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Sample records for quark rest energy

  1. Photon plus heavy-quark production in high-energy collisions within the target rest frame formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Betemps, M. A.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2010-11-01

    We apply the target rest frame formalism to photon+heavy quark production cross section in hadronic collisions at high energies. We investigate the dependence of the production cross section on the photon and quark rapidities and transverse momenta. It is shown that the photon transverse momentum spectrum is a sensitive probe of color dipole scattering amplitude. The theoretical results are compared to Tevatron measurements of the differential {gamma}+c+X and {gamma}+b+X production cross sections at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. An analysis for proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at the LHC regime is also performed.

  2. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can be well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.

  3. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  4. Squeezed states, time-energy uncertainty relation, and Feynman's rest of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1992-01-01

    Two illustrative examples are given for Feynman's rest of the universe. The first example is the two-mode squeezed state of light where no measurement is taken for one of the modes. The second example is the relativistic quark model where no measurement is possible for the time-like separation fo quarks confined in a hadron. It is possible to illustrate these examples using the covariant oscillator formalism. It is shown that the lack of symmetry between the position-momentum and time-energy uncertainty relations leads to an increase in entropy when the system is different Lorentz frames.

  5. Vacuum polarization corrections to low energy quark effective couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Ademar; Braghin, Fabio L.

    2014-07-01

    In this work corrections to low energy punctual effective quark couplings up to the eighth order are calculated by considering vacuum polarization effects with the scalar quark-antiquark condensate. The departing point is a QCD-based Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. By separating the quark field into two components, one that condenses and another one for interacting quarks, the former is integrated out with the help of usual auxiliary fields and an effective action in terms of interacting quark fields is found. The scalar auxiliary field reduces to the quark-antiquark condensate in the vacuum and the determinant is expanded in powers of the quark-antiquark bilinears generating chiral invariant effective 2N-quark interactions (N =2,3…). The corresponding coupling constants and effective masses are estimated, and the general trend is that for increasing the effective gluon mass the values of the effective coupling constants decrease. All the values are in good agreement with phenomenological fits.

  6. Dark matter and dark energy from quark bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Brilenkov, Maxim; Eingorn, Maxim; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Zhuk, Alexander E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the present expansion of our Universe endowed with relict colored objects — quarks and gluons — that survived hadronization either as isolated islands of quark-gluon ''nuggets'' or spread uniformly in the Universe. In the first scenario, the QNs can play the role of dark matter. In the second scenario, we demonstrate that uniform colored objects can play the role of dark energy providing the late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  7. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Ebba; Helgegren, Hannah; Slinde, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music. PMID:16135245

  8. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  9. Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell-Mann, M.

    In these lectures I want to speak about at least two interpretations of the concept of quarks for hadrons and the possible relations between them. First I want to talk about quarks as "constituent quarks". These were used especially by G. Zweig (1964) who referred to them as aces. One has a sort of a simple model by which one gets elementary results about the low-lying bound and resonant states of mesons and baryons, and certain crude symmetry properties of these states, by saying that the hadrons act as if they were made up of subunits, the constituent quarks q. These quarks are arranged in an isotopic spin doublet u, d and an isotopic spin singlet s, which has the same charge as d and acts as if it had a slightly higher mass…

  10. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  11. Drag of heavy quarks in quark gluon plasma at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Payal

    2010-07-15

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of charm and bottom quarks propagating through quark gluon plasma (QGP) have been evaluated for conditions relevant to nuclear collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dead cone and Landau-Pomeronchuk-Migdal (LPM) effects on radiative energy loss of heavy quarks have been considered. Both radiative and collisional processes of energy loss are included in the effective drag and diffusion coefficients. With these effective transport coefficients, we solve the Fokker-Plank (FP) equation for the heavy quarks executing Brownian motion in the QGP. The solution of the FP equation has been used to evaluate the nuclear suppression factor, R{sub AA}, for the nonphotonic single-electron spectra resulting from the semileptonic decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks. The effects of mass on R{sub AA} have also been highlighted.

  12. Heavy quark photoproduction in coherent interactions at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.; Meneses, A. R.

    2009-08-01

    We calculate the inclusive and diffractive photoproduction of heavy quarks in proton-proton collisions at Tevatron and CERN LHC energies, where the photon reaches energies larger than those ones accessible at DESY-HERA. The integrated cross section and the rapidity distributions for charm and bottom production are computed within the color dipole picture employing three phenomenological saturation models based on the color glass condensate formalism. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analyses of these reactions are feasible and that the cross sections are sensitive to the underlying parton dynamics.

  13. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  14. Dynamics of heavy flavor quarks in high energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraudo, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    A general overview on the role of heavy quarks as probes of the medium formed in high energy nuclear collisions is presented. Experimental data compared to model calculations at low and moderate pT are exploited to extract information on the transport coefficients of the medium, on possible modifications of heavy flavor hadronization in a hot environment and to provide quantitative answers to the issue of kinetic (and chemical, at conceivable future experimental facilities) thermalization of charm. Finally, the role of heavy flavor at high pT as a tool to study the mass and color-charge dependence the jet quenching is also analyzed.

  15. Resting Energy Expenditure Is Decreased in Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Danzig, Jennifer; Groleau, Veronique; McCormack, Shana; Casella, Alex; Harrington, Jennifer; Sochett, Etienne; Tershakovec, Andrew; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Levine, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is caused by loss-of-function mutations on the maternally inherited GNAS allele and is associated with early-onset obesity, neurocognitive defects, and resistance to multiple hormones. The role of energy intake vs central regulation of energy expenditure in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) in participants with PHP1A. Design: We assessed REE, biochemical, endocrine, and auxological status of 12 participants with PHP1A who had normal or elevated body mass index; controls were a cohort of 156 obese participants. Setting: This study took place at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia and Sick Children's Hospital in Toronto. Main Outcome Measures: REE as a percent of predicted REE was the outcome measure. Results: PHP1A participants had normal endocrine status while receiving appropriate hormone replacement therapy, but had significantly decreased REE as a percent of predicted REE (using the modified Schofield equation). Conclusion: Our results are consistent with REE being the principal cause of obesity in PHP1A rather than it being caused by excessive energy intake or endocrine dysfunction. PMID:26709970

  16. Energy and thermal regulation during bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents data available from bed-rest and flight studies on the energy metabolism and thermoregulatory parameters and their changes during long-duration space missions which may influence requirements of astronauts for food and water. It is calculated, on the basis of 3100 kcal and 2.2 l water a day, with 1 h/day moderate exercise, that the requirements for a 2-yr flight would be 2,263,000 kcal and 1606 l water for each astronaut. One daily 5-h-long extravehicular sortie would require an additional 529,250 kcal and 1,095 l of water per year. Changes in the efficiency of work or metabolism would affect these nutritional requirements for long spaceflights. Factors that would increase food and water requirements are discussed.

  17. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  18. Energy density of light quark jet using AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, R.; Horowitz, W. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the energy loss rate of light quarks via the AdS/CFT correspondence in both a static and an expanding plasma. Unlike heavy quarks, light quark energy loss in AdS/CFT is surprisingly dependent on both the string initial conditions and the very definition of the jet itself in the gravity theory. We aim to more closely match the string initial conditions to those expected from perturbative quantum chromodyanics (pQCD)-the theory known to describe the physics of high-momentum particles at early times in heavy ion collisions-by computing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the propagation of the classical string solution. The jet energy-momentum tensor in a strongly-coupled calculation can be found by a superposition of contributions from a collection of point particles whose paths approximate the evolution of the string world-sheet. My results show that some times after creation the pair of quark-anti quark, the energy density is not time dependent. This means that the corresponding jet does not lose energy and the associated nuclear modification factor would be one as expected. Also, the results reveal the virtuality dependency of energy density distribution over space. As expected, the energy of a more virtual jet is spread over wider angles.

  19. Application of Fixed Scale Approach to Static Quark Free Energies in Quenched and 2+1 Flavor Lattice QCD with Improved Wilson Quark Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Y.; Umeda, T.; Aoki, S.; Ejiri, S.; Hatsuda, T.; Kanaya, K.; Ohno, H.; WHOT-QCD Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The free energies of static quarks and the Debye screening masses in the quark gluon plasma are studied using Polyakov-line correlation functions in lattice QCD adopting the fixed-scale approach in which temperature is varied without changing the spatial volume and the renormalization factors. We calculate static-quark free energies in various color channels in the high temperature phase up to about 3.5 times the (pseudo-)critical temperature, performing lattice simulations both in quenched and 2 + 1 flavor QCD. For the quenched simulations, we adopt the plaquette gauge action on anisotropic 20^3 × N_t lattices with N_t = 8-26 at the renormalized anisotropy a_s / a_t ≃ 4. For 2 + 1 flavor QCD, we adopt the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gluon action and the non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson quark action on isotropic 32^3 × N_t lattices with N_t = 4-12 at m_{PS}/m_{V} = 0.63 (0.74) for the light (strange) flavors. We find that the color-singlet free energies at high temperatures converge to the zero-temperature static-quark potential evaluated from the Wilson-loop at short distances. This is in accordance with the theoretical expectation that the short distance physics is insensitive to the temperature. At long distances, the free energies approach twice the single-quark free energies, implying that the interaction between static quarks is fully screened. We find that the static-quark free energies for various color channels turn out to be well described by the screened Coulomb form, and the color-channel dependence of the inter-quark interaction can be described by the kinetic Casimir factor inspired from the lowest order perturbation theory. We also discuss comparison with a prediction of the thermal perturbation theory and flavor dependence of the screening masses.

  20. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during June and July 2012. Eight mosquito species were collected, with Ae. albopictus representing 74% of the overall collection. The number of Ae. albopictus collected varied significantly with the species of vegetation. When comparing the vegetation and abundance of resting mosquitoes, the highest percentages of Ae. albopictus were collected resting on Ruellia brittoniana (Mexican petunia), Asplenium platyneuron (fern), Gibasis geniculate (Tahitian bridal veil), followed by Plumba goauriculata (plumbago), Setcreasea pallida (purple heart), and Hibiscus tiliaceus (hibiscus). There were significant differences in lipid and glycogen accumulation based on type of vegetation Ae. albopictus was found resting in. Resting mosquitoes' sugar reserves were not influenced by species of vegetation. However, there was an overall correlation between vegetation that serves as a resting habitat and energy reserve accumulation. The results of our study demonstrate the potential to target specific vegetation for control of diurnal resting mosquitoes. PMID:24199497

  1. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  2. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. PMID:26193314

  3. How do quarks and gluons lose energy in the QGP?

    DOE PAGES

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2015-03-10

    RHIC introduced the method of hard scattering of partons as an in-situ probe of the the medium produced in A+A collisions. A suppression, RAA ≈ 0.2 relative to binary-scaling, was discovered for π⁰ production in the range 5 < ρT < 20 GeV/c in central Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, and surprisingly also for single-electrons from the decay of heavy quarks. Both these results have been confirmed in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC at √sNN = 2.76 TeV. Interestingly, in this ρT range the LHC results for pions nearly overlap the RHIC results. Thus, due to the flattermore » spectrum, the energy loss in the medium at LHC in this ρT range must be ~ 40% larger than at RHIC. Unique at the LHC are the beautiful measurements of the fractional transverse momentum imbalance 1 – (ρ-carotT2/ρ-carotT1) of di-jets in Pb+Pb collisions. At the Utrecht meeting in 2011, I corrected for the fractional imbalance of di-jets with the same cuts in p-p collisions and showed that the relative fractional jet imbalance in Pb+Pb/p-p is ≈ 15% for jets with 120 < ρ-carotT1 < 360 GeV/c. CMS later confirmed this much smaller imbalance compared to the same quantity derived from two-particle correlations of di-jet fragments at RHIC corresponding to ρ-carotT jet ≈ 10 – 20 GeV/c, which appear to show a much larger fractional jet imbalance ≈ 45% in this lower ρ-carotT range. The variation of apparent energy loss in the medium as a function of both ρT and √sNN is striking and presents a challenge to both theory and experiment for improved understanding. There are many other such unresolved issues, for instance, the absence of evidence for a q-carot effect, due to momentum transferred to the medium by outgoing partons, which would widen the away-side di-jet and di-hadron correlations in a similar fashion as the kT-effect. Another issue well known from experiments at the CERN ISR, SpS and SpS collider is that parton-parton hard-collisions make negligible contribution to

  4. How do quarks and gluons lose energy in the QGP?

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2015-03-10

    RHIC introduced the method of hard scattering of partons as an in-situ probe of the the medium produced in A+A collisions. A suppression, RAA ≈ 0.2 relative to binary-scaling, was discovered for π⁰ production in the range 5 < ρT < 20 GeV/c in central Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, and surprisingly also for single-electrons from the decay of heavy quarks. Both these results have been confirmed in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC at √sNN = 2.76 TeV. Interestingly, in this ρT range the LHC results for pions nearly overlap the RHIC results. Thus, due to the flatter spectrum, the energy loss in the medium at LHC in this ρT range must be ~ 40% larger than at RHIC. Unique at the LHC are the beautiful measurements of the fractional transverse momentum imbalance 1 – (ρ-carotT2/ρ-carotT1) of di-jets in Pb+Pb collisions. At the Utrecht meeting in 2011, I corrected for the fractional imbalance of di-jets with the same cuts in p-p collisions and showed that the relative fractional jet imbalance in Pb+Pb/p-p is ≈ 15% for jets with 120 < ρ-carotT1 < 360 GeV/c. CMS later confirmed this much smaller imbalance compared to the same quantity derived from two-particle correlations of di-jet fragments at RHIC corresponding to ρ-carotT jet ≈ 10 – 20 GeV/c, which appear to show a much larger fractional jet imbalance ≈ 45% in this lower ρ-carotT range. The variation of apparent energy loss in the medium as a function of both ρT and √sNN is striking and presents a challenge to both theory and experiment for improved understanding. There are many other such unresolved issues, for instance, the absence of evidence for a q-carot effect, due to momentum transferred to the medium by outgoing partons, which would widen the away-side di-jet and di-hadron correlations in a similar fashion as the

  5. Measurement of the top-quark mass from the b jet energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Daniel; Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    A first measurement of the top-quark mass using only two body decay kinematics is presented. Based on a recent theoretical proposal, the mass extraction is carried out using the peak position of the energy distribution of b jets produced from top-quark decays. This analysis is performed selecting top-antitop events with electron-muon final states in proton-proton collision data at √{ s} = 8TeV with the CMS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 . The energy peak position is obtained by fitting the observed energy spectrum. Consequently, this observable is calibrated using simulated events, and translated to a top-quark mass estimation using relativistic kinematics. The measurement yields a value of mt = 172 . 29 +/- 1 . 17 (stat .) +/- 2 . 66 (syst .) GeV .

  6. Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark-meson coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.

    2015-10-01

    We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy Esym as a function of its slope L . Our result establishes a linear correlation between L and Esym. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in (p n ) matter with β equilibrium.

  7. Convergence of the self-energy in a relativistic chiral quark model: excited nucleon and Δ sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tursunov, E. M.

    2010-10-01

    A convergence of the valence quark self-energies in the 1S, 2S, 1P1/2, 1P3/2 orbits induced by pion- and gluon-field configurations is shown in the frame of a relativistic chiral quark model. It is shown that in order to reach a convergence, one needs to include the contribution of the intermediate quark and anti-quark states with the total momentum up to j = 25/2. It is argued that a restriction to the lowest mode when estimating the self-energy is not a good approximation.

  8. Low energy supergravity: R-parity breaking and the top quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, Marcela S.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    1987-03-01

    We study the process of spontaneous R-parity breaking in minimal low energy supergravity models. We show that it is very hard to obtain models with heavy top quarks if one wants to preserve the radiative breaking of SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y without breaking R-parity. Fellow of Consejo National de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas.

  9. Quark anomalous chromomagnetic moment bounds -- Projection to higher luminosities and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, K.; Silverman, D.

    1998-12-31

    The statistical limits on detectability of an anomalous chromomagnetic moment of a quark coupling to a gluon are projected to higher luminosities at the Tevatron at Fermilab, and to the LHC. They roughly scale as the energy, and are not strongly improved with increasing luminosity.

  10. Curvature energy effects on strange quark matter nucleation at finite density

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251 )

    1994-05-15

    We consider the effects of the curvature energy term on thermal strange quark matter nucleation in dense neutron matter. Lower bounds on the temperature at which this process can take place are given and compared to those without the curvature term.

  11. Precise predictions for top-quark-plus-missing-energy signatures at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Boughezal, Radja; Schulze, Markus

    2013-05-10

    We study the pair production of scalar top-quark partners decaying to a top-quark pair plus large missing energy at the LHC, a signature which appears in numerous models that address outstanding problems at the TeV scale. The severe experimental search cuts require a description which combines higher-order corrections to both production and decay dynamics for a realistic final state. We do this at next-to-leading order in QCD. We find large, kinematic-dependent QCD corrections that differ dramatically depending upon the observable under consideration, potentially impacting the search for and interpretation of these states.

  12. Top-quark mass measurement using events with missing transverse energy and jets at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-11-30

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass with tt events using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.7 fb -1 of pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with √s = 1.96 TeV and collected by the CDF II Detector. We select events having no identified charged leptons, large missing transverse energy, and four, five, or six jets with at least one jet containing a secondary vertex consistent with the decay of a b quark. This analysis considers events from the semileptonic tt decay channel, including events that contain tau leptons, which are usually not included in the top-quark mass measurements. The measurement uses as kinematic variables the invariant mass of two jets consistent with the mass of the W boson, and the invariant masses of two different three-jet combinations. We fit the data to signal templates of varying top-quark masses and background templates, and measure a top-quark mass of Mtop = 172.3 ± 2.4 (stat) ± 1.0 (syst) GeV/c2.

