a spin-dependent delocalization (double exchange type) process and the origin of this strong electron correlation has been understood in terms of a valence bond configuration interaction (VBCI) model. We show that ferromagnetic coupling promoted by organic mixed-valency provides keen insight into the ability of single molecules to communicate spin information over nanoscale distances. Furthermore, the strong interaction between the itinerant dioxolene electron and localized NN electron spins impacts our ability to understand the exchange interaction between delocalized electrons and pinned magnetic impurities in technologically important dilute magnetic semiconductor materials. The long correlation length (22 A) of the itinerant electron that mediates this coupling indicates that high

  7. Social perception in synaesthesia for colour.

    PubMed

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Susilo, Tirta; Rezlescu, Constantin; Bray, Amy; Banissy, Michael J

    2016-12-11

    Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls. Our results indicate that individuals who experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia outperformed controls on tasks involving fine visual discrimination of facial identity and emotion, but not on tasks involving holistic face processing. These findings are discussed in the context of broader perceptual and cognitive traits previously associated with synaesthesia for colour, with the suggestion that performance benefits shown by grapheme-colour synaesthetes may be related to domain-general visual discrimination biases observed in this group.

  8. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  9. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  10. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Menzione, A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the material presented in this report, comes from contributions to the parallel session PL20 of this conference. We summarise the experimental results of direct production of Top quarks, coming from the CDF and C0 Collaborations at Fermilab, and compare these results to what one expects within current theoretical understanding. Particular attention is given to new results such as all hadronic modes of t{bar t} decay. As far as the mass is concerned, a comparison is made with precision measurements of related quantities, coming from LEP and other experiments. An attempt is made to look at the medium-term future and understand which variables and with what accuracy one can measure them with increased integrated luminosity.

  11. Decays of the b quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndike, Edward H.; Poling, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental results on the decay of b-flavored hadrons are reviewed. Substantial progress has been made in the study of exclusive and inclusive B-meson decays, as well as in the theoretical understanding of these processes. The two most prominent developments are the continuing failure to observe evidence of decays of the b quark to a u quark rather than a c quark, and the surprisingly high level of B 0- overlineB0 mi xing which has recently been reported by the ARGUS collaboration. Notwithstanding these results, we conclude that the health of the Standard Model is excellent.

  12. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.

  13. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  14. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  15. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  16. Off-forward quark-quark correlation function

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, Sabrina

    2006-09-01

    The properties of the nonforward quark-quark correlation function are examined. We derive constraints on the correlation function from the transformation properties of the fundamental fields of QCD occurring in its definition. We further develop a method to construct an Ansatz for this correlator. We present the complete leading order set of generalized parton distributions in terms of the amplitudes of the Ansatz. Finally we conclude that the number of independent generalized parton helicity changing distributions is four.

  17. Colour assortative pairing in a colour polymorphic lizard is independent of population morph diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique; Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs. However, other Pyrenean populations of P. muralis have less ventral colour morphs. Our aim in this study is to test the generality of the assortative colour pairing system, extending our previous analyses to populations with different morph compositions and frequencies. The results show that the assortative pattern of pairing is similar in all the populations analysed and, hence, independent of morph composition and not restricted to pentamorphic populations. This suggests that assortative pairing by colour is a general phenomenon for colour polymorphic populations of P. muralis.

  18. Colour assortative pairing in a colour polymorphic lizard is independent of population morph diversity.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique; Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs. However, other Pyrenean populations of P. muralis have less ventral colour morphs. Our aim in this study is to test the generality of the assortative colour pairing system, extending our previous analyses to populations with different morph compositions and frequencies. The results show that the assortative pattern of pairing is similar in all the populations analysed and, hence, independent of morph composition and not restricted to pentamorphic populations. This suggests that assortative pairing by colour is a general phenomenon for colour polymorphic populations of P. muralis.

  19. Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John

    2009-03-01

    We examined colour perception among a group of women heterozygous for colour vision deficiency. Judgements of colour dissimilarity were collected by presenting colour stimuli in groups of three for odd-one-out decisions. The judgements were summarised as one consensus colour space for the heterozygotes and another for age-matched controls. Individual differences MDS was also applied, resulting in a single colour space which can be adjusted to fit each subject's responses individually by compressing it along its axes. Heterozygous women showed a trend towards colour-space compression in a red-green dimension, or reduced salience of that dimension compared to controls, though less extreme than found in overt colour deficiency.

  20. Hadron formation from interaction among quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z. G.; Yang, C. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with the hadronization process of quark system. A phenomenological potential is introduced to describe the interaction between a quark pair. The potential depends on the color charge of those quarks and their relative distances. Those quarks move according to classical equations of motion. Due to the color interaction, coloring quarks are separated to form color neutral clusters which are supposed to be the hadrons.

  1. Rotating compact star with superconducting quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.K.; Nataraj, H.S.

    2006-02-15

    A compact star with a superconducting quark core, a hadron crust, and a mixed phase between the two is considered. The quark-meson coupling model for hadron matter and the color-flavor-locked quark model for quark matter is used to construct the equation of state for the compact star. The effect of pairing of quarks in the color-flavor-locked phase and the mixed phase on the mass, radius, and period of the rotating star is studied.

  2. Colour thresholds in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, M.; Marshall, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the reef, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are ‘tuned’ differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand reef fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish. Here, the coral reef associated triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, was tested behaviourally to determine the limits of its colour vision. This is the first demonstration of behavioural colour discrimination thresholds in a coral reef species and is a critical step in our understanding of communication and speciation in this vibrant colourful habitat. Fish were trained to discriminate between a reward colour stimulus and series of non-reward colour stimuli and the discrimination thresholds were found to correspond well with predictions based on the receptor noise limited visual model and anatomy of the eye. Colour discrimination abilities of both reef fish and a variety of animals can therefore now be predicted using the parameters described here. PMID:27703704

  3. Colour thresholds in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Champ, C M; Vorobyev, M; Marshall, N J

    2016-09-01

    Coral reef fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the reef, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are 'tuned' differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand reef fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish. Here, the coral reef associated triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, was tested behaviourally to determine the limits of its colour vision. This is the first demonstration of behavioural colour discrimination thresholds in a coral reef species and is a critical step in our understanding of communication and speciation in this vibrant colourful habitat. Fish were trained to discriminate between a reward colour stimulus and series of non-reward colour stimuli and the discrimination thresholds were found to correspond well with predictions based on the receptor noise limited visual model and anatomy of the eye. Colour discrimination abilities of both reef fish and a variety of animals can therefore now be predicted using the parameters described here.

  4. Colour vision and computer-generated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramek, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.

  5. Robust colour calibration of an imaging system using a colour space transform and advanced regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Elmasry, Gamal

    2012-08-01

    A new algorithm for the conversion of device dependent RGB colour data into device independent L*a*b* colour data without introducing noticeable error has been developed. By combining a linear colour space transform and advanced multiple regression methodologies it was possible to predict L*a*b* colour data with less than 2.2 colour units of error (CIE 1976). By transforming the red, green and blue colour components into new variables that better reflect the structure of the L*a*b* colour space, a low colour calibration error was immediately achieved (ΔE(CAL) = 14.1). Application of a range of regression models on the data further reduced the colour calibration error substantially (multilinear regression ΔE(CAL) = 5.4; response surface ΔE(CAL) = 2.9; PLSR ΔE(CAL) = 2.6; LASSO regression ΔE(CAL) = 2.1). Only the PLSR models deteriorated substantially under cross validation. The algorithm is adaptable and can be easily recalibrated to any working computer vision system. The algorithm was tested on a typical working laboratory computer vision system and delivered only a very marginal loss of colour information ΔE(CAL) = 2.35. Colour features derived on this system were able to safely discriminate between three classes of ham with 100% correct classification whereas colour features measured on a conventional colourimeter were not.

  6. The uses of colour vision: behavioural and physiological distinctiveness of colour stimuli.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Andrew M; Parker, Amanda; Barraclough, Nick E; Easton, Alexander; Goodson, G R; Parker, Kris S; Tinsley, Chris J; Webb, Ben S

    2002-08-29

    Colour and greyscale (black and white) pictures look different to us, but it is not clear whether the difference in appearance is a consequence of the way our visual system uses colour signals or a by-product of our experience. In principle, colour images are qualitatively different from greyscale images because they make it possible to use different processing strategies. Colour signals provide important cues for segmenting the image into areas that represent different objects and for linking together areas that represent the same object. If this property of colour signals is exploited in visual processing we would expect colour stimuli to look different, as a class, from greyscale stimuli. We would also expect that adding colour signals to greyscale signals should change the way that those signals are processed. We have investigated these questions in behavioural and in physiological experiments. We find that male marmosets (all of which are dichromats) rapidly learn to distinguish between colour and greyscale copies of the same images. The discrimination transfers to new image pairs, to new colours and to image pairs in which the colour and greyscale images are spatially different. We find that, in a proportion of neurons recorded in the marmoset visual cortex, colour-shifts in opposite directions produce similar enhancements of the response to a luminance stimulus. We conclude that colour is, both behaviourally and physiologically, a distinctive property of images.

  7. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  8. Unexpected manifestation of quark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    A comparative analysis of some quark ensembles governed by a four-fermion interaction is performed. Arguments in support of the statement that the presence of a gas-liquid phase transition is a feature peculiar to them are adduced. The instability of small quark droplets is discussed and is attributed to the formation of a chiral soliton. The stability of baryon matter is due to a mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter.

  9. Radial Correlations Between Two Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Koponen, J.; Pennanen, P.; Michael, C.

    2002-04-01

    In nuclear many-body problems the short-range correlation between two nucleons is well described by the corresponding correlation in the two-body problem. Therefore, as a first step in any attempt at an analogous description of many-quark systems, it is necessary to know the two-quark correlation. With this in mind, we study the light quark distribution in a heavy-light meson with a static heavy quark. The charge and matter radial distributions of these heavy-light mesons are measured on a lattice with a light quark mass about that of the strange quark. Both distributions can be well fitted upto r ≈ 0.7 fm with the exponential form wi2 (r), where Wi(r) = A exp(-r/ri). For the charge(c) and matter(m) distributions rc ≈ 0.32(2)fm and rm ≈ 0.24(2)fm. We also discuss the normalisation of the total charge (defined to be unity in the continuum limit) and matter integrated over all space, finding 1.30(5) and 0.4(1) respectively for a lattice spacing ≈ 0.17 fm.

  10. Properties of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, A. W.

    2014-09-24

    Recent measurements of top-quark properties at the LHC and the Tevatron are presented. Most recent measurements of the top quark mass have been carried out by CMS using $19.7/$fb of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data including the study of the dependence on event kinematics. ATLAS uses the full Run I data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for a "3D" measurement that significantly reduces systematic uncertainties. D0 employs the full Run II data using the matrix element method to measure the top quark mass with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties. Many different measurements of the top quark exist to date and the most precise ones per decay channel per experiment have been combined into the first world combination with a relative precision of 0.44%. Latest updates of measurements of production asymmetries include the measurement of the \\ttbar production asymmetry by D0 employing the full Run II data set, by CMS and ATLAS (including the polarization of the top quark) employing both the full data set at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. CMS uses the full $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data to measure the top quark polarization in single top production, the ratio ${\\cal R}$ of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wb) / {\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wq)$ and to search for flavor changing neutral currents. The results from all these measurements agree well with their respective Standard Model expectation.

  11. Colour in the eye of the beholder: receptor sensitivities and neural circuits underlying colour opponency and colour perception.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut

    2016-12-01

    Colour vision-the ability to discriminate spectral differences irrespective of variations in intensity-has two basic requirements: (1) photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivities, and (2) neural comparison of signals from these photoreceptors. Major progress has been made understanding the evolution of the basic stages of colour vision-opsin pigments, screening pigments, and the first neurons coding chromatic opponency, and similarities between mammals and insects point to general mechanisms. However, much work is still needed to unravel full colour pathways in various animals. While primates may have brain regions entirely dedicated to colour coding, animals with small brains, such as insects, likely combine colour information directly in parallel multisensory pathways controlling various behaviours.

  12. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  13. Prevalence of colour blindness in young Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqtum, M T; Al-Qawasmeh, M H

    2001-01-01

    Colour blindness is one of the common genetic disorders observed in all human populations. It is a sex-linked recessive trait. The genes are located on the X chromosome within the Xq28 band. 1,418 university students (1,200 female and 218 male) from Zarka Private University and the Hashemite University were randomly selected and tested for congenital red/green colour blindness, by using Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic colour plates. A total of 23 individuals were found to be colour blind. In females, 4 students (0.33%) were colour blind: 1 of them showed protanomalia, 1 protanopia and 2 deuteranomalia. In males, 19 students (8.72%) were colour blind: 4 showed protanomalia, 3 protanopia, 8 deuteranomalia and 4 deuteranopia. The allelic frequencies of the colour vision gene were found to be 0.087 in males, 0.003 in females and 0.016 in the total population. Studies on colour blindness in Jordan are very few; this population-based investigation is meant to fill a gap in this field.

  14. Localization and delocalization of ultracold bosonic atoms in finite optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Pfannkuche, Daniela; Bongs, Kai; Sengstock, Klaus

    2008-02-15

    We study bosonic atoms in small optical lattices by exact diagonalization and observe a striking similarity to the superfluid to Mott insulator transition in macroscopic systems. The momentum distribution, the formation of an energy gap, and the pair correlation function show only a weak size dependence. For noncommensurate filling we reveal in deep lattices a mixture of localized and delocalized particles, which is sensitive to lattice imperfections. Breaking the lattice symmetry causes a Bose-glass-like behavior. We discuss the nature of excited states and orbital effects by using an exact diagonalization technique that includes higher bands.

  15. Excitation Localization/Delocalization Isomerism in a Strongly Coupled Covalent Dimer of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauben, Joel N.; Akdag, Akin; Wen, Jin; Havlas, Zdenek; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Smith, Millie B.; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-05-26

    Two isomers of both the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of the directly para, para'-connected covalent dimer of the singlet-fission chromophore 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran have been observed. In one isomer, excitation is delocalized over both halves of the dimer, and in the other, it is localized on one or the other half. For a covalent dimer in solution, such 'excitation isomerism' is extremely rare. The vibrationally relaxed isomers do not interconvert, and their photophysical properties, including singlet fission, differ significantly.

  16. Surface energy calculation - metals with 1 and 2 delocalized electrons per atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halas, S.; Durakiewicz, T.; Joyce, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we calculate surface energy (SE) of monovalent, divalent and some trivalent metals. For these metals for which SE can be solely expressed by dimensionless Wigner-Seitz density parameter, rs, of delocalized electrons: SE=C 1r s-5+C 2r s-3.5-C 3r s-4, where constants C1, C2 and C3 have been calculated on the basis of Sommerfeld's free electron and surface plasma models. Excellent agreement with experimental data was obtained. On the basis of our model SE values for Fr and Ra have been predicted as well.

  17. Disorder-driven electron delocalization in strange metals: The case of tetragonal FeTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, Luis

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dual roles of electron-electron interactions and site-diagonal disorder in a strange bad-metal. Saturating- and insulating-like resistivity observed in the non-magnetically ordered phase of tetragonal FeTe are shown to be driven by the interplay between multiband effects and iron-d shell band-filling. Incorporation of site-diagonal disorder promotes weak electronic delocalization and metallicity in tetragonal FeTe. The correlated electronic structure we derive is promising in the sense that it leads to results that might explain why moderate disorder can generate nearly linear resistivity dependence in strange metals.

  18. Diamond chain with delocalized interstitial spins: Magnetization, thermal and entanglement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaryan, Hrachya; Nalbandyan, Mikayel; Ananikian, Nerses

    2016-08-01

    We study physical properties of the symmetric diamond chain with delocalized interstitial spins. We derive an exact solution of the model and characterize the phases of the system at zero temperature. On the basis of this solution, we examine its magnetic and thermal properties as well. The case of nonconserved electron number is then considered. There are phases, which we term as nonclassical, for which electrons in Hubbard dimers are in quantum entangled states. We finally study quantum entanglement depending on Hamiltonian parameters and temperature.

  19. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  20. Colour-grapheme synesthesia affects binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Paffen, Chris L E; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2011-01-01

    In colour-grapheme synesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it is debated whether visual processing of synesthesia-inducing achromatic graphemes is similar to that of chromatic graphemes. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic digits that induce synesthetic colour percepts increase the incidence of binocular rivalry compared to achromatic non-digits that do not evoke such percepts. That is, compared to achromatically perceived non-digits, synesthesia-inducing digits increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for promoting binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  1. Improved colour matching technique for fused nighttime imagery with daytime colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we presented a method for applying daytime colours to fused nighttime (e.g., intensified and LWIR) imagery (Toet and Hogervorst, Opt.Eng. 51(1), 2012). Our colour mapping not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to multiband nighttime images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscured details. As a result, this colourizing method leads to increased ease of interpretation, better discrimination and identification of materials, faster reaction times and ultimately improved situational awareness (Toet e.a., Opt.Eng.53(4), 2014). A crucial step in this colouring process is the choice of a suitable colour mapping scheme. When daytime colour images and multiband sensor images of the same scene are available the colour mapping can be derived from matching image samples (i.e., by relating colour values to sensor signal intensities). When no exact matching reference images are available the colour transformation can be derived from the first-order statistical properties of the reference image and the multiband sensor image (Toet, Info. Fus. 4(3), 2003). In the current study we investigated new colour fusion schemes that combine the advantages of the both methods, using the correspondence between multiband sensor values and daytime colours (1st method) in a smooth transformation (2nd method). We designed and evaluated three new fusion schemes that focus on: i) a closer match with the daytime luminances, ii) improved saliency of hot targets and iii) improved discriminability of materials

  2. Colour vision requirements in visually demanding occupations.

    PubMed

    Barbur, J L; Rodriguez-Carmona, M

    2017-03-18

    Normal trichromatic colour vision (CV) is often required as a condition for employment in visually demanding occupations. If this requirement could be enforced using current, colour assessment tests, a significant percentage of subjects with anomalous, congenital trichromacy who can perform the suprathreshold, colour-related tasks encountered in many occupations with the same accuracy as normal trichromats would fail. These applicants would therefore be discriminated against unfairly. One solution to this problem is to produce minimum, justifiable CV requirements that are specific to each occupation. This has been done successfully for commercial aviation (i.e. the flight crew) and for Transport for London train drivers. An alternative approach is to make use of new findings and the statistical outcomes of past practices to produce graded, justifiable CV categories that can be enforced. To achieve this aim, we analysed colour assessment outcomes and quantified severity of CV loss in 1363 subjects. The severity of CV loss was measured in each subject and statistical, pass/fail outcomes established for each of the most commonly used, conventional colour assessment tests and protocols. This evidence and new findings that relate severity of loss to the effective use of colour signals in a number of tasks provide the basis for a new colour grading system based on six categories. A single colour assessment test is needed to establish the applicant's CV category which can range from 'supernormal', for the most stringent, colour-demanding tasks, to 'severe colour deficiency', when red/green CV is either absent or extremely weak.

  3. Molecular genetics of colour vision deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Samir S

    2004-07-01

    Common variation in colour vision exists among both colour normal and colour deficient subjects. Differences at a few amino acid positions that influence the spectra of the L and M cone pigments account for most of this variation. The genes encoding the L and M photopigments are arranged in head-to-tail arrays on the X-chromosome, beginning with the L and followed by one or more M pigment genes. The L and M pigment genes are highly homologous, which predisposed them to unequal crossing over (recombination) resulting in gene deletions and in formation of L/M hybrid genes that encode a variety of pigments with either L-like or M-like spectra that account for the majority of colour vision defects. Only the first two pigment genes of the L/M array are expressed in the retina and, therefore, need to be considered in predicting colour vision. A common single amino acid polymorphism (serine or alanine) at position 180 of the L-pigment plays an important role both in variation in normal colour vision and in the severity of colour vision defects. Blue cone monochromacy is a rare form of colour vision deficiency that results from mutations that abolish function of both the L and M pigment genes. All the above defects are inherited as X-linked recessive traits. Tritanopia is also a rare autosomal dominant colour vision defect caused by mutations in the S pigment gene located on chromosome 7. Total colour blindness (achromatopsia or rod monochromacy) is a rare autosomal recessive trait caused by mutations in genes encoding the proteins of the photoreceptor cation channel or cone transducin that are essential for function of all classes of cone.

  4. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  5. Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ.

    PubMed

    Lightstone, A; Lightstone, T; Wilkins, A

    1999-07-01

    Some individuals read more fluently when the text is coloured: i.e., when coloured sheets of plastic (overlays) are placed upon the page, or when coloured lenses are worn. Overlays provide a surface colour whereas lenses mimic a change in the colour of a light source. The neural mechanisms that underlie colour constancy ensure that the chromaticity of overlays and lenses is processed differently by the visual system. We investigated (1) the relationship between the optimal colours of overlays and lenses, and (2) how reading rate is affected by a particular colour in overlays and lenses. In 100 patients we noted (1) the overlay(s) chosen from among the 29 combinations of the 10 IOO Intuitive Overlays which sample chromaticity systematically and (2) the chromaticity co-ordinates of the lenses subsequently chosen using the intuitive Colorimeter, a device providing a light source that can be adjusted in hue, saturation and luminance independently. The relationship between the chromaticities of the overlays and the lenses showed considerable variation. In a second study, patients attending the Specific Learning Difficulties clinic at the Institute of Optometry, London, were given overlays to use for two months. Seventeen who derived benefit were examined using the Intuitive Colorimeter. Patients were asked to read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test): (1) with no colour, (2) with the chosen overlay, (3) with lenses matching the chosen overlay and (4) with lenses matching the Colorimeter setting. The aids increased reading rate significantly only in conditions (2) and (4). There was no significant improvement when lenses matching the overlay colour were used, and under this condition the reading rate was significantly poorer than in conditions (2) and (4). The colour of a lens will improve reading only if it is selected under conditions that mimic a change in the colour of a light source: coloured overlays give no clinically reliable guide

  6. Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Fukukawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  7. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  8. Diradicals acting through diamagnetic phenylene vinylene bridges: Raman spectroscopy as a probe to characterize spin delocalization

    SciTech Connect

    González, Sandra Rodríguez; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; González Cano, Rafael C.; López Navarrete, Juan T. E-mail: teodomiro@uma.es Casado, Juan E-mail: teodomiro@uma.es; Novoa, Juan J.; Mota, Fernando; Corro, Elena del; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-04-28

    We present a complete Raman spectroscopic study in two structurally well-defined diradical species of different lengths incorporating oligo p-phenylene vinylene bridges between two polychlorinated triphenylmethyl radical units, a disposition that allows sizeable conjugation between the two radicals through and with the bridge. The spectroscopic data are interpreted and supported by quantum chemical calculations. We focus the attention on the Raman frequency changes, interpretable in terms of: (i) bridge length (conjugation length); (ii) bridge conformational structure; and (iii) electronic coupling between the terminal radical units with the bridge and through the bridge, which could delineate through-bond spin polarization, or spin delocalization. These items are addressed by using the “oligomer approach” in conjunction with pressure and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic data. In summary, we have attempted to translate the well-known strategy to study the electron (charge) structure of π−conjugated molecules by Raman spectroscopy to the case of electron (spin) interactions via the spin delocalization mechanism.