  13. Top-quark mass measurement using events with missing transverse energy and jets at CDF

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-11-30

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass with tt events using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.7 fb -1 of pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with √s = 1.96 TeV and collected by the CDF II Detector. We select events having no identified charged leptons, large missing transverse energy, and four, five, or six jets with at least one jet containing a secondary vertex consistent with the decay of a b quark. This analysis considers events from the semileptonic tt decay channel, including events that contain tau leptons, which are usually not included inmore » the top-quark mass measurements. The measurement uses as kinematic variables the invariant mass of two jets consistent with the mass of the W boson, and the invariant masses of two different three-jet combinations. We fit the data to signal templates of varying top-quark masses and background templates, and measure a top-quark mass of Mtop = 172.3 ± 2.4 (stat) ± 1.0 (syst) GeV/c2.« less

  14. Symmetry energy effects on the mixed hadron-quark phase at high baryon density

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, M.; Greco, V.; Plumari, S.; Liu, B.; Baran, V.; Colonna, M.

    2011-01-15

    The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter at high baryon and isospin density is analyzed. Relativistic mean-field models are used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT bag model is adopted for quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Due to the different symmetry term in the two phases, isospin effects appear to be rather significant. With increasing isospin asymmetry the binodal transition line of the (T,{rho}{sub B}) diagram is lowered to a region accessible through heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the new planned facilities (e.g., the FAIR/NICA projects). Some observable effects are suggested, in particular an isospin distillation mechanism with a more isospin asymmetric quark phase, to be seen in charged meson yield ratios, and an onset of quark number scaling of the meson-baryon elliptic flows. The presented isospin effects on the mixed phase appear to be robust with respect to even large variations of the poorly known symmetry term at high baryon density in the hadron phase. The dependence of the results on a suitable treatment of isospin contributions in effective QCD Lagrangian approaches, at the level of explicit isovector parts and/or quark condensates, is discussed.

  15. Born term for high-energy meson-hadron collisions from QCD and chiral quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Wolfgang; Shimada, Tokuzo

    1988-12-01

    Various experimental observations reveal a sizeable hard component in the high-energy ``soft'' hadronic collisions. For primary meson beams we propose a QCD Born term which describes the dissociation of the primary meson into a quark-antiquark pair in the gluon field of the target. A pointlike effective pion-quark coupling is assumed as in the chiral quark model by Manohar and Georgi. We derive the total cross sections which for pion beams, for example, are given in terms of ƒ;-2π and some properties of the hadronic final states. In particular, we stress the importance of studying three-jet events in meson-nucleon scattering and discuss the seagull effect. On leave of absence from Meiji University, Izumi Campus, Eifuku 1-9-1, Suginami, Tokyo 168, Japan.

  16. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  17. Top quark mass determination from the energy peaks of b-jets and B-hadrons at NLO QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Schulze, Markus

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the energy spectra of single b-jets and B-hadrons resulting from the production and decay of top quarks within the SM at the LHC at the NLO QCD. For both hadrons and jets, we calculate the correlation of the peak of the spectrum with the top quark mass, considering the "energy peak" as an observable to determine the top quark mass. Such a method is motivated by our previous work where we argued that this approach can have reduced sensitivity to the details of the production mechanism of the top quark, whether it concerns higher-order QCD effects or new physics contributions. For a 1% jet energy scale uncertainty, the top quark mass can then be extracted using the energy peak of b-jets with an error ± (1.2 ({exp}) + 0.6({th})) { GeV}. In view of the dominant jet energy scale uncertainty in the measurement using b-jets, we also investigate the extraction of the top quark mass from the energy peak of the corresponding B-hadrons which, in principle, can be measured without this uncertainty. The calculation of the B-hadron energy spectrum is carried out using fragmentation functions at NLO. The dependence on the fragmentation scale turns out to be the largest theoretical uncertainty in this extraction of top quark mass.

  18. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  19. Top-quark mass measurement using events with missing transverse energy and jets at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-12-02

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass using a sample of t ̄t events in 5.7 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity from p ̄p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with √s=1.96 TeV and collected by the CDF II Detector. We select events having large missing transverse energy, and four, five, or six jets with at least one jet tagged as coming from a b quark, and reject events with identified charged leptons. This analysis considers events from the semileptonic t ̄t decay channel, including events that contain tau leptons. The measurement is based on a multidimensional template method. We fit the data to signal templates of varying top-quark masses and background templates, and measure a top-quark mass of M(top)=172.32±2.4(stat)±1.0(syst)  GeV/c(2).

  20. Heavy quark production in photon-Pomeron interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, M. M.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2013-03-25

    The diffractive heavy quark cross sections are estimated considering photon-Pomeron interactions in hadron - hadron at RHIC, Tevatron, and CERN LHC energies. We assume the validity of the hard diffractive factorization and calculate the charm and bottom total cross sections and rapidity distributions using the diffractive parton distribution functions of the Pomeron obtained by the H1 Collaboration at DESY-HERA. Such processes are sensitive to the gluon content of the Pomeron at high energies and are a good place to constrain the behavior of this distribution. We also compare our predictions with those obtained using the dipole model, and verify that these processes are a good test of the different mechanisms for heavy quarks diffractive production at hadron colliders.

  1. Energy release from hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars and the axial w mode of gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Weikang; Li Baoan; Xu Jun; Ko Cheming; Wen Dehua

    2011-04-15

    Describing the hyperonic and quark phases of neutron stars with an isospin- and momentum-dependent effective interaction for the baryon octet and the MIT bag model, respectively, and using the Gibbs conditions to construct the mixed phase, we study the energy release from a neutron star owing to the hadron-quark phase transition. Moreover, the frequency and damping time of the first axial w mode of gravitational waves are studied for both hyperonic and hybrid stars. We find that the energy release is much more sensitive to the bag constant than the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Also, the frequency of the w mode is found to be significantly different with or without the hadron-quark phase transition and depends strongly on the value of the bag constant. Effects of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy become, however, important for large values of the bag constant that lead to higher hadron-quark transition densities.

  2. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Λc and Λb baryons in a quark-diquark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jido, Daisuke; Sakashita, Minori

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of having a diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Λ and Λ, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Λ and Λ baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the point-like scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrödinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Λ and Λ in the quark-diquark picture, while the Λ and Λ spectra are reproduced with half the strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The finite size effect of the diquark is also examined and it is found that the introduction of a finite size diquark would resolve the failure of the spectrum reproduction. The Ξ excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Λ in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with experimental observations.

  3. Energy landscape analysis of the subcortical brain network unravels system properties beneath resting state dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiyoung; Pae, Chongwon; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-04-01

    The configuration of the human brain system at rest, which is in a transitory phase among multistable states, remains unknown. To investigate the dynamic systems properties of the human brain at rest, we constructed an energy landscape for the state dynamics of the subcortical brain network, a critical center that modulates whole brain states, using resting state fMRI. We evaluated alterations in energy landscapes following perturbation in network parameters, which revealed characteristics of the state dynamics in the subcortical brain system, such as maximal number of attractors, unequal temporal occupations, and readiness for reconfiguration of the system. Perturbation in the network parameters, even those as small as the ones in individual nodes or edges, caused a significant shift in the energy landscape of brain systems. The effect of the perturbation on the energy landscape depended on the network properties of the perturbed nodes and edges, with greater effects on hub nodes and hubs-connecting edges in the subcortical brain system. Two simultaneously perturbed nodes produced perturbation effects showing low sensitivity in the interhemispheric homologous nodes and strong dependency on the more primary node among the two. This study demonstrated that energy landscape analysis could be an important tool to investigate alterations in brain networks that may underlie certain brain diseases, or diverse brain functions that may emerge due to the reconfiguration of the default brain network at rest.

  4. Jet Tomography of Quark Gluon Plasmas in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-04-01

    The attenuation pattern of high energy jet fragments in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions provides information on the space-time evolution and dynamical properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase of matter discovered at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and observed at higher densities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First I review our jet tomography theory of quark and gluon energy loss in a weakly coupled picture of the QGP. While the average attenuation pattern of light and heavy quark jets were well accounted for in that picture, the predicted azimuthal elliptic asymmetry of jets was underestimated when realistic bulk collective flow effects were taken into account. I then show that the elliptic asymmetry of jet fragments can also be quantitatively understood when nonperturbative lattice QCD constraints on the suppression of color electric fluctuations and the enhancement of color magnetic fluctuations near the critical QCD confinement temperature, Tc ~ 160 MeV, are incorporated into the theory. Our analysis provides a novel quantitative connection between the jet transport properties controlling the hard jet quenching observables and the bulk viscous transport properties controlling the remarkable ``perfect fluidity'' of QGP observed at RHIC and LHC.

  5. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  6. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  7. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  8. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Daniel; Diehl, Markus; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    This report on the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is the result of a ten-week program at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle (from September 13-November 19, 2010), motivated by the need to develop a strong case for the continued study of the QCD description of hadron structure in the coming decades. Hadron structure in the valence quark region will be studied extensively with the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV science program, the subject of an INT program the previous year. The focus of the INT program was on understanding the role of gluons and sea quarks, the important dynamical degrees of freedom describing hadron structure at high energies. Experimentally, the most direct and precise way to access the dynamical structure of hadrons and nuclei at high energies is with a high luminosity lepton probe in collider mode. An EIC with optimized detectors offers enormous potential as the next generation accelerator to address many of the most important, open questions about the fundamental structure of matter. The goal of the INT program, as captured in the writeups in this report, was to articulate these questions and to identify golden experiments that have the greatest potential to provide definitive answers to these questions. At resolution scales where quarks and gluons become manifest as degrees of freedom, the structure of the nucleon and of nuclei is intimately connected with unique features of QCD dynamics, such as confinement and the self-coupling of gluons. Information on hadron sub-structure in DIS is obtained in the form of 'snapshots' by the 'lepton microscope' of the dynamical many-body hadron system, over different momentum resolutions and energy scales. These femtoscopic snapshots, at the simplest level, provide distribution functions which are extracted over the largest accessible kinematic range to assemble fundamental dynamical insight into hadron and nuclear sub-structure. For the proton, the EIC would be the brightest

  9. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; Welcker, Jorg; Gaston, Anthony J; Hatch, Scott A; Palace, Vince; Hare, James F; Speakman, John R; Anderson, W Gary

    2013-06-15

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements-we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia). Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE) are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR). RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  10. Holography, heavy-quark free energy, and the QCD phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, Pietro; Giannuzzi, Floriana; Nicotri, Stefano

    2011-02-01

    We use gauge/string duality to investigate the free energy of two static color sources (a heavy-quark-antiquark pair) in a Yang-Mills theory in strongly interacting matter, varying temperature and chemical potential. The dual space geometry is anti-de Sitter with a charged black hole to describe finite temperature and density in the boundary theory, and we also include a background warp factor to generate confinement. The resulting deconfinement line in the {mu}-T plane is similar to the one obtained by lattice and effective models of QCD.

  11. Single top quark production in heavy ion collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. V.; Boos, E. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Lokhtin, I. P.; Snigirev, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The article presents analysis of the single top quark production in PbPb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energy 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair. The analysis is performed with CompHEP and PYQUEN event generators. The neutron and proton content in the nuclei is taken into account. NLO precision has been implemented to simulate kinematic properties and rate of single top production. The modification of different characteristics of single top quark decay products due to interactions of jet partons in quark-gluon medium, and the specific charge asymmetry of top/antitop quark yields due to the isospin effect are evaluated.

  12. Resummation of threshold, low- and high-energy expansions for heavy-quark correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Greynat, David; Peris, Santiago

    2010-08-01

    With the help of the Mellin-Barnes transform, we show how to simultaneously resum the expansion of a heavy-quark correlator around q{sup 2}=0 (low-energy), q{sup 2}=4m{sup 2} (threshold, where m is the quark mass), and q{sup 2}{yields}-{infinity} (high-energy) in a systematic way. We exemplify the method for the perturbative vector correlator at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}). We show that the coefficients, {Omega}(n), of the Taylor expansion of the vacuum polarization function in terms of the conformal variable {omega} admit, for large n, an expansion in powers of 1/n (up to logarithms of n) that we can calculate exactly. This large-n expansion has a sign-alternating component given by the logarithms of the operator-product expansion, and a fixed-sign component given by the logarithms of the threshold expansion in the external momentum q{sup 2}.

  13. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    PubMed

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in REE between the electronic device and magazine. Listening to self-selected relaxing music increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.

  14. Increased resting energy expenditure in subjects with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, N; Katzenellenbogen, S; Nevo, Y

    2004-02-01

    We have studied changes in energy expenditure and body composition in adult males with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, age-matched males with hyperCKemia and age-matched healthy controls. All participants were studied twice, 2-3 years apart. Resting energy expenditure was studied by indirect calorimetry, lean body mass and body fat by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle mass was estimated based on 24-h urinary creatinine excretion. At baseline and 2-3 years later, body fat was significantly higher (P < 0.011 and P < 0.003, respectively) and lean body mass significantly lower (P < 0.024 and P < 0.012, respectively) in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy as compared to subjects with hyperCKemia and healthy controls. Resting energy expenditure, over the study period, increased significantly in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (P < 0.031), but not in patients with hyperCKemia nor in healthy controls. Our study suggests that patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy may have increased energy expenditure relative to healthy subjects. If not met by increased caloric intake, this greater energy expenditure may partially contribute to a further deterioration in their muscle performance.

  15. Heavy quark free energy in QCD and in gauge theories with gravity duals

    SciTech Connect

    Noronha, Jorge

    2010-09-15

    Recent lattice results in pure glue SU(3) theory at high temperatures have shown that the expectation value of the renormalized Polyakov loop approaches its asymptotic limit at high temperatures from above. We show that this implies that the 'heavy quark free energy' obtained from the renormalized loop computed on the lattice does not behave like a true thermodynamic free energy. While this should be expected to occur in asymptotically free gauge theories such as QCD, we use the gauge/string duality to show that in a large class of strongly coupled gauge theories with nontrivial UV fixed points the Polyakov loop reaches its asymptotic value from above only if the dimension of the relevant operator used to deform the conformal field theory is greater than or equal to 3.

  16. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  17. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John E.; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity. PMID:22915022

  18. Resting energy expenditure of morbidly obese patients using indirect calorimetry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kee, A-L; Isenring, E; Hickman, I; Vivanti, A

    2012-09-01

    The increasing proportion of acutely ill hospital patient admissions presenting with a morbidly obese body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2) ) as a comorbidity is an emerging clinical concern. Suboptimal food intake and malnutrition is prevalent in the acute care hospital setting. The energy requirements necessary to prevent malnutrition in acutely ill patients with morbid obesity remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies in the literature that have used indirect calorimetry to measure the resting energy expenditure of patients with morbid obesity to establish their minimum energy requirements and the implications for optimal feeding practices in acutely ill hospitalized patients. A total of 20 studies from PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All articles were graded using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence and given a quality rating using the American Dietetic Association recommendations. Studies were categorized according to the mean BMI of its subjects. The most commonly measured resting energy expenditures for morbidly obese patients are between 2,000 and 3,000 kcal d(-1) (8,400-12,600 kJ d(-1) ). Activity and injury factors of acutely ill morbidly obese patients could result in significantly greater energy requirements for this patient group and are unlikely to be met by standard hospital menus. Establishing the minimum energy requirements for this population group will help inform adequate and accurate energy provision in the acute setting. Outcomes of underfeeding and overfeeding in morbidly obese patients warrant further research.

  19. Basking hamsters reduce resting metabolism, body temperature and energy costs during rewarming from torpor.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Gasch, Kristina; Bieber, Claudia; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    Basking can substantially reduce thermoregulatory energy expenditure of mammals. We tested the hypothesis that the largely white winter fur of hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), originating from Asian steppes, may be related to camouflage to permit sun basking on or near snow. Winter-acclimated hamsters in our study were largely white and had a high proclivity to bask when resting and torpid. Resting hamsters reduced metabolic rate (MR) significantly (>30%) when basking at ambient temperatures (Ta) of ∼15 and 0°C. Interestingly, body temperature (Tb) also was significantly reduced from 34.7±0.6°C (Ta 15°C, not basking) to 30.4±2.0°C (Ta 0°C, basking), which resulted in an extremely low (<50% of predicted) apparent thermal conductance. Induced torpor (food withheld) during respirometry at Ta 15°C occurred on 83.3±36.0% of days and the minimum torpor MR was 36% of basal MR at an average Tb of 22.0±2.6°C; movement to the basking lamp occurred at Tb<20.0°C. Energy expenditure for rewarming was significantly reduced (by >50%) during radiant heat-assisted rewarming; however, radiant heat per se without an endogenous contribution by animals did not strongly affect metabolism and Tb during torpor. Our data show that basking substantially modifies thermal energetics in hamsters, with a drop of resting Tb and MR not previously observed and a reduction of rewarming costs. The energy savings afforded by basking in hamsters suggest that this behaviour is of energetic significance not only for mammals living in deserts, where basking is common, but also for P. sungorus and probably other cold-climate mammals.

  20. Supernovae, neutrino rest mass, and the middle-energy neutrino background in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Seidov, Z. F.

    Neutrinos emitted during the formation of the neutron stars and black holes form, together with relict microwave radiation and relict neutrinos, a background for the present universe. The energy of the kind of neutrino emitted in neutron star formation, at 3-30 MeV, is much greater than that of relict neutrinos and much smaller than that of the cosmic ray neutrinos; they are accordingly designated 'middle energy neutrinos' (MENs). It is presently shown that the MEN background's density, at 2-10 x 10 to the -33rd gm/cu cm, is greater than the density of relict microwave radiation and less than the density of matter. The MEN spectra presently calculated yield 0.002 to 0.008 solar neutrino units in the solar chlorine-argon detector. Possible neutrino rest mass effects are discussed for the cases of expanding universe propagation and MEN background spatial structure.

  1. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  2. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  3. Using low-energy neutrinos from pion decay at rest to probe the proton strangeness.

    PubMed

    Pagliaroli, G; Lujan-Peschard, C; Mitra, M; Vissani, F

    2013-07-12

    The study of the neutral current elastic scattering of neutrinos on protons at lower energies can be used as a compelling probe to improve our knowledge of the strangeness of the proton. We consider a neutrino beam generated from pion decay at rest, as provided by a cyclotron or a spallation neutron source and a 1 kton scintillating detector with a potential similar to the Borexino detector. Despite several backgrounds from solar and radioactive sources, it is possible to estimate two optimal energy windows for the analysis, one between 0.65 and 1.1 MeV and another between 1.73 and 2.2 MeV. The expected number of neutral current events in these two regions, for an exposure of 1 yr, is enough to obtain an error on the strange axial charge 10 times smaller than available at present.

  4. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with In Situ Jet Energy Scale Calibration Using Hadronic W Boson Decays at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Arguin, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass with the upgraded collider detector at Fermilab (CDF-II). The top quarks are produced in pairs (tt) in proton-antiproton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  5. Top quark mass measurement in the lepton + jets channel using a matrix element method and in situ jet energy calibration.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; González, B Alvarez; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Griso, S Pagan; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Siegrist, J; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-12-17

    A precision measurement of the top quark mass m(t) is obtained using a sample of tt events from pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with the CDF II detector. Selected events require an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. A likelihood is calculated using a matrix element method with quasi-Monte Carlo integration taking into account finite detector resolution and jet mass effects. The event likelihood is a function of m(t) and a parameter Δ(JES) used to calibrate the jet energy scale in situ. Using a total of 1087 events in 5.6 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, a value of m(t)=173.0 ± 1.2 GeV/c(2) is measured.

  6. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  7. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  8. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Ana Cláudia Soncini; Góes, Cassiana Regina de; Bufarah, Marina Nogueira Berbel; Balbi, André Luiz; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC), various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight). Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  9. Associations among calcium intake, resting energy expenditure, and body fat in a multiethnic sample of children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Cardel, Michelle I.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine if calcium intake was associated with resting energy expenditure (REE) and body fat in children, after accounting for ancestral genetic background. Study design Participants included 315 children. REE, body composition, and dietary calcium were assessed by indirect calorimetry, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 24-hour recalls, respectively. Structural equations modeling assessed the relationships among REE, calcium intake and body fat. Results There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01) and between REE and total body fat (p<0.0001). There was indirect effect of calcium intake on total body fat (p<0.01). There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01), and a trend towards an association of calcium intake and total body fat (p=0.065) among males only; whereas, the only significant relationship among females was an association of REE on total body fat (p<0.0001). Conclusions REE was associated with calcium intake and mediated a relationship between calcium intake and total body fat. These findings suggest calcium intake may play a role in fat accumulation and energy balance through its effects on REE, especially in males. PMID:20400090

  10. Constraining in-medium heavy-quark energy-loss mechanisms via angular correlations between heavy and light mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmoser, M.; Gossiaux, P.-B.; Gousset, T.; Aichelin, J.

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle correlations obtained from parton showers that pass the hot and dense medium of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) can be used as an alternative observable, in addition to the combination of the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2, to study the mechanisms of in-medium heavy quark energy-loss. In particular, angular correlations represent a promising tool to distinguish between energy loss due to collisional and radiative interactions of jet and medium particles. To this end, parton cascades were created in Monte-Carlo simulations, where individual particles can undergo both parton splitting as well as an effective jet-medium interaction. A first model simulates the effects of induced radiations on parton cascades. Its consequences on angular correlations of partons within jets were studied in detail, with particular focus on angular broadening. The results can be compared to a second model that effectively describes elastic scatterings of jet and medium particles.

  11. Resting energy expenditure and body composition following cerebro-vascular accident.

    PubMed

    Weekes, E; Elia, M

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) in patients routinely admitted to hospital following a cerebro-vascular accident (CVA). The REE of 15 patients (8 female; 7 male) was measured using indirect calorimetry 24-72 hours after the CVA; 11 patients (7 female; 4 male) were measured again 10-14 days later. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold thickness, near infra-red interactance and bioelectrical impedance techniques. Initial REE in females was 1133 kcal/day (+/-67) and in males 1526 kcal/day (+/-111). There was little or no difference in REE or body composition between the first and second measurements. REE was between 95%-107% of the values predicted by 10 reference tables and equations and up to 118% of that predicted by another. We conclude that the total energy requirements of patients following a stroke are not high, probably because of decreased physical activity and changes in muscular tone subsequent to CVA.

  12. Evolving concepts on adjusting human resting energy expenditure measurements for body size.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Thomas, D; Bosy-Westphal, A; Shen, W; Peterson, C M; Müller, M J

    2012-11-01

    Establishing if an adult's resting energy expenditure (REE) is high or low for their body size is a pervasive question in nutrition research. Early workers applied body mass and height as size measures and formulated the Surface Law and Kleiber's Law, although each has limitations when adjusting REE. Body composition methods introduced during the mid-20th century provided a new opportunity to identify metabolically homogeneous 'active' compartments. These compartments all show improved correlations with REE estimates over body mass-height approaches, but collectively share a common limitation: REE-body composition ratios are not 'constant' but vary across men and women and with race, age and body size. The now-accepted alternative to ratio-based norms is to adjust for predictors by applying regression models to calculate 'residuals' that establish if an REE is relatively high or low. The distinguishing feature of statistical REE-body composition models is a 'non-zero' intercept of unknown origin. The recent introduction of imaging methods has allowed development of physiological tissue-organ-based REE prediction models. Herein, we apply these imaging methods to provide a mechanistic explanation, supported by experimental data, for the non-zero intercept phenomenon and, in that context, propose future research directions for establishing between-subject differences in relative energy metabolism.

  13. Quark-novae Occurring in Massive Binaries : A Universal Energy Source in Superluminous Supernovae with Double-peaked Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico

    2016-02-01

    A quark-nova (QN; the sudden transition from a neutron star into a quark star), which occurs in the second common envelope (CE) phase of a massive binary, gives excellent fits to superluminous, hydrogen-poor, supernovae (SLSNe) with double-peaked light curves, including DES13S2cmm, SN 2006oz, and LSQ14bdq (http://www.quarknova.ca/LCGallery.html). In our model, the H envelope of the less massive companion is ejected during the first CE phase, while the QN occurs deep inside the second, He-rich, CE phase after the CE has expanded in size to a radius of a few tens to a few thousands of solar radii; this yields the first peak in our model. The ensuing merging of the quark star with the CO core leads to black hole formation and accretion, explaining the second long-lasting peak. We study a sample of eight SLSNe Ic with double-humped light curves. Our model provides good fits to all of these, with a universal explosive energy of 2 × 1052 erg (which is the kinetic energy of the QN ejecta) for the first hump. The late-time emissions seen in iPTF13ehe and LSQ14bdq are fit with a shock interaction between the outgoing He-rich (i.e., second) CE and the previously ejected H-rich (i.e., first) CE.

  14. QUARK-NOVAE OCCURRING IN MASSIVE BINARIES: A UNIVERSAL ENERGY SOURCE IN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE WITH DOUBLE-PEAKED LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Koning, Nico

    2016-02-10

    A quark-nova (QN; the sudden transition from a neutron star into a quark star), which occurs in the second common envelope (CE) phase of a massive binary, gives excellent fits to superluminous, hydrogen-poor, supernovae (SLSNe) with double-peaked light curves, including DES13S2cmm, SN 2006oz, and LSQ14bdq (http://www.quarknova.ca/LCGallery.html). In our model, the H envelope of the less massive companion is ejected during the first CE phase, while the QN occurs deep inside the second, He-rich, CE phase after the CE has expanded in size to a radius of a few tens to a few thousands of solar radii; this yields the first peak in our model. The ensuing merging of the quark star with the CO core leads to black hole formation and accretion, explaining the second long-lasting peak. We study a sample of eight SLSNe Ic with double-humped light curves. Our model provides good fits to all of these, with a universal explosive energy of 2 × 10{sup 52} erg (which is the kinetic energy of the QN ejecta) for the first hump. The late-time emissions seen in iPTF13ehe and LSQ14bdq are fit with a shock interaction between the outgoing He-rich (i.e., second) CE and the previously ejected H-rich (i.e., first) CE.

  15. Search for pair production of scalar top quarks in jets and missing transverse energy channel with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes a search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, $\\tilde{t}$1, using a luminosity of 995 pb-1 of data collected in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Both scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a charm quark and a neutralino, $\\tilde{X}$10, where $\\tilde{X}$10 is the lightest supersymmetric particle. This leads to a final state with two acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy. The yield of such events in data is found to be consistent with the expectations from known standard model processes. Sets of $\\tilde{X}$1 and $\\tilde{X}$10 masses are excluded at the 95% confidence level that substantially extend the domain excluded by previous searches. With the theoretical uncertainty on the $\\tilde{t}$1 pair production cross section taken into account, the largest limit for m$\\tilde{t}$1 is m$\\tilde{t}$1 > 150 GeV, for m$\\tilde{X}$10 = 65 GeV.

  16. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esha, Roli; Nasim, Md.; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, D 0 and using quark coalescence as the mechanism of hadronization of heavy quarks will be presented. The coalescing partons are taken from a multi-phase transport model. The transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1.0) for minimum bias Au+Au collisions at > = 200 GeV (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions = 2.76 TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant will be discussed. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We will also present the effect of specific viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to viscous properties of QGP medium compared to light hadrons.

  17. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method.

  18. {rho}-{omega} mixing self-energy and model quark-gluon dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Mitchell, K.L.; Tandy, P.C.; Cahill, R.T.

    1995-08-01

    The u-d quark-loop vacuum polarization process that mixes the {omega} and {rho} mesons and its contribution to the Charge-Symmetry-Breaking (CSB) piece of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction has been studied in a QCD-based, model field theory: the Global Color-symmetry Model (GCM), using a confining quark propagator obtained in earlier studies. In fitting NN phase shifts it was found necessary to include a term in the NN potential that has, conventionally, been attributed to the mixing between {omega} and {rho} mesons that arises because of isospin asymmetry at the quark level, as manifest in the small u-d current-quark-mass difference. To the present, this term was modeled and assumed to be momentum independent. It is important to understand this term in the context of QCD. The results of this study indicate that the modification of the meson propagators produced by the quark loop is alone not sufficient to account for the observed charge symmetry breaking effects in the NN interaction. We are exploring other possible mechanisms which may describe the origin of CSB in the NN interaction.

  19. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  20. Addendum to triton and hypertriton binding energies calculated from SU{sub 6} quark-model baryon-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Kohno, M.; Miyagawa, K.

    2008-02-15

    Previously we calculated the binding energies of the triton and hypertriton, using an SU{sub 6} quark-model interaction obtained by a resonating-group method of two baryon clusters. In contrast to the previous calculations employing the energy-dependent interaction kernel, we present new results using a renormalized interaction that is energy-independent and still preserves all the two-baryon data. The new binding energies are slightly smaller than the previous values. In particular the triton binding energy turns out to be 8.14 MeV with a charge-dependence correction of the two-nucleon force, 190 keV, being included. This indicates that the energy to be accounted for by three-body forces is about 350 keV.

  1. Triton and hypertriton binding energies with SU{sub 6} quark-model baryon-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Kohno, M.; Miyagawa, K.

    2008-04-29

    Previously we calculated the binding energies of the triton and hypertriton, using an SU{sub 6} quark-model interaction which is obtained by a resonating-group method for two baryon clusters. In contrast to the previous calculations employing the energy-dependent interaction kernel, we present new results using a renormalized interaction which is energy-independent and still preserves all the two-baryon data. The new binding energies are slightly smaller than the previous values. In particular the triton binding energy turns out to be 8.14 MeV with a charge-dependence correction of the two-nucleon force, 190 keV, being included. This indicates that the energy to be accounted for by three-body forces is about 350 keV.

  2. Exploiting Third Generation Quarks for New Physics Discoveries at the Energy Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Andrew G.

    2013-10-15

    The K-State group's effort is top quark physics and searches for beyond-standard-model physics in t{anti }t final states. The KSU team performed the most precise measurement of the t {anti t} cross section in the lepton + jets channel, and for the first time excluded the fourth generation of the standard model in the perturbative regime.

  3. Effects of exercise training on resting energy expenditure and lean mass during pediatric burn rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    Severe burns cause profound hormonal and metabolic disturbances resulting in hypermetabolism, reflected in extreme elevation of resting energy expenditure (REE) and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism. Aerobic and resistive exercise programs during rehabilitation have shown substantial benefits, although whether such training potentially exacerbates basal metabolism is unknown. Therefore, the effects of exercise training on REE during the rehabilitation of severely burned pediatric patients were examined. Children with 40% total body surface area burns and greater were enrolled at admission to the burn intensive care unit to participate in a 12-week, hospital-based exercise program (EX) or a home-based standard of care program (SOC), commencing 6 months after injury. Twenty-one patients (aged 7-17 years) were enrolled and randomized to SOC (n = 10) or EX (n = 11). Age, sex, and total body surface area burned were similar. Mean change (+/-standard deviation) in REE, normalized to individual lean body mass, was almost negligible between SOC and EX group patients (SOC, 0.03 +/- 17.40% vs EX, 0.01 +/- 26.38%). A significant increase in lean body mass was found for EX patients (SOC, 2.06 +/- 3.17% vs EX, 8.75 +/- 5.65%; P = .004), which persisted when normalized to height (SOC, 0.70 +/- 2.39% vs EX, 6.14 +/- 6.46%; P = .02). Peak torque also improved significantly more in EX patients (SOC, 12.29 +/- 16.49% vs EX, 54.31 +/- 44.25%; P = .02), reflecting improved strength. Exercise training significantly enhanced lean mass and strength, without observed exacerbation of postburn hypermetabolism. Therefore, the use of exercise conditioning as a safe and effective component of pediatric burn rehabilitation is advocated.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of the correlation between regional energy phosphates and resting state functional connectivity in depression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chun S; Lin, Pan; Vitaliano, Gordana; Wang, Kristina; Villafuerte, Rosemond; Lukas, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Impaired brain energy metabolism is among the leading hypotheses in the pathogenesis of affective disorders and linking energy phosphates with states of tissue-function activity is a novel and non-invasive approach to differentiate healthy from unhealthy states. Resting state functional MRI (fMRI) has been established as an important tool for mapping cerebral regional activity and phosphorous chemical shift imaging ((31)P CSI) has been applied to measure levels of energy phosphates and phospholipids non-invasively in order to gain insight into the possible etiology of affective disorders. This is an initial attempt to identify the existence of a correlation between regional energy phosphates and connectivity at nodes of the posterior default mode network (DMN). Resting state fMRI in conjunction with (31)P 2D CSI was applied to 11 healthy controls and 11 depressed patients at 3 T. We found that differences between the two groups exist in correlation of lateral posterior parietal cortex functional connectivity and regional Pi/PCr. Results of this study indicate that resting-state-fMRI-guided (31)P CSI can provide new insight into depression via regional energy phosphates and functional connectivity.

  5. Quark confinement dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.J.; Olsson, M.G.; Veseli, S.; Williams, K. |

    1997-05-01

    Starting from Buchm{umlt u}ller{close_quote}s observation that a chromoelectric flux tube meson will exhibit only the Thomas-type spin-orbit interaction, we show that a model built upon the related assumption that a quark feels only a constant radial chromoelectric field in its rest frame implies a complete relativistic effective Hamiltonian that can be written explicitly in terms of quark canonical variables. The model yields linear Regge trajectories and exhibits some similarities to scalar confinement, but with the advantage of being more closely linked to QCD. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Crawshay, Siobhan; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

    2014-04-15

    The myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise (REX) and protein ingestion during energy deficit (ED) is unknown. In young men (n = 8) and women (n = 7), we determined protein signaling and resting postabsorptive MPS during energy balance [EB; 45 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)·day(-1)] and after 5 days of ED (30 kcal·kg FFM(-1)·day(-1)) as well as MPS while in ED after acute REX in the fasted state and with the ingestion of whey protein (15 and 30 g). Postabsorptive rates of MPS were 27% lower in ED than EB (P < 0.001), but REX stimulated MPS to rates equal to EB. Ingestion of 15 and 30 g of protein after REX in ED increased MPS ~16 and ~34% above resting EB (P < 0.02). p70 S6K Thr(389) phosphorylation increased above EB only with combined exercise and protein intake (~2-7 fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term ED reduces postabsorptive MPS; however, a bout of REX in ED restores MPS to values observed at rest in EB. The ingestion of protein after REX further increases MPS above resting EB in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that combining REX with increased protein availability after exercise enhances rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during short-term ED and could in the long term preserve muscle mass.

  7. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with a Photon, Jet, b-quark Jet, and Missing Transverse Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The CDF

    2009-05-01

    We present a signature-based search for anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy (/E{sub T}). The search uses data corresponding to 2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity from p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. From 6,697,466 events with a photon candidate with transverse energy ET > 25 GeV, we find 617 events with /E{sub T} > 25 GeV and two or more jets with E{sub T} > 15 GeV, at least one identified as originating from a b quark, versus an expectation of 607 {+-} 113 events. Increasing the requirement on /E{sub T} to 50 GeV, we find 28 events versus an expectation of 30 {+-} 11 events. We find no indications of non-standard-model phenomena.