  9. Surface plasmon delocalization in silver nanoparticle aggregates revealed by subdiffraction supercontinuum hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Borys, Nicholas J.; Shafran, Eyal; Lupton, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The plasmonic resonances of nanostructured silver films produce exceptional surface enhancement, enabling reproducible single-molecule Raman scattering measurements. Supporting a broad range of plasmonic resonances, these disordered systems are difficult to investigate with conventional far-field spectroscopy. Here, we use nonlinear excitation spectroscopy and polarization anisotropy of single optical hot spots of supercontinuum generation to track the transformation of these plasmon modes as the mesoscopic structure is tuned from a film of discrete nanoparticles to a semicontinuous layer of aggregated particles. We demonstrate how hot spot formation from diffractively-coupled nanoparticles with broad spectral resonances transitions to that from spatially delocalized surface plasmon excitations, exhibiting multiple excitation resonances as narrow as 13 meV. Photon-localization microscopy reveals that the delocalized plasmons are capable of focusing multiple narrow radiation bands over a broadband range to the same spatial region within 6 nm, underscoring the existence of novel plasmonic nanoresonators embedded in highly disordered systems. PMID:23807624

  10. Aromaticity of rings-in-molecules (RIMs) from electron localization-delocalization matrices (LDMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumar, Ismat; Cook, Ronald; Ayers, Paul W.; Matta, Chérif F.

    2016-01-01

    A new and powerful molecular descriptor termed the LDM (localization-delocalization matrix) has recently been proposed as a molecular fingerprinting tool and has been shown to yield robust quantitative-structure-to-activity/property-relationships (QSAR/QSPR). An LDM lists the average number of electrons localized within an atom in a molecule along its diagonal while the off-diagonal elements are the pair-wise average number of electrons shared between every pair of atoms in the molecule, bonded or not. Hence, the LDM is a representation of a fuzzy molecular graph that accounts for the whereabouts of all electron(s) in the molecule and can be expected to encode for several facets of its chemistry at once. We show that the LDM captures the aromatic character of a ring-in-a-molecule by comparing the aromaticity ranking based on the LDMs and their eigenvalues of 6-membered carbon rings within (polycyclic) benzenoid hydrocarbons with the ranking based on four well-established local aromaticity measures (harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity, acromatic fluctuation index, para delocalization index, and nucleus independent chemical shift(0)). This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Paul von Ragué Schleyer (1930-2014).

  11. Degree of initial hole localization/delocalization in ionized water clusters.

    PubMed

    Pieniazek, Piotr A; Sundstrom, Eric J; Bradforth, Stephen E; Krylov, Anna I

    2009-04-23

    The electronic structure of ionized bulk liquid water presents a number of theoretical challenges. Not the least of these is the realization that the detailed geometry of the hydrogen bonding network is expected to have a strong effect on the electronic couplings between water molecules and thus the degree of delocalization of the initially ionized system. This problem is approached from a cluster perspective where a high-level coupled cluster description of the electronic structure is still possible. Building on the work and methodology developed for the water dimer cation [J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 6159], the character and spectrum of electronic states of the water hole and their evolution from the dimer into higher clusters is presented. As the time evolution of the initially formed hole can in principle be followed by the system's transient absorption spectrum, the state spacings and transition strengths are computed. An analysis involving Dyson orbitals is applied and shows a partially delocalized nature of states. The issue of conformation disorder in the hydrogen bonding geometry is addressed for the water dimer cation.

  12. Chain-length and mode-delocalization dependent amide-I anharmonicity in peptide oligomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping

    2012-06-07

    The diagonal anharmonicities of the amide-I mode in the alanine oligomers are examined in the normal-mode basis by ab initio calculations. The selected oligomers range from dimer to heptamer, in either the α-helical or β-sheet conformations. It is found that the anharmonicity varies from mode to mode within the same oligomer. For a given amide-I mode, the anharmonicity is closely related to the delocalization extent of the mode: the less it delocalizes, the larger the anharmonicity it has. Thus, the single-mode potential energy distribution (PED(max)) can be used as an indicator of the magnitude of the anharmonicity. It is found that as the peptide chain length increases, the averaged diagonal anharmonicity generally decreases; however, the sum of the averaged diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicities within a peptide roughly remains a constant for all the oligomers examined, indicating the excitonic characteristics of the amide-I modes. Excitonic coupling tends to decrease the diagonal anharmonicities in a coupled system with multiple chromophores, which explains the observed behavior of the anharmonicities. The excitonic nature of the amide-I band in peptide oligomers is thus verified by the anharmonic computations. Isotopic substitution effect on the anharmonicities and mode localizations of the amide-I modes in peptides is also discussed.

  13. Cyclic π-electron delocalization in non-planar linear acenes.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Michał A; Cyrański, Michał K; Wróbel, Zbigniew

    2016-04-28

    Based on the experimental data of newly determined structures of per-substituted naphthalenes by halogen atoms (F, Cl and Br) and perchloroanthracene, as well as on the molecular modeling we have shown that deviation from planarity leads to relatively small changes in the cyclic π-electron delocalization of acenes. Per-substituted naphthalenes are twisted, whereas perchloroanthracene adopts a boat conformation in the solid state. For the most distorted case - perbromonaphthalene twisted by 34.7°, the geometry-based HOMA index drops down by 0.128 of the unit only, which means ca. 15% reduction of the extent of π-electron delocalization as referred to naphthalene. To account for the changes in the aromatic stabilization energies (ASEs), exaltation of magnetic susceptibilities (Λ) and strain energies (SEs) upon bending we have proposed a set of homodesmotic reactions based on the peri-substituted systems, where the reference compounds have similar conformation to the distorted aromatics. The decrease of aromaticity is smooth, but regular in a rather large range of distortion. Notably, the most extreme case - 1,4,5,8-tetra-t-butylnaphthalene, twisted by 51.7° with an estimated strain energy of 26 kcal mol(-1) - is still aromatic. The ASE, Λ and HOMA decrease by 19.1 kcal mol(-1), 7 cgs-ppm and 0.34 of the unit, respectively, as referred to naphthalene.

  14. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manan

    2017-04-01

    We present an instance from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which combines increase in entropy and finite Poincaré recurrence time. The model we consider is a variation of the well-known Kac's ring where we consider balls of four colours. As is known, Kac introduced this model where balls arranged between lattice sites, in each time step, move one step clockwise. The colour of the balls change as they cross marked sites. This very simple example rationalize the increase in entropy and recurrence. In our variation, the interesting quantity which counts the difference in the number of balls of different colours is shown to reduce to a set of linear equations if the probability of change of colour is symmetric among a pair of colours. The transfer matrix turns out to be non-Hermitian with real eigenvalues, leading to all colours being equally likely for long times, and a monotonically varying entropy. The new features appearing due to four colours is very instructive.

  15. Colour and lighting in hospital design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

  16. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision. PMID:19720656

  17. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  18. Biological components of colour preference in infancy.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-03-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ('blue-yellow') and L-M ('red-green') cone-opponent contrast channels (Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in 4-5-month-olds may be analysed in the same way. We recorded infants' eye-movements in response to pairwise presentations of eight colour stimuli varying only in hue. Infants looked longest at reddish and shortest at greenish hues. Analyses revealed that the L-M and S-(L+M) contrast between stimulus colour and background explained around half of the variation in infant preference across the hue spectrum. Unlike adult colour preference patterns, there was no evidence for sex differences in the weights on either of the cone-opponent contrast components. The findings provide a quantitative model of infant colour preference that summarizes variation in infant preference across hues.

  19. Artificial selection for food colour preferences.

    PubMed

    Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

    2015-04-07

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two different-coloured moving stimuli: red and blue spots. A response to selection was only seen for chase behaviours towards the red, with realized heritabilities ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. Despite intense selection, no significant chase response was recorded for the blue-selected lines. This lack of response may be due to the motion-detection mechanism in the guppy visual system and may have novel implications for the evolvability of responses to colour-related signals. The behavioural response to several colours after five generations of selection suggests that the colour opponency system of the fish may regulate the response to selection.

  20. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    PubMed

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  1. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range

    PubMed Central

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M.; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally. PMID:27022909

  2. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) prefer similar colours of higher spectral purity over trained colours.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Katja; Papiorek, Sarah; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the concentration of pigments as well as their composition and spatial arrangement cause intraspecific variation in the spectral signature of flowers. Known colour preferences and requirements for flower-constant foraging bees predict different responses to colour variability. In experimental settings, we simulated small variations of unicoloured petals and variations in the spatial arrangement of colours within tricoloured petals using artificial flowers and studied their impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Workers were trained to artificial flowers of a given colour and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours: either the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher spectral purity, or the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher dominant wavelength; in all cases the perceptual contrast between the training colour and the additional test colours was similarly small. Bees preferred artificial test flowers which resembled the training colour with the exception that they preferred test colours with higher spectral purity over trained colours. Testing the behaviour of bees at artificial flowers displaying a centripetal or centrifugal arrangement of three equally sized colours with small differences in spectral purity, bees did not prefer any type of artificial flowers, but preferentially choose the most spectrally pure area for the first antenna contact at both types of artificial flowers. Our results indicate that innate preferences for flower colours of high spectral purity in pollinators might exert selective pressure on the evolution of flower colours.

  3. Colouration and colour changes of the fiddler crab, Uca capricornis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2008-02-20

    Colour changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their colour and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in colour and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the colour patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in colour pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the colour pattern with increasing size, although females are more colourful and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid colour changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme colour polymorphism and the relative stability of the colour patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition.

  4. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Nersissian, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Colour patches are complex traits, the components of which may evolve independently through a variety of mechanisms. Although usually treated as simple, two-dimensional characters and classified as either structural or pigmentary, in reality colour patches are complicated, three-dimensional structures that often contain multiple pigment types and structural features. The basic dermal chromatophore unit of fishes, reptiles and amphibians consists of three contiguous cell layers. Xanthophores and erythrophores in the outermost layer contain carotenoid and pteridine pigments that absorb short-wave light; iridophores in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum. Changes in any one component of a chromatophore unit can drastically alter the reflectance spectrum produced, and for any given adaptive outcome (e.g. an increase in visibility), there may be multiple biochemical or cellular routes that evolution could take, allowing for divergent responses by different populations or species to similar selection regimes. All of the mechanisms of signal evolution that previously have been applied to single ornaments (including whole colour patches) could potentially be applied to the individual components of colour patches. To reach a complete understanding of colour patch evolution, however, it may be necessary to take an explicitly multi-trait approach. Here, we review multiple trait evolution theory and the basic mechanisms of colour production in fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and use a combination of computer simulations and empirical examples to show how multiple trait evolution theory can be applied to the components of single colour patches. This integrative perspective on animal colouration opens up a host of new questions and hypotheses. We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary

  5. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  7. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  8. Equilibration in quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Alam, J.; Mohanty, P.

    2011-07-01

    The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.

  9. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  10. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  11. Rare top-quark decays to Higgs boson in MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, A.; Paraskevas, M.; Rosiek, J.; Suxho, K.; Tamvakis, K.

    2014-11-01

    In full one-loop generality and in next-to-leading order in QCD, we study rare top to Higgs boson flavour changing decay processes t → qh with q = u, c quarks, in the general MSSM with R-parity conservation. Our primary goal is to search for enhanced effects on that could be visible at current and high luminosity LHC running. To this end, we perform an analytical expansion of the amplitude in terms of flavour changing squark mass insertions that treats both cases of hierarchical and degenerate squark masses in a unified way. We identify two enhanced effects allowed by various constraints: one from holomorphic trilinear soft SUSY breaking terms and/or right handed up squark mass insertions and another from non-holomorphic trilinear soft SUSY breaking terms and light Higgs boson masses. Interestingly, even with flavour violating effects in the, presently unconstrained, up-squark sector, SUSY effects on come out to be unobservable at LHC mainly due to leading order cancellations between penguin and self energy diagrams and the constraints from charge- and colour-breaking minima (CCB) of the MSSM vacuum. An exception to this conclusion may be effects arising from non-holomorphic soft SUSY breaking terms in the region where the CP-odd Higgs mass is smaller than the top-quark mass but this scenario is disfavoured by recent LHC searches. Our calculations for t → qh decay are made available in SUSY FLAVOUR numerical library.

  12. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

    2009-05-01

    The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin.

  13. Colour vision through intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjäkoski, J; Tuppurainen, K; Honkonen, V

    1997-04-01

    Fifty patients aged from 30 to 69 years (mean 54.7 +/- 11.3 years, SD) with a UV-protected monofocal polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens (IOL) were examined with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM 100) test and the Color Vision Meter 712 anomaloscope. The spectral transmission of the same kind of IOLs as was used surgically was measured with Lambda 2 UV/VIS Spectrometer. In the FM 100 test, there was no significant difference between the results of the IOL eyes and normal eyes. However, the IOL eyes showed better error scores than the normal eyes in the blue-purple box IV in the FM 100 test. In the anomaloscope testing, the Rayleigh (red-green) equation showed no differences between the IOL patients and controls. In the Moreland (blue) equation, however, the mid matching point was significantly shifted towards more green (meaning better blue colour sensitivity) in the IOL eyes than in the control eyes. This is due to the spectral transmission of the IOLs which showed 80-90% transmission already starting at the wavelength of about 420 nm. In comparison, the transmission of the normal human lens reaches those percentages near 500 nm or even further at advanced age.

  14. Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, M; Osorio, D; Bennett, A T; Marshall, N J; Cuthill, I C

    1998-11-01

    There is a growing body of data on avian eyes, including measurements of visual pigment and oil droplet spectral absorption, and of receptor densities and their distributions across the retina. These data are sufficient to predict psychophysical colour discrimination thresholds for light-adapted eyes, and hence provide a basis for relating eye design to visual needs. We examine the advantages of coloured oil droplets, UV vision and tetrachromacy for discriminating a diverse set of avian plumage spectra under natural illumination. Discriminability is enhanced both by tetrachromacy and coloured oil droplets. Oil droplets may also improve colour constancy. Comparison of the performance of a pigeon's eye, where the shortest wavelength receptor peak is at 410 nm, with that of the passerine Leiothrix, where the ultraviolet-sensitive peak is at 365 nm, generally shows a small advantage to the latter, but this advantage depends critically on the noise level in the sensitivity mechanism and on the set of spectra being viewed.

  15. Edges, colour and awareness in blindsight.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Iona; Cowey, Alan

    2010-06-01

    It remains unclear what is being processed in blindsight in response to faces, colours, shapes, and patterns. This was investigated in two hemianopes with chromatic and achromatic stimuli with sharp or shallow luminance or chromatic contrast boundaries or temporal onsets. Performance was excellent only when stimuli had sharp spatial boundaries. When discrimination between isoluminant coloured Gaussians was good it declined to chance levels if stimulus onset was slow. The ability to discriminate between instantaneously presented colours in the hemianopic field depended on their luminance, indicating that wavelength discrimination totally independent of other stimulus qualities is absent. When presented with narrow-band colours the hemianopes detected a stimulus maximally effective for S-cones but invisible to M- and L-cones, indicating that blindsight is mediated not just by the mid-brain, which receives no S-cone input, or that the rods contribute to blindsight. The results show that only simple stimulus features are processed in blindsight.

  16. Colour spaces in ecology and evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Julien P; Kelber, Almut; Schaefer, H Martin

    2017-02-01

    The recognition that animals sense the world in a different way than we do has unlocked important lines of research in ecology and evolutionary biology. In practice, the subjective study of natural stimuli has been permitted by perceptual spaces, which are graphical models of how stimuli are perceived by a given animal. Because colour vision is arguably the best-known sensory modality in most animals, a diversity of colour spaces are now available to visual ecologists, ranging from generalist and basic models allowing rough but robust predictions on colour perception, to species-specific, more complex models giving accurate but context-dependent predictions. Selecting among these models is most often influenced by historical contingencies that have associated models to specific questions and organisms; however, these associations are not always optimal. The aim of this review is to provide visual ecologists with a critical perspective on how models of colour space are built, how well they perform and where their main limitations are with regard to their most frequent uses in ecology and evolutionary biology. We propose a classification of models based on their complexity, defined as whether and how they model the mechanisms of chromatic adaptation and receptor opponency, the nonlinear association between the stimulus and its perception, and whether or not models have been fitted to experimental data. Then, we review the effect of modelling these mechanisms on predictions of colour detection and discrimination, colour conspicuousness, colour diversity and diversification, and for comparing the perception of colour traits between distinct perceivers. While a few rules emerge (e.g. opponent log-linear models should be preferred when analysing very distinct colours), in general model parameters still have poorly known effects. Colour spaces have nonetheless permitted significant advances in ecology and evolutionary biology, and more progress is expected if ecologists

  17. Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

  18. Mechanisms, functions and ecology of colour vision in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Hempel de Ibarra, N; Vorobyev, M; Menzel, R

    2014-06-01

    Research in the honeybee has laid the foundations for our understanding of insect colour vision. The trichromatic colour vision of honeybees shares fundamental properties with primate and human colour perception, such as colour constancy, colour opponency, segregation of colour and brightness coding. Laborious efforts to reconstruct the colour vision pathway in the honeybee have provided detailed descriptions of neural connectivity and the properties of photoreceptors and interneurons in the optic lobes of the bee brain. The modelling of colour perception advanced with the establishment of colour discrimination models that were based on experimental data, the Colour-Opponent Coding and Receptor Noise-Limited models, which are important tools for the quantitative assessment of bee colour vision and colour-guided behaviours. Major insights into the visual ecology of bees have been gained combining behavioural experiments and quantitative modelling, and asking how bee vision has influenced the evolution of flower colours and patterns. Recently research has focussed on the discrimination and categorisation of coloured patterns, colourful scenes and various other groupings of coloured stimuli, highlighting the bees' behavioural flexibility. The identification of perceptual mechanisms remains of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their learning strategies and performance in diverse experimental tasks.

  19. Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Denton, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

  20. Globular Clusters: Chemical Abundance - Integrated Colour calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano Loyola, G.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.

    In this work, we improve the chemical abundance - integrated colour cali- bration presented in Forte, Faifer & Geisler, 2007 (FFG07 hereafter) using a new (g-i) vs. (C-T1) colours calibration obtained from M87. Using this calibration and better values of the reddening for the galactic globulars, we found that a quadratic calibration is still enough to represent the observa- tional data, as in FFG07.

  1. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish.

  2. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  3. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  4. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  5. Colour cyclic code for Brillouin distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Rochat, Etienne

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, a colour cyclic coding (CCC) is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated for Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) distributed sensors. Compared to traditional intensity-modulated cyclic codes, the code presents an additional gain of √2 while keeping the same number of sequences as for a colour coding. A comparison with a standard BOTDA sensor is realized and validates the theoretical coding gain.

  6. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D

    2012-06-22

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part--a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator.

  7. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation.

    PubMed

    Burtt, Edward H; Schroeder, Max R; Smith, Lauren A; Sroka, Jenna E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2011-04-23

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage.

  8. Some challenges in modern hair colour formulations.

    PubMed

    Wis-Surel, G M

    1999-10-01

    Formulation of hair coloring product involves two stages, first a development of product base followed by formulation of desired shade. During that process a special consideration needs to be given to a whole range of product characteristics such as dye stability in the product medium, colour wearability on hair, light fading and finally rheology of the product. This paper reviews improvement in permanent coloring products as it relates to dye and base composition. Examples are shown where a reduction or elimination of certain dyes, m-phenylenediamine or sodium picramate, improves long term stability and product performance on hair. In cases when only reduction of the dyes was carried out, improvement in stability was achieved through their use as secondary colour contributors and not as primary ones. There are also other composition aspects that impact colour performance of the final product. For example, pH of the coloring mixture has a pronounced effect on the final colour developed in hair. It is shown that a shift in tonality caused by pH change can be predicted for finished product using a simple system composed of the main coupler-intermediate pair employed in the product. The colour response to pH change of this simple system was found to mirror that of the product. This predictability can be used as a formulation tool to develop more efficient dye systems. Effects of some functional materials on colour result such as propylene glycol, ascorbic acid or silicone are also shown.

  9. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation

    PubMed Central

    Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

  10. Heavy-quark QCD exotica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.; Mitchell, Ryan E.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2017-03-01

    This review presents an overview of the remarkable progress in the field of heavy-quark exotic hadrons over the past 15 years. It seeks to be pedagogical rather than exhaustive, summarizing both the progress and specific results of experimental discoveries, and the variety of theoretical approaches designed to explain these new states.

  11. Observation of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G.A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Aronson, S.H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R.E.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S.R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.O.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M.K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Franzini, P.; Fredriksen, S.; Fuess, S.; Galjaev, A.N.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, S.; Geld, T.L.; Genik, R.J. II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gibbard, B.; Glaubman, M.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Y.E.

    1995-04-03

    The D0 Collaboration reports on a search for the standard model top quark in {ital p{bar p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s}=1.8TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50pb{sup {minus}1}. We have searched for {ital t{bar t}} production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels with and without tagging of {ital b}-quark jets. We observed 17 events with an expected background of 3.8{plus_minus}0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2{times}10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measured its mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat) {plus_minus}22 (syst) GeV/{ital c}{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4{plus_minus}2.2pb.

  12. Physics of the Quark Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  13. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs.

  14. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  15. Heavy Quark Photoproduction at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Meneses, A. R.; Machado, M. V.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we calculate the inclusive and difractive photoproduction of heavy quarks in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies within the color dipole picture employing three phenomenological saturation models based on the color glass condensate formalism. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analyzes of these reactions is feasible and that the cross sections are sensitive to the underlying parton dynamics.