  8. Search for anomalous production of events with a photon, jet, b-quark jet, and missing transverse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; González, B. Álvarez; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzurri, P.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burke, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H. J.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Genser, K.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; da Costa, J. Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-S.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Luci, C.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Fernandez, P. Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Griso, S. Pagan; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Saltó, O.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Tourneur, S.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Xie, S.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2009-09-01

    We present a signature-based search for the anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy (E̸T). The search uses data corresponding to 2.0fb-1 of integrated luminosity from pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.96TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. From 6.69747×106 events with a photon candidate with transverse energy ET>25GeV, we find 617 events with E̸T>25GeV and two or more jets with ET>15GeV, at least one identified as originating from a b quark, versus an expectation of 607±113 events. Increasing the requirement on E̸T to 50 GeV, we find 28 events versus an expectation of 30±11 events. We find no indications of non-standard-model phenomena.

  9. Runaway quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gurarie, V.

    1995-08-01

    When heavy nuclei collide, a quark-gluon plasma is formed. The plasma is subject to a strong electric field due to the charge of the colliding nuclei. The electric field can influence the behavior of the quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we might observe an increased number of quarks moving in the direction of that field, as we do in the standard electron-ion plasma. In this paper we show that this phenomenon, called the runaway quarks, does not exist.

  10. b quark production at a cener-of-mass energy of 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Matthew; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the cross-section for producing b quarks in the reaction pp -> bbX and B hadron production fractions as a function of η and transverse momentum are reported in 13 TeV collisions at the LHC with data taken by the LHCb detector. The measurements are done using semileptonic decays of b-flavored hadrons decaying into a ground-state charmed hadron in association with a muon.

  11. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  12. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Collin J.; Tisch, Jocelyn J.; Sakarcan, Kenan E.; Bridges, William C.; Jesch, Elliot D.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment. PMID:27857943

  13. Resting Energy Expenditure in Adults with Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Matthew F.; Orme, Paul; Smith, Jonathon; Morse, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was: 1) To compare Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adult males with Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy (BeMD, n = 21, 39 ±12 years) and healthy controls (CTRL, n = 12, 37 ±12 years) 2) Determine whether other physiological parameters correlate with REE in BeMD, and 3) Compare current prediction methods of REE with measured REE. Methods REE was calculated via indirect calorimetry using continuous, expired gas analysis following an overnight fast. Fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass were measured by bioelectrical impedance. B-mode ultrasound measured Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA). The Bone Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire measured physical activity. Results No difference in REE was found between CTRL and BeMD groups (1913 ±203 & 1786 ±324 Kcal respectively). Other physiological comparisons showed increased fat mass (+54%), decreased TA ACSA (-42%), increased GM ACSA (+25%) as well as reduced respiratory function (FVC -28%; FEV1−27%) in BeMD adults compared to controls. REE estimated from prediction equations (Schofield’s) in Muscular Dystrophy were different from measured REE (P<0.05, bias = -728kcal), while the Mifflin equation was no different from measured REE (r2 = 0.58, Bias = -8kcal). Within the present BeMD, REE predicted from FFM (REE = FFM x 34.57–270; r2 = 0.85) and body mass (REE = BM x 15.65 + 421.5; r2 = 0.66), were not different from measured REE (bias equals 0 and 0.2kcals, respectively) Conclusions Despite no differences in REE between CTRL and BeMD adults, increased fat masses highlights the requirement for explicit nutritional guidelines, as well as maintenance of physical activity levels, where possible. Prediction equations are frequently used in clinical settings, however these have been shown to be less accurate in BeMD; therefore, the equations proposed here should be used where possible. PMID:28060911

  14. Einstein's Gravitational Field Approach to Dark Matter and Dark Energy-Geometric Particle Decay into the Vacuum Energy Generating Higgs Boson and Heavy Quark Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Walter James

    2015-08-01

    During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, "according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field" [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.

  15. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  16. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t→Wb→ℓνb by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.04(-0.53)(+0.57)  pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vtb|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  17. Semi-inclusive charged-pion electroproduction off protons and deuterons: Cross sections, ratios, and access to the quark-parton model at low energies

    DOE PAGES

    Asaturyan, R.; Ent, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; ...

    2012-01-01

    A large set of cross sections for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions (π±) from both proton and deuteron targets was measured. The data are in the deep-inelastic scattering region with invariant mass squared W2 > 4 GeV2 and range in four-momentum transfer squared 2 < Q2 < 4 (GeV/c)2, and cover a range in the Bjorken scaling variable 0.2 < x < 0.6. The fractional energy of the pions spans a range 0.3 < z < 1, with small transverse momenta with respect to the virtual-photon direction, Pt2 < 0.2 (GeV/c)2. The invariant mass that goes undetected, Mx or W',more » is in the nucleon resonance region, W' < 2 GeV. The new data conclusively show the onset of quark-hadron duality in this process, and the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark → pion production mechanisms. The x, z and Pt2 dependences of several ratios (the ratios of favored-unfavored fragmentation functions, charged pion ratios, deuteron-hydrogen and aluminum-deuteron ratios for π+ and π-) have been studied. The ratios are found to be in good agreement with expectations based upon a high-energy quark-parton model description. We find the azimuthal dependences to be small, as compared to exclusive pion electroproduction, and consistent with theoretical expectations based on tree-level factorization in terms of transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. In the context of a simple model, the initial transverse momenta of d quarks are found to be slightly smaller than for u quarks, while the transverse momentum width of the favored fragmentation function is about the same as for the unfavored one, and both fragmentation widths are larger than the quark widths.« less

  18. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  19. Limits on quark compositeness from high energy jets in p¯p collisions at 1.8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Akimov, V.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lu, J. G.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Song, X. F.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2000-08-01

    Events in p¯p collisions at s=1.8 TeV with total transverse energy exceeding 500 GeV are used to set limits on quark substructure. The data are consistent with next-to-leading order QCD calculations. We set a lower limit of 2.0 TeV at 95% confidence on the energy scale ΛLL for compositeness in quarks, assuming a model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction term. The limits on ΛLL are found to be insensitive to the sign of the interference term in the Lagrangian.

  20. Increased resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and food intake in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2007-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with metabolic adverse events such as lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of HAART-associated lipodystrophy on resting energy expenditure and caloric intake. In this cross-sectional study we compared resting energy expenditure (REE) and energy intake in 30 HAART-treated patients with lipodystrophy (HAART+LD+) with 13 HAART-treated patients without lipodystrophy (HAART+LD-). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry, and energy intake was recorded as a 3-day diary of food intake. REE (5,180+/-160 vs. 4,260+/-150 J/min, P<0.01) and also REE expressed per fat-free mass (86+/-1 vs. 78+/-2 J.kg fat-free mass-1.min-1, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Rate of lipid oxidation was significantly higher in the HAART+LD+ than the HAART+LD- group. Total energy and fat intakes were significantly increased in the HAART+LD+ compared with the HAART+LD- group. These results imply that HAART-associated lipodystrophy is associated with increased REE and lipid oxidation and with increased caloric and fat intake.

  1. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.

  2. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esha, Roli; Nasim, Md; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2017-04-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, D 0 and {D}S+/- , using quark coalescence as a mechanism of hadronization of heavy quarks implemented in conjunction with A Multi-Phase Transport model has been presented. We have studied the transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity (| y| < 1.0) for Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}}=200 {GeV} (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions at \\sqrt{{s}{{NN}}}=2.76 TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We have also studied the effect of shear viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to the viscous properties of the quark–gluon plasma medium as compared to light charged hadrons.

  3. Search for supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at d0 at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, Samuel Pierre

    2007-09-21

    Supersymmetry, extension of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), is searched for by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$). This search is performed using events with a final state comprising two acoplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy (MET) and coming from a sample of 992 pb-1 of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab p$\\bar{p}$ collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to MS expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV, neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The MET has been studied under two points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then, within the framework of the ALPGEN generator, the simulation of the Z boson transverse momentum which appears as MET when the Z boson decays into neutrino.

  4. What are the right values of overlineΛ and the heavy quark kinetic energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Victor

    1996-02-01

    The values of two important parameters of the heavy quark effective theory, overlineΛ and μπ2 (the mean value of the heavy quark three momentum squared), have been determined recently by Gremm et al. [M. Gremm, A. Kapustin, Z. Ligeti, M. Wise, CALT-68-2043, hep-ph/9603314 (original and revised versions)] from the precise CLEO data on the shape of the electron spectrum in semileptonic B meson decays. The values obtained by Gremm et al.: overlineΛ = (0.55 ± 0.05) GeV, μπ2 = (0.35 ± 0.05) GeV 2, disagree with the result obtained earlier by Chernyak [Nucl. Phys. B 457 (1995) 961] from the D meson semileptonic width. The purpose of this note is to show that the main reason for a disagreement is the secondary electron background present in the data, which influences strongly the extracted values of overlineΛ and μπ2. We determine the amount of this background from the selfconsistency conditions, and subtract it out. As a result, the values of overlineΛ and μπ2 become a factor two smaller and agree with Chernyak (q.v.).

  5. Capsaicin and evodiamine ingestion does not augment energy expenditure and fat oxidation at rest or after moderately-intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Neil A; Spillane, Mike; La Bounty, Paul; Grandjean, Peter W; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2013-12-01

    Capsaicin and evodiamine are 2 thermogenic agents recognized for their ability to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that both capsaicin and evodiamine would be effective at increasing thermogenesis and lipid oxidation during rest and exercise. In a randomized, cross-over design, 11 men ingested 500 mg of cayenne pepper (1.25 mg capsaicin), 500 mg evodiamine, or placebo at rest following 30 minutes of energy expenditure assessment using open-circuit spirometry. Energy expenditure was assessed again prior to commencing approximately 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 65% peak oxygen consumption. Energy expenditure was assessed for another 30 minutes of the post-exercise period. Heart rate, blood pressure, core temperature, and venous blood samples were obtained 30 minutes before supplement ingestion, 1 hour after supplement ingestion, immediately post-exercise, and 45 minutes post-exercise. Serum markers of lipid oxidation (glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) were determined spectrophotometrically with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were performed for each dependent variable (P ≤ .05) with Supplement and Test as main effects. Statistical analyses revealed significant main effects for Test for hemodynamics, energy expenditure, serum catecholamines, and markers of fat oxidation immediately post-exercise (P < .05). No significant interactions between Supplement and Test were noted for any criterion variable (P > .05). These results suggest that acute ingestion of 500 mg of cayenne (1.25 mg capsaicin) or evodiamine is not effective at inducing thermogenesis and increasing fat oxidation at rest or during exercise in men.

  6. Energy-based stochastic control of neural mass models suggests time-varying effective connectivity in the resting state.

    PubMed

    Sotero, Roberto C; Shmuel, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Several studies posit energy as a constraint on the coding and processing of information in the brain due to the high cost of resting and evoked cortical activity. This suggestion has been addressed theoretically with models of a single neuron and two coupled neurons. Neural mass models (NMMs) address mean-field based modeling of the activity and interactions between populations of neurons rather than a few neurons. NMMs have been widely employed for studying the generation of EEG rhythms, and more recently as frameworks for integrated models of neurophysiology and functional MRI (fMRI) responses. To date, the consequences of energy constraints on the activity and interactions of ensembles of neurons have not been addressed. Here we aim to study the impact of constraining energy consumption during the resting-state on NMM parameters. To this end, we first linearized the model, then used stochastic control theory by introducing a quadratic cost function, which transforms the NMM into a stochastic linear quadratic regulator (LQR). Solving the LQR problem introduces a regime in which the NMM parameters, specifically the effective connectivities between neuronal populations, must vary with time. This is in contrast to current NMMs, which assume a constant parameter set for a given condition or task. We further simulated energy-constrained stochastic control of a specific NMM, the Wilson and Cowan model of two coupled neuronal populations, one of which is excitatory and the other inhibitory. These simulations demonstrate that with varying weights of the energy-cost function, the NMM parameters show different time-varying behavior. We conclude that constraining NMMs according to energy consumption may create more realistic models. We further propose to employ linear NMMs with time-varying parameters as an alternative to traditional nonlinear NMMs with constant parameters.

  7. Search for single top quark production in pbar p collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV in the missing transverse energy plus jets topology

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-01-01

    We report a search for single top quark production with the CDF II detector using 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data selected consist of events characterized by large energy imbalance in the transverse plane and hadronic jets, and no identified electrons and muons, so the sample is enriched in W {yields} {tau}{nu} decays. In order to suppress backgrounds, additional kinematic and topological requirements are imposed through a neural network, and at least one of the jets must be identified as a b quark jet. We measure an excess of signal-like events in agreement with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with a model without single top quark production by 2.1 standard deviations ({sigma}), with a median expected sensitivity of 1.4 {sigma}. Assuming a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2} and ascribing the excess to single top quark production, the cross section is measured to be 4.9{sub -2.2}{sup +2.5} (stat+syst) pb, consistent with measurements performed in independent datasets and with the standard model prediction.

  8. Search for single top quark production in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV in the missing transverse energy plus jets topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramanov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Rutherford, B.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    We report a search for single top quark production with the CDF II detector using 2.1fb-1 of integrated luminosity of pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV. The data selected consist of events characterized by large energy imbalance in the transverse plane and hadronic jets, and no identified electrons and muons, so the sample is enriched in W→τν decays. In order to suppress backgrounds, additional kinematic and topological requirements are imposed through a neural network, and at least one of the jets must be identified as a b quark jet. We measure an excess of signal-like events in agreement with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with a model without single top quark production by 2.1 standard deviations (σ), with a median expected sensitivity of 1.4σ. Assuming a top quark mass of 175GeV/c2 and ascribing the excess to single top quark production, the cross section is measured to be 4.9-2.2+2.5(stat+syst)pb, consistent with measurements performed in independent data sets and with the standard model prediction.

  9. General relativistic ray-tracing algorithm for the determination of the electron-positron energy deposition rate from neutrino pair annihilation around rotating neutron and quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.

  10. Influence of Resting Energy Expenditure on Blood Pressure is Independent of Body Mass and a Marker of Sympathetic Tone

    PubMed Central

    Brock, David W.; Tompkins, Connie L.; Fisher, Gordon; Hunter, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction two recent examinations reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE), independent of body mass and body composition. Both reports postulate that neuro-humoral processes that contribute to variation in REE may partly mediate the body mass effect on BP. Therefore, we examined the relationship of REE and BP in 108 asymptomatic women to (a) confirm previous findings in a novel population, and (b) to examine the impact of a marker of sympathetic tone on this relationship, as this was indicated as a potentially salient intermediary in previous reports. Methods all testing was performed during a 4-day admission to the General Clinical Research Center. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry; body composition was determined by DEXA; and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine was determined by HPLC. Results multiple linear regression revealed REE as a significant predictor of SBP (β = 0.30, P = 0.04), independent of race (β = 0. 28, P = 0.01), age (β = − 0.02, P = 0.80), height (β = − 0.38, P = 0.08), fat mass (β = 0.22, P = 0.20), fat free mass (β = 0.08, P = 0.65), and 24-hour fractionated urinary norepinephrine (β = 0.06, P = 0.57); and the same model using DBP as the dependent variable approached significance (β = 0.24, P = 0.09). Discussion this study affirms previous findings that REE may be a potential mediator in resting BP, independent of many well-cited factors and, additionally, a marker of sympathetic tone. PMID:21820136

  11. To ingest or rest? Specialized roles of lateral hypothalamic area neurons in coordinating energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette A.; Woodworth, Hillary L.; Leinninger, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexins/hypocretins (OX) are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts) has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders. PMID:25741247

  12. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. Methods This case–control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. Results The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Conclusions Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls. PMID:22672689

  13. Postoperative effects of anesthesia and surgery on resting energy expenditure in horses as measured by indirect calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Antonio M.; Coté, Nathalie; McDonell, Wayne N.; Geor, Raymond J.; Wilson, Brian A.; Monteith, Gabrielle; Li, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to define the effects of anesthesia and surgery on the resting energy expenditure of horses in experimental conditions. Six horses were used in a longitudinal study with 2 study periods: before and after anesthesia and surgery. Every horse underwent a standard 90-min ventral midline exploratory laparotomy. Oxygen uptake ( ) and carbon dioxide output ( ) were measured, with the use of a closed-circuit spirometry system, on 5 consecutive days immediately before and after the surgery. In 3 consecutive 5-min periods each day, the expired air was collected in a Collins spirometer. Samples of the expired gas were drawn from the spirometer through a drying column into O2 and CO2 analyzers. Resting energy expenditure was calculated as [( *3.94) + ( *1.11)]*1.44. This study showed that anesthesia and ventral midline exploratory laparotomy in experimental conditions increase the postoperative caloric demand in horses by an average of 1.0 Mcal/d, which represents approximately a 10% increase (P = 0.03). Additional studies in critically ill horses after surgery are needed to determine their caloric needs and to optimize their nutritional management. PMID:17042377

  14. Low and high energy phenomenology of quark-lepton complementarity scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Rodejohann, Werner

    2007-04-01

    We conduct a detailed analysis of the phenomenology of two predictive seesaw scenarios leading to quark-lepton complementarity. In both cases we discuss the neutrino mixing observables and their correlations, neutrinoless double beta decay and lepton flavor violating decays such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma}. We also comment on leptogenesis. The first scenario is disfavored on the level of one to two standard deviations, in particular, due to its prediction for |U{sub e3}|. There can be resonant leptogenesis with quasidegenerate heavy and light neutrinos, which would imply sizable cancellations in neutrinoless double beta decay. The decays {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma} are typically observable unless the SUSY masses approach the TeV scale. In the second scenario leptogenesis is impossible. It is, however, in perfect agreement with all oscillation data. The prediction for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is in general too large, unless the SUSY masses are in the range of several TeV. In this case {tau}{yields}e{gamma} and {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma} are unobservable.