  16. Thiophene-Fused Nickel Dithiolenes: A Synthetic Scaffold for Highly Delocalized π-Electron Systems.

    PubMed

    Amb, Chad M; Heth, Christopher L; Evenson, Sean J; Pokhodnya, Konstantin I; Rasmussen, Seth C

    2016-11-07

    A series of thiophene-fused nickel dithiolene complexes have been prepared via synthetic methods which allow the addition of peripheral aryl groups to the fused thiophene of the dithiolene ligand, thus providing access to a range of structural and electronic modifications to the dithiolene core. X-ray structural studies of the anionic complexes show that the peripheral aryl rings lie in near-perfect coplanarity to the dithiolene core and can form π-stacked columns with N-methylpyridinium cations. Density functional theory calculations show significant delocalization of the frontier orbital electron density into the peripheral aryl rings. The complexes exhibit tunable, intense near-IR (NIR) absorption in the range of 1076-1160 nm with molar absorptivity as high as 25100 M(-1) cm(-1) in solution. The electronic tunability as well as the desirable solid-state packing arrangements of these systems suggests significant potential as NIR-absorbing materials for optoelectronic applications.

  17. Localization and delocalization of two-dimensional discrete solitons pinned to linear and nonlinear defects.

    PubMed

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A; Malomed, Boris A

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) localized modes in the nonlinear lattice described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, including a local linear or nonlinear defect. Discrete solitons pinned to the defects are investigated by means of the numerical continuation from the anticontinuum limit and also using the variational approximation, which features a good agreement for strongly localized modes. The models with the time-modulated strengths of the linear or nonlinear defect are considered too. In that case, one can temporarily shift the critical norm, below which localized 2D modes cannot exist, to a level above the norm of the given soliton, which triggers the irreversible delocalization transition.

  18. Direct observation of the collapse of the delocalized excess electron in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savolainen, Janne; Uhlig, Frank; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    It is generally assumed that the hydrated electron occupies a quasi-spherical cavity surrounded by only a few water molecules in its equilibrated state. However, in the very moment of its generation, before water has had time to respond to the extra charge, it is expected to be significantly larger in size. According to a particle-in-a-box picture, the frequency of its absorption spectrum is a sensitive measure of the initial size of the electronic wavefunction. Here, using transient terahertz spectroscopy, we show that the excess electron initially absorbs in the far-infrared at a frequency for which accompanying ab initio molecular dynamics simulations estimate an initial delocalization length of ≈40 Å. The electron subsequently shrinks due to solvation and thereby leaves the terahertz observation window very quickly, within ≈200 fs.

  19. Delocalization and dielectric screening of charge transfer states in organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, B.; Cheyns, D.; Verreet, B.; Schaller, R. D.; Rand, B. P.; Giebink, N. C.

    2014-02-01

    Charge transfer (CT) states at a donor-acceptor heterojunction have a key role in the charge photogeneration process of organic solar cells, however, the mechanism by which these states dissociate efficiently into free carriers remains unclear. Here we explore the nature of these states in small molecule-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaics with varying fullerene fraction and find that the CT energy scales with dielectric constant at high fullerene loading but that there is a threshold C60 crystallite size of ~4 nm below which the spatial extent of these states is reduced. Electroabsorption measurements indicate an increase in CT polarizability when C60 crystallite size exceeds this threshold, and that this change is correlated with increased charge separation yield supported by CT photoluminescence transients. These results support a model of charge separation via delocalized CT states independent of excess heterojunction offset driving energy and indicate that local fullerene crystallinity is critical to the charge separation process.

  20. Evolution of superclusters and delocalized states in GaAs1–xNx

    DOE PAGES

    Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; ...

    2012-11-21

    The evolution of individual nitrogen cluster bound states into an extended state infinite supercluster in dilute GaAs1–xNx was probed through temperature and intensity-dependent, time-resolved and magnetophotoluminescence (PL) measurements. Samples with compositions less than 0.23% N exhibit PL behavior that is consistent with emission from the extended states of the conduction band. Near a composition of 0.23% N, a discontinuity develops between the extended state PL peak energy and the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge. The existence of dual localized/delocalized state behavior near this composition signals the formation of an N supercluster just below the conduction band edge. The infinite supercluster ismore » fully developed by 0.32% N.« less

  1. Quantum measurement of an electron in a disordered potential: Delocalization versus measurement voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Ning; Li, Xin-Qi

    2006-01-01

    Quantum point contact (QPC), one of the typical mesoscopic transport devices, has been suggested to be an efficient detector for quantum measurement. In the context of two-state charge qubit, our previous studies showed that the QPC’s measurement back-action cannot be described by the conventional Lindblad quantum master equation. In this work, we study the measurement problem of a multistate system, say, an electron in disordered potential, subject to the quantum measurement of the mesoscopic detector QPC. The effect of measurement back-action and the detector’s readout current are analyzed, where particular attention is focused on some new features and the underlying physics associated with the measurement-induced delocalization versus the measurement voltages.

  2. Delocalization of two interacting particles in the 2D Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in a two-dimensional quasiperiodic potential of the Harper model. We consider an amplitude of the quasiperiodic potential such that in absence of interactions all eigenstates are exponentially localized while the two interacting particles are delocalized showing anomalous subdiffusive spreading over the lattice with the spreading exponent b ≈ 0.5 instead of a usual diffusion with b = 1. This spreading is stronger than in the case of a correlated disorder potential with a one particle localization length as for the quasiperiodic potential. At the same time we do not find signatures of ballistic pairs existing for two interacting particles in the localized phase of the one-dimensional Harper model.

  3. Conjugate systems using delocalized cationic dyes as a carrier of photosensitizers to mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Youngjae; Ngen, Ethel J.; Rajaputra, Pallavi

    2009-06-01

    Following Photofrin, the first generation photosensitizer, several second generation photosensitizers have been developed with improved characteristics. More recently, third generation photosensitizers are proposed to achieve higher selectivity toward cancer cells/ tumor tissue. Elevated mitochondrial membrane potential of malignant cells has tested as a tool for preferential uptake of certain photosensitizers to cancer cells. In the same line, we designed new conjugate systems where delocalized cationic moiety delivers a photosensitizer to mitochondria. To prove our concept, two prototype conjugates (TPP-Rh and TPP-AO) were prepared using two cationic dyes (Rhodamine and Acridine Orange) and a photosensitizer (tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP). The two conjugates generated singlet oxygen quite well. Interestingly, the two conjugates showed higher cellular uptake by mover than 8 times than TPP-OH as well as higher phototoxicity. In particular, TPP-Rh showed closer localization pattern to mitochondria than TPP-OH.

  4. Conjugated organic framework with three-dimensionally ordered stable structure and delocalized π clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Long; Kaji, Toshihiko; Honsho, Yoshihito; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Kim, Jangbae; Saeki, Akinori; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Seki, Shu; Irle, Stephan; Hiramoto, Masahiro; Gao, Jia; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-11-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline organic porous materials that can utilize π-π-stacking interactions as a driving force for the crystallization of polygonal sheets to form layered frameworks and ordered pores. However, typical examples are chemically unstable and lack intrasheet π-conjugation, thereby significantly limiting their applications. Here we report a chemically stable, electronically conjugated organic framework with topologically designed wire frameworks and open nanochannels, in which the π conjugation-spans the two-dimensional sheets. Our framework permits inborn periodic ordering of conjugated chains in all three dimensions and exhibits a striking combination of properties: chemical stability, extended π-delocalization, ability to host guest molecules and hole mobility. We show that the π-conjugated organic framework is useful for high on-off ratio photoswitches and photovoltaic cells. Therefore, this strategy may constitute a step towards realizing ordered semiconducting porous materials for innovations based on two-dimensionally extended π systems.

  5. Localization-delocalization transition in a system of quantum kicked rotors.

    PubMed

    Creffield, C E; Hur, G; Monteiro, T S

    2006-01-20

    The quantum dynamics of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced delta kicks from optical potentials are shown to be quite different from the well-known paradigm of quantum chaos, the single delta-kick system. We find the unitary matrix has a new oscillating band structure corresponding to a cellular structure of phase space and observe a spectral signature of a localization-delocalization transition from one cell to several. We find that the eigenstates have localization lengths which scale with a fractional power L approximately h(-0.75) and obtain a regime of near-linear spectral variances which approximate the "critical statistics" relation summation2(L) approximately or equal to chi(L) approximately 1/2 (1-nu)L, where nu approximately 0.75 is related to the fractal classical phase-space structure. The origin of the nu approximately 0.75 exponent is analyzed.

  6. The delocalized effective degrees of freedom of a black hole at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol, Barak

    2008-10-01

    Identifying the fundamental degrees of freedom of a black hole poses a long-standing puzzle. Recently Goldberger and Rothstein forwarded a theory of the low frequency degrees of freedom within the effective field theory approach, where they are relevancy ordered but of unclear physical origin. Here these degrees of freedom are identified with near-horizon but non-compact gravitational perturbations which are decomposed into delocalized multipoles. Their world-line (kinetic) action is determined within the classical effective field theory (CLEFT) approach and their interactions are discussed. The case of the long-wavelength scattering of a scalar wave off a Schwarzschild black hole is treated in some detail, interpreting within the CLEFT approach the equality of the leading absorption cross section with the horizon area.

  7. Direct observation of the collapse of the delocalized excess electron in water.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Janne; Uhlig, Frank; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    It is generally assumed that the hydrated electron occupies a quasi-spherical cavity surrounded by only a few water molecules in its equilibrated state. However, in the very moment of its generation, before water has had time to respond to the extra charge, it is expected to be significantly larger in size. According to a particle-in-a-box picture, the frequency of its absorption spectrum is a sensitive measure of the initial size of the electronic wavefunction. Here, using transient terahertz spectroscopy, we show that the excess electron initially absorbs in the far-infrared at a frequency for which accompanying ab initio molecular dynamics simulations estimate an initial delocalization length of ≈ 40 Å. The electron subsequently shrinks due to solvation and thereby leaves the terahertz observation window very quickly, within ≈ 200 fs.

  8. Towards a Density Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functional able to describe localization/delocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.; Wills, John M.

    2013-03-01

    The inability to computationally describe the physics governing the properties of actinides and their alloys is the poster child of failure of existing Density Functional Theory exchange-correlation functionals. The intricate competition between localization and delocalization of the electrons, present in these materials, exposes the limitations of functionals only designed to properly describe one or the other situation. We will discuss the manifestation of this competition in real materials and propositions on how to construct a functional able to accurately describe properties of these materials. I addition we will discuss both the importance of using the Dirac equation to describe the relativistic effects in these materials, and the connection to the physics of transition metal oxides. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Suppression of Brewster delocalization anomalies in an alternating isotropic-birefringent random layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. M.; Partridge, J. C.; Roberts, N. W.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the polarization dependence of localization length in alternating isotropic-birefringent stacks with uncorrelated thickness disorder. The birefringent layers can be positive uniaxial, negative uniaxial, or a mixture of both. Stacks which contain a mixture are shown to suppress the Brewster delocalization anomalies and, over all incident angles, exhibit p-polarization localization length maxima that are of similar magnitude to normal incidence. Furthermore, we propose a parameter set that enables the p-polarization localization length to monotonically decrease with angle of incidence. This investigation was inspired by weakly polarizing mirrors on the sides of silvery fish and provides a generic means to produce polarization-insensitive, broadband reflections from a random, all-dielectric layered medium.

  10. Noise, delocalization, and quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Ehsan; Lashkami, Zahra Mohammaddoust

    2017-02-01

    As an unusual type of anomalous diffusion behavior, namely (transient) superballistic transport, has been experimentally observed recently, but it is not yet well understood. In this paper, we investigate the white noise effect (in the Markov approximation) on quantum diffusion in one-dimensional tight-binding models with a periodic, disordered, and quasiperiodic region of size L attached to two perfect lattices at both ends in which the wave packet is initially located at the center of the sublattice. We find that in a completely localized system, inducing noise could delocalize the system to a desirable diffusion phase. This controllable system may be used to investigate the interplay of disorder and white noise, as well as to explore an exotic quantum phase.

  11. Wavepacket delocalization, self-trapping and fragmentation in discrete chains with relaxing nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. P. A.; Gléria, Iram; Cícero, C. H.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2017-03-01

    The discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNSE) describes wave phenomena in several physical contexts, ranging from electronic transport in crystalline chains to light propagation in nonlinear media and Bose-Einstein condensates. Here, we study the influence of the nonlinear response time on the temporal evolution of a wavepacket initially localized in a single site of a finite closed chain. Distinct long-time wavepacket distributions are identified as a function of the nonlinear strength χ and the characteristic relaxation time τ. Besides the more standard delocalized and self-trapped regimes, we report the occurrence of intermediate phases. In one of them the wavepacket self-focus in the opposite chain site. A phase with asymptotically fragmented wavepackets also develops. A crossover regime on which the ultimate wavepacket distribution is strongly dependent on the precise set of model parameters is also identified. We provide the full phase diagram related to the long-time wavepacket distribution in the (χ, τ) space.

  12. Delocalized single-photon Dicke states and the Leggett-Garg inequality in solid state systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Yin; Lambert, Neill; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    We show how to realize a single-photon Dicke state in a large one-dimensional array of two-level systems, and discuss how to test its quantum properties. The realization of single-photon Dicke states relies on the cooperative nature of the interaction between a field reservoir and an array of two-level-emitters. The resulting dynamics of the delocalized state can display Rabi-like oscillations when the number of two-level emitters exceeds several hundred. In this case, the large array of emitters is essentially behaving like a “mirror-less cavity”. We outline how this might be realized using a multiple-quantum-well structure or a dc-SQUID array coupled to a transmission line, and discuss how the quantum nature of these oscillations could be tested with an extension of the Leggett-Garg inequality. PMID:23162693

  13. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  14. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-11-01

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  15. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the

  16. Relationship between interchain interaction, exciton delocalization, and charge separation in low-bandgap copolymer blends.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Lee, Doyun; Schaller, Richard D; Zuo, Xiaobing; Lee, Byeongdu; Luo, TengFei; Gao, Haifeng; Huang, Libai

    2014-07-16

    We present a systematic study of the roles of crystallinity, interchain interaction, and exciton delocalization on ultrafast charge separation pathways in donor-acceptor copoloymer blends. We characterize the energy levels, excited state structures, and dynamics of the interchain species by combined ultrafast spectroscopy and computational quantum chemistry approaches. The alkyl side chain of a highly efficient donor-acceptor copolymer for solar cell applications, PBDTTT (poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(alkylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-2,6-diyl), is varied to tune the molecular packing and interchain interaction of the polymers in order to elucidate the charge separation pathways originating from intrachain and interchain species. Polymers with linear side chains result in more crystalline polymer domain that lead to preferential formation of interchain excitons delocalizing over more than one polymer backbone in the solid state. Our results demonstrate that the higher polymer crystallinity leads to slower charge separation due to coarser phase segregation and formation of the interchain excited states that are energetically unfavorable for charge separation. Such energetics of the interchain excitons in low-bandgap copolymers calls for optimized solar cell morphologies that are fundamentally different from those based on homopolymers such as P3HT (poly-3-hexylthiophene). A long-range crystalline polymer domain is detrimental rather than beneficial to solar cell performance for a low-bandgap copolymer which is in direct contrast to the observed behavior in P3HT based devices.

  17. Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment

    PubMed Central

    Knipprath, Christian; Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an ‘engineered’ nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the

  18. Geometric consequences of electron delocalization for adenine tautomers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Raczyńska, Ewa D; Makowski, Mariusz

    2014-06-01

    Geometric consequences of electron delocalization were studied for all possible adenine tautomers in aqueous solution by means of ab initio methods {PCM(water)//DFT(B3LYP)/6-311+G(d,p)} and compared to those in the gas phase {DFT(B3LYP)/6-311+G(d,p)}. To measure the consequences of any type of resonance conjugation (π-π, n-π, and σ-π), the geometry-based harmonic oscillator model of electron delocalization (HOMED) index, recently extended to the isolated (DFT) and hydrated (PCM//DFT) molecules, was applied to the molecular fragments (imidazole, pyrimidine, 4-aminopyrimidine, and purine) and also to the whole tautomeric system. For individual tautomers, the resonance conjugations and consequently the bond lengths strongly depend on the position of the labile protons. The HOMED indices are larger for tautomers (or their fragments) possessing the labile proton(s) at the N rather than C atom. Solvent interactions with adenine tautomers slightly increase the resonance conjugations. Consequently, they slightly shorten the single bonds and lengthen the double bonds. When going from the gas phase to water solution, the HOMED indices increase (by less than 0.15 units). There is a good relation between the HOMED indices estimated in water solution and those in the gas phase for the neutral and ionized forms of adenine. Subtle effects, being a consequence of intramolecular interactions between the neighboring groups, are so strongly reduced by solvent that the relation between the HOMED indices and the relative energies for the neutral adenine tautomers seems to be better in water solution than in the gas phase.

  19. A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

  20. Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

  1. A handheld LED coloured-light mixer for students to learn collaboratively the primary colours of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-03-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny light-emitting diodes (LEDs) producing primary colours are combined with green intensity varying circuitry to generate the standard colour-triangle secondary colours and various shades ranging from yellow to orange and pale blue to cyan. In the laboratory, students worked collaboratively, predicting, observing and explaining, and finally discussing until there was a consensus.

  2. Group theoretical construction of nucleon operators using all-to-all quark propagators.

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Edwards; G.T. Fleming; B. Joo; K.J. Juge; A. Lichtl; C.J. Morningstar; D.G. Richards; S.J. Wallace

    2007-10-01

    We describe a method to construct irreducible baryon operators using all-to-all quark propagators. It was demonstrated earlier that a large basis of extended baryon operators on anisotropic, quenched lattices can be used to reliably extract the masses of 5 or more excited states in the nucleon channel. All-to-all quark propagators are expected to be needed when studying these excited states on light, dynamical configurations because contributions from multi-particle states are expected to be significant. The dilution method is used to approximate the all-to-all quark propagators. Low-lying eigenmodes can also be used if necessary. For efficient computation of matrix elements of the interpolating operators, the algorithms should exploit the fact that many extended baryon operators can be obtained from the different linear combinations of three-quark colour-singlet operators. The sparseness of the diluted noise vectors also afford several computation simplifications. Some preliminary results are presented for nucleon effective masses.

  3. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  4. Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model

    PubMed Central

    Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

  5. Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-12-06

    A colour quality metric based on memory colours is presented. The basic idea is simple. The colour quality of a test source is evaluated as the degree of similarity between the colour appearance of a set of familiar objects and their memory colours. The closer the match, the better the colour quality. This similarity was quantified using a set of similarity distributions obtained by Smet et al. in a previous study. The metric was validated by calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between the metric predictions and the visual appreciation results obtained in a validation experiment conducted by the authors as well those obtained in two independent studies. The metric was found to correlate well with the visual appreciation of the lighting quality of the sources used in the three experiments. Its performance was also compared with that of the CIE colour rendering index and the NIST colour quality scale. For all three experiments, the metric was found to be significantly better at predicting the correct visual rank order of the light sources (p < 0.1).

  6. Visual ecology of flies with particular reference to colour vision and colour preferences.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    The visual ecology of flies is outstanding among insects due to a combination of specific attributes. Flies' compound eyes possess an open rhabdom and thus separate rhabdomeres in each ommatidium assigned to two visual pathways. The highly sensitive, monovariant neural superposition system is based on the excitation of the peripheral rhabdomeres of the retinula cells R1-6 and controls optomotor reactions. The two forms of central rhabdomeres of R7/8 retinula cells in each ommatidium build up a system with four photoreceptors sensitive in different wavelength ranges and thought to account for colour vision. Evidence from wavelength discrimination tests suggests that all colour stimuli are assigned to one of just four colour categories, but cooperation of the two pathways is also evident. Flies use colour cues for various behavioural reactions such as flower visitation, proboscis extension, host finding, and egg deposition. Direct evidence for colour vision, the ability to discriminate colours according to spectral shape but independent of intensity, has been demonstrated for few fly species only. Indirect evidence for colour vision provided from electrophysiological recordings of the spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors and opsin genes indicates similar requisites in various flies; the flies' responses to coloured targets, however, are much more diverse.

  7. Ligand Field Strength Mediates Electron Delocalization in Octahedral [((H)L)2Fe6(L')m](n+) Clusters.

    PubMed

    Hernández Sánchez, Raúl; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Betley, Theodore A

    2015-09-02

    To assess the impact of terminal ligand binding on a variety of cluster properties (redox delocalization, ground-state stabilization, and breadth of redox state accessibility), we prepared three electron-transfer series based on the hexanuclear iron cluster [((H)L)2Fe6(L')m](n+) in which the terminal ligand field strength was modulated from weak to strong (L' = DMF, MeCN, CN). The extent of intracore M-M interactions is gauged by M-M distances, spin ground state persistence, and preference for mixed-valence states as determined by electrochemical comproportionation constants. Coordination of DMF to the [((H)L)2Fe6] core leads to weaker Fe-Fe interactions, as manifested by the observation of ground states populated only at lower temperatures (<100 K) and by the greater evidence of valence trapping within the mixed-valence states. Comproportionation constants determined electrochemically (Kc = 10(4)-10(8)) indicate that the redox series exhibits electronic delocalization (class II-III), yet no intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) bands are observable in the near-IR spectra. Ligation of the stronger σ donor acetonitrile results in stabilization of spin ground states to higher temperatures (∼300 K) and a high degree of valence delocalization (Kc = 10(2)-10(8)) with observable IVCT bands. Finally, the anionic cyanide-bound series reveals the highest degree of valence delocalization with the most intense IVCT bands (Kc = 10(12)-10(20)) and spin ground state population beyond room temperature. Across the series, at a given formal oxidation level, the capping ligand on the hexairon cluster dictates the overall properties of the aggregate, modulating the redox delocalization and the persistence of the intracore coupling of the metal sites.

  8. The colour of Os: naturally biased associations between shape and colour.

    PubMed

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colours by English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia who perceive letters in colour. Such associations may be naturally biased by intrinsic sensory cortical organisation, or may be based in literacy (eg 'A' is for 'apple', apples are red; therefore A is red). To distinguish these two hypotheses, we tested pre-literate children in three experiments and compared their results to those of literate children (aged 7-9 years) and adults. The results indicate that some colour letter mappings (O white, X black) are naturally biased by the shape of the letter, whereas others (A red, G green) may be based in literacy. They suggest that sensory cortical organisation initially binds colour to some shapes, and that learning to read can induce additional associations, likely through the influence of higher-order networks as letters take on meaning.