  15. Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure in Relation to Body Weight and Composition Following Gastric Restriction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Franco, Robert L; Cyrus, John C; Celi, Francesco; Evans, Ronald K

    2016-07-01

    In comparison to gastric bypass surgery, gastric restriction without malabsorption more closely simulates dietary adherence while still producing durable weight loss. The latter is achieved despite considerable reductions in resting energy expenditure (REE), and whether REE is adjusted for body weight/composition using ratio- or regression-based methods could influence understanding of how these procedures affect energy balance. This systematic review identified studies that reported REE before and after gastric restriction in order to compare changes using each method. Ratio assessments revealed increases and decreases when REE was expressed per kilogram of body weight and per kilogram of fat-free mass, respectively. In comparison, measured REE tended to be less than predicted from linear regression after surgery. Explanations for these seemingly disparate findings and future directions are discussed.

  16. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  17. Orthostatic Hypotension and Elevated Resting Heart Rate Predict Low-Energy Fractures in the Population: The Malmö Preventive Project

    PubMed Central

    Hamrefors, Viktor; Härstedt, Maria; Holmberg, Anna; Rogmark, Cecilia; Sutton, Richard; Melander, Olle; Fedorowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background Autonomic disorders of the cardiovascular system, such as orthostatic hypotension and elevated resting heart rate, predict mortality and cardiovascular events in the population. Low-energy-fractures constitute a substantial clinical problem that may represent an additional risk related to such autonomic dysfunction. Aims To test the association between orthostatic hypotension, resting heart rate and incidence of low-energy-fractures in the general population. Methods and Results Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models we investigated the association between orthostatic blood pressure response, resting heart rate and first incident low-energy-fracture in a population-based, middle-aged cohort of 33 000 individuals over 25 years follow-up. The median follow-up time from baseline to first incident fracture among the subjects that experienced a low energy fracture was 15.0 years. A 10 mmHg orthostatic decrease in systolic blood pressure at baseline was associated with 5% increased risk of low-energy-fractures (95% confidence interval 1.01–1.10) during follow-up, whereas the resting heart rate predicted low-energy-fractures with an effect size of 8% increased risk per 10 beats-per-minute (1.05–1.12), independently of the orthostatic response. Subjects with a resting heart rate exceeding 68 beats-per-minute had 18% (1.10–1.26) increased risk of low-energy-fractures during follow-up compared with subjects with a resting heart rate below 68 beats-per-minute. When combining the orthostatic response and resting heart rate, there was a 30% risk increase (1.08–1.57) of low-energy-fractures between the extremes, i.e. between subjects in the fourth compared with the first quartiles of both resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure-decrease. Conclusion Orthostatic blood pressure decline and elevated resting heart rate independently predict low-energy fractures in a middle-aged population. These two measures of subclinical cardiovascular

  18. Baryons as Fock states of 3,5,... Quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov; Victor Petrov

    2004-09-01

    We present a generating functional producing quark wave functions of all Fock states in the octet, decuplet and antidecuplet baryons in the mean field approximation, both in the rest and infinite momentum frames. In particular, for the usual octet and decuplet baryons we get the SU(6)-symmetric wave functions for their 3-quark component but with specific corrections from relativism and from additional quark-antiquark pairs. For the exotic antidecuplet baryons we obtain the 5-quark wave function.

  19. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and <35 kg/m(2), aged 35-45 years (premenopausal, n 26) and 55-65 years (postmenopausal, n 25). Energy intake was measured using 3 d diet diaries and dietary fat quality assessed using adipose tissue fatty acid biomarkers. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. Postmenopausal women had lower RMR and TEE and spent significantly less time undertaking moderate exercise than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women had a tendency for a lower energy intake, and a similar macronutrient intake but a significantly lower adipose tissue n-6:n-3 ratio (24·6 (se 1·6) v. 37·7 (se 3·1); P < 0·001). The main lifestyle determinant of bone mineral density (which was significantly lower in postmenopausal women) was TEE for premenopausal women, and dietary n-6:n-3 ratio for postmenopausal women. The present results suggest that weight maintenance is achieved in the post- compared with premenopausal status through a combination of reduced energy intake and reduced TEE in a regimen that compromises micronutrient intake and has a negative impact on lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density.

  20. Top Quark Mass Measurement in the lepton+jets Channel Using a Matrix Element Method and in situ Jet Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Gresele, A.; Lazzizzera, I.; Amidei, D.; Campbell, M.

    2010-12-17

    A precision measurement of the top quark mass m{sub t} is obtained using a sample of tt events from pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with the CDF II detector. Selected events require an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. A likelihood is calculated using a matrix element method with quasi-Monte Carlo integration taking into account finite detector resolution and jet mass effects. The event likelihood is a function of m{sub t} and a parameter {Delta}{sub JES} used to calibrate the jet energy scale in situ. Using a total of 1087 events in 5.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, a value of m{sub t}=173.0{+-}1.2 GeV/c{sup 2} is measured.

  1. Top Quark Mass Measurement in the Lepton + Jets Channel Using a Matrix Element Method and \\textit{in situ} Jet Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-10-01

    A precision measurement of the top quark mass m{sub t} is obtained using a sample of t{bar t} events from p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with the CDF II detector. Selected events require an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. A likelihood is calculated using a matrix element method with quasi-Monte Carlo integration taking into account finite detector resolution and jet mass effects. The event likelihood is a function of m{sub t} and a parameter {Delta}{sub JES} used to calibrate the jet energy scale in situ. Using a total of 1087 events, a value of m{sub t} = 173.0 {+-} 1.2 GeV/c{sup 2} is measured.

  2. Top Quark Mass Measurement in the lepton+jets Channel Using a Matrix Element Method and in situ Jet Energy Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Brisuda, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Bucciantonio, M.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rubbo, F.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber, I.; Siegrist, J.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sissakian, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Volobouev, I.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. L.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Wick, F.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2010-12-01

    A precision measurement of the top quark mass mt is obtained using a sample of tt¯ events from pp¯ collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with the CDF II detector. Selected events require an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. A likelihood is calculated using a matrix element method with quasi-Monte Carlo integration taking into account finite detector resolution and jet mass effects. The event likelihood is a function of mt and a parameter ΔJES used to calibrate the jet energy scale in situ. Using a total of 1087 events in 5.6fb-1 of integrated luminosity, a value of mt=173.0±1.2GeV/c2 is measured.

  3. Study of weak corrections to Drell-Yan, top-quark pair, and dijet production at high energies with MCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real W and Z bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form αWllogn(Q2/MW,Z 2) , where αW=α /(4 π sin2θW) and n ≤2 l -1 . The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is, therefore, especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime Q2≫MV2. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size [O (α )] is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) [O (αs2)]. To this end, we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the neutral-current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and dijet production in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. With both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.

  4. Semi-inclusive charged-pion electroproduction off protons and deuterons: Cross sections, ratios, and access to the quark-parton model at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Asaturyan, R.; Ent, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Adams, G. S.; Ahmidouch, A.; Angelescu, T.; Arrington, J.; Asaturyan, A.; Baker, O. K.; Benmouna, N.; Bertoncini, C.; Blok, H. P.; Boeglin, W. U.; Bosted, P. E.; Breuer, H.; Christy, M. E.; Connell, S. H.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M. M.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; El Khayari, N.; Fenker, H. C.; Frolov, V. V.; Gan, L.; Gaskell, D.; Hafidi, K.; Hinton, W.; Holt, R. J.; Horn, T.; Huber, G. M.; Hungerford, E.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Kelly, J. J.; Keppel, C. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Li, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mack, D.; Malace, S. P.; Markowitz, P.; McGrath, E.; McKee, P.; Meekins, D. G.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Moziak, B.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Opper, A. K.; Ostapenko, T.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Rock, S. E.; Schulte, E.; Segbefia, E.; Smith, C.; Smith, G. R.; Stoler, P.; Tang, L.; Ungaro, M.; Uzzle, A.; Vidakovic, S.; Villano, A.; Vulcan, W. F.; Wang, M.; Warren, G.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S. A.; Xu, C.; Yuan, L.; Zheng, X.

    2012-01-01

    A large set of cross sections for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions (π±) from both proton and deuteron targets was measured. The data are in the deep-inelastic scattering region with invariant mass squared W2 > 4 GeV2 and range in four-momentum transfer squared 2 < Q2 < 4 (GeV/c)2, and cover a range in the Bjorken scaling variable 0.2 < x < 0.6. The fractional energy of the pions spans a range 0.3 < z < 1, with small transverse momenta with respect to the virtual-photon direction, Pt2 < 0.2 (GeV/c)2. The invariant mass that goes undetected, Mx or W', is in the nucleon resonance region, W' < 2 GeV. The new data conclusively show the onset of quark-hadron duality in this process, and the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark → pion production mechanisms. The x, z and Pt2 dependences of several ratios (the ratios of favored-unfavored fragmentation functions, charged pion ratios, deuteron-hydrogen and aluminum-deuteron ratios for π+ and π-) have been studied. The ratios are found to be in good agreement with expectations based upon a high-energy quark-parton model description. We find the azimuthal dependences to be small, as compared to exclusive pion electroproduction, and consistent with theoretical expectations based on tree-level factorization in terms of transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. In the context of a simple model, the initial transverse momenta of d quarks are found to be slightly smaller than for u quarks, while the transverse momentum width of the favored fragmentation function is about the same as for the unfavored one, and both fragmentation widths are larger than the quark widths.

  5. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Seong

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  6. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of three and six-quark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Mark Wayne

    2001-06-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo techniques are applied to quark descriptions of single baryon and nuclear systems using a non-relativistic constituent quark model Hamiltonian. The assumed interaction includes a three-body term arising due to flux-tube confinement, and two-body interactions arising from one-gluon and one-pion exchange. It is strongly dependent on the spin and isospin of the quarks. We solve for single baryon S and P-wave spectra by solving the Schrödinger equation variationally for the ground state of three interacting light-flavored valence quarks. The variational Monte Carlo method is then used to find the ground state of six quarks confined to a cavity of diameter Rc. The variational wave function is written as a product of three-quark nucleon states with correlations between quarks in different nucleons. We study the role of quark exchange effects by allowing flux-tube configuration mixing. An accurate six-body variational wave function is obtained. It has only ~13% rms fluctuation in the total energy and yields a standard deviation of <=.1% small enough to be useful in discerning nuclear interaction effects from the large rest mass of the two nucleons. Results are presented for three values of the cavity diameter, R c = 2, 4, and 6 fm. They indicate that the flux-tube model Hamiltonian with gluon and pion exchange requires revisions in order to obtain agreement with the energies estimated from realistic two- nucleon interactions. We calculate the two-quark density, spin, isospin, and color distribution functions and show how they may be used to study and adjust the model Hamiltonian.

  8. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control.

  9. Moderate-to-high levels of exercise are associated with higher resting energy expenditure in community-dwelling postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Andrew W.; Hopkins, Susan R.; Natarajan, Loki; Schoeninger, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women experience an age-related decline in resting energy expenditure (REE), which is a risk factor for energy imbalance and metabolic disease. Exercise, by association with greater lean tissue mass and other factors, has the potential to mediate REE decline, but the relationship between exercise and REE in postmenopausal women is not well characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) is positively associated with REE, opposing the effects of age and menopause. The study tests this hypothesis in a cross-sectional sample of healthy postmenopausal women (N = 31, aged 49 - 72 years) with habitual exercise volumes at or above levels consistent with current clinical recommendations. Subjects kept four weeks of exercise diaries quantifying exercise activity, and were measured for body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and REE. Multiple regression analysis was used to test for relationships between EEE, age, body composition, and REE. EEE and lean tissue mass (fat-free mass: FFM; and fat-free mass index: FFMI) exhibited significant, positive relationships with REE. The relationship between REE and EEE remained significant even after controlling for lean tissue mass. These results support the hypothesis that exercise is positively associated with REE, counter to the negative effects of age and menopause, and indicate a continuous relationship between exercise and REE across the moderate-to-high exercise range. Exercise at levels at and above current clinical guidelines may, in part, ameliorate risk for energy imbalance and metabolic disease through a positive relationship with REE. PMID:24053522

  10. Conservative options in the management of spinal disorders, Part I. Bed rest, mechanical and energy-transfer therapies.

    PubMed

    Reitman, C; Esses, S I

    1995-02-01

    Current literature does not support the efficacy of solitary use of energy-transfer therapies, such as ice or heat treatments, or electrotherapy, for the treatment of idiopathic back pain. Bed rest does not alter the natural history of back pain, and in fact can be detrimental to optimal recovery. Mechanical therapies, such as traction and orthoses, have limited usefulness. Although orthoses do not appear to weaken the trunk, they also do not appear to alter posture out of the brace, do not consistently diminish back muscle action during activities, and do not immobilize the spine. There have been no conclusive studies to substantiate the solitary use of any of these forms of treatment, although some may be beneficial at times in an adjunctive role.

  11. RM-493, a Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) Agonist, Increases Resting Energy Expenditure in Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong Y.; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Abel, Brent S.; Mullins, Katherine P.; Staker, Pamela; Brychta, Robert J.; Zhao, Xiongce; Ring, Michael; Psota, Tricia L.; Cone, Roger D.; Panaro, Brandon L.; Gottesdiener, Keith M.; Van der Ploeg, Lex H.T.; Reitman, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) with the synthetic agonist RM-493 decreases body weight and increases energy expenditure (EE) in nonhuman primates. The effects of MC4R agonists on EE in humans have not been examined to date. Objective, Design, and Setting: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we examined the effects of the MC4R agonist RM-493 on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese subjects in an inpatient setting. Study Participants and Methods: Twelve healthy adults (6 men and 6 women) with body mass index of 35.7 ± 2.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) received RM-493 (1 mg/24 h) or placebo by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 72 hours, followed immediately by crossover to the alternate treatment. All subjects received a weight-maintenance diet (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein) and performed 30 minutes of standardized exercise daily. Continuous EE was measured on the third treatment day in a room calorimeter, and REE in the fasting state was defined as the mean of 2 30-minute resting periods. Results: RM-493 increased REE vs placebo by 6.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.68–13.02%), on average by 111 kcal/24 h (95% confidence interval, 15–207 kcal, P = .03). Total daily EE trended higher, whereas the thermic effect of a test meal and exercise EE did not differ significantly. The 23-hour nonexercise respiratory quotient was lower during RM-493 treatment (0.833 ± 0.021 vs 0.848 ± 0.022, P = .02). No adverse effect on heart rate or blood pressure was observed. Conclusions: Short-term administration of the MC4R agonist RM-493 increases REE and shifts substrate oxidation to fat in obese individuals. PMID:25675384

  12. Effects of ingestion of a commercially available thermogenic dietary supplement on resting energy expenditure, mood state and cardiovascular measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing metabolism is a primary focus of many commercially available dietary supplements marketed to support weight management. Caffeine (e.g. anhydrous and herbal) and green tea are key ingredients in such products, augmenting resting energy expenditure (REE) and improving reported mood states (alertness, fatigue, focus, etc.). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic dietary supplement (DBX) on REE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), reported measures of alertness, focus, energy, concentration, fatigue, and hunger, as well as the general safety of the product based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and hemodynamic responses in habitual caffeine consumers. Methods Six male and six female subjects (mean ± SD; 22.50 ± 3.22 years; 76.94 ± 14.78 kg; 22.7 ± 9.5% body fat), physically active (≥12 months), and moderate habitual caffeine consumers (<200 mg/day) received either two capsules of DBX containing 340 mg of total caffeine plus green tea extract, yerba mate extract, carnitine tartrate and other active ingredients or a placebo (PLC) in a double-blinded, crossover design. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), REE, RER and perceived mood states were measured at baseline and then hourly for four hours after ingesting either treatment. Results Resting energy expenditure was significantly increased at all four time points and significant increases were determined for perceived alertness (p = 0.026) and focus (p = 0.05) at hour 1 and for energy at 1 and 2 hours after treatment for the DBX group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.017, respectively). Additionally, perceived fatigue was decreased at the hour 1 assessment (p = 0.010). No significant differences were seen between DBX and placebo for hunger, anxiety, HR, BP, ECG patterns or RER. Conclusions The results of this investigation support that the proprietary blend of this thermogenic aid is capable of increasing REE for four hours post-ingestion while

  13. Comparison of resting and total energy expenditure in peritoneal dialysis patients and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    El-Kateb, S; Sridharan, S; Farrington, K; Davenport, A

    2016-11-01

    Under basal resting conditions muscle metabolism is reduced, whereas metabolism increases with physical activity. We wished to determine whether there was an association between resting energy expenditure (REE) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and lean body mass (LBM). We determined REE and TEE by recently validated equations, using doubly labelled isotopic water, and LBM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We studied 87 patients, 50 male (57.4%), 25 diabetic (28.7%), mean age 60.3±17.6 years, with a median PD treatment of 11.4 (4.7-29.5) months. The mean weight was 70.1±17.7 kg with a REE of 1509±245 kcal/day and TEE 1947±378 kcal/day. REE was associated with body size (weight r=0.78 and body mass index (BMI) r=0.72) and body composition (LBM r=0.77, lean body mass index (LBMI) r=0.76, r=0.62), all P<0.001). For TEE, there was an association with weight r=0.58, BMI r=0.49 and body composition (LBM r=0.64, LBMI (r=0.54), all P<0.001). We compared LBMI measured by DXA and that estimated by the Boer equation using anthropomorphic measurements, which overestimated and underestimated LBM for smaller patients and heavier patients, respectively. Muscle metabolism is reduced at rest and increases with physical activity. Whereas previous reports based on REE did not show any association with LBM, we found an association between both REE and TEE, using a recently validated equation derived from dialysis patients, and LBM measured by DXA scanning. Estimation of muscle mass from anthropomorphic measurements systematically overestimated LBM for small patients and conversely underestimated for heavier patients.