  9. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  10. The role of charge-transfer interactions and delocalization in annelated nitronyl nitroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Brynn Mary

    The design and synthesis of stable organic radicals with delocalized spin density distribution and low energy optical and redox processes is central to the development of magneto-conducting materials. Towards this end, a generalized synthetic methodology has been developed allowing for the synthesis of a series of annelated benzonitronyl nitroxide (BNN) radicals. The BNN radicals exhibited remarkably low reduction potentials (~0.0 V vs SCE) and a near-infrared absorption attributed to a HOMO--SOMO charge-transfer excitation. The annelated BNN radicals were found to be less stable than the closely related tetramethyl nitronyl nitroxide radicals, particularly in solution. A series of pi-delocalized and heteroaromatic radicals were synthesized to determine if the instability was due to the delocalization of electron density onto the carbon skeleton or the low reduction potential. DFT calculations with the EPR-II basis gave rise to calculated electronic structures that were consistent with EPR spectroscopy and suggested changes in spin density distribution are occurring with perturbation of the annelated ring. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the heteroaromatic and pi-delocalized radicals had reduction potentials lower than BNN, with some systems reducing at potentials of 0.2 V vs SCE, comparable to that of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane. The distribution of spin throughout the molecular framework and the low reduction potential of the annelated nitronyl nitroxide radicals were both found to contribute to the lowered stability of the annelated nitronyl nitroxides relative to the far less redox active tetramethyl nitronyl nitroxides. The low reduction potential of the BNN radicals suggested that incorporation into acceptor--donor (A--D) systems would allow for investigation of the role of charge transfer interactions on the electronic structure and properties of neutral open-shell A--D radicals. Two D--A--D radicals were prepared using metal catalyzed coupling and furoxan

  11. A four-colour optical detector circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannes, Israel; Assaad, Maher

    2013-02-01

    In this article, a new architecture for a four-colour optical detector circuit is presented. The proposed detector uses a photodiode as its basic light transducing element and a mixed signal readout circuit for signal processing and decision making. The readout circuit requires only two comparators, two multiplexers and a few logic gates to produce a digital 4 bit output that represents the right colour detected. The proposed detector is advantageous because the number of required components is fixed even if the number of detected colours is increased. The feature of having a fixed number of elements while increasing the number of detected colours is important especially in component count (i.e. low cost) and low power consumption. The proposed detector can be used as an autonomous and portable real-time pH monitoring applications. The objective of this article is to present a validation of a novel four colour sensor architecture using simulation and experiment as a proof of concept for a future implementation as a CMOS integrated circuit using the Austria Microsystems 350 nm technology.

  12. Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

  13. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  14. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates controllable chromotropic capability, that is, the ability of reversible colour transformations. This chromotropic capability affords enormous potentials in building functionalized prints for anticounterfeiting, special label, and high-density data encryption storage. With such excellent performances in functional colour applications, this colour-printing approach could pave the way for plasmonic colour printing in real-world commercial utilization. PMID:26567803

  15. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luse, K.; Fomins, S.; Ozolinsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  16. Top quark results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present the latest results on the top quark obtained by the CDF experiment using a data sample of about 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We briefly describe the candidate events selection and then discuss the production cross section determination and the mass measurement. The study of two new decay channels (all hadronic and ``tau dilepton``) is also reported.

  17. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  18. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  19. Special symmetric quark mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Marcos, J. I.

    1998-12-01

    We give a procedure to construct a special class of symmetric quark mass matrices near the democratic limit of equal Yukawa couplings for each sector. It is shown that within appropriate weak-bases, the requirements of symmetry and arg[det(M)]=0 are very strong conditions, that necessarily lead to a Cabibbo angle given by Vus=sqrt(md/ms), and to Vcb~ms/mb, in first order. In addition, we prove that the recently classified ansätze, which also reproduce these mixing matrix relations, and which were based on the hypothesis of the Universal Strength for Yukawa couplings, where all Yukawa couplings have equal moduli while the flavour dependence is only in their phases, are, in fact, particular cases of the generalized symmetric quark mass matrix ansätze we construct here. In an excellent numerical example, the experimental values on all quark mixings and masses are accommodated, and the CP violation phase parameter is shown to be crucially dependent on the values of mu and Vus.

  20. Colour pictures with a CCD camera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron-Cetty, M.-P.; Véron, P.

    1983-12-01

    The 1.5 m Oanish telescope at La Silla has been used to photograph a number of galaxies with a CCO camera (1) through three different filters: blue (Johnson B), red and infrared (Gunn r (L) and z). The images have been reduced with the ESO image processing system IHAP and then transferred to the VAX computer to use OICOMEO, the high quality hard copy device which produces colour slides. These photographs are in real but not natural colours in the sense that instead of using blue, green and red images, we have used blue, red and infrared. The colour balance is arbitrary but the same for all pictures, except #2. The seeing was 1.2 to 1.5 arcsec. In all cases, north is at the top, east to the left.

  1. Adaptive marginal median filter for colour images.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Samuel; Gregori, Valentín; Sapena, Almanzor

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new filter for impulse noise reduction in colour images which is aimed at improving the noise reduction capability of the classical vector median filter. The filter is inspired by the application of a vector marginal median filtering process over a selected group of pixels in each filtering window. This selection, which is based on the vector median, along with the application of the marginal median operation constitutes an adaptive process that leads to a more robust filter design. Also, the proposed method is able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter.

  2. Are all the coloured galaxias the same?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Miranda-Pérez, B. E.; Vega-Acevedo, I.; Castañeda, H.; Saviane, I.

    2016-06-01

    The coloured galaxies were recently discovered in the data-base of the SDSS. They are all compact and show unsual colours in the gri composite image. The most studied so far are those called "green peas" because of their green colour but there are bright blue, purple, red, orange, grey and pink. The green, purple and blue also share a large equivalent width in the oxygen forbbiden line [OIII]5007, larger than 200 Å, being more intense than Hα. This is quite unsual even for star forming galaxies. Although some authors have concluded that all three are the same kind of galaxies, we have studied them carefully and found out that there are important differences among the properties, including the scaling relations.

  3. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2007-08-01

    In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to colour. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) colour filter or spatially modulated colour scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.

  4. Delocalization error and "functional tuning" in Kohn-Sham calculations of molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen; Srebro, Monika

    2014-08-19

    Kohn-Sham theory (KST) is the "workhorse" of numerical quantum chemistry. This is particularly true for first-principles calculations of ground- and excited-state properties for larger systems, including electronic spectra, electronic dynamic and static linear and higher order response properties (including nonlinear optical (NLO) properties), conformational or dynamic averaging of spectra and response properties, or properties that are affected by the coupling of electron and nuclear motion. This Account explores the sometimes dramatic impact of the delocalization error (DE) and possible benefits from the use of long-range corrections (LC) and "tuning" of functionals in KST calculations of molecular ground-state and response properties. Tuning refers to a nonempirical molecule-specific determination of adjustable parameters in functionals to satisfy known exact conditions, for instance, that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should be equal to the negative vertical ionization potential (IP) or that the energy as a function of fractional electron numbers should afford straight-line segments. The presentation is given from the viewpoint of a chemist interested in computations of a variety of molecular optical and spectroscopic properties and of a theoretician developing methods for computing such properties with KST. In recent years, the use of LC functionals, functional tuning, and quantifying the DE explicitly have provided valuable insight regarding the performance of KST for molecular properties. We discuss a number of different molecular properties, with examples from recent studies from our laboratory and related literature. The selected properties probe different aspects of molecular electronic structure. Electric field gradients and hyperfine coupling constants can be exquisitely sensitive to the DE because it affects the ground-state electron density and spin density distributions. For π-conjugated molecules, it is shown how the

  5. A familial factor in the development of colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2007-04-09

    An important aspect of research into the link between genes and behaviour concerns the identification of familial determination. There is evidence for familial factors in selective deficits, such as developmental dyslexia and developmental prosopagnosia. Colour agnosia concerns a selective neuropsychological condition in which colour perception is intact, while the identification and naming of colour is disrupted. We recently demonstrated that this deficit can occur as a developmental deficit. Here, we show that there is a familial factor in the development of colour agnosia by reporting the colour processing abilities of the mother and the daughters of a man with developmental colour agnosia.

  6. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  7. Superconducting quark matter in the Chromodielectric Model

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, L.; Malheiro, M.; Fiolhais, M.; Taurines, A.R.

    2004-12-02

    In this work we study the strange quark matter in an extended version of the Chromodielectric Model (CDM) with a BCS quark pairing implemented, and analyze the superconducting color flavor locked (CFL) phase. We compare the equation of state and the stability of the strange quark matter from QCD in the CFL phase with the superconducting version of the CDM. In the CDM there is a confining potential which originates a dynamical bag constant in the sense that its value depends on the density. Our results indicate that the inclusion in the energy density of the pairing quark interaction allows for an absolutely stable quark matter state even for large potential energies, preventing the metastability of quark matter found in the CDM at high densities.

  8. Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2000-03-10

    Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

  9. Measuring the colour of rendering mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

    2014-05-01

    When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (ΔE*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

  10. Multi-colour detection of gravitational arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, few gravitational arcs have been discovered so far. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates increases. Several methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detections retrieved by these methods force observers to visually inspect thousands of candidates per square degree to clean the samples. This approach is largely subjective and requires a huge amount of checking by eye, especially considering the actual and upcoming wide-field surveys, which will cover thousands of square degrees. In this paper we study the statistical properties of the colours of gravitational arcs detected in the 37 deg2 of the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). Most of them lie in a relatively small region of the (g' - r', r' - i') colour-colour diagram. To explain this property, we provide a model that includes the lensing optical depth expected in a ΛCDM cosmology that, in combination with the sources' redshift distribution of a given survey, in our case CARS, peaks for sources at redshift z ~ 1. By furthermore modelling the colours derived from the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies that dominate the population at that redshift, the model reproduces the observed colours well. By taking advantage of the colour selection suggested by both data and model, we automatically detected 24 objects out of 90 detected by eye checking. Compared with the single-band arcfinder, this multi-band filtering returns a sample complete to 83% and a contamination reduced by a factor of ~6.5. New gravitational arc candidates are also proposed.

  11. Colour-temperature correspondences: when reactions to thermal stimuli are influenced by colour.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant's responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented.

  12. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods.

  13. Synaesthesia: when coloured sounds taste sweet.

    PubMed

    Beeli, Gian; Esslen, Michaela; Jäncke, Lutz

    2005-03-03

    Synaesthesia is the involuntary physical experience of a cross-modal linkage--for example, hearing a tone (the inducing stimulus) evokes an additional sensation of seeing a colour (concurrent perception). Of the different types of synaesthesia, most have colour as the concurrent perception, with concurrent perceptions of smell or taste being rare. Here we describe the case of a musician who experiences different tastes in response to hearing different musical tone intervals, and who makes use of her synaesthetic sensations in the complex task of tone-interval identification. To our knowledge, this combination of inducing stimulus and concurrent perception has not been described before.

  14. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  15. Top quark mass: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Gaston; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    The top quark is the most massive elementary particle discovered thus far. Its large mass may help explain the mechanism by which fundamental particles gain mass - the Standard Model's greatest standing mystery. Today the top quark mass, together with the W boson mass, plays an important role in constraining the Higgs boson mass. The current status of the top quark mass measurement and a brief outline of the expectation at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider will be covered.

  16. Top quark mass measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2007-10-01

    The top quark mass is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model as well as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The CDF Collaboration has measured the top quark mass with high precision in all decay channels with complementary methods. A combination of the results from CDF gives a top quark mass of 170.5{+-}1.3(stat.){+-}1.8(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  17. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.

  18. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2008-08-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t$\\bar{t}$H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more

  19. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; ...

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  20. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  1. Quarks and gluons at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    Data from proton-antiproton collisions at high energy provide important information on constraining the quark and gluon distributions in the nucleon and place limits on quark substructure. The S asymmetry data constrains the slope of the d/u quark distributions and significantly reduces the systematic error on the extracted value of the W mass. Drell-Yan data at high invariant mass provides strong limits on quark substructure. Information on {alpha}{sub s} and the gluon distributions can be extracted from high P{sub T} jet data and direct photons.

  2. Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

    PubMed

    Gajda-Wyrębek, J; Kuźma, K; Świtka, A; Jarecka, J; Beresińska, M; Postupolski, J

    2017-01-01

    A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called 'Southampton colours') may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3 and 8-9 years old, n = 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: scenario 1 using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; and scenario 2 using the actual levels in food and actual food consumption data. The data on the actual consumption of food containing the colours was collected using a 7-day questionnaire survey. The results of laboratory analysis of food consumed by children provided data on the actual levels of the colours in food. Consumption of the colours estimated by scenario 1 in any case did not exceed the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the colours in both age groups of children. For more refined colour intake (scenario 2), isolated cases exceeding the ADI were recorded for four colours, but assuming that manufacturers comply with the current legislation on MPL of colours in food, the intake of the colours assessed in scenario 2 should not be a reason for exceeding of ADIs for the target food colours.

  3. Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tekavčič Pompe, Manca; Stirn Kranjc, Branka; Brecelj, Jelka

    2010-09-01

    Visual evoked potentials to chromatic stimulus (cVEP) are believed to selectively test the parvocellular visual pathway which is responsible for processing information about colour. The aim was to evaluate cVEP in children with red-green congenital colour vision deficiency. VEP responses of 15 colour deficient children were compared to 31 children with normal colour vision. An isoluminant red-green stimulus composed of horizontal gratings was presented in an onset-offset manner. The shape of the waveform was studied, as well as the latency and amplitude of positive (P) and negative (N) waves. cVEP response did not change much with increased age in colour deficient children, whereas normative data showed changes from a predominantly positive to a negative response with increased age. A P wave was present in 87% of colour deficient children (and in 100% of children with normal colour vision), whereas the N wave was absent in a great majority of colour deficient children and was present in 80% of children with normal colour vision. Therefore, the amplitude of the whole response (N-P) decreased linearly with age in colour deficient children, whereas in children with normal colour vision it increased linearly. P wave latency shortened with increased age in both groups. cVEP responses differ in children with congenital colour vision deficiency compared to children with normal colour vision.

  4. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  5. The quark revolution and the ZGS - new quarks physics since the ZGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J. |

    1994-12-31

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described.

  6. Distant ultrafast energy transfer in a trimetallic {Ru-Ru-Cr} complex facilitated by hole delocalization.

    PubMed

    Cadranel, Alejandro; Tate, Jaired E; Oviedo, Paola S; Yamazaki, Shiori; Hodak, José H; Baraldo, Luis M; Kleiman, Valeria D

    2017-01-25

    Multi-metallic complexes based on {Ru-Cr}, {Ru-Ru} and {Ru-Ru-Cr} fragments are investigated for their light-harvesting and long-range energy transfer properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(μ-CN)Ru(py)4Cl](2+) and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(μ-CN)Ru(py)4(μ-NC)Cr(CN)5]. The intercalation of {Ru(II)(py)4} linked by cyanide bridges between {Ru(tpy)(bpy)} and {Cr(CN)5} results in efficient, distant energy transfer followed by emission from the Cr moiety. Characterization of the energy transfer process based on photophysical and ultrafast time-resolved absorption suggests the delocalization of holes in the excited state, providing a pathway for energy transfer between the end moieties. The proposed mechanism opens the door to utilize this family of complexes as an appealing platform for the design of antenna compounds as the properties of the fragments could be tuned independently.

  7. Localization-delocalization transition in self-dual quasi-periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M. L.; Wang, G.; Li, N. B.; Nakayama, T.

    2015-06-01

    Within the framework of the Aubry-André model, one kind of self-dual quasi-periodic lattice, it is known that a sharp transition occurs from all eigenstates being extended to all being localized. The common perception for this type of quasi-periodic lattice is that the self-duality excludes the appearance of a finite critical energy separating localized from extended states. In this work, we propose a multi-chromatic quasi-periodic lattice model retaining the self-duality identical to the Aubry-André model. In this model we find numerically a well-defined localization-delocalization transition at the mobility edges in contrast with the Aubry-André model. As a result, the diffusion of wave packet exhibits a transition from ballistic to diffusive motion, and back to ballistic motion. We point out that experimental realizations of the predicted transition can be accessed with light waves in photonic lattices and matter waves in optical lattices.

  8. Conjugated organic framework with three-dimensionally ordered stable structure and delocalized π clouds

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Long; Kaji, Toshihiko; Honsho, Yoshihito; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Kim, Jangbae; Saeki, Akinori; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Seki, Shu; Irle, Stephan; Hiramoto, Masahiro; Gao, Jia; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-01-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline organic porous materials that can utilize π–π-stacking interactions as a driving force for the crystallization of polygonal sheets to form layered frameworks and ordered pores. However, typical examples are chemically unstable and lack intrasheet π-conjugation, thereby significantly limiting their applications. Here we report a chemically stable, electronically conjugated organic framework with topologically designed wire frameworks and open nanochannels, in which the π conjugation-spans the two-dimensional sheets. Our framework permits inborn periodic ordering of conjugated chains in all three dimensions and exhibits a striking combination of properties: chemical stability, extended π-delocalization, ability to host guest molecules and hole mobility. We show that the π-conjugated organic framework is useful for high on-off ratio photoswitches and photovoltaic cells. Therefore, this strategy may constitute a step towards realizing ordered semiconducting porous materials for innovations based on two-dimensionally extended π systems. PMID:24220603

  9. Exciton delocalization drives rapid singlet fission in nanoparticles of acene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pensack, Ryan D; Tilley, Andrew J; Parkin, Sean R; Lee, Tia S; Payne, Marcia M; Gao, Dong; Jahnke, Ashlee A; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Li, Peng-Fei; Anthony, John E; Seferos, Dwight S; Scholes, Gregory D

    2015-06-03

    We compare the singlet fission dynamics of five pentacene derivatives precipitated to form nanoparticles. Two nanoparticle types were distinguished by differences in their solid-state order and kinetics of triplet formation. Nanoparticles that comprise primarily weakly coupled chromophores lack the bulk structural order of the single crystal and exhibit nonexponential triplet formation kinetics (Type I), while nanoparticles that comprise primarily more strongly coupled chromophores exhibit order resembling that of the bulk crystal and triplet formation kinetics associated with the intrinsic singlet fission rates (Type II). In the highly ordered nanoparticles, singlet fission occurs most rapidly. We relate the molecular packing arrangement derived from the crystal structure of the pentacene derivatives to their singlet fission dynamics and find that slip stacking leads to rapid, subpicosecond singlet fission. We present evidence that exciton delocalization, coincident with an increased relative admixture of charge-transfer configurations in the description of the exciton wave function, facilitates rapid triplet pair formation in the case of single-step singlet fission. We extend the study to include two hexacene derivatives and find that these conclusions are generally applicable. This work highlights acene derivatives as versatile singlet fission chromophores and shows how chemical functionalization affects both solid-state order and exciton interactions and how these attributes in turn affect the rate of singlet fission.

  10. Valence EELS below the limit of inelastic delocalization using conical dark field EFTEM or Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Schachinger, Thomas; Biedermann, Kati; Beyer, Volkhard

    2017-02-01

    In this experimental work we present novel methods to increase the spatial resolution of valence electron energy loss spectrometry (VEELS) investigations below the limit given by the inelastic delocalization. For this purpose we analyse a layer stack consisting of silicon/silicon-oxide/silicon-nitride/silicon-oxide/silicon (SONOS) with varying layer thickness down to the 2nm level. Using a combination of a conical illumination and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy we are able to identify the layers by using low energy losses. Employing Bessel beams we demonstrate that VEELS can be performed in dark-field conditions while simultaneously the Bessel beam increases the spatial resolution of the elastic image due to less sensitivity to the spherical aberration of the condenser lens system. The dark-field conditions also guarantee that only electrons are collected that have neither undergone an energy loss being due to the Cˇerenkov effect, nor due to the excitation of transition radiation or light guiding modes. We consequently are able to measure the optical properties of a 2.5nm thin oxide being sandwiched by the silicon substrate and a silicon-nitride layer.

  11. Delocalization effects, entanglement entropy and spectral collapse of boson mixtures in a double well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingua, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Penna, V.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the ground-state properties of a two-species condensate of interacting bosons in a double-well potential. Each atomic species is described by a two-space-mode Bose-Hubbard model. The coupling of the two species is controlled by the interspecies interaction W. To analyze the ground state when W is varied in both the repulsive (W\\gt 0) and the attractive (W\\lt 0) regime, we apply two different approaches. First we solve the problem numerically (i) to obtain an exact description of the ground-state structure and (ii) to characterize its correlation properties by studying (the appropriate extensions to the present case of) the quantum Fisher information, the coherence visibility and the entanglement entropy as functions of W. Then we approach analytically the description of the low-energy scenario by means of the Bogoliubov scheme. In this framework the ground-state transition from delocalized to localized species (with space separation for W\\gt 0, and mixing for W\\lt 0) is well reproduced. These predictions are qualitatively corroborated by our numerical results. We show that such a transition features a spectral collapse reflecting the dramatic change of the dynamical algebra of the four-mode model Hamiltonian.

  12. Controlled delocalization of electronic states in a multi-strand quasiperiodic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Amrita; Nandy, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2017-03-01

    Finite strips, composed of a periodic stacking of infinite quasiperiodic Fibonacci chains, have been investigated in terms of their electronic properties. The system is described by a tight binding Hamiltonian. The eigenvalue spectrum of such a multi-strand quasiperiodic network is found to be sensitive on the mutual values of the intra-strand and inter-strand tunnel hoppings, whose distribution displays a unique three-subband self-similar pattern in a parameter subspace. In addition, it is observed that special numerical correlations between the nearest and the next-nearest neighbor hopping integrals can render a substantial part of the energy spectrum absolutely continuous. Extended, Bloch like functions populate the above continuous zones, signalling a complete delocalization of single particle states even in such a non-translationally invariant system, and more importantly, a phenomenon that can be engineered by tuning the relative strengths of the hopping parameters. A commutation relation between the potential and the hopping matrices enables us to work out the precise correlation which helps to engineer the extended eigenfunctions and determine the band positions at will.