  14. Electrostatic free energies in translational GTPases: Classic allostery and the rest.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Thomas; Aleksandrov, Alexey; Satpati, Priyadarshi

    2015-05-01

    GTPases typically switch between an inactive, OFF conformation and an active, ON conformation when a GDP ligand is replaced by GTP. Their ON/OFF populations and activity thus depend on the stabilities of four protein complexes, two apo-protein forms, and GTP/GDP in solution. A complete characterization is usually not possible experimentally and poses major challenges for simulations. We review the most important methodological challenges and we review thermodynamic data for two GTPases involved in translation of the genetic code: archaeal Initiation Factors 2 and 5B (aIF2, aIF5B). One main challenge is the multiplicity of states and conformations, including those of GTP/GDP in solution. Another is force field accuracy, especially for interactions of GTP/GDP with co-bound divalent Mg(2+) ions. The calculation of electrostatic free energies also poses specific challenges, and requires careful protocols. For aIF2, experiments and earlier simulations showed that it is a "classic" GTPase, with distinct ON/OFF conformations that prefer to bind GTP and GDP, respectively. For aIF5B, we recently proposed a non-classic mechanism, where the ON/OFF states differ only in the protonation state of Glu81 in the nucleotide binding pocket. This model is characterized here using free energy simulations. The methodological analysis should help future studies, while the aIF2, aIF5B examples illustrate the diversity of ATPase/GTPase mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics.

  15. Unified description of charmonium suppression in a quark-gluon plasma medium at RHIC and LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R., Captain; Srivastava, P. K.; Ganesh, S.; Mishra, M.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonium suppression in a thermal QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. We include shadowing as the dominant cold-nuclear-matter effect. Further, gluonic dissociation and collision damping are included, which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and cause the dissociation of charmonium along with the usual color screening. We include color screening by using our recently proposed modified Chu-Matsui model. Furthermore, we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anticharm quarks for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of the QGP medium. Finally, we do a feed-down correction from the excited states to calculate the survival probability of charmonium. We find that our unified model suitably and simultaneously describes the experimental nuclear modification data of J /ψ at RHIC and LHC.

  16. Transverse-energy production and fluctuations over centrality and acceptance in relativistic heavy-ion and nucleon-nucleon collisions: Quark versus nucleon interactions and a search for the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendariz, Raul L.

    Measuring energy produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is a way to investigate if a model of quark participants, or nucleon participants better describes the internal dynamics of the collision. The energy produced is proportional to the energy density in the interaction region; changes in fluctuations of energy production could be a signature for a phase transition between ordinary hadronic matter to a liberated quark-gluon plasma phase, QGP, thought to have existed one millionth of a second after the Big Bang creation of the Universe and before protons and neutrons had formed. Three experimental nuclear physics data-analyses were conducted using the sum energy of all particles produced in the direction transverse to the beam, ET, when nuclei collide in a 2.4 mile long circular atom smasher. The nuclei are accelerated in opposite directions at 99.995% the speed of light, and center-of-mass energies available for new particle production of sNN = 62.4 GeV, and 200 GeV per colliding nucleon pair were studied. The ET was recorded by the lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter detectors of the Pioneering High Energy Interactions Experiment (PHENIX), at the Relativistic heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collision systems studied were 200 GeV protons with protons ( p + p), deuterons with Au ions (d+Au), and 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV gold ions with gold ions (Au+Au). The first analysis, mean ET in collision centrality, explores whether a model of nucleon participants, or quark participants, better describes energy production with collision impact. The second analysis, ET fluctuations in collision centrality, looks for non-random fluctuations in ET distributions when the density of colliding partons becomes high. The third analysis, ET fluctuations in geometric acceptance, examines fluctuations as a function of detector fiducial volume in a search for correlated energy distribution in space (correlations ), known to occur in

  17. Predicted vs. Actual Resting Energy Expenditure and Activity Coefficients: Post-Gastric Bypass, Lean and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A.; Edens, Kim L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Curry, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and energy requirements are commonly estimated from equations predicting Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) multiplied by a Physical Activity (PA) coefficient that accounts for both PA energy expenditure and the thermogenic effect of food. PA coefficients based on PA self-reports are a potential source of error that has not been evaluated. Therefore, in this study we compared: 1) the Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin-St. Jeor (MSJ), and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) REE equations with REE measured (REE-m) with indirect calorimetry; 2) PA coefficients determined with PA self-reports vs. objectively assessed PA; and 3) TEE estimates in post-Gastric Bypass (GB = 13), lean (LE = 7), and obese (OB = 12) women. REE was measured in the morning after an overnight fast with participants resting supine for 30 min. Self-reported PA was evaluated with a questionnaire and objectively measured with accelerometers worn for 5-7 days. Nutritional intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry included DEXA, and abdominal CT scans. Eligible GB had surgery ≥ 12 months before the study, and had ≥ 10 kg of body weight loss. All participants were 18-45 years of age, able to engage in ambulatory activities, and not taking part in exercise training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to detect differences in REE and TEE. Accuracy of REE prediction equations were determined by cases within 10% of REE-m, and agreement analyses. REE predictions were not different than REE-m, but agreements were better with HB and MSJ, particularly in the GB and LE groups. Discrepancies in the PA coefficients determined with self-report vs. objectively assessed PA resulted in TEE overestimates (approximately 200-300 Kcal/day) using HB and MSJ equations. FAO/WHO/UNU overestimated TEE in all groups regardless of the PA assessment method (approximately 300-900 kcal/day). These results

  18. Dynamical energy loss as a novel Quark-Gluon Plasma tomographic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    High momentum suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is considered to be an excellent probe of jet-medium interactions in QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC. Utilizing this tool requires accurate suppression predictions for different experiments, probes and experimental conditions, and their unbiased comparison with experimental data. With this goal, we developed the dynamical energy loss formalism towards generating predictions for non-central collisions; the formalism takes into account both radiative and collisional energy loss computed within the same theoretical framework, dynamical (as opposed to static) scattering centers, finite magnetic mass, running coupling and uses no free parameters in comparison with experimental data. Within this formalism, we provided predictions, and a systematic comparison with experimental data, for a diverse set of suppression data: all available light and heavy flavor probes, lower and high momentum ranges, various centrality ranges and various collision energies at RHIC and LHC. We here also provide clear qualitative and quantitative predictions for soon to become available LHC experimental data. Comprehensive agreement between our predictions and experimental results provides a good deal of confidence that our dynamical energy loss formalism can well explain the jet-medium interactions in QGP, which will be further tested by the obtained predictions for the upcoming data. Application of this model, as a novel high-precision tomographic tool of QGP medium, are also discussed.

  19. Study of weak corrections to Drell-Yan, top-quark pair, and dijet production at high energies with MCFM

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-29

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real W and Z bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form α$l\\atop{W}$logn(Q2/M2$\\atop{W,Z}$), where αW=α/(4π sin2θW) and n ≤ 2l-1. The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is, therefore, especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime Q2>>M$2\\atop{V}$. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size [O(α)] is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) [O(α$2\\atop{s}$)]. To this end, we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the neutral-current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and dijet production in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. Finally, with both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.

  20. Study of weak corrections to Drell-Yan, top-quark pair, and dijet production at high energies with MCFM

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-29

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real W and Z bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form αmore » $$l\\atop{W}$$logn(Q2/M2$$\\atop{W,Z}$$), where αW=α/(4π sin2θW) and n ≤ 2l-1. The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is, therefore, especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime Q2>>M$$2\\atop{V}$$. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size [O(α)] is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) [O(α$$2\\atop{s}$$)]. To this end, we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the neutral-current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and dijet production in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. Finally, with both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.« less

  1. Moderate to high levels of exercise are associated with higher resting energy expenditure in community-dwelling postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Hopkins, Susan R; Natarajan, Loki; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2013-11-01

    Postmenopausal women experience an age-related decline in resting energy expenditure (REE), which is a risk factor for energy imbalance and metabolic disease. Exercise, because of its association with greater lean tissue mass and other factors, has the potential to mediate REE decline, but the relation between exercise and REE in postmenopausal women is not well characterized. This study tests the hypothesis that exercise energy expenditure (EEE) is positively associated with REE and can counter the effects of age and menopause. It involves a cross-sectional sample of 31 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49-72 years) with habitual exercise volumes at or above levels consistent with current clinical recommendations. Subjects kept exercise diaries for 4 weeks that quantified exercise activity and were measured for body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and REE. Multiple regression analysis was used to test for associations between EEE, age, body composition, and REE. There was a significant positive relation between EEE and lean tissue mass (fat-free mass and fat-free mass index). The relation between REE and EEE remained significant even after controlling for lean tissue mass. These results support the hypothesis that exercise is positively associated with REE and can counter the negative effects of age and menopause. They also indicate a continuous relation between exercise and REE across ranges of exercise, from moderate to high. Exercise at levels that are at or above current clinical guidelines might, in part, ameliorate the risk for energy imbalance and metabolic disease because of its positive relation with REE.

  2. Vitamin D and Calcium-Sensing Receptor polymorphisms differentially associate with resting energy expenditure in peri-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Ashraf, Ambika P.; Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ard, Jamy; Bray, Molly S.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Given that calcium metabolism is influenced by genes and is tightly linked to energy-utilizing pathways, this study evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) with resting energy expenditure (REE). In 273 boys and girls, 7-12y, cross-sectional REE was measured via indirect calorimetry, body composition by DXA, and dietary measures by 24-hour recall. SNPs for VDR Cdx-2 (rs11568820) and CASR A986S (rs1801725) were genotyped using the Illumina Golden Gate assay. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between SNPs and REE. African American carriers of the ‘A’ VDR Cdx2 allele had increased levels of REE in the overall sample and this association was apparent among participants with an adiposity level of <25% and 30% body fat in males and females, respectively. For CASR, an association between carriers of the ‘A’ allele and REE was observed only in those in the upper median of calcium intake. VDR and CASR variants are associated with REE in children, and are influenced by levels of calcium intake and adiposity. Our results bring awareness to mechanisms underlying the regulation of REE and biological and dietary influential factors. PMID:23546818

  3. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4–7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  4. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.

    PubMed

    Tappy, Luc; Egli, Leonie; Lecoultre, Virgile; Schneider, Pascal

    2013-08-13

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4-7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  5. Search for supersymmetry in events with b-quark jets and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M., Junior; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L., Júnior; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Results are presented from a search for physics beyond the standard model based on events with large missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one, two, or three b-quark jets. The study is performed using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at s=7TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2011. The integrated luminosity of the sample is 4.98fb-1. The observed number of events is found to be consistent with the standard model expectation, which is evaluated using control samples in the data. The results are used to constrain cross sections for the production of supersymmetric particles decaying to b-quark-enriched final states in the context of simplified model spectra.

  6. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  7. Estimation of Activity Related Energy Expenditure and Resting Metabolic Rate in Freely Moving Mice from Indirect Calorimetry Data

    PubMed Central

    Van Klinken, Jan Bert; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Willems Van Dijk, Ko

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a main determinant of total energy expenditure (TEE) and has been suggested to play a key role in body weight regulation. However, thus far it has been challenging to determine what part of the expended energy is due to activity in freely moving subjects. We developed a computational method to estimate activity related energy expenditure (AEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in mice from activity and indirect calorimetry data. The method is based on penalised spline regression and takes the time dependency of the RMR into account. In addition, estimates of AEE and RMR are corrected for the regression dilution bias that results from inaccurate PA measurements. We evaluated the performance of our method based on 500 simulated metabolic chamber datasets and compared it to that of conventional methods. It was found that for a sample time of 10 minutes the penalised spline model estimated the time-dependent RMR with 1.7 times higher accuracy than the Kalman filter and with 2.7 times higher accuracy than linear regression. We assessed the applicability of our method on experimental data in a case study involving high fat diet fed male and female C57Bl/6J mice. We found that TEE in male mice was higher due to a difference in RMR while AEE levels were similar in both groups, even though female mice were more active. Interestingly, the higher activity did not result in a difference in AEE because female mice had a lower caloric cost of activity, which was likely due to their lower body weight. In conclusion, TEE decomposition by means of penalised spline regression provides robust estimates of the time-dependent AEE and RMR and can be applied to data generated with generic metabolic chamber and indirect calorimetry set-ups. PMID:22574139

  8. Energy loss at NLO in a high-temperature Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2016-12-01

    We present an extension of the Arnold-Moore-Yaffe kinetic equations for jet energy loss to NLO in the strong coupling constant. A novel aspect of the NLO analysis is a consistent description of wider-angle bremsstrahlung (semi-collinear emissions), which smoothly interpolates between 2 ↔ 2 scattering and collinear bremsstrahlung. We describe how many of the ingredients of the NLO transport equations (such as the drag coefficient) can be expressed in terms of Wilson line operators and can be computed using a Euclidean formalism or sum rules, both motivated by the analytic properties of amplitudes at light-like separations. We conclude with an outlook on the computation of the shear viscosity at NLO.

  9. Nonextensive statistical effects in the quark-gluon plasma formation at relativistic heavy-ion collisions energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, Gianpiero; Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the relativistic equation of state of hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density in the framework of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions. We impose the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number, electric charge and strangeness number. For the hadronic phase, we study an extended relativistic mean-field theoretical model with the inclusion of strange particles (hyperons and mesons). For the quark sector, we employ an extended MIT-Bag model. In this context we focus on the relevance of non-extensive effects in the presence of strange matter.

  10. Top quark mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  11. Resting Metabolic Rate Among Old-Old Women With and Without Frailty: Variability and Estimation of Energy Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Carlos O.; Cappola, Anne R.; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the largest component of total energy expenditure. It has not been studied in old-old adults living in the community, though abnormalities in RMR may play a critical role in the development of the clinical syndrome of frailty. The objective was to measure RMR and examine the association of measured RMR with frailty status and compare it to expected RMR generated by a predictive equation. Design Physiologic sub-study conducted as a home visit within an observational cohort study. Setting Baltimore City and County, Maryland. Participants 77 women age 83–93 years enrolled in the Women’s Health and Aging Study II. Measurements RMR with indirect calorimetry; frailty status; fat-free mass; ambient and body temperature; expected RMR via the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation. Results Average RMR was 1119 kcal/d (s.d.± 205; range 595–1560). Agreement between observed and expected RMR was biased and very poor (between-subject coefficient of variation 38.0%, 95%CI: 35.1–40.8). Variability of RMR was increased in frail subjects (heteroscedasticity F test P value=0.02). Both low and high RMR were associated with being frail (Odds Ratio 5.4, P value=0.04) and slower self-selected walking speed (P value<0.001) after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion Equations to predict RMR that are not validated in old-old adults appear to correlate poorly with measured RMR. RMR values are highly variable among old-old women, with deviations from the mean predicting clinical frailty. These exploratory findings suggest a pathway to clinical frailty through either high or low RMR. PMID:22985142

  12. Energy loss of a nonaccelerating quark moving through a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills vacuum or plasma in strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2016-08-01

    Using AdS /CFT correspondence, we find that a massless quark moving at the speed of light v =1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum at T =0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B , loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/} 6 π B . We also show that a heavy quark of mass M ≠0 moving at near the speed of light v2=v*2=1 -4/π2T2 B ≃1 , in arbitrary direction, through a strongly coupled N =4 SYM plasma at finite temperature T ≠0 , in the presence of strong magnetic field B ≫T2, loses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on B , i.e., d/E d t =-√{λ/}6 π B v*2≃-√{λ/}6 π B . Moreover, we argue that, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD theories (when the adjoint QCD theory has four flavors of Weyl fermions and is at its conformal IR fixed point λ =λ*) have the same microscopic degrees of freedom (i.e., gluons and lowest Landau levels of Weyl fermions) even though they have quite different microscopic degrees of freedom in the UV when we consider higher Landau levels. Therefore, in the strong magnetic field B ≫T2 (IR) regime, the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic properties of N =4 SYM and adjoint QCD plasmas, as well as the rates of energy loss of a quark moving through the plasmas, should be the same.

  13. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lemuel W; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Wismann, Jennifer; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE) and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm) and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs) regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE) and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF) ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F) ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p < 0.01), SBP (p < 0.01), RER (p < 0.01), and VO2 (p < 0.01) compared to F, with no difference between trials on the RHR and DBP variables. A significant interaction for trial and time point (p < 0.05) was observed for the variable REE. The JF trial resulted in a significant overall mean increase in REE of 14.4% (males = 12.1%, females = 17.9%) over the observation period (p < 0.05), while the F trial produced an overall decrease in REE of 5.7%. SBP was significantly higher in the JF trial; however, there was no significant increase from PRE to 3-hours post. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects. PMID:17919327

  14. Superconducting quark matter in the Chromodielectric Model

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, L.; Malheiro, M.; Fiolhais, M.; Taurines, A.R.