  13. Perspective: Treating electron over-delocalization with the DFT+U method.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J

    2015-06-28

    Many people in the materials science and solid-state community are familiar with the acronym "DFT+U." For those less familiar, this technique uses ideas from model Hamiltonians that permit the description of both metals and insulators to address problems of electron over-delocalization in practical implementations of density functional theory (DFT). Exchange-correlation functionals in DFT are often described as belonging to a hierarchical "Jacob's ladder" of increasing accuracy in moving from local to non-local descriptions of exchange and correlation. DFT+U is not on this "ladder" but rather acts as an "elevator" because it systematically tunes relative energetics, typically on a localized subshell (e.g., d or f electrons), regardless of the underlying functional employed. However, this tuning is based on a metric of the local electron density of the subshells being addressed, thus necessitating physical or chemical or intuition about the system of interest. I will provide a brief overview of the history of how DFT+U came to be starting from the origin of the Hubbard and Anderson model Hamiltonians. This history lesson is necessary because it permits us to make the connections between the "Hubbard U" and fundamental outstanding challenges in electronic structure theory, and it helps to explain why this method is so widely applied to transition-metal oxides and organometallic complexes alike.

  14. Relative Stability of Empty Exohedral Fullerenes: π Delocalization versus Strain and Steric Hindrance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio; Alcamí, Manuel; Martín, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Predicting and understanding the relative stability of exohedral fullerenes is an important aspect of fullerene chemistry, since the experimentally formed structures do not generally follow the rules that govern addition reactions or the making of pristine fullerenes. First-principles theoretical calculations are of limited applicability due to the large number of possible isomeric forms, for example, more than 50 billion for C60X8. Here we propose a simple model, exclusively based on topological arguments, that allows one to predict the relative stability of exohedral fullerenes without the need for electronic structure calculations or geometry optimizations. The model incorporates the effects of π delocalization, cage strain, and steric hindrance. We show that the subtle interplay between these three factors is responsible for (i) the formation of non-IPR (isolated pentagon rule) exohedral fullerenes in contrast with their pristine fullerene counterparts, (ii) the appearance of more pentagon-pentagon adjacencies than predicted by the PAPR (pentagon-adjacency penalty rule), (iii) the changes in regioisomer stability due to the chemical nature of the addends, and (iv) the variations in fullerene cage stability with the progressive addition of chemical species.

  15. Nitrile-functionalized ruthenium nanoparticles: charge delocalization through Ru - N ≡ C interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengqi; Huang, Lin; Zou, Jiasui; Yan, Jinwu; Zhu, Jiaying; Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2017-03-01

    Ruthenium nanoparticles (2.06 ± 0.46 nm in diameter) were stabilized by the self-assembly of nitrile molecules onto the ruthenium colloid surface by virtue of the formation of Ru-N≡C interfacial bonding linkages. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that there were about 63 nitrile ligands per nanoparticle, corresponding to an average molecular footprint of 22.4 Å2. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies suggested an end-on configuration of the nitrile moiety on the metal core surface. Meanwhile, infrared measurements showed that the C≡N stretch red-shifted from 2246 to 1944 cm-1 upon adsorption on the nanoparticle surfaces, as confirmed by 15N isotopic labeling. This apparent red-shift suggests extensive intraparticle charge delocalization, which was further manifested by photoluminescence measurements of 1-cyanopyrene-functionalized ruthenium nanoparticles that exhibited a red shift of 40 nm of the emission maximum, in comparison to that of free monomers. The results further highlight the significance of metal-organic contacts in the manipulation of the dynamics of intraparticle charge transfer and the nanoparticle optical and electronic properties.

  16. Probing excitation delocalization in supramolecular chiral stacks by means of circularly polarized light: experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Spano, Frank C; Meskers, Stefan C J; Hennebicq, Emanuelle; Beljonne, David

    2007-06-06

    Photoexcitations in helical aggregates of a functionalized, chiral oligophenylenevinylene (MOPV) are described going beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the form of dressed (polaronic) Frenkel excitons. This allows for accurate modeling of the experimentally observed wavelength dependence of the circular polarization in fluorescence, which directly probes the non-adiabatic nature of the electron-vibration (EV) coupling in this system. The fluorescence photon is emitted from a nuclear geometry in which one MOPV and its two nearest neighbors have a nuclear equilibrium that differs appreciably from the ground state due to the presence of the excited state. The absorption and emission band shape and the circular dichroism are consistent with a coherence range of the emitting excitation of approximately two neighboring molecules. Random fluctuations in the zero-order excited-state energy of the MOPVs (disorder) limit the exciton delocalization and can be described by a Gaussian distribution of energies with a width sigma=0.12 eV and a spatial correlation length l0 approximately 5 molecules. We find that disorder and EV coupling act synergistically in localizing the emitting exciton to a single MOPV in the aggregate with 95% probability.

  17. Extracting covalent and ionic structures from usual delocalized wave functions: the electron-expansion methodology.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, P; Karafiloglou, P

    2008-09-18

    We present easily programmable expansions, allowing the calculation of the weights of local covalent and ionic structures of a chemical bond from usual delocalized wave functions; they are obtained in the framework of the electron-expansion methodology, in which the hole conditions (involved by definition in a covalent or ionic structure) are expanded in terms involving only electrons. From the derived relations, true for both HF and correlated levels, one can also express the covalency/ionicity and the localization of a usual two-electron two-center (2e/2c) bond in terms of electronic populations. The three-electron populations are crucial for bond localization. On the contrary, in 2e/2c bonding, and particularly in Charge-Shift bonds (which show enhanced covalent-ionic interactions) although the three-electron populations can be non-negligible, they are not important for the covalency/ionicity of these bonds. Numerical applications and discussion are given for correlated MO wave functions of butadiene, hexatriene, and pyrrole molecules on the basis of both natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) (orthogonal orbitals) and pre-NAOs (nonorthogonal orbitals).

  18. Relation between elastic modulus and glass softening temperature in the delocalized atom model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanditov, B. D.; Sangadiev, S. Sh.; Sanditov, D. S.

    2012-09-15

    The ratio of softening temperature (glass transition temperature) to elastic modulus (T{sub g}/E) is mainly determined by the limiting elastic deformation of an interatomic bond, which characterizes the transition of a structural microregion from an elastic into a viscous-flow state. In silicate glasses, this transition is caused by the limiting deformation of directed ionic-covalent Si-O-Si bonds. In the case of amorphous hydrocarbons, it is related to the relatively weak intermolecular bonds between regions in chain macromolecules, and the T{sub g}/E ratio is significantly higher than in inorganic glasses. In glassy systems of one class, this ratio turns out to be constant (T{sub g}/E Almost-Equal-To const), and a linear correlation is detected between softening temperature and elastic modulus, which can be explained in terms of the delocalized atom model. The values of T{sub g}/E can be used to classify glasses similarly to the well-known Angell classification according to so-called fragility.

  19. Ultrafast exciton dynamics in 2D in-plane hetero-nanostructures: delocalization and charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Cassette, E; Pedetti, S; Mahler, B; Ithurria, S; Dubertret, B; Scholes, G D

    2017-03-10

    In this article we study the ultrafast dynamics of excitons and charge carriers photogenerated in two-dimensional in-plane heterostructures, namely, CdSe-CdTe nanoplatelets. We combine transient absorption and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study charge transfer and delocalization from a few tens of femtoseconds to several nanoseconds. In contrast with spherical nanocrystals, the relative alignment of the electron and hole states of CdSe and CdTe in thin 2D nanoplatelets does not lead to a type-II heterostructure. Following the excitation in CdSe or CdTe materials, the electron preferentially delocalises instantaneously over the whole heterostructure. In addition, depending on the crown material (CdTe versus CdTeSe), the hole transfers either to trap states or to the crown, within a few hundreds of femtoseconds. We conclude that the photoluminescence band, at lower energy than the CdSe and CdTe first exciton transition, does not result from the recombination of the charge carriers at the charge transfer state but involves localised hole states.

  20. Observation of coherent delocalized phonon-like modes in DNA under physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    González-Jiménez, Mario; Ramakrishnan, Gopakumar; Harwood, Thomas; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Wynne, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Underdamped terahertz-frequency delocalized phonon-like modes have long been suggested to play a role in the biological function of DNA. Such phonon modes involve the collective motion of many atoms and are prerequisite to understanding the molecular nature of macroscopic conformational changes and related biochemical phenomena. Initial predictions were based on simple theoretical models of DNA. However, such models do not take into account strong interactions with the surrounding water, which is likely to cause phonon modes to be heavily damped and localized. Here we apply state-of-the-art femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, which is currently the only technique capable of taking low-frequency (GHz to THz) vibrational spectra in solution. We are able to demonstrate that phonon modes involving the hydrogen bond network between the strands exist in DNA at physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, the dynamics of the solvating water molecules is slowed down by about a factor of 20 compared with the bulk. PMID:27248361

  1. Exploring Fragility: Industrial Delocalization, Occupational and Environmental Risks, and Non-Governmental Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria

    2009-01-01

    What is the role of non-governmental organizations – NGOs – in the process of industrial delocalization and socio-spatial redistribution of occupational and environmental risks? In an attempt to contribute to this debate, this study approaches the issue in a very specific socio-historical context, marked by recent accelerated industrialization in a small town in Northeast Brazil. Based on semi-structured interviews with leaders of four local NGOs, the way they perceive and value the risks introduced into the area and relations between industrialization and local development are analyzed. Findings show a strong adherence to the industrial plan by workers’ trade unions, whilst other NGOs are highly critical with regard thereto, but undertake no social or political activity regarding the issues they identify. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of the modus operandi of ideology and its strategies for symbolic construction, enabling a comprehensive reinterpretation of how capital also benefits, in its mobility, from local society’s fragility in organizing and protecting quality of life and public health. PMID:19440428

  2. The screening of 4f moments and delocalization in the compressed light rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, A K; Scalettar, R T; Jarrell, M

    2009-08-19

    Spin and charge susceptibilities and the 4f{sup n}, 4f{sup n{+-}1} configuration weights are calculated for compressed Ce (n=1), Pr (n=2), and Nd (n=3) metals using dynamical mean field theory combined with the local-density approximation. At ambient and larger volumes these trivalent rare earths are pinned at sharp 4f{sup n} configurations, their 4f moments assume atomic-limiting values, are unscreened, and the 4f charge fluctuations are small indicating little f state density near the Fermi level. Under compresssion there is dramatic screening of the moments and an associated increase in both the 4f charge fluctuations and static charge susceptibility. These changes are coincident with growing weights of the 4f{sup n-1} configurations, which it is argued are better measures of delocalization than the 4f{sup n+1} weights which are compromised by an increase in the number of 4f electrons caused by rising 6s, 6p bands. This process is continuous and prolonged as a function of volume, with strikingly similarity among the three rare earths, aside from the effects moderating and shifting to smaller volumes for the heavier members. The observed {alpha}-{gamma} collapse in Ce occurs over the large-volume half of this evolution, the Pr analog at smaller volumes, and Nd has no collapse.

  3. Review of meson spectroscopy: quark states and glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1981-11-01

    A group of three lectures on hadron spectroscopy are presented. Topics covered include: light L = 0 mesons, light L = 1 mesons, antiquark antiquark quark quark exotics, a catalogue of higher quark antiquark excitations, heavy quarkonium, and glueballs. (GHT)

  4. Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable.

    PubMed

    Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Whorfian hypothesis suggests that differences between languages cause differences in cognitive processes. Support for this idea comes from studies that find that patterns of colour memory errors made by speakers of different languages align with differences in colour lexicons. The current study provides a large-scale investigation of the relationship between colour language and colour memory, adopting a cross-linguistic and developmental approach. Colour memory on a delayed matching-to-sample (XAB) task was investigated in 2 language groups with differing colour lexicons, for 3 developmental stages and 2 regions of colour space. Analyses used a Bayesian technique to provide simultaneous assessment of two competing hypotheses (H1-Whorfian effect present, H0-Whorfian effect absent). Results of the analyses consistently favoured H0. The findings suggest that Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable and that the importance of such effects should not be overestimated.

  5. Colour preferences influences odour learning in the hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

    2006-05-01

    The hummingbird hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum, learns colour fast and reliably. It has earlier been shown to spontaneously feed from odourless artificial flowers. Now, we have studied odour learning. The moths were trained to discriminate feeders of the same colour but marked with different odours. They did not learn to discriminate two natural flower odours when they were presented with the innately preferred colour blue, but they did learn this discrimination combined with yellow or green colours that are less attractive to the moth. The yellow colour could be trained to become as attractive as the innately preferred blue colour and the blue colour could be trained to become less attractive. This is the first proof of odour learning in a diurnal moth. The results show that M. stellatarum can use more than one modality in their foraging behaviour and that the system is plastic. By manipulating the preferences for the different colours, their influence on odour learning could be changed.

  6. Visualising fragrances through colours: the mediating role of emotions.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Tanudjaja, Inge

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate communication about fragrances, one can use the colours people tend to associate with their smells. We investigated to what extent odour-colour correspondences for fine fragrances can be accounted for by underlying emotional associations. Odour-colour matches and degree-of-fit judgments revealed that odours were matched to colours non-randomly. Matching colours differed mainly on blackness (brightness), and less on chromaticness (saturation) and hue. Furthermore, we found a consistent negative relationship between odour-colour degree-of-fit ratings and the difference between the odour scores and the colour scores on one of the emotion dimensions (pleasure). This suggests that emotional associations may partly underlie odour-colour correspondences.

  7. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

    PubMed

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  8. Localization-delocalization transition and subdiffusion of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Terao, Takamichi

    2011-05-01

    Localization-delocalization transition in a three-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with random potential is investigated, and the effect of nonlinearity is clarified numerically. By Thouless-number analysis, it is shown that the nonlinearity tends to delocalize the stationary states in a three-dimensional DNLSE. The spreading of a wave packet in a localized regime is also clarified for this system, and the subdiffusive behavior is observed in the three-dimensional system when the nonlinearity of the system is sufficiently strong. In addition, a one-dimensional DNLSE with random potential having a finite correlation length is studied, and it is suggested that the power-law exponent of the subdiffusion in DNLSE is not a universal quantity.

  9. Delocalization in two-dimensional disordered Bose systems and depinning transition in the vortex state in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, A V; Vinokur, V M

    2004-02-13

    We investigate a two-dimensional (2D) Bose system with the long range interactions in the presence of disorder. Formation of the bound states at strong impurity sites gives rise to a depletion of the superfluid density. We predict the intermediate superfluid state where the condensate and localized bosons are present simultaneously. We find that interactions suppress localization and that with the increase of the boson density the system experiences a sharp delocalization crossover into a state where all bosons are delocalized. We map our results onto a 3D system of vortices in type II superconductors in the presence of columnar defects; the intermediate superfluid state maps to an intermediate vortex liquid where vortex liquid neighbors pinned vortices. We predict the depinning crossover within the vortex liquid and depinning induced vortex lattice-Bose glass melting.

  10. Colour vision impairment and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Blain, L; Lemaire, J; Lalande, F

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol intake and colour discrimination capacity was examined among 136 persons of whom 16 were undergoing treatment in a detoxification centre. Current weekly alcohol consumption (or prior to treatment for those in the centre) was obtained with a detailed questionnaire, which divided week and weekend drinking into types of alcohol (beer, wine, spirits). Alcohol consumption varied from 0-5824 g/week; median: 266 g/week. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of acquired dyschromatopsia was obtained with a colour arrangement test, the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. In all age categories, the prevalence of dyschromatopsia increased with alcohol intake. Moreover, all the heavy drinkers (greater than 751 g/week) presented a certain degree of dyschromatopsia, whether or not they were undergoing treatment for alcoholism in a detoxification centre. Colour loss was primarily in the blue-yellow range; however, 4 of the 16 persons from the detoxification centre presented complex dyschromatopsia patterns including red-green loss. This raises the question of possible progressive deterioration. Multiple regression analysis showed that colour vision loss was significantly related to both age (p less than 0.001) and alcohol intake (p less than 0.01). These results underline the importance of taking into account the contribution of alcohol consumption in studies on acquired dyschromatopsia.

  11. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  12. Genetics of human iris colour and patterns.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Richard A; Larsson, Mats

    2009-10-01

    The presence of melanin pigment within the iris is responsible for the visual impression of human eye colouration with complex patterns also evident in this tissue, including Fuchs' crypts, nevi, Wolfflin nodules and contraction furrows. The genetic basis underlying the determination and inheritance of these traits has been the subject of debate and research from the very beginning of quantitative trait studies in humans. Although segregation of blue-brown eye colour has been described using a simple Mendelian dominant-recessive gene model this is too simplistic, and a new molecular genetic perspective is needed to fully understand the biological complexities of this process as a polygenic trait. Nevertheless, it has been estimated that 74% of the variance in human eye colour can be explained by one interval on chromosome 15 that contains the OCA2 gene. Fine mapping of this region has identified a single base change rs12913832 T/C within intron 86 of the upstream HERC2 locus that explains almost all of this association with blue-brown eye colour. A model is presented whereby this SNP, serving as a target site for the SWI/SNF family member HLTF, acts as part of a highly evolutionary conserved regulatory element required for OCA2 gene activation through chromatin remodelling. Major candidate genes possibly effecting iris patterns are also discussed, including MITF and PAX6.

  13. Colour Octet Extension of 2HDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, German

    In this paper we consider some aspects of the Manohar-Wise extension of the SM with a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar applied to 2HDM. We present theoretical constraints on the parameters of this extension to both the SM and the 2HDM and discuss related phenomenology at LHC.

  14. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, G. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  15. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  16. Massive Compact Stars as Quark Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário; Barbosa Duarte, Sérgio; de Oliveira, José Carlos T.

    2011-03-01

    High-mass compact stars have been reported recently in the literature, providing strong constraints on the properties of the ultra dense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. In view of these results, the calculations of quark star or hybrid star equilibrium structure must be compatible with the provided observational data. But since the equations of state used in describing quark matter are in general too soft in comparison with the equation of states used to describe the hadronic or nuclear matter, the calculated quark star models presented in the literature are in general not suitable to explain the stability of highly-compact massive objects. In this work, we present the calculations of a spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state that takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. The quark matter behavior introduced by this model stiffens the corresponding equation of state. We thus investigate the influence of this model on the mass-radius diagram of quark stars. We obtain massive quark stars due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when a reasonable parameterization of the color superconducting gap is used. Models of quark stars enveloped by a nucleonic crust composed of a nuclear lattice embedded in an electron gas, with nuclei close to neutron drip line, are also discussed.

  17. A measurement of the top quark's charge

    SciTech Connect

    Unalan, Zeynep Gunay

    2007-01-01

    The top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). One way to confirm if the observed top quark is really the top quark posited in the Standard Model (SM) is to measure its electric charge. In the Standard Model the top quark is the isospin partner of the bottom quark and is expected to have a charge of +2/3. However, an alternative 'exotic' model has been proposed with a fourth generation exotic quark that has the same characteristics, such as mass, as our observed top but with a charge of -4/3. This thesis presents the first CDF measurement of the top quark's charge via its decay products, a W boson and a bottom quark, using ~ 1 fb-1 of data. The data were collected by the CDF detector from proton anti-proton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at Fermilab. We classify events depending on the charges of the bottom quark and associated W boson and count the number of events which appear 'SM-like' or 'exotic-like' with a SM-like event decaying as t → W+b and an exotic event as t → W-b. We find the p-value under the Standard Model hypothesis to be 0.35 which is consistent with the Standard Model. We exclude the exotic quark hypothesis at an 81% confidence level, for which we have chosen a priori that the probability of incorrectly rejecting the SM would be 1%. The calculated Bayes Factor (BF) is 2 x Ln(BF)=8.54 which is interpreted as the data strongly favors the Standard Model over the exotic quark hypothesis.

  18. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  19. Observation of suppressed Auger mechanism in type-I quantum well structures with delocalized electron-hole wavefunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-15

    We report the first observation of non-threshold Auger mechanism for a quantum well structure with Type-I band alignment. Excitation-dependent photoluminescence measurements were used to extract the Auger recombination coefficients from 77 K up to room temperature. The results verify the role of interface mediated momentum exchange as well as suppression of Auger recombination for delocalized electron-hole wavefunctions.

  20. Displaying Photographic Images On Computer Monitors With Limited Colour Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, John D.; Mitchell, Joan L.; Pennebaker, William B.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we address the problem of displaying continuous tone photographic colour images on CRT monitors on which only a limited number of colours can be displayed simultaneously. An algorithm is presented which generates a palette of a limited number of colours, and a method is given for the actual display of a full colour image using such a palette and its associated tables.

  1. Hadronic physics of q anti q light quark mesons, quark molecules and glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    A brief introduction reviews the development of QCD and defines quark molecules and glueballs. This review is concerned primarily with u, d, and s quarks, which provide practically all of the cross section connected with hadronic interactions. The following topics form the bulk of the paper: status of quark model classification for conventional u, d, s quark meson states; status of multiquark or quark molecule state predictions and experiments; glueballs and how to find them; and the OZI rule in decay and production and how glueballs might affect it. 17 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  2. Generation of strong magnetic fields in dense quark matter driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We study the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in dense quark matter. The magnetic field growth is owing to the magnetic field instability driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks. We discuss the situation when the chiral symmetry is unbroken in the degenerate quark matter. In this case we predict the amplification of the seed magnetic field 1012G to the strengths (1014 -1015)G. In our analysis we use the typical parameters of the quark matter in the core of a hybrid star or in a quark star. We also discuss the application of the obtained results to describe the magnetic fields generation in magnetars.

  3. Colour and constitution: linear free energy relationships and/or polymethinic colour rules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daehne, S.; Hoffmann, K.

    1990-03-01

    Model considerations of 1-donor-4-acceptor-substituted butadienes and benzenes, of 4-, and 5-substituted models of 2-nitroanilines, and of nitro-substituted methylene blue show that triad theory and its polymethinic colour rules reveal of physico-chemical background of LFERs as well as their limitations whereas, on the other hand, polymethinic colour rules can be quantified, and exceptions can be explained, by using results of LFERs.

  4. Broadband ultrafast photoluminescence spectroscopy resolves charge photogeneration via delocalized hot excitons in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Barker, Alex J; Reish, Matthew E; Gordon, Keith C; Hodgkiss, Justin M

    2013-12-11

    Conventional descriptions of excitons in semiconducting polymers do not account for several important observations in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends, including the ultrafast time scale of charge photogeneration in phase separated blends and the intermediate role of delocalized charge transfer states. We investigate the nature of excitons in thin films of polymers and polymer:fullerene blends by using broadband ultrafast photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our technique enables us to resolve energetic relaxation, as well as the volume of excitons and population dynamics on ultrafast time scales. We resolve substantial high-energy emission from hot excitons prior to energetic relaxation, which occurs predominantly on a subpicosecond time scale. Consistent with quantum chemical calculations, ultrafast annihilation measurements show that excitons initially extend along a substantial chain length prior to localization induced by structural relaxation. Moreover, we see that hot excitons are initially highly mobile and the subsequent rapid decay in mobility is correlated with energetic relaxation. The relevance of these measurements to charge photogeneration is confirmed by our measurements in blends. We find that charge photogeneration occurs predominately via these delocalized hot exciton states in competition with relaxation and independently of temperature. As well as accounting for the ultrafast time scale of charge generation across large polymer phases, delocalized hot excitons may also account for the crucial requirement that primary charge pairs are well separated in efficient organic photovoltaic blends.