    2004-12-02

    In this work we study the strange quark matter in an extended version of the Chromodielectric Model (CDM) with a BCS quark pairing implemented, and analyze the superconducting color flavor locked (CFL) phase. We compare the equation of state and the stability of the strange quark matter from QCD in the CFL phase with the superconducting version of the CDM. In the CDM there is a confining potential which originates a dynamical bag constant in the sense that its value depends on the density. Our results indicate that the inclusion in the energy density of the pairing quark interaction allows for an absolutely stable quark matter state even for large potential energies, preventing the metastability of quark matter found in the CDM at high densities.

  15. Strange quark suppression and strange hadron production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Long Haiyan; Feng Shengqin; Zhou Daimei; Yan Yuliang; Ma Hailiang; Sa Benhao

    2011-09-15

    The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE based on PYTHIA is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Globally speaking, the PACIAE results of the strange particle rapidity density at midrapidity and the transverse momentum distribution are better than those of PYTHIA (default) in comparison with STAR and ALICE experimental data. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism of strange quark suppression, added in the PACIAE model. The K/{pi} ratios as a function of reaction energy in pp collisions from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to LHC energies are also analyzed in this paper.

  16. Search for Scalar Bottom Quarks from Gluino Decays in Proton - Anti-proton Collisions at a Center-of-Mass Energy of 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, Carsten

    2004-12-01

    The authors have performed a search for the scalar bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$1) from gluino ($\\tilde{g}$) decays in an R-parity conserving SUSY scenario with m$\\tilde{g}$ > m$\\tilde{b}1$, by investigating a final state of large missing transverse energy, with three or more jets, and some of them from the hadronization of b-quarks. A data sample of 156 pb-1 collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV was used. For the final selection, jets containing secondary displaced vertices were required. This analysis has been performed ''blind'', in that the inspection of the signal region was only made after the Standard Model prediction was finalized. Comparing data with SUSY predictions, they can exclude masses of the gluino and sbottom of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c2 respectively.

  17. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  18. Quarks and gluons at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, A.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    Data from proton-antiproton collisions at high energy provide important information on constraining the quark and gluon distributions in the nucleon and place limits on quark substructure. The S asymmetry data constrains the slope of the d/u quark distributions and significantly reduces the systematic error on the extracted value of the W mass. Drell-Yan data at high invariant mass provides strong limits on quark substructure. Information on {alpha}{sub s} and the gluon distributions can be extracted from high P{sub T} jet data and direct photons.

  19. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  20. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, P.L.; Quack, E.; Ruuskanen, P.V. |

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  1. The relation between the fundamental scale controlling high-energy interactions of quarks and the proton mass

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2015-04-06

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) provides a fundamental description of the physics binding quarks into protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. QCD is well understood at short distances where perturbative calculations are feasible. Establishing an explicit relation between this regime and the large-distance physics of quark confinement has been a long-sought goal. A major challenge is to relate the parameter Λs, which controls the predictions of perturbative QCD (pQCD) at short distances, to the masses of hadrons. Here we show how new theoretical insights into QCD's behavior at large and small distances lead to an analytical relation between hadronic masses and Λs. The resulting prediction, Λs = 0.341 ± 0.024 GeV agrees well with the experimental value 0.339 ± 0.016 GeV. Conversely, the experimental value of Λs can be used to predict the masses of hadrons, a task which had so far only been accomplished through intensive numerical lattice calculations, requiring several phenomenological input parameters.

  2. Search for gluinos and scalar quarks in pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV using the missing energy plus multijets signature.

    PubMed

    Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Akopian, A; Albrow, M G; Amaral, P; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berge, J P; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bokhari, W; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van den Brink, S; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Connolly, A; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Done, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Gris, P; Groer, L; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karr, K; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, A M; Lee, K; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Matthews, J A J; Mayer, J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Popovic, M; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, P; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, T; Takashima, R; Takikawa, K; Tamburello, P; Tanaka, M; Tannenbaum, B; Tecchio, M; Tesarek, R; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thompson, A S; Thurman-Keup, R; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, A; Tonelli, D; Toyoda, H; Trischuk, W; de Troconiz, J F; Tseng, J; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vaiciulis, T; Valls, J; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wallace, N B; Wan, Z; Wang, C; Wang, M J; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Watanabe, T; Waters, D; Watts, T; Webb, R; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilkes, T; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Winn, D; Wolbers, S; Wolinski, D; Wolinski, J; Wolinski, S; Worm, S; Wu, X; Wyss, J; Yao, W; Yagil, A; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yosef, C; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Zanetti, A; Zetti, F; Zucchelli, S

    2002-01-28

    We have performed a search for gluinos (g) and scalar quarks (q) in a data sample of 84 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV, recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We investigate the final state of large missing transverse energy and three or more jets, a characteristic signature in R-parity-conserving supersymmetric models. The analysis has been performed "blind," in that the inspection of the signal region is made only after the predictions from standard model backgrounds have been calculated. Comparing the data with predictions of constrained supersymmetric models, we exclude gluino masses below 195 GeV/c2 (95% C.L.), independent of the squark mass. For the case m(q) approximately m(g), gluino masses below 300 GeV/c2 are excluded.

  3. Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Fukukawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  4. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  5. Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Inhibitor Aminooxyacetate Acid Induces Apoptosis and Impairs Energy Metabolism of Both Resting Microglia and LPS-Activated Microglia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heyu; Wang, Caixia; Wei, Xunbin; Ding, Xianting; Ying, Weihai

    2015-06-01

    NADH shuttles mediate the transfer of the reducing equivalents of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. Cumulating evidence has suggested that malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), one of the two types of NADH shuttles, plays significant roles in such biological processes as glutamate synthesis in neurons. However, there has been no information regarding the roles of NADH shuttle in the survival and energy metabolism of microglia. In current study, using microglial BV2 cells as a cellular model, we determined the roles of MAS in the survival and energy metabolism of microglia by using aminooxyacetate acid (AOAA)-a widely used MAS inhibitor. Our study has suggested that AOAA can effectively inhibit the MAS activity of the cells. We also found that AOAA can induce both early- and late-stage apoptosis of resting microglia and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated microglia. AOAA also induced mitochondrial depolarization, increases in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, and decreases in the intracellular ATP levels. Moreover, our study has excluded the possibility that the major nonspecific effect of AOAA-inhibition of GABA transaminase-is involved in theses effects of AOAA. Collectively, our study has provided first information suggesting significant roles of MAS in the survival and energy metabolism in both resting microglia and LPS-activated microglia.

  6. Effects of resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation and energy deficit on markers of skeletal muscle atrophy and regeneration during bed rest and active recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Naomi E.; Cadena, Samuel M.; Vannier, Edouard; Cloutier, Gregory; Carambula, Silvia; Myburgh, Kathryn H.; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Space flight and bed rest (BR) lead to muscle atrophy. This study assessed the effect of essential amino acid supplementation (EAA) and resistance training with decreased energy intake on molecular changes in skeletal muscle after 28d BR and 14d recovery. METHODS Thirty-one men (31–55yr) subjected to an 8±6% energy deficit were randomized to receive EAA without resistance training (AA, n=7), EAA 3 h after (RT, n=12), or 5 min before (AART, n=12) resistance training. RESULTS During BR, myostatin transcript levels increased 2-fold in the AA group. During recovery, IGF1 mRNA increased in all groups while Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 transcripts increased in AA only (all p<0.05). MAFbx transcripts decreased 2-fold with AA and RT. Satellite cells did not change during BR or recovery. DISCUSSION This suggests that EAA alone is the least protective countermeasure to muscle loss, and several molecular mechanisms are proposed by which exercise attenuates muscle atrophy during bed rest with energy deficit. PMID:20928906

  7. The contribution of fat-free mass to resting energy expenditure: implications for weight loss strategies in the treatment of adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Browning, Matthew G; Evans, Ronald K

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the strong relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), the preservation of FFM is often emphasized in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Typical treatment regimens including an increased dietary consumption of protein and participation in resistance training are common components of adolescent weight management programs, despite limited evidence of a positive influence of FFM on weight loss outcomes in adolescents. Given the larger volume of FFM in obese relative to normal weight adolescents and the common treatment goals of both maximizing weight loss and attenuating the loss of FFM, a better understanding of the influence of FFM on energy balance is needed to determine whether strategies to preserve lean tissue or maximize absolute weight loss should be most emphasized. We review the associations among FFM, REE, and weight loss outcomes, focusing on how these relationships might influence energy balance in obese adolescents.

  8. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  9. Effects of quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas on charmonium production at energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoyi

    2016-04-01

    The production of charmonium in heavy ion collisions is investigated based on the Boltzmann-type transport model for charmonium evolution and the Langevin equation for charm quark evolution. Charmonium suppression and regeneration in both quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron phase are considered. Charm quarks are far from thermalization, and regeneration of charmonium in QGP and hadron gas is negligible at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). At peripheral collisions, charmonium suppression with hadron gas explains the experimental data well. But at central collisions, additional suppression from deconfined matter (QGP) is necessary for the data. This means there should be QGP produced at central collisions, and no QGP produced at peripheral collisions at SPS energy. Predictions are also made at FAIR √{sN N}=7.7 GeV Au+Au collisions.

  10. Physics of the Quark Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  11. Heavy Quark Photoproduction at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Meneses, A. R.; Machado, M. V.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we calculate the inclusive and difractive photoproduction of heavy quarks in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies within the color dipole picture employing three phenomenological saturation models based on the color glass condensate formalism. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analyzes of these reactions is feasible and that the cross sections are sensitive to the underlying parton dynamics.

  12. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-13

    Our first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. Furthermore, a differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is usedmore » to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03 (stat) ± 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.« less

  13. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-04-13

    Our first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. Furthermore, a differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03 (stat) ± 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

  14. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; El Sawy, M.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.

    2016-04-01

    A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. A high-purity sample of t-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 ± 0.03(stat) ± 0.10(syst), which is compatible with a p-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  16. Onset of quark-hadron duality in pion electroproduction.

    PubMed

    Navasardyan, T; Adams, G S; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Bertoncini, C; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Breuer, H; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Cui, Y; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; El Khayari, N; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kubarovski, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McGrath, E; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Ostapenko, T; Reimer, P; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zhu, H

    2007-01-12

    A large data set of charged-pion (pi+/-) electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-->pion production mechanisms.

  17. The Onset of Quark-Hadron Duality in Pion Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tigran Navasardyan; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Tatiana Angelescu; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Nawal Benmouna; Crystal Bertoncini; Henk Blok; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Herbert Breuer; Michael Christy; Simon Connell; Yonggang Cui; Mark Dalton; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; T. Dodario; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Najib Elkhayari; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Valera Frolov; Liping Gan; David Gaskell; Kawtar Hafidi; Wendy Hinton; Roy Holt; Tanja Horn; Garth Huber; Ed Hungerford; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; V. Kubarovski; Ya Li; Yongguang Liang; Simona Malace; Pete Markowitz; Erin McGrath; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Brian Moziak; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Allena Opper; Tanya Ostapenko; Paul Reimer; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Stephen Rock; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; G.R. Smith; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Maurizio Ungaro; Alicia Uzzle; Sandra Vidakovic; Anthony Villano; William Vulcan; Miao Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Stephen Wood; Chuncheng Xu; Lulin Yuan; Xiaochao Zheng; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-08-29

    A large data set of charged-pion electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-to- pion production mechanisms.

  18. Validity of COSMED's quark CPET mixing chamber system in evaluating energy metabolism during aerobic exercise in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Austin, Melanie D; Dew, Dustin; Utter, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the accuracy of COSMED's Quark cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) metabolic mixing chamber system in measuring metabolic factors during maximal, graded exercise testing. Subjects included 32 physically active men between the ages of 18 and 34 years. During the first test session, subjects were measured for maximal oxygen consumption twice (15 min separation) with the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order). During the second test session, subjects exercised through four stages of the Bruce treadmill protocol with measurement by the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order) during steady state at the end of each 3-minute stage. Statistical analysis using a 2 (systems) x 5 (time) repeated measures ANOVA showed that the pattern of change in VO2, VCO2, VE, FeO2, FeCO2, and RER did not differ significantly between CPET and Douglas bag systems. This validation study indicates that the CPET mixing chamber system provides valid metabolic measurements that compare closely with the Douglas bag system during aerobic exercise.

  19. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.

  20. The Unquenched Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santopinto, E.; Bijker, R.

    2008-10-13

    We present a new generation of unquenched quark models for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs are taken into account in an explicit form via a microscopic, QCD-inspired, pair creation mechanism. As an application, we study the effect of quark-antiquark pairs on the spin of the proton.

  1. Observability of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Even if stable hadrons with fractional charge do not exist, most of the criteria of observability used for ordinary elementary particles apply in principle to quarks as well. This is especially true in a simplified world containing only hadrons made of top quarks and gluons. In the real world containing light quarks, essential complications do occur, but most of the conclusions survive.

  2. Effect of Novel Nanoscale Energy Patches on Spectral and Nonlinear Dynamic Features of Heart Rate Variability Signals in Healthy Individuals during Rest and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Nazeran, Homer; Chatlapalli, Surya; Krishnam, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    LifeWave energy patches are novel nanoscale semiconducting biomolecular antennas, that when placed in the oscillating bioelectromagnetic field of the body, resonate at frequencies in unison with certain biomolecules in the cells and signal specific metabolic pathways to accelerate fat metabolism. As a consequence of accelerated fat burning more cellular energy becomes readily available to support all bodily energy-consuming functions. Heart rate variability refers to the beat-to-beat variation in heart rate (HR) and is modulated largely by the autonomic nervous system via changes in the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic influences. Since short-term variations in HR reflect sympathetic nervous activity, they provide useful non-invasive markers for assessing autonomic control under various physiologic states and conditions. To evaluate the effect of LifeWave energy patches on HRV signals, pilot data from healthy volunteers were collected under three different conditions during rest and exercise using a BIOPAC system. The HRV signal was derived from preprocessed ECG signals using an Enhanced Hilbert Transform (EHT) algorithm with built-in missing beat detection capability for reliable QRS detection. Autoregressive (AR) modeling of the HRV signal power spectrum was achieved and different parameters from power spectrum as well as approximate entropy were calculated for comparison. Poincaré plots were then used as a visualization tool to highlight the variations in HRV signals before and after exercise under normal conditions and under the influence of placebo and energy patches.

  3. Recent results in light-quark meson spectroscopy from Fermilab experiment E-760

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Church, M.; Hahn, A.; Hasan, M.A.; Hsueh, S.; Marsh, W.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.

    1994-09-01

    Fermilab experiment E-760 light-quark meson spectroscopy data for proton-antiproton annihilation to 3{pi}{sup 0}, 2{pi}{sup 0}{eta}, {pi}{sup 0}2{eta}, and 3{eta} in-flight have confirmed the 1500 MeV state at rest seen previously at CERN. Structures above this energy are complex, and preliminary results of amplitude analysis, in progress, for extracting spin quantum numbers show the possibility of nearly degenerate states for some of these structures. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A Study of Weak Corrections to Drell-Yan, Top-quark pair and Di-jet Production at High Energies with MCFM

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-08-10

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real $W$ and $Z$ bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form $\\alpha_W^l\\log^n(Q^2/M_{W,Z}^2)$, where $\\alpha_W =\\alpha/(4\\pi\\sin^2\\theta_W)$ and $n\\le 2l-1$. The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is therefore especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime $Q^2 \\gg M_V^2$. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha)$) is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^2)$). To this end we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the Neutral-Current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and di-jet production in the parton-level Monte-Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. With both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.

  5. Study of hadronization using energy flow from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation into quarks and gluons at. sqrt. s of 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.J.

    1985-11-01

    We have made a high statistics study of QCD jets produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations at ..sqrt..s of 29 GeV and observed in the MAC detector located at the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The MAC detector uses calorimetry and provides a homogeneous response over much of its 98% . 4..pi.. sr instrumented solid angle. A data sample of well reconstructed hadronic events was selected by requiring that E/sub vis/ in the calorimeters be near ..sqrt..s, and almost all the energy be deposited in the central calorimeters. Fits of the jet transverse energy flow are made to the data using String (STR) model and several types of Independent Jet (IJM) model hypotheses, where ..alpha../sub s/, the strong coupling constant, and sigma/sub q/, the width of the secondary quark P/sub perpendicular/ distribution, are free parameters. The fits to O(..alpha../sub s//sup 2/ using MS-bar renormalization yield ..alpha../sub s/ approx.0.17 with the STR hypothesis, and ..alpha../sub s/ approx.0.12 with the various IJM hypotheses. The correlations between ..alpha../sub s/ and sigma/sub q/ are examined. Detailed comparisons were made with other experimental results. The energy flow projected onto the event plane of 3-jet events selected from the above data sample was studied. The data shows an asymmetric energy flow around the thin jet. Such an asymmetry was predicted by the STR model, and a cluster model (Webber) incorporating soft gluon interference. The various IJM models show no such asymmetry. We associate this asymmetry with coherence effects during hadronization. 106 refs., 58 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Production and decay of heavy top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.P.

    1989-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.

  7. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Cross Section in the Lepton Plus Jets Final State in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at a Center of Mass Energy of 1.96 TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhenbin

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the single top quark cross section in the lepton plus jets final state using an integrated luminosity corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of p\\bar p collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The single top candidate events are identified by the signature of a charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and two or three jets with at least one of them identified as originating from a bottom quark. A new Monte Carlo generator POWHEG is used to model the single top quark production processes, which include s-channel, t-channel, and Wt-channel. A neural network multivariate method is exploited to discriminate the single top quark signal from the comparatively large backgrounds. We measure a single top production cross section of $3.04^{+0.57}_{-0.53} (\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})$ pb assuming $m_{\\rm top}=172.5$~GeV/$c^2$. In addition, we extract the CKM matrix element value $|V_{tb}|=0.96\\pm 0.09~(\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})\\ ± 0.05~(\\mathrm{theory})$ and set a lower limit of $|V_{tb}|>0.78$ at the 95% credibility level.