  5. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals. PMID:20164101

  6. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  7. Tevatron Top-Quark Combinations and World Top-Quark Mass Combination

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-04

    Almost 20 years after its discovery, the top quark is still an interesting particle, undergoing precise investigation of its properties. For many years, the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab was the only place to study top quarks in detail, while with the recent start of the LHC proton proton collider a top quark factory has opened. An important ingredient for the full understanding of the top quark is the combination of measurements from the individual experiments. In particular, the Tevaton combinations of single top-quark cross sections, the ttbar production cross section, the W helicity in top-quark decays as well as the Tevatron and the world combination of the top-quark mass are discussed.

  8. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  9. Recent advances in heavy quark theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.

  10. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; CMS Collaboration; Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-09-30

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make possible detailed physics studies, and also the use of top quark decays for detector calibration. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  11. Dressed Quarks and PROTON’S Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Wong, Chun Wa; Chu, Keh-Cheng

    The effect on the proton spin of mixing gluon and sea quark configurations is studied in a perturbative treatment based on the MIT bag model. As little as 29% of the proton spin is found to remain as the intrinsic spin of quarks when they are “dressed” by gluons.

  12. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  13. Polygon Pictures in QuarkXPress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity where students draw and fill simple and complex shapes by utilizing the polygon tool in QuarkXPress to create graphics. Explains that this activity enables students to learn how to use a variety of functions in the QuarkXPress program. (CMK)

  14. Search for top quark at Fermilab Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, K.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    The status of a search for the top quark with Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), based on a data sample recorded during the 1988--1989 run is presented. The plans for the next Fermilab Collider run in 1992--1993 and the prospects of discovering the top quark are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Physics of the top quark at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Vejcik, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of Top quark properties with the CDF detector are reported. The production cross section and mass provide a consistent picture of the Top quark as described by the Standard Model. Initial studies of other properties such as estimates of branching ratios are also reported.

  16. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  17. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussar, P. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)

  19. Top Quark Pair Production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2005-05-17

    The measurement of the top quark pair production crosssection inproton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV is a test ofquantumchromodynamics and could potentially be sensitive to newphysics beyondthe standard model. I report on the latest t-tbarcross section resultsfrom the CDF and DZero experiments in various finalstate topologies whicharise from decays of top quark pairs.

  20. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  1. Correlation between Photovoltaic Performance and Interchain Ordering Induced Delocalization of Electronics States in Conjugated Polymer Blends.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Naresh; Gann, Eliot; Jain, Nakul; Kumar, Anshu; Gopinathan, Sreelekha; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Kumar, Anil; McNeill, Christopher R; Kabra, Dinesh

    2016-08-10

    In this paper we correlate the solar cell performance with bimolecular packing of donor:acceptor bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs), where interchain ordering of the donor molecule and its influence on morphology, optical properties, and charge carrier dynamics of BHJ solar cells are studied in detail. Solar cells that are fabricated using more ordered defect free 100% regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (DF-P3HT) as the donor polymer show ca. 10% increase in the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) when compared to that of the solar cell fabricated using 92% regioregularity P3HT, referred to as rr-P3HT. EQE and UV-vis absorption spectrum show a clear increase in the 607 nm vibronic shoulder of the DF-P3HT blend suggesting better interchain ordering which was also reflected in the less Urbach energy (Eu) value for this system. The increase in ordering inside the blend has enhanced the hole-mobility which is calculated from the single carrier device J-V characteristics. Electroluminance (EL) studies on the DF-P3HT system showed a red-shifted peak when compared to rr-P3HT-based devices suggesting low CT energy states in DF-P3HT. The morphologies of the blend films are studied using AFM and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) suggesting increase in the roughness and phase segregation which could enhance the internal scattering of the light inside the device and improvement in the crystallinity along alkyl and π-stacking direction. Hence, higher PCE, lower Eu, red-shifted EL emission, high hole-mobility, and better crystallinity suggest improved interchain ordering has facilitated a more delocalized HOMO state in DF-P3HT-based BHJ solar cells.

  2. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.

  3. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-12-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The non-perturbative unquenched quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entern, D. R.; Ortega, P. G.; Fernández, F.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years states in the quarkonium spectrum not expected in the naive quark model have appeared and created a lot of interest. In the theoretical side the study of the effect of meson-meson thresholds in the spectrum have been performed in different approximations. In a quark model framework, and in the spirit of the Cornell model, when a meson-meson threshold is included, the coupling to all the quark-antiquark states have to be considered. In practice only the closest states are included perturbatively. In this contribution we will present a framework in which we couple quark-antiquark states with meson-meson states non-perturbatively, taking into account effectively the coupling to all quark-antiquark states. The method will be applied to the study of the X(3872) and a comparison with the perturbative calculation will be performed.

  5. Algebra of optical quarks: an experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, Yuriy; Konovalenko, Viktor; Zinovev, Alexey; Nesterova, Mariya; Glumova, Marina

    2013-12-01

    We have considered a new type of singular beams called as optical quarks. They have fractional topological charges being equal to half an integer and they possess rather unique properties. There are four types of optical quarks, even and odd ones, which reveal the opposite signs of topological charges. The sums or differences of the even and odd quarks form standard vortex or non-vortex beams with the topological charges of integer order. All the quarks in the same beam annihilate and the beam vanishes. We conducted an analysis of all possible combinations of even and odd optical quarks with different charges. What provided an opportunity to explore what interactions correspond to their "sum" and "difference."

  6. Representation or context as a cognitive strategy in colour constancy?

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Wei; Sun, Chun-Wang

    2008-01-01

    If an identification task with colour constancy as its objective is carried out under drastically changing illumination, do people rely mainly on colour information or do they rely on other sources of information? This question suggested two hypotheses for testing: (i) context hypothesis: people rely mainly on colour information (spectral reflectance or illumination chromaticity) to achieve colour constancy; (ii) representation hypothesis: people rely mainly on all other clues associated with colour to achieve colour constancy, including form information (any shape elements) and space information (spatial coordinates or spatial correlation). Experiment 1 showed that form information was readily associated with colour information to produce implicit representation. This gave the best colour-constancy performance (95.72%) and the fastest processing speed, so it probably used a top-down process. However, it was also prone to error owing to assumptions. Space information was not readily associated with colour information so colour-constancy performance was halved (48.73%) and processing time doubled. When the subject was deprived of both information sources and only given colour information, this resulted in the longest reaction times and the worst colour-constancy performance (41.38%). These results clearly support the representation hypothesis rather than the context hypothesis. When all three clues were available at the same time, the order of preference was: symbol, location, then colour. Experiment 2 showed that when form information was the main clue, colour-constancy performance was conceptually driven and processed more quickly; this supports the representation hypothesis. However, when form information was not used, colour constancy was data-driven, processed more slowly, and achieved an inferior identification rate overall; this supports the context hypothesis.

  7. Specific deficit of colour-colour short-term memory binding in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Sala, Sergio Della; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Méndez, Luis Guillermo; Lopera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, and in asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer's disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different brain mechanisms.

  8. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Caner, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present preliminary results on top quark physics recently obtained by the CDF collaboration. The data sample consists of 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} of {ital p{anti p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s} = 1.8 TeV, collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the period 1992 - 1995. We report on the {ital t{anti t}} production cross section and on the top quark mass. The measurements are made in three topologies, corresponding to the decay modes of the {ital Wb} pairs in the final state: lepton + multi-jets, dilepton and all hadronic final state. The analysis performed on the single lepton sample yields the most accurate measurements, due to the good acceptance and the favorable signal to noise ratio obtained after applying some b-tagging techniques. In this channel we measure: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 6.8{sup +2.3}{sub -1.8} pb M{sub {ital t}} = 175.6 {+-} 5.7 ({ital stat}) {+-} 7.1 ({ital syst.}) {ital GeV/c{sup 2}} Combining the cross sections measured with the lepton + multi-jet and dilepton data we obtain: {sigma}{sub {ital t{anti t}}} = 7.5{sup +1.9}{sub -1.6} {ital pb} A preliminary investigation of the production mechanism of the {ital t{anti t}} system is shown and compared to Standard Model expectations.

  9. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bishai

    2002-12-13

    Heavy quark production cross-sections, correlations and polarizations have been measured at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) using 118 pb{sup -1} of data collected from the 1992 to 1995 Run I of the Fermilab Tevatron. There is still disagreement between theoretical predictions of bottom and charm hadro-production cross-sections and the Run I results. The observed transverse momentum spectrum of the prompt J/{psi} production polarization is still not understood. Run II of the Tevatron began in July of 2001 and the CDF Run II detector [11] has collected 70 pb{sup -1} of physics quality data since January 2002. Large statistics of onia states have been collected. Exclusive B meson decay modes have been reconstructed and the SVT level 2 displaced track trigger has produced large samples of D mesons. The prompt charm and b {yields} cX fractions in both charmonium and D meson samples have been measured. Run II is now poised to greatly enhance the knowledge of heavy quark production dynamics well beyond the reach of the Run I detector.

  10. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  11. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of

  12. Production and decay of heavy top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.P.

    1989-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.

  13. Interpreting the colour of an estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D. G.; Evans, D.; Thomas, D. N.; Ellis, K.; Williams, P. J. le B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using water colour to quantify the concentration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and through it, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity in a turbid estuary in which suspended sediments also influence water colour. The motivation of the work is that the method could be applied to water colour measurements made remotely from an aircraft (or, in larger estuaries, a satellite) enabling near-synoptic mapping of surface salinity and DOC distributions. The paper describes observations at 29 stations distributed along the salinity gradient of the Conwy estuary in North Wales. At each station, surface water samples were collected and analysed for salinity, concentrations of DOC, chlorophyll and suspended particles and absorption spectra of CDOM, or yellow substance. Profiles were made of both upwelling and downwelling irradiance in four narrow band channels, and these were used to calculate irradiance reflection and attenuation coefficients. Results show that spectrally averaged light absorption in the estuary is caused principally and equally by mineral suspended solids and yellow substance, with water and chlorophyll in third and fourth place. The CDOM is strongly correlated ( R2=0.99) in a negative sense with salinity, and more weakly correlated with DOC. There is a linear relationship between CDOM and the ratio of reflection coefficients in the red (670 nm) and blue-green (490 nm) parts of the spectrum, which could be applied to remote sensing; the slope and intercept of the relationship are however different to those found in less turbid water bodies. It is shown that the change in slope and intercept are consistent with the presence, in the Conwy estuary, of suspended particles which influence the water colour. A method is described and tested for inverting water colour measurements in a turbid estuary to give estimates of CDOM in the presence of suspended particles. The solution, which has not been adjusted to

  14. Magnetic phase diagram of dense holographic multiquarks in the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burikham, Piyabut

    2011-05-01

    We study phase diagram of the dense holographic gauge matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the presence of the magnetic field above the deconfinement temperature. Even above the deconfinement, quarks could form colour bound states through the remaining strong interaction if the density is large. We demonstrate that in the presence of the magnetic field for a sufficiently large baryon density, the multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-∇ φ) phase is more thermodynamically preferred than the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma. The phase diagrams between the holographic multiquark and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phase are obtained at finite temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed MQ-∇ φ phase, the pion gradient induced by the external magnetic field is found to be a linear response for small and moderate field strengths. Its population ratio decreases as the density is raised and thus the multiquarks dominate the phase. Temperature dependence of the baryon chemical potential, the free energy and the linear pion gradient response of the multiquark phase are well approximated by a simple q analytic function sqrt {{1 - {{T^6}}/{T_0^6}}} inherited from the metric of the holographic background.

  15. The Colour of the Young Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    VLT study gives insight on the evolution of the star formation rate Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has determined the colour of the Universe when it was very young. While the Universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past , at a time when it was only 2,500 million years old. This is the outcome of an extensive and thorough analysis of more than 300 galaxies seen within a small southern sky area, the so-called Hubble Deep Field South. The main goal of this advanced study was to understand how the stellar content of the Universe was assembled and has changed over time. Dutch astronomer Marijn Franx , a team member from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands), explains: "The blue colour of the early Universe is caused by the predominantly blue light from young stars in the galaxies. The redder colour of the Universe today is caused by the relatively larger number of older, redder stars." The team leader, Gregory Rudnick from the Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysics (Garching, Germany) adds: "Since the total amount of light in the Universe in the past was about the same as today and a young blue star emits much more light than an old red star, there must have been significantly fewer stars in the young Universe than there is now. Our new findings imply that the majority of stars in the Universe were formed comparatively late, not so long before our Sun was born, at a moment when the Universe was around 7,000 million years old." These new results are based on unique data collected during more than 100 hours of observations with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as part of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES) . The distances to the galaxies were estimated from their brightness in different optical near-infrared wavelength bands. PR Photo 34/03 : The Evolving Colour of the Universe . Observing the early Universe It is now well known that the Sun was formed

  16. Bird colour vision: behavioural thresholds reveal receptor noise.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Peter; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

    2015-01-15

    Birds have impressive physiological adaptations for colour vision, including tetrachromacy and coloured oil droplets, yet it is not clear exactly how well birds can discriminate the reflecting object colours that they encounter in nature. With behavioural experiments, we determined colour discrimination thresholds of chickens in bright and dim light. We performed the experiments with two colour series, orange and green, covering two parts of chicken colour space. These experiments allowed us to compare behavioural results with model expectations and determine how different noise types limit colour discrimination. At intensities ranging from bright light to those corresponding to early dusk (250-10 cd m(-2)), we describe thresholds accurately by assuming a constant signal-to-noise ratio, in agreement with an invariant Weber fraction of Weber's law. Below this intensity, signal-to-noise ratio decreases and Weber's law is violated because photon-shot noise limits colour discrimination. In very dim light (below 0.05 cd m(-2) for the orange series or 0.2 cd m(-2) for the green series) colour discrimination is possibly constrained by dark noise, and the lowest intensity at which chickens can discriminate colours is 0.025 and 0.08 cd m(-2) for the orange and green series, respectively. Our results suggest that chickens use spatial pooling of cone outputs to mitigate photon-shot noise. Surprisingly, we found no difference between colour discrimination of chickens and humans tested with the same test in bright light.

  17. Diagnosing synaesthesia with online colour pickers: maximising sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Seth, Anil K; Witzel, Christoph; Ward, Jamie

    2013-04-30

    The most commonly used method for formally assessing grapheme-colour synaesthesia (i.e., experiencing colours in response to letter and/or number stimuli) involves selecting colours from a large colour palette on several occasions and measuring consistency of the colours selected. However, the ability to diagnose synaesthesia using this method depends on several factors that have not been directly contrasted. These include the type of colour space used (e.g., RGB, HSV, CIELUV, CIELAB) and different measures of consistency (e.g., city block and Euclidean distance in colour space). This study aims to find the most reliable way of diagnosing grapheme-colour synaesthesia based on maximising sensitivity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true synaesthetes) and specificity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true non-synaesthetes). We show, applying ROC (receiver operating characteristics) to binary classification of a large sample of self-declared synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, that the consistency criterion (i.e., cut-off value) for diagnosing synaesthesia is considerably higher than the current standard in the field. We also show that methods based on perceptual CIELUV and CIELAB colour models (rather than RGB and HSV colour representations) and Euclidean distances offer an even greater sensitivity and specificity than most currently used measures. Together, these findings offer improved heuristics for the behavioural assessment of grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

  18. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration. PMID:27280079

  19. Colour change in cyanosis and the confusions of congenital colour vision deficient observers.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae; Taylor, Clair M; McKenzie, David K; Coroneo, Minas T; Dain, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    Visual recognition of cyanosis is an important clinical activity. While pulse oximetry is almost universal in the hospital environment, there are circumstances where it is not available or may be unreliable. Cyanosis recognition is affected by lighting colour. In addition, there is, mainly anecdotal, evidence that people with greater colour vision deficiencies (CVDs) have particular difficulty and there is no effective lighting strategy to assist in the observation. The change of blood colour with oxygenation has been shown to lie close to the direction of colour confusions made by congenital red-green dichromats. The important sites of observation are lips, nail beds and palm creases. 10 subjects who were known to be chronically hypoxaemic were recruited from the chronic respiratory program. Their blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) varied from 84% to 96% pre-exercise, and 61-84% post-exercise. Ten normal subjects were recruited whose SpO(2) was 99% or 100%. The spectral radiances of lips, nail beds and palm creases were measured using a telespectroradiometer and compared with the spectral radiances of a white tile of known spectral reflectances measured in the same location. This is a non-contact method of measurement, avoiding the blanching caused by pressure of contact methods. The spectral reflectances were calculated, and the chromaticities calculated for a Planckian radiator T = 4000K. Measurements on lips yielded the most consistent results. The colour changes pre- and post-exercise and compared with normal colour lie generally along a deutan confusion line. These results show the direction of the colour change and confirm the, previously anecdotal, difficulties in detecting cyanosis by observers with CVDs.

  20. Simulating Colour Vision Deficiency from a Spectral Image.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raju

    2016-01-01

    People with colour vision deficiency (CVD) have difficulty seeing full colour contrast and can miss some of the features in a scene. As a part of universal design, researcher have been working on how to modify and enhance the colour of images in order to make them see the scene with good contrast. For this, it is important to know how the original colour image is seen by different individuals with CVD. This paper proposes a methodology to simulate accurate colour deficient images from a spectral image using cone sensitivity of different cases of deficiency. As the method enables generation of accurate colour deficient image, the methodology is believed to help better understand the limitations of colour vision deficiency and that in turn leads to the design and development of more effective imaging technologies for better and wider accessibility in the context of universal design.

  1. Colour-dependent target detection by bees.

    PubMed

    Niggebrügge, C; Hempel de Ibarra, N

    2003-12-01

    The distance over which an object is detected by bees depends on the subtended visual angle and on spectral cues. At large angular subtenses detection is mediated only by chromatic cues. Achromatic targets, however, are also detectable. We investigated how chromatic and achromatic cues interact in detecting large-size targets. Coloured targets were used, with varied chromatic contrast that either did or did not present L-receptor contrast. Better detection correlated with higher chromatic contrast. Adding L-receptor contrast did not affect detection. It did allow the detection of achromatic targets, but at a lower level than most coloured ones, which indicates that the input from the achromatic system is negligible due to low sensitivity.

  2. Chromatic Discrimination in a Cortically Colour Blind Observer.

    PubMed

    Heywood, C. A.; Cowey, A.; Newcombe, F.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the ability of a subject with cerebral achromatopsia to discriminate between colours and to detect chromatic borders. He was unable to identify colours or to arrange them in an orderly series or choose the odd colour out of an array or even to pick out a colour embedded in an array of greys. Nevertheless, he could select the odd colour when the colours were contiguous, even when they were isoluminant, and could discriminate an ordered from a disordered chromatic series as long as the colours in each row abutted one other. His verbal replies showed that he did so by detecting an edge between two stimuli that were, to him, perceptually identical. Introducing a narrow isoluminant grey stripe between adjacent colours abolished or greatly impaired this ability. As long as isoluminant colours were contiguous the patient could identify the orientation of the chromatic borders. Photopic spectral sensitivity showed evidence both for activity of three cone channels and for chromatic opponent processing, indicating that postreceptoral chromatic processing is occurring despite the absence of any conscious awareness of colour. The results indicate that both parvocellular colour opponent and magnocellular broad-band channels are active and that the cortical brain damage has selectively disrupted the appreciation of colour but not the ability to detect even isoluminant chromatic borders, which would be invisible to a retinal achromat. The subject's performance on non-colour tasks involving the discrimination of shape, texture, greyness and position was excellent. His disorder is therefore not like that of macaque monkeys in which cortical area V4 has been removed, and which are much more severely impaired at discriminating shape than colour.

  3. The VRI colours of H II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1997-03-01

    We present a high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I broad-band filters of a sample of 15 H II galaxies. Narrow-band imaging allows the separation of the emission-line region from the extended parts of the galaxy. The latter are assumed to represent the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies; thus the colours of the underlying galaxy are measured. The colours of the underlying stellar continuum within the starburst are also derived by subtracting the contribution of the emission lines falling in the broad-band filters. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in H II galaxies is similar to the colours of other late-type low surface brightness galaxies, which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of H II galaxies. However, comparison wtih recent evolutionary population synthesis models shows that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history. Our analysis of the morphology and structural properties, from contour maps and luminosity profiles, of this sample of 15 H II galaxies agrees with what has been found by Telles and Telles, Melnick & Terlevich, namely that H II galaxies comprise two broad classes segregated by their luminosity; Type I H II galaxies are luminous and have disturbed and irregular outer shapes, while Type II H II galaxies are less luminous and have regular shapes. The outer parts of their profiles are well represented by an exponential, as in other types of known dwarf galaxy.

  4. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  5. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  6. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  7. Material and lighting hues of object colour.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Rumi; Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    Observers can easily differentiate between a pigmented stain and the white surface that it lies on. The same applies for a colour shadow cast upon the same surface. Although the difference between these two kinds of colour appearance (referred to as material and lighting hues) is self-evident even for inexperienced observers, it is not one that has been captured by any colour appearance model thus far. We report here on an experiment supplying evidence for the dissociation of these two types of hue in the perceptual space. The stimulus display consisted of two identical sets of Munsell papers illuminated independently by yellow, neutral, and blue lights. Dissimilarities between all the paper/light pairs were ranked by five trichromatic observers, and then analysed by using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). In the MDS output configuration, the Munsell papers lit by the same light made a closed configuration retaining the same order as in the Munsell book. The paper configurations for the yellow and blue lights were displaced transversally and in parallel to each other, with that of the neutral light located in between. The direction of the shift is interpreted as the yellow-blue lighting dimension. We show that the yellow-blue lighting dimension cannot be reduced to that of the reflected light.

  8. Measurement of the top quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Blusk, Steven R.

    1998-05-01

    The first evidence and subsequent discovery of the top quark was reported nearly 4 years ago. Since then, CDF and D0 have analyzed their full Run 1 data samples, and analysis techniques have been refined to make optimal use of the information. In this paper, we report on the most recent measurements of the top quark mass, performed by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron. The CDF collaboration has performed measurements of the top quark mass in three decay channels from which the top quark mass is measured to be 175.5 {+-} 6.9 GeV=c{sup 2}. The D0 collaboration combines measurements from two decay channels to obtain a top quark mass of 172.1 {+-} 7.1 GeV/c{sup 2}. Combining the measurements from the two experiments, assuming a 2 GeV GeV/c{sup 2} correlated systematic uncertainty, the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron is 173.9 {+-} 5.2 GeV/c{sup 2}. This report presents the measurements of the top quark mass from each of the decay channels which contribute to this measurement.

  9. Colour fluctuations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia: The effect of clinical and non-clinical mood changes.

    PubMed

    Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems.

  10. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.

  11. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the colour fraction of Caramel Colour IV in the rat.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Chappel, C I; Schoenig, G P

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour IV prepared from [U-14C]glucose was ultrafiltered in order to isolate the high molecular weight colour fraction (HMCF). The colour fraction that was non-permeable to a 10,000-Da porosity membrane, contained 84% of the colour, 22% of the solids and 24% of the radioactivity of the [14C]Caramel Colour IV. The absorption, distribution and excretion of [14C]HMCF were evaluated in male rats after administration of single or multiple oral doses of the material at a dosage level of 2.5 g/kg body weight. Rats on the multiple oral dosage regimen were given unlabelled HMCF in their drinking water for 13 days before the administration of a bolus dose of [14C]HMCF on day 14. On both dosage regimens, the predominant route of excretion was by way of the faeces. Less than 3% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine and only a negligible amount was found in the expired air. More than 99% of the administered radioactivity was excreted within 96 hr. The principal tissues in which radioactivity was found were the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, kidney and tissues of the gastro-intestinal tract. No major differences were observed in the absorption, distribution or excretion patterns between the single and multiple oral dose regimens.

  12. NICE: A Computational Solution to Close the Gap from Colour Perception to Colour Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Parraga, C. Alejandro; Akbarinia, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The segmentation of visible electromagnetic radiation into chromatic categories by the human visual system has been extensively studied from a perceptual point of view, resulting in several colour appearance models. However, there is currently a void when it comes to relate these results to the physiological mechanisms that are known to shape the pre-cortical and cortical visual pathway. This work intends to begin to fill this void by proposing a new physiologically plausible model of colour categorization based on Neural Isoresponsive Colour Ellipsoids (NICE) in the cone-contrast space defined by the main directions of the visual signals entering the visual cortex. The model was adjusted to fit psychophysical measures that concentrate on the categorical boundaries and are consistent with the ellipsoidal isoresponse surfaces of visual cortical neurons. By revealing the shape of such categorical colour regions, our measures allow for a more precise and parsimonious description, connecting well-known early visual processing mechanisms to the less understood phenomenon of colour categorization. To test the feasibility of our method we applied it to exemplary images and a popular ground-truth chart obtaining labelling results that are better than those of current state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26954691

  13. Heavy-quark physics in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Heavy quarks can expose new symmetries and novel phenomena in QCD not apparent in ordinary hadronic systems. In these lectures I discuss the use of effective-Lagrangian and light-cone Fock methods to analyze exclusive heavy hadron decays such as {Upsilon} {yields} p{bar p} and B {yields} {pi}{pi}, and also to derive effective Schroedinger and Dirac equations for heavy quark systems. Two contributions to the heavy quark structure functions of the proton and other light hadrons are identified: an extrinsic'' contribution associated with leading twist QCD evolution of the gluon distribution, and a higher twist intrinsic'' contribution due to the hardness of high-mass fluctuations of multi-gluon correlations in hadronic wavefunctions. A non-perturbative calculation of the heavy quark distribution of a meson in QCD in one space and one time is presented. The intrinsic higher twist contributions to the pion and proton structure functions can dominate the hadronic production of heavy quark systems at large longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} and give anomalous contributions to the quark structure functions of ordinary hadrons at large x{sub bj}. I also discuss a number of ways in which heavy quark production in nuclear targets can test fundamental QCD phenomena and provide constraints on hadronic wavefunctions. The topics include color transparency, finite formation time, and predictions for charm production at threshold, including nuclear-bound quarkonium. I also discuss a number of QCD mechanisms for the suppression of J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production in nuclear collisions, including gluon shadowing, the peripheral excitation of intrinsic heavy quark components at large x{sub F}, and the coalescence of heavy quarks with co-moving spectators at low x{sub F}.

  14. Search for top quark at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    There is a vast theoretical and experimental support for idea that op quark as a weak isospin partner to b-quark should exist. Production cross section is steeply falling function of top quark mass. Therefore realistically at present only Tevatron p[anti p] collider at FNAL, with total energy 1.8 TeV in CMS system, still has a chance of top quark discovery. Dominant production mechanism for top quarks at Tevatron is pair production of t[anti t]. With almost 100% probability t ([anti t]) decays in mode t [yields] W[sup +]b. Distinct features of this decay provide very good signatures of top quark production which helps to reduce otherwise very high level of background. Based on simple combinatorial arguments one can show that W should decay in 1/9 cases into W [yields] l + [nu] where l stands for lepton (e,[mu],[tau]). Very clean signature represents case when both W's from t and [anti t] decay into e ([mu]) + [nu]. In this case experimental observation will be two isolated leptons characterized by large transverse momentum, large missing transverse energy E[sub T] and 2 b quark jets. Jets originated from b quarks can be quite frequently recognized by presence of secondary vertices associated with jets. Another feature of b-jets which can be used for their identification is frequent association of so called soft leptons with jets. Two experimental setups CDF and D0 are able to take advantage of Tevatron for top quark discovery. Recently CDF collaboration presented evidence for direct observation of t[anti t] production in 19.3 pb[sup [minus]1] of p[anti p] collisions at [radical](s) = 1.8TeV. Very brief account of these results is presented here.

  15. Complex singularities in the quark propagator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator is being studied in the rainbow approximation using a gluon propagator that incorporates asymptotic freedom and is an entire function. The gluon propagator has a number of parameters that may be varied in order to obtain a good description of low-energy pion observables; such as f{sub {pi}} and the {pi}-{pi} scattering lengths. This provides a direct means of relating hadronic observables to the form of the quark-quark interaction in the infrared and serves as an adjunct and extension of the separable Ansatz approach discussed above. It also provides a means of examining the pole structure of the quark propagator, which may hold the key to understanding quark confinement. The preliminary results are encouraging. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a good description of pion observables in this approach. Further, when the strength of the quark-quark interaction in the infrared becomes larger than a given critical value, the pole in the quark propagator bifurcates into a pair of complex conjugate poles: m{sub q} = m{sub q}{sup R} {plus_minus} im{sub q}{sup I}, which is a signal of confinement. The interpretation in this case is of 1/m{sub q}{sup I} as the distance over which a quark may propagate before fragmenting. Further, there are indications from these studies that T{sub c}{sup D} < T{sub c}{sup {chi}}, where T{sub c}{sup D} is the critical temperature for deconfinement and T{sub c}{sup {chi}} is the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration; i.e., indications that deconfinement occurs at a lower temperature than chiral symmetry restoration. Available results from this work will be presented at the Washington meeting of the APS.

  16. The recent single-tag two-photon experiments at petra and the issue of quark charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, R. M.; Pati, J. C.; Rindani, S. D.; Jayaraman, T.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1984-07-01

    The data of recent single-tag two-photon experiments indicating noticeable excess in ( overlineRγγ ) jet over fractionally charged quark-parton model-predictions is studied from the point of view of its implications on the gauge integer charge quark model. Focusing attention on the region of pT exceeding about 3 GeV, where higher order QCD and non-perturbative effects might be expected to be small, it is noted that this excess and its Q2 dependence can be attributed to the presence of a colour component in the electromagnetic current provided the effective mass of the gluon lies between about 150 to 350 MeV. Accurate measurements of overlineRγγ in the high pT region ( p T ⪆ 5 GeV) are crucial for an unambiguous distinction between fcq and gauge-icq models.

  17. Body iron delocalization: the serious drawback in iron disorders in both developing and developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Paesano, R; Natalizi, T; Berlutti, F; Valenti, P

    2012-01-01

    Over 2 billion people in both developing as well as developed countries – over 30% of the world’s population – are anaemic. With the classical preconception that oral iron administration or the intake of foods rich in iron increase haemoglobin concentration and reduce the prevalence of anaemia, specific programs have been designed, but iron supplementations have been less effective than expected. Of note, this hazardous simplification on iron status neglects its distribution in the body. The correct balance of iron, defined iron homeostasis, involves a physiological ratio of iron between tissues/secretions and blood, thus avoiding its delocalization as iron accumulation in tissues/secretions and iron deficiency in blood. Changes in iron status can affect the inflammatory response in multiple ways, particularly in the context of infection, an idea that is worth remembering when considering the value of iron supplementation in areas of the world where infections are highly prevalent. The enhanced availability of free iron can increase susceptibility and severity of microbial and parasitic infections. The discovery of the hepcidin–ferroportin (Fpn) complex, which greatly clarified the enigmatic mechanism that supervises the iron homeostasis, should prompt to a critical review on iron supplementation, ineffective on the expression of the most important proteins of iron metabolism. Therefore, it is imperative to consider new safe and efficient therapeutic interventions to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anaemia (IDA) associated or not to the inflammation. In this respect, lactoferrin (Lf) is emerging as an important regulator of both iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Oral administration of Lf in subjects suffering of ID and IDA is safe and effective in significantly increasing haematological parameters and contemporary decreasing serum IL-6 levels, thus restoring iron localization through the direct or indirect modulation of hepcidin and ferroportin synthesis

  18. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  19. Quark-gluon plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2000-12-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.

  20. Signatures for quark clustering in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.E.; Lassila, K.E.

    1994-04-01

    As a signature for the presence of quark clusters in nuclei, the authors suggest studying backward protons produced by electron scattering off deuterons and suggest a ratio that cancels out much of the detailed properties of deuterons or 6-quark clusters. The test may be viewed as a test that the short range part of the deuteron is still a 2-nucleon system. They make estimates to show how it fails in characteristic and significant ways if the two nucleons at short range coalesce into a kneaded 6-quark cluster.

  1. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. 38 refs.

  2. Discovery of single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Gillberg, Dag

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  3. Top quark properties from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Markus; /MIT, LNS

    2006-05-01

    This report describes latest measurements and studies of top quark properties from the Tevatron in Run II with an integrated luminosity of up to 750 pb{sup -1}. Due to its large mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2}, the top quark provides a unique environment for tests of the Standard Model and is believed to yield sensitivity to new physics beyond the Standard Model. With data samples of close to 1 fb{sup -1} the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron enter a new area of precision top quark measurements.

  4. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-13

    Our first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. Furthermore, a differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is usedmore » to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03 (stat) ± 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.« less

  5. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-13

    Our first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. Furthermore, a differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03 (stat) ± 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

  6. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; El Sawy, M.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.

    2016-04-01

    A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03(stat) ± 0.10(syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. D(S) spectrum and leptonic decays with Fermilab heavy quarks and improved staggered light quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro et al.

    2004-03-12

    We present preliminary results for the D{sub s} meson spectrum and decay constants in unquenched lattice QCD. Simulations are carried out with 2 + 1 dynamical quarks using gauge configurations generated by the MILC collaboration. We use the ''asqtad'' a{sup 2} improved staggered action for the light quarks, and the clover heavy quark action with the Fermilab interpretation. We compare our spectrum results with the newly discovered 0{sup +} and 1{sup +} states in the D{sub s} system.

  8. Colour learning when foraging for nectar and pollen: bees learn two colours at once

    PubMed Central

    Muth, Felicity; Papaj, Daniel R.; Leonard, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Bees are model organisms for the study of learning and memory, yet nearly all such research to date has used a single reward, nectar. Many bees collect both nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) on a single foraging bout, sometimes from different plant species. We tested whether individual bumblebees could learn colour associations with nectar and pollen rewards simultaneously in a foraging scenario where one floral type offered only nectar and the other only pollen. We found that bees readily learned multiple reward–colour associations, and when presented with novel floral targets generalized to colours similar to those trained for each reward type. These results expand the ecological significance of work on bee learning and raise new questions regarding the cognitive ecology of pollination. PMID:26423070

  9. Colour learning when foraging for nectar and pollen: bees learn two colours at once.

    PubMed

    Muth, Felicity; Papaj, Daniel R; Leonard, Anne S

    2015-09-01

    Bees are model organisms for the study of learning and memory, yet nearly all such research to date has used a single reward, nectar. Many bees collect both nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) on a single foraging bout, sometimes from different plant species. We tested whether individual bumblebees could learn colour associations with nectar and pollen rewards simultaneously in a foraging scenario where one floral type offered only nectar and the other only pollen. We found that bees readily learned multiple reward-colour associations, and when presented with novel floral targets generalized to colours similar to those trained for each reward type. These results expand the ecological significance of work on bee learning and raise new questions regarding the cognitive ecology of pollination.

  10. Minimum Perceptible Differences in the Colour Reproduction of Photographic Prints.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Carol Ann

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Electronic simulations of the Macbeth Color Checker Chart were prepared such that each of the eighteen colour patches could be varied independently from the rest of the chart. The output was in the form of photographic colour prints which comprised a ring-around set of 168 prints for each of the colour patches, where each print was a colour perturbation from a standard print. Twelve observers, with normal colour vision, judged the prints in each set to be perceptibly different or not perceptibly different from the standard print, for each patch. The experimental results, in the form of hue-orientated and non hue-orientated ellipses, were compared with MacAdam type ellipses, CIELAB unit ellipses and ellipses derived from the CMC(1:c) colour difference formula: the comparisons were made in the 1976 CIELAB colour space. Colour reproduction indices were calculated for the end points of the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the CMC ellipses, for each of the eighteen colour patches. The coefficient of variation was very small for the combined hue index, the combined chroma index and the overall combined index, indicating that the mean values for these indices could be assigned to any of the ellipses as a measure of the minimum perceptible difference in terms of colour appearance.

  11. IRIS COLOUR CLASSIFICATION SCALES--THEN AND NOW.

    PubMed

    Grigore, Mariana; Avram, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Eye colour is one of the most obvious phenotypic traits of an individual. Since the first documented classification scale developed in 1843, there have been numerous attempts to classify the iris colour. In the past centuries, iris colour classification scales has had various colour categories and mostly relied on comparison of an individual's eye with painted glass eyes. Once photography techniques were refined, standard iris photographs replaced painted eyes, but this did not solve the problem of painted/ printed colour variability in time. Early clinical scales were easy to use, but lacked objectivity and were not standardised or statistically tested for reproducibility. The era of automated iris colour classification systems came with the technological development. Spectrophotometry, digital analysis of high-resolution iris images, hyper spectral analysis of the human real iris and the dedicated iris colour analysis software, all accomplished an objective, accurate iris colour classification, but are quite expensive and limited in use to research environment. Iris colour classification systems evolved continuously due to their use in a wide range of studies, especially in the fields of anthropology, epidemiology and genetics. Despite the wide range of the existing scales, up until present there has been no generally accepted iris colour classification scale.

  12. Recent Results of Top Quark Physics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R. Y.

    2015-07-09

    Twenty years after its discovery in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, the top quark still undergoes intensive studies at the Tevatron and the LHC at CERN. In this article, recent top quark physics results from CDF and D0 are reported. In particular, measurements of single top quark and double top quark production, the $t\\bar{t}$ forward-backward asymmetry and the top quark mass are discussed.

  13. Light Four-Quark States and New Observations by BES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Huang, T.; Steele, T.

    Four-quark states are discussed within the constituent quark model.Incompleteness of existed studies of four-quark state with QCD sum rule is analyzed. The masses of diquark cluster were determined by QCD sum rules, and light four-quark states masses were obtained in terms of the diquark. The four-quark state possibility of the newly observed near-threshold pbar p enhancement, X(1835), X(1812) and X(1576) by BES is discussed.

  14. Top quark physics results from CDF and D-Zero

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, D.

    1996-10-01

    I summarize recent top quark physics results from the Fermilab Tevatron experiments. Since the observation of the top quark by CDF and D{null} in 1995, the experimental focus has shifted to a detailed study of the top quark`s properties. This article describes recent measurements of the top quark production cross section, mass, kinematic properties, branching ratios, V{sub {ital tb}}, and the {ital W} polarization in top decays.

  15. v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B, and INCENP from the spindle midzone during cytokinesis failure

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Shuhei; Nakayama, Yuji; Honda, Takuya; Aoki, Azumi; Tamura, Naoki; Abe, Kohei; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2013-06-10

    Src-family tyrosine kinases are aberrantly activated in cancers, and this activation is associated with malignant tumor progression. v-Src, encoded by the v-src transforming gene of the Rous sarcoma virus, is a mutant variant of the cellular proto-oncogene c-Src. Although investigations with temperature sensitive mutants of v-Src have shown that v-Src induces many oncogenic processes, the effects on cell division are unknown. Here, we show that v-Src inhibits cellular proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that inducible expression of v-Src results in an accumulation of 4N cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that binucleation is induced through the inhibition of cytokinesis, a final step of cell division. The localization of Mklp1, which is essential for cytokinesis, to the spindle midzone is inhibited in v-Src-expressing cells. Intriguingly, Aurora B, which regulates Mklp1 localization at the midzone, is delocalized from the spindle midzone and the midbody but not from the metaphase chromosomes upon v-Src expression. Mklp2, which is responsible for the relocation of Aurora B from the metaphase chromosomes to the spindle midzone, is also lost from the spindle midzone. These results suggest that v-Src inhibits cytokinesis through the delocalization of Mklp1 and Aurora B from the spindle midzone, resulting in binucleation. -- Highlights: • v-Src inhibits cell proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. • v-Src induces binucleation together with cytokinesis failure. • v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B and INCENP from the spindle midzone.

  16. Probing core-electron orbitals by scanning transmission electron microscopy and measuring the delocalization of core-level excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-04-01

    By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.

  17. Three Redox States of a Diradical Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Triad: Gating the Magnetic Coupling and the Electron Delocalization.

    PubMed

    Souto, Manuel; Lloveras, Vega; Vela, Sergi; Fumanal, Maria; Ratera, Imma; Veciana, Jaume

    2016-06-16

    The diradical acceptor-donor-acceptor triad 1(••), based on two polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radicals connected through a tetrathiafulvalene(TTF)-vinylene bridge, has been synthesized. The generation of the mixed-valence radical anion, 1(•-), and triradical cation species, 1(•••+), obtained upon electrochemical reduction and oxidation, respectively, was monitored by optical and ESR spectroscopy. Interestingly, the modification of electron delocalization and magnetic coupling was observed when the charged species were generated and the changes have been rationalized by theoretical calculations.

  18. On the role of delocalization in benzene: Theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of strained ring fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, Rudiger

    1993-04-01

    When an important compound`s discovery dates back as far as 1825, one would imagine that every facet of its chemical and physical properties has been illuminated in the meantime. Benzene, however, has not ceased to challenge the chemist`s notion of structure and bonding since its first isolation by Michael Faraday. This report is divided into the following six chapters: 1. Aromaticity -- Criteria, manifestations, structural limitations; 2. The role of delocalization in benzene; 3. The thermochemical properties of benzocyclobutadienologs; 4. Ab initio study of benzenes fused to four-membered rings; 5. Non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and 6. Experimental details and input decks. 210 Refs.

  19. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  20. An Unquenched Quark Model of Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, Roelof; Santopinto, Elena

    2007-10-26

    We present the formalism for a new generation of unquenched quark models for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, quark-antiquark creation mechanism. The present approach is an extension of the fiux-tube breaking model of Geiger and Isgur in which now the contribution of quark-antiquark pairs can be studied for any inital baryon, for any fiavor of the qq-bar pair (not only ss-bar but also uu-bar and dd-bar) and for arbitrary hadron wave functions. The method is illustrated with an application to the spin of the proton and the flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea.

  1. Sea Quark Contribution to the Nucleon Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    The widespread belief is that proton and neutron, commonly known as nucleons, are each composed of three elementary particles called quarks. But in the last two decades experiments showed that the mass, momentum, spin and electromagnetic properties of the three quarks do not add up to the known proprieties of the nucleon. Theory predicts that a ``sea'' of virtual pairs of quarks and anti-quarks, along with the strong force carrier particles called gluons, should account for the difference. I will present ongoing work on the preparation of an experiment to isolate the contributions of the sea to the nucleon spin using semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering technique at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  2. Higgs Effects in Top Quark Pair Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, J.H.

    2003-06-13

    Top quark production in p{bar p} and e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is enhanced by the exchange of a Higgs boson. The enhancement factors are calculated in the threshold region using the Greens function method.

  3. Top Quark Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2015-05-21

    An overview of recent top quark measurements using the full Run II data set of CDF or D0 at the Tevatron is presented. Results are complementary to the ones at the LHC. Recent measurements of the production cross section of top quarks in strong and electroweak production and of top quark production asymmetries are presented. The latter includes the measurement of the tt-bar production asymmetry by D0 in the dilepton decay channel. Within their uncertainties the results from all these measurements agree with their respective Standard Model expectation. Finally latest updates on measurements of the top quark mass are discussed, which at the time of the conference are the most precise determinations.

  4. Dark decay of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye -Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-04-01

    We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers. Top quark is the heaviest particle in the standard model whose decays are relatively poorly measured, allowing sufficient room for exotic decay modes from new physics. A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6 σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We present and study a possible scenario that top quark decays as t → b W + Z's. This is the same as the dominant top quark decay (t → b W) accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers. The Z' can be easily boosted, and it can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. In addition, we discuss the implications for the Large Hadron Collider experiments including the analysis based on the lepton-jets.

  5. Early neutron stars and quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You-chen; Kong, Xiao-jun; Wei, Cheng-wen; Ge, Yun-zhao

    1988-03-01

    There may exist quark matter inside early hot neutron stars. Using the general method of Baym and Chin, we evaluated the pressure and density at neutron matter — quark matter phase transition for different temperatures and compared the values for stable hot neutron stars. We found (1) that whenever the neutron star temperature exceeds (+10)K, there will be a core of quark matter; (2) that the bag constant B is the most important determining factor of the quark core size. For a given temperature, the core is the larger, the smaller B is; (3) that by the conservation of baryon number, the total energy released by a star during its cooling is about (+53) ergs.

  6. Heavy quark interactions and quarkonium binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satz, Helmut

    2009-06-01

    We consider heavy quark interactions in quenched and unquenched lattice QCD. In a region just above the deconfinement point, non-Abelian gluon polarization leads to a strong increase in the binding. Comparing quark-antiquark and quark-quark interaction, the dependence of the binding on the separation distance r is found to be the same for the colorless singlet Q{\\skew3\\bar{Q}} and the colored anti-triplet QQ state. In a potential model description of in-medium J/ψ behavior, this enhancement of the binding leads to a survival up to temperatures of 1.5 Tc or higher; it could also result in J/ψ flow. Based on joint work with O Kaczmarek and F Karsch.

  7. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  8. Prompt quark production by exploding sphalerons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuryak, Edward; Zahed, Ismail

    2003-01-01

    Following recent works on the production and subsequent explosive decay of QCD sphaleronlike clusters, we discuss the mechanism of quark pair production in this process. We first show how the gauge field explosive solution of Luscher and Schechter can be achieved by noncentral conformal mapping from the O(4)-symmetric solution. Our main result is a new solution to the Dirac equation in real time in this configuration, obtained by the same inversion of the fermion O(4) zero mode. It explicitly shows how the quark acceleration occurs, starting from the spherically O(3)-symmetric zero energy chiral quark state to the final spectrum of nonzero energies. The sphaleronlike clusters with any Chern-Simons number always produce NFL¯R quarks, and the antisphaleron-like clusters the opposite chirality. The result are relevant for hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions at large (s), wherein such clusters can be produced.

  9. Review of recent top quark measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; /UC, Riverside

    2004-11-01

    At the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, a large number of top quarks have been produced in the ongoing run. The CDF and D0 collaborations have made first measurements of the t{bar t} cross section in several decay channels, and have measured the top quark mass. In addition, they have set new limits on the cross sections for single top quark production, and have started to measure some of the properties of the top quark via studies of its decays. This paper summarizes the status of these measurements and discusses where they are heading in the next few years. The paper is based on a talk I gave at the Rencontres du Vietnam in Hanoi, August 2004; the results have been updated to show the latest values and new measurements.

  10. Anomalies, Chern-Simons terms and chiral delocalization in extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2006-04-15

    Gauge invariant topological interactions, such as the D=5 Chern-Simons (CS) term, are required in models in extra dimensions that split anomaly free representations. The Chern-Simons term is necessary to maintain the overall anomaly cancellations of the theory, but it can have significant, observable, physical effects. The CS term locks the Kaluza-Klein (KK)-mode parity to the parity of space-time, leaving a single parity symmetry. It leads to new processes among KK modes e.g., the decay of a KK mode to a 2-body final state of KK modes. A formalism for the effective interaction among KK modes is constructed, and the decay of a KK mode to KK mode plus zero mode is analyzed as an example. We elaborate the general KK-mode current and anomaly structure of these theories. This includes a detailed study of the triangle diagrams and the associated 'consistent anomalies' for Weyl spinors on the boundary branes. We also develop the non-Abelian formalism. We illustrate this by showing in a simple way how a D=5 Yang-Mills 'quark flavor' symmetry leads to the D=4 chiral Lagrangian of mesons and the quantized Wess-Zumino-Witten term.

  11. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.

    2008-03-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t{bar t} events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top quark production of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 {+-} 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  12. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Hossain, S.; Jain, S.; Rominsky, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M.; Abolins, M.; Benitez, J. A.; Brock, R.; Dyer, J.

    2008-07-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of {sigma}(pp{yields}tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7{+-}1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}|=1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|V{sub tb}|{<=}1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  13. Colour and Optical Properties of Materials: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Light, the Optical Properties of Materials and Colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard J. D.

    2003-05-01

    Colour is an important and integral part of everyday life, and an understanding and knowledge of the scientific principles behind colour, with its many applications and uses, is becoming increasingly important to a wide range of academic disciplines, from physical, medical and biological sciences through to the arts. Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials carefully introduces the science behind the subject, along with many modern and cutting-edge applications, chose to appeal to today's students. For science students, it provides a broad introduction to the subject and the many applications of colour. To more applied students, such as engineering and arts students, it provides the essential scientific background to colour and the many applications. Features: * Introduces the science behind the subject whilst closely connecting it to modern applications, such as colour displays, optical amplifiers and colour centre lasers * Richly illustrated with full-colour plates * Includes many worked examples, along with problems and exercises at the end of each chapter and selected answers at the back of the book * A Web site, including additional problems and full solutions to all the problems, which may be accessed at: www.cardiff.ac.uk/uwcc/engin/staff/rdjt/colour Written for students taking an introductory course in colour in a wide range of disciplines such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science, computer science, design, photography, architecture and textiles.

  14. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    PubMed

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  15. Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2002-06-01

    Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluon is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions, quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify this prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter.

  16. Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Natale, A. A.

    2016-01-22

    We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (n{sub f} ≈ 11 – 13) in agreement with lattice data.

  17. Charmonium with three flavors of synamical quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro et al.

    2003-12-23

    We present a calculation of the charmonium spectrum with three flavors of dynamical staggered quarks from gauge configurations that were generated by the MILC collaboration. We use the Fermilab action for the valence charm quarks. Our calculation of the spin-averaged 1P-1S and 2S-1S splittings yields a determination of the strong coupling, with {alpha}{sub {ovr MS}}(M{sub Z}) = 0.119(4).

  18. Primordial quark bubbles with leptonic component

    SciTech Connect

    Orsaria, Milva; Duarte, S.B.; Goncalves, H.R.

    2004-12-02

    We introduce the leptonic component to discuss macroscopic bulk properties of primordial bubble quark matter which survived the confinement phase transition in the universe at high temperature. Considering quark matter in equilibrium with the weak interactions, we analyze the boundaries in the {mu} - {mu}e plane for which betha equilibrium and charge neutrality can be valid, being {mu} and {mu}e the chemical potential associated to the baryonic density and the electrons, respectively.

  19. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    W. Melnitchouk

    2000-09-01

    Quark-hadron duality addresses some of the most fundamental issues in strong interaction physics, in particular the nature of the transition from the perturbative to non-perturbative regions of QCD. I summarize recent developments in quark-hadron duality in lepton-hadron scattering, and outline how duality can be studied at future high-luminosity facilities such as Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV, or an electron-hadron collider such as EPIC.

  20. Chiral phases of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natale, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a QCD chiral symmetry breaking model where the gap equation contains an effective confining propagator and a dressed gluon propagator with a dynamically generated mass. This model is able to explain the ratios between the chiral transition and deconfinement temperatures in the case of fundamental and adjoint quarks. It also predicts the recovery of the chiral symmetry for a large number of quarks (nf ≈ 11 - 13) in agreement with lattice data.

  1. Top quark physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gerdes

    2004-01-28

    Precision studies of the top quark are a prime goal of the Run II physics program at the Fermilab Tevatron. Since the start of Run II in early 2002, the CDF and D0 experiments have analyzed approximately 100 pb{sup -1} of data and have re-established the top quark signal. In this article the author summarizes recent measurements of the top production cross section and mass.

  2. Formation of automatic letter-colour associations in non-synaesthetes through likelihood manipulation of letter-colour pairings.

    PubMed

    Kusnir, Flor; Thut, Gregor

    2012-12-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a well-characterized phenomenon in which achromatic letters and/or digits automatically and systematically trigger specific colour sensations. Models of its underlying mechanisms diverge on a central question: whether triggered sensations reflect (1) an overdeveloped capacity in normal cross-modal processing (i.e., sharing characteristics with the general population), or rather (2) qualitatively deviant processing (i.e., unique to a few individuals). To test to what extent synaesthesia-like (automatic) letter-colour associations may be learned by non-synaesthetes into adulthood, implied by (1), we developed a learning paradigm that aimed to implicitly train such associations via a visual search task that employed statistical probability learning of specific letter-colour pairs. In contrast to previous synaesthesia-training studies (Cohen Kadosh, Henik, Catena, Walsh, & Fuentes, 2009; Meier & Rothen, 2009), here all participants were naïve as to the end-goal of the experiment (i.e., the formation of letter-colour associations), mimicking the learning conditions of acquired grapheme-colour synaesthesia (Hancock, 2006; Witthoft & Winawer, 2006). In two experiments, we found evidence for significant binding of colours to letters by non-synaesthetes. These newly-formed associations showed synaesthesia-like characteristics, because they correlated in strength with performance on individual synaesthetic Stroop-tasks (experiment 1), and because interference between the learned (associated) colour and the real colour during letter processing depended on their relative positions in colour space (opponent vs. non-opponent colours, experiment 2) suggesting automatic formation on a perceptual rather than conceptual level, analogous to synaesthesia. Although not evoking conscious colour percepts, these learned, synaesthesia-like associations in non-synaesthetes support that common mechanisms may underlie letter-colour associations in synaesthetes

  3. Diplostomum spathaceum metacercarial infection and colour change in salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P; Karvonen, A; Anttila, P; Valtonen, E T

    2004-05-01

    Colour changes in two salmonid fish, the salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta), were examined in relation to infection with the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum. This parasite had no effect on the rate of colour change in these fish, although species specific differences in colour adjustment times were observed. Increasing asymmetry in parasite numbers between the right and left eye, which could lead to the retention of vision in one eye, nevertheless tended to reduce the colour change time in salmon with moderate infection (P=0.08). This first experimental attempt to examine colour changes in fish in relation to eye fluke infections provides grounds for future investigations. The darker appearance of the heavily infected fish described in the literature suggests that a high parasite burden actually causes colour changes. We emphasise that detailed quantitative studies using fish with higher parasite loads, especially from the tail of the aggregated parasite distribution, are needed to describe these relationships in detail.

  4. Chiral solitons in the spectral quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech; Golli, Bojan

    2007-07-01

    Chiral solitons with baryon number one are investigated in the spectral quark model. In this model the quark propagator is a superposition of complex-mass propagators weighted with a suitable spectral function. This technique is a method of regularizing the effective quark theory in a way preserving many desired features crucial in analysis of solitons. We review the model in the vacuum sector, stressing the feature of the absence of poles in the quark propagator. We also investigate in detail the analytic structure of meson two-point functions. We provide an appropriate prescription for constructing valence states in the spectral approach. The valence state in the baryonic soliton is identified with a saddle point of the Dirac eigenvalue treated as a function of the spectral mass. Because of this feature the valence quarks never become unbound nor dive into the negative spectrum, hence providing stable solitons as absolute minima of the action. This is a manifestation of the absence of poles in the quark propagator. Self-consistent mean-field hedgehog solutions are found numerically and some of their properties are determined and compared to previous chiral soliton models. Our analysis constitutes an involved example of a treatment of a relativistic complex-mass system.

  5. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  6. Corrigendum to “Reassessing the importance of the colour-singlet contributions to direct J / ψ + W production at the LHC and the Tevatron” [Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 218

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansberg, J. P.; Lorcé, C.

    2014-11-01

    We have found out that our evaluation of the dominant χc feed-down contributions to J / ψ + W (Subsection 5.3) was incorrect. We overlooked the fact that the α αs3 contributions via the colour-singlet transition are infrared sensitive and cannot be evaluated without that from colour-octet transitions. One should in fact compute the contributions at order α αs2 via quark-antiquark annihilation and via a 1[8]3S transition exactly as for the colour-octet contributions to the direct yield of J / ψ + W. Using = (2 J + 1) × 2 ×10-3 GeV3[1], the feed-down contribution for the ATLAS kinematical coverage (see Section 5.1 or [2]) is on the order of 0.45 fb.

  7. Colour Matching in Decorative Thermally Sprayed Glass Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Thierry; Bertrand, Pierre; Coddet, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Coloured coatings were obtained on steel by plasma spraying without severe in-flight alteration of pigments, taking profit of the low thermal conductivity of the glassy matrix of glaze particles. Colour matching was studied by mixing 3 different glazes, comparing Grassmann and Kubelka-Munk based algorithms. Results suggest that the latter method should be preferred upon Grassmann method, particularly when the light absorption/dispersion ratios of coloured feedstocks are very different.

  8. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours

  9. Colour blindness in Italian art high school students.

    PubMed

    Grassivaro Gallo, P; Oliva, S; Lantieri, P B; Viviani, F

    2002-12-01

    To highlight the link between colour blindness and school achievement, the Ishihara and Farnsworth tests were administered to 3,565 high school art students (2,545 girls and 1,020 boys). Analysis showed colour defective students were discriminated against in theoretical subject matter, relative to orthochromate students, but not in the art-related subjects. This emphasizes the need to recognize youth with colour defective vision early.

  10. `Flight of colours' in lesions of the visual system 1

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Martin; Todman, Leo; Bender, Morris B.

    1974-01-01

    A bright pocket flashlight was directed into one eye for 10 seconds; the subject then closed the eyelids and reported the sequence of after-image colours observed. Lesions of the visual system which compromised bilateral central colour vision also reduced or abolished the `flight of colours'. This simple bedside test of each eye independently is of value in detecting mild defects of central vision. PMID:4457619

  11. The categorisation of non-categorical colours: a novel paradigm in colour perception.

    PubMed

    Cropper, Simon J; Kvansakul, Jessica G S; Little, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a new paradigm for studying the development of the colour 'signal' by having observers discriminate and categorize the same set of controlled and calibrated cardinal coloured stimuli. Notably, in both tasks, each observer was free to decide whether two pairs of colors were the same or belonged to the same category. The use of the same stimulus set for both tasks provides, we argue, an incremental behavioural measure of colour processing from detection through discrimination to categorisation. The measured data spaces are different for the two tasks, and furthermore the categorisation data is unique to each observer. In addition, we develop a model which assumes that the principal difference between the tasks is the degree of similarity between the stimuli which has different constraints for the categorisation task compared to the discrimination task. This approach not only makes sense of the current (and associated) data but links the processes of discrimination and categorisation in a novel way and, by implication, expands upon the previous research linking categorisation to other tasks not limited to colour perception.

  12. Facultative mimicry: cues for colour change and colour accuracy in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Karen L; Grutter, Alexandra S; Marshall, N Justin

    2008-01-22

    Mimetic species evolve colours and body patterns to closely resemble poisonous species and thus avoid predation (Batesian mimicry), or resemble beneficial or harmless species in order to approach and attack prey (aggressive mimicry). Facultative mimicry, the ability to switch between mimic and non-mimic colours at will, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, but has been shown in a cephalopod, and recently in a marine fish, the bluestriped fangblenny Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos, an aggressive mimic of the juvenile cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. Here we demonstrate for the first time that fangblennies adopted mimic colours in the presence of juvenile cleaner fish; however, this only occurred in smaller individuals. Field data indicated that when juvenile cleaner fish were abundant, the proportion of mimic to non-mimic fangblennies was greater, suggesting that fangblennies adopt their mimic disguise depending on the availability of cleaner fish. Finally, measurements of spectral reflectance suggest that not only do mimic fangblennies accurately resemble the colour of their cleaner fish models but also mimic other species of fish that they associate with. This study provides insights into the cues that control this remarkable facultative mimicry system and qualitatively measures its accuracy.

  13. Assimilating GlobColour ocean colour data into a pre-operational physical-biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. A.; Edwards, K. P.; Lea, D.; Barciela, R. M.; Martin, M. J.; Demaria, J.

    2012-02-01

    As part of the GlobColour project, daily chlorophyll-a observations, derived using remotely sensed ocean colour data from the MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, are produced. The ability of these products to be assimilated into a pre-operational global coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been tested, on both a hindcast and near-real-time basis, and the impact on the system assessed. The assimilation was found to immediately and significantly improve the bias, root mean square error and correlation of modelled surface chlorophyll concentration compared to the GlobColour observations, an improvement which was sustained throughout the year and in every ocean basin. Errors against independent in situ chlorophyll observations were also reduced, both at and beneath the ocean surface. However the model fit to in situ observations was not consistently better than that of climatology, due to errors in the underlying model. The assimilation scheme used is multivariate, updating all biogeochemical model state variables at all depths. Consistent changes were found in the other model variables, with reduced errors against in situ observations of nitrate and pCO2, and evidence of improved representation of zooplankton concentration. Annual mean surface fields of nutrients, alkalinity and carbon variables remained of similar quality compared to climatology. The near-real-time GlobColour products were found to be sufficiently reliable for operational purposes, and of benefit to both operational-style systems and reanalyses.

  14. Facultative mimicry: cues for colour change and colour accuracy in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Karen L; Grutter, Alexandra S; Marshall, N. Justin

    2007-01-01

    Mimetic species evolve colours and body patterns to closely resemble poisonous species and thus avoid predation (Batesian mimicry), or resemble beneficial or harmless species in order to approach and attack prey (aggressive mimicry). Facultative mimicry, the ability to switch between mimic and non-mimic colours at will, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, but has been shown in a cephalopod, and recently in a marine fish, the bluestriped fangblenny Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos, an aggressive mimic of the juvenile cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. Here we demonstrate for the first time that fangblennies adopted mimic colours in the presence of juvenile cleaner fish; however, this only occurred in smaller individuals. Field data indicated that when juvenile cleaner fish were abundant, the proportion of mimic to non-mimic fangblennies was greater, suggesting that fangblennies adopt their mimic disguise depending on the availability of cleaner fish. Finally, measurements of spectral reflectance suggest that not only do mimic fangblennies accurately resemble the colour of their cleaner fish models but also mimic other species of fish that they associate with. This study provides insights into the cues that control this remarkable facultative mimicry system and qualitatively measures its accuracy. PMID:17986437

  15. Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works.

    PubMed

    Kuckova, S; Nemec, I; Hynek, R; Hradilova, J; Grygar, T

    2005-05-01

    Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome slices. The detection limit of the three blue pigments examined is approximately 0.3 wt% in reference colour layers in linseed oil binder with calcite as extender and lead white as a drying agent. The sensitivity has been sufficient to identify Prussian blue in repaints on a Gothic painting. MALDI-TOF-MS has been used to identify proteinaceous binders in two historical paintings, namely isinglass (fish glue) and rabbit glue. MALDI-TOF-MS has also been proposed for identification of an insect red dye, cochineal carmine, according to its specific protein component. The enzymatic cleavage with trypsin before MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a very gentle and specific way of dissolution of the colour layers highly polymerised due to very long aging of old, e.g. medieval, samples.

  16. Neon colour spreading with and without its figural prerequisites.

    PubMed

    Bressan, P

    1993-01-01

    Neon colour spreading has been shown to disappear if certain figural conditions are not met. Evidence is presented which suggests that these conditions are only incidentally related to the neon spreading effect; in particular, that they can be violated as long as the structure remains compatible with the interpretation of a transparent surface. It is proposed that neon spreading and classical colour assimilation share the same basic mechanism, and that the peculiar perceptual attributes of the former derive from the perceptual scissioning of ordinary assimilation colour. This process is identical to that occurring with nonillusory colours in phenomenal transparency.

  17. [Quality demands on the assessment of colour vision].

    PubMed

    Krastel, H; Kolling, G; Schiefer, U; Bach, M

    2009-12-01

    Assessing colour vision comprises a wide spectrum of methods, many of which are practical and highly informative. Given this methodological variety this review aims to help select the most appropriate test and how to correctly execute it, thus achieving the highest quality.Some aspects of the physiology of colour vision are covered as far as is necessary for a basic understanding of colour testing methodology and possible pitfalls. For congenital colour anomalies most pertinent are questions of occupational aptitude. For acquired colour deficiencies assessing colour vision supplements diagnostics of the retina and the visual pathway, allowing both early diagnosis and/or monitoring. For both these fields colour tests provide different kinds of evidence and need to be adequately selected. Methodical artefacts due to both equipment design properties and testing procedures are highlighted so they can be avoided. A form is presented for recording colour examination results commensurate with quality objectives. Finally, a tabular overview of 19 common colour vision tests is provided.

  18. Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvacıoǧlu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

  19. Spatio-temporal colour correction of strongly degraded movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, A. B. M. Tariqul; Farup, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    The archives of motion pictures represent an important part of precious cultural heritage. Unfortunately, these cinematography collections are vulnerable to different distortions such as colour fading which is beyond the capability of photochemical restoration process. Spatial colour algorithms-Retinex and ACE provide helpful tool in restoring strongly degraded colour films but, there are some challenges associated with these algorithms. We present an automatic colour correction technique for digital colour restoration of strongly degraded movie material. The method is based upon the existing STRESS algorithm. In order to cope with the problem of highly correlated colour channels, we implemented a preprocessing step in which saturation enhancement is performed in a PCA space. Spatial colour algorithms tend to emphasize all details in the images, including dust and scratches. Surprisingly, we found that the presence of these defects does not affect the behaviour of the colour correction algorithm. Although the STRESS algorithm is already in itself more efficient than traditional spatial colour algorithms, it is still computationally expensive. To speed it up further, we went beyond the spatial domain of the frames and extended the algorithm to the temporal domain. This way, we were able to achieve an 80 percent reduction of the computational time compared to processing every single frame individually. We performed two user experiments and found that the visual quality of the resulting frames was significantly better than with existing methods. Thus, our method outperforms the existing ones in terms of both visual quality and computational efficiency.

  20. From delocalized lipophilic cations to hypoxia: Blocking tumor cell mitochondrial function leads to therapeutic gain with glycolytic inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kurtoglu, Metin; Lampidis, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    An unexpected similarity between cancer and cardiac muscle cells in their sensitivity to anthracyclines and delocalized lipophilic cations (DLC) prompted a series of studies in which it was shown that the positive charge of these compounds is central to their selective accumulation and toxicity in these two distinct cell types. An initial finding to explain this phenomenon was that cancer and cardiac muscle cells exhibit high negative plasma membrane potentials resulting in increased uptake of these agents. However, the p-glycoprotein efflux pump was shown to be another factor underlying differential accumulation of these compounds, since it recognizes positively charged drugs and thereby actively reduces their intracellular concentrations. The delocalized positive charge and lipophilicity of DLCs leads to their retention and inhibition of ATP synthesis in mitochondria. Years later it was realized that cancer cells in the hypoxic portions of solid tumors were similar to those treated with DLCs in relying mainly on anaerobic metabolism for survival and could thus be targeted with a glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). This hypothesis has lead to a Phase I clinical trial in which 2-DG is used to selectively kill the hypoxic tumor cell population which are resistant to standard chemotherapy or radiation. PMID:19072739