  8. Two Theoretical Studies in Particle Physics: I. Calculability in Quark Flavor Mixing. I. Forward Proton Proton and Proton Antiproton Scattering at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjitheodoridis, Stilianos

    I. We consider the origin of the flavor mixings and calculability of mixing parameters in the quark sector of the standard model. The Fritzsch type quark mass matrices are analysed and the results are tested against experiments, predicting the mass of the t-quark as large as 80.8 GeV. II. In connection with the recent UA4 experiment on p| p scattering we reexamine the existence of the odderon and we speculate on the opening of a new threshold.

  9. Prompt quark production by exploding sphalerons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuryak, Edward; Zahed, Ismail

    2003-01-01

    Following recent works on the production and subsequent explosive decay of QCD sphaleronlike clusters, we discuss the mechanism of quark pair production in this process. We first show how the gauge field explosive solution of Luscher and Schechter can be achieved by noncentral conformal mapping from the O(4)-symmetric solution. Our main result is a new solution to the Dirac equation in real time in this configuration, obtained by the same inversion of the fermion O(4) zero mode. It explicitly shows how the quark acceleration occurs, starting from the spherically O(3)-symmetric zero energy chiral quark state to the final spectrum of nonzero energies. The sphaleronlike clusters with any Chern-Simons number always produce NFL¯R quarks, and the antisphaleron-like clusters the opposite chirality. The result are relevant for hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions at large (s), wherein such clusters can be produced.

  10. Search for top quark at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    There is a vast theoretical and experimental support for idea that op quark as a weak isospin partner to b-quark should exist. Production cross section is steeply falling function of top quark mass. Therefore realistically at present only Tevatron p[anti p] collider at FNAL, with total energy 1.8 TeV in CMS system, still has a chance of top quark discovery. Dominant production mechanism for top quarks at Tevatron is pair production of t[anti t]. With almost 100% probability t ([anti t]) decays in mode t [yields] W[sup +]b. Distinct features of this decay provide very good signatures of top quark production which helps to reduce otherwise very high level of background. Based on simple combinatorial arguments one can show that W should decay in 1/9 cases into W [yields] l + [nu] where l stands for lepton (e,[mu],[tau]). Very clean signature represents case when both W's from t and [anti t] decay into e ([mu]) + [nu]. In this case experimental observation will be two isolated leptons characterized by large transverse momentum, large missing transverse energy E[sub T] and 2 b quark jets. Jets originated from b quarks can be quite frequently recognized by presence of secondary vertices associated with jets. Another feature of b-jets which can be used for their identification is frequent association of so called soft leptons with jets. Two experimental setups CDF and D0 are able to take advantage of Tevatron for top quark discovery. Recently CDF collaboration presented evidence for direct observation of t[anti t] production in 19.3 pb[sup [minus]1] of p[anti p] collisions at [radical](s) = 1.8TeV. Very brief account of these results is presented here.

  11. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.

    2013-03-01

    A search motivated by supersymmetric models with light top squarks is presented using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of s=7TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98fb-1. The analysis is based on final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy. Standard model yields are predicted from data using two different approaches. The observed event numbers are found to be compatible with these predictions. Results are interpreted in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and of a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state.

  12. Association of irisin with fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and daily activity in conditions of extreme body mass index.

    PubMed

    Pardo, María; Crujeiras, Ana B; Amil, María; Aguera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Estivill, Xavier; Fagundo, Ana B; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Fernández-García, José C; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    FNDC5/irisin has been recently postulated as beneficial in the treatment of obesity and diabetes because it is induced in muscle by exercise, increasing energy expenditure. However, recent reports have shown that WAT also secretes irisin and that circulating irisin is elevated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate irisin levels in conditions of extreme BMI and its correlation with basal metabolism and daily activity. The study involved 145 female patients, including 96 with extreme BMIs (30 anorexic (AN) and 66 obese (OB)) and 49 healthy normal weight (NW). The plasma irisin levels were significantly elevated in the OB patients compared with the AN and NW patients. Irisin also correlated positively with body weight, BMI, and fat mass. The OB patients exhibited the highest REE and higher daily physical activity compared with the AN patients but lower activity compared with the NW patients. The irisin levels were inversely correlated with daily physical activity and directly correlated with REE. Fat mass contributed to most of the variability of the irisin plasma levels independently of the other studied parameters. Conclusion. Irisin levels are influenced by energy expenditure independently of daily physical activity but fat mass is the main contributing factor.

  13. Discovery of single top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Gillberg, Dag

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  14. Radiatively corrected lepton energy distributions in top quark decays t→ bW +→ b( ℓ + ν ℓ ) and t→ bH +→ b( τ + ν τ ) and single-charged prong energy distributions from subsequent τ + decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmed; Kuraev, Eduard A.; Bystritskiy, Yury M.

    2010-06-01

    We calculate the QED and QCD radiative corrections to the charged lepton energy distributions in the dominant semileptonic decays of the top quark t→ bW +→ b( ℓ + ν ℓ ) ( ℓ= e, μ, τ) in the standard model (SM), and for the decay t→ bH +→ b( τ + ν τ ) in an extension of the SM having a charged Higgs boson H ± with m_{H^{±}}quark decays. As the τ + leptons arising from the decays W +→ τ + ν τ and H +→ τ + ν τ are predominantly left- and right-polarised, respectively, influencing the energy distributions of the decay products in the subsequent decays of the τ +, we work out the effect of the radiative corrections on such distributions in the dominant (one-charged prong) decay channels tau+toπ+bar{ν}_{tau},ρ+bar{ν}_{tau},a1+bar{ν}_{tau} and ell+ν_{ell}bar{ν}_{tau}. The inclusive π + energy spectra in the decay chains tto b(W+,H+)to b(tau+ν_{tau})to b(π+bar{ν}_{tau}ν_{tau}+X) are calculated, which can help in searching for the induced H ± effects at the Tevatron and the LHC.

  15. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Institute (Kolkata) Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton) Danfysik, Department of Science and Technology (New Delhi) Elsevier B V (Amsterdam) Government of Rajasthan European Organization for Nuclear Research (Geneva) Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt) Hewlett-Packard Indian Institute of Astrophysics (Bangalore) Institute of Physics (Bhubaneswar) IOP Publishing (Bristol) Merint Infrastructure Ltd. Rajasthan Travel service (Jaipur) RIKEN-BNL Research Centre (Upton) Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kolkata) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai) The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Chennai) Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (Kolkata) Without the generous support of these organizations it would not have been possible to organize the conference successfully. Jaipur is a city of valour, of battles won and lost, of the vanquished and the victors; Jaipur is a city of legends and romance. Now Jaipur is also a city of carnival; carnival in the world of quarks and gluons with the beautiful maiden ALICE gracing the quarkland.

  16. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  17. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  18. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  19. Measurement of the top quark-antitop quark differential cross section, dsigma/dM(tt), in proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy = 1.96 TEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgeman, Alice Patricia

    I present a measurement of the tt¯ differential cross section, dsigma/dMtt¯, in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.96 TeV using 2.7 fb-1 of CDF II data. I find that dsigma/dMtt¯ is consistent with the Standard Model expectation, as modeled by PYTHIA with CTEQ5L parton distribution functions. I set limits on the ratio kappa/M Pl in the Randall-Sundrum model by looking for Kaluza Klein gravitons which decay to top quarks. I find kappa/MPl > 0.16 at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Weight loss and low body cell mass in males with lung cancer: relationship with systemic inflammation, acute-phase response, resting energy expenditure, and catabolic and anabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    Simons, J P; Schols, A M; Buurman, W A; Wouters, E F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, in human lung cancer, the relationship between weight loss and the existence of a low body cell mass (BCM) on the one hand, and the putative presence of systemic inflammation, an increased acute-phase response, anorexia, hypermetabolism and changes in circulating levels of several anabolic and catabolic hormones on the other. In 20 male lung cancer patients, pre-stratified by weight loss of >/=10% (n=10) or of <10% (n=10), the following measurements were performed: BCM (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry/bromide dilution), circulating levels of sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 (soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors of molecular masses 55 and 75 kDa respectively), interleukin-6, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, albumin, appetite (scale of 0-10), resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry) and circulating levels of catabolic (cortisol) and anabolic [testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)] hormones. Compared with the patients with a weight loss of <10%, those with a weight loss of >/=10% were characterized by higher levels of sTNF-R55 (trend towards significance; P=0.06), and lower levels of albumin (27.4 compared with 34.4 mmol/l; P=0.02), testosterone (13.2 compared with 21.5 nmol/l; P=0.01) and IGF-I (119 compared with 184 ng/ml; P=0.004). In the patient group as a whole, the percentage weight loss was significantly correlated with sTNF-R55 (r=0.59, P=0.02), albumin (r=-0.63, P=0.006) and IGF-I (r=-0.50, P=0.02) levels. Height-adjusted BCM was significantly correlated with sTNF-R55 (r=-0.57, P=0.03), sTNF-R75 (r=-0.50, P=0. 04), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (r=-0.50, P=0.04), albumin (r=0.56, P=0.02) and resting energy expenditure/BCM (r=-0.54, P=0. 03), and there was a trend towards a correlation with IGF-I concentration (r=0.44, P=0.06). We conclude that, in human lung cancer, weight loss and the presence of a low BCM are associated with systemic inflammation, an increased acute

  1. Complex singularities in the quark propagator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator is being studied in the rainbow approximation using a gluon propagator that incorporates asymptotic freedom and is an entire function. The gluon propagator has a number of parameters that may be varied in order to obtain a good description of low-energy pion observables; such as f{sub {pi}} and the {pi}-{pi} scattering lengths. This provides a direct means of relating hadronic observables to the form of the quark-quark interaction in the infrared and serves as an adjunct and extension of the separable Ansatz approach discussed above. It also provides a means of examining the pole structure of the quark propagator, which may hold the key to understanding quark confinement. The preliminary results are encouraging. It was demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a good description of pion observables in this approach. Further, when the strength of the quark-quark interaction in the infrared becomes larger than a given critical value, the pole in the quark propagator bifurcates into a pair of complex conjugate poles: m{sub q} = m{sub q}{sup R} {plus_minus} im{sub q}{sup I}, which is a signal of confinement. The interpretation in this case is of 1/m{sub q}{sup I} as the distance over which a quark may propagate before fragmenting. Further, there are indications from these studies that T{sub c}{sup D} < T{sub c}{sup {chi}}, where T{sub c}{sup D} is the critical temperature for deconfinement and T{sub c}{sup {chi}} is the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration; i.e., indications that deconfinement occurs at a lower temperature than chiral symmetry restoration. Available results from this work will be presented at the Washington meeting of the APS.

  2. The Quark - A Decade Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  3. Early neutron stars and quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You-chen; Kong, Xiao-jun; Wei, Cheng-wen; Ge, Yun-zhao

    1988-03-01

    There may exist quark matter inside early hot neutron stars. Using the general method of Baym and Chin, we evaluated the pressure and density at neutron matter — quark matter phase transition for different temperatures and compared the values for stable hot neutron stars. We found (1) that whenever the neutron star temperature exceeds (+10)K, there will be a core of quark matter; (2) that the bag constant B is the most important determining factor of the quark core size. For a given temperature, the core is the larger, the smaller B is; (3) that by the conservation of baryon number, the total energy released by a star during its cooling is about (+53) ergs.

  4. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  5. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rates and daily energy expenditures of police officials doing shift work by type of work.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy expenditure in policemen on a rotating shift. Subjects were 28 healthy policemen on a rotating shift (males) age of 23-46 years. The participants' RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (TrueOne2400) and also calculated from various predicted equations of RMR (Harris-Benedict, Schofield(W)/(WH), FAO/WHO/UNU(W)/(W/H), Cunningham, Mifflin, Liu, Owen, IMNA and Henry(W)/(WH)). The accuracy of these equations were evaluated on basis of accurate prediction (the percentage of subjects whose RMR was predicted within 90% to 110% of the RMR measured), mean difference, root mean squared prediction error, mean % difference, limits of agreement of Bland-Altman method between predicted and measured RMR. The measured RMR value of subjects was 1748 ± 205.9 kcal. Of the predictive equations tested, the Harris-Benedict equation (mean difference: -14.8 kcal/day, RMSPE: 195.8 kcal/day, mean % difference: 0.1%) was the most accurate and precise, but accuracy in prediction of the equation were only 35.7%. The daily energy expenditure at night-duty was 3062 kcal calculated as multiplying RMR by its physical activity level. Subsequently, daily energy expenditure of day-duty was 2647 kcal and the lowest daily energy expenditure was, 2310 kcal at holiday duty. Daily energy intake of all study participants was 2351 kcal at day-duty, 1959 kcal at night-duty and 1796 kcal at holiday-duty in order. The estimated energy requirements for policemen on a rotating shift on day shift, night shift and holiday came to 2743.6 kcal/day, 2998.6 kcal/day and 2576.9 kcal/day, respectively. These results suggest that estimated energy requirements (EER) of policemen on a rotating shift should be differently proposed by a proper equation which can closely reflect their metabolic status at each time shift.

  6. Search for s-channel single-top-quark production in events with missing energy plus jets in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Vázquez, F; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-06-13

    The first search for single-top-quark production from the exchange of an s-channel virtual W boson using events with an imbalance in the total transverse energy, b-tagged jets, and no identified leptons is presented. Assuming the electroweak production of top quarks of mass 172.5 GeV/c(2) in the s channel, a cross section of 1.12(-0.57)(+0.61) (stat+syst) pb with a significance of 1.9 standard deviations is measured. This measurement is combined with the result obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, b-tagged jets, and exactly one identified lepton, yielding a cross section of 1.36(-0.32)(+0.37) (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 4.2 standard deviations.

  7. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in p - p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in the ell + tau channel with ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searcy, Jacob

    The measurement of the cross section of top quark pair production in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is reported. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb-1. Events with an isolated electron or muon and a tau lepton decaying hadronically are used. In addition, a large missing transverse momentum and two or more energetic jets are required. At least one of the jets must be identified as originating from a b-quark. The measured cross section, sigma tt¯ = 178 +/- 12 stat. +/- 18 sys. +/- 7 lumi. pb, is in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction.

  8. Mesure de la section efficace de production de paires de quarks top dans le canal μ + jets + τ + b-jet(s) + Energie transverse manquante auprès de l'expérience DØ du Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Jammes, Jerome

    2011-09-09

    The purpose of high energy physics is to improve our knowledge about the fundamental structure of matter, in particular about particles that constitute the world. One of these is the top quark, that was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron protons-antiprotons collider. One of the primary aim of the Tevatron has been then the fine study of the top quark properties, in particular the top-antitop production cross section. Different analysis have been performed in the leptons (μ,e,τ) + jets, dileptons, and all hadronic channels to determine accurately the values of these parameters, and thus to test the validity of the Standard Model. The main goal of this thesis is to verify one of the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics, the top-antitop production cross section, at the Tevatron collider.

  9. Self-Consistent Pushing and Cranking Corrections to the Meson Fields of the Chiral Quark-Loop Soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleif, M.; Wünsch, R.; Maissner, T.

    We study translational and spin-isospin symmetry restoration for the two-flavor chiral quark-loop soliton. Instead of a static soliton at rest we consider a boosted and rotating hedgehog soliton. Corrected classical meson fields are obtained by minimizing a corrected energy functional which has been derived by semi-classical methods (variation after projection). We evaluate corrected meson fields in the region 300 MeV ≤ M≤ 600 MeV of constituent quark masses M and compare them with the uncorrected fields. We study the effect of the corrections on various expectation values of nuclear observables such as the root-mean square radius, the axial-vector coupling constant, magnetic moments and the delta-nucleon mass splitting.

  10. Resting Energy Expenditure Prediction in Recreational Athletes of 18–35 Years: Confirmation of Cunningham Equation and an Improved Weight-Based Alternative

    PubMed Central

    ten Haaf, Twan; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Resting energy expenditure (REE) is expected to be higher in athletes because of their relatively high fat free mass (FFM). Therefore, REE predictive equation for recreational athletes may be required. The aim of this study was to validate existing REE predictive equations and to develop a new recreational athlete specific equation. Methods 90 (53M, 37F) adult athletes, exercising on average 9.1±5.0 hours a week and 5.0±1.8 times a week, were included. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry (Vmax Encore n29), FFM and FM were measured using air displacement plethysmography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop a new FFM-based and weight-based REE predictive equation. The percentage accurate predictions (within 10% of measured REE), percentage bias, root mean square error and limits of agreement were calculated. Results The Cunningham equation and the new weight-based equation and the new FFM-based equation performed equally well. De Lorenzo's equation predicted REE less accurate, but better than the other generally used REE predictive equations. Harris-Benedict, WHO, Schofield, Mifflin and Owen all showed less than 50% accuracy. Conclusion For a population of (Dutch) recreational athletes, the REE can accurately be predicted with the existing Cunningham equation. Since body composition measurement is not always possible, and other generally used equations fail, the new weight-based equation is advised for use in sports nutrition. PMID:25275434

  11. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the inferior vena cava. How Can I Deal with Discomfort from Bed Rest? Bed rest can ... Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  12. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.

    2008-03-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t{bar t} events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top quark production of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 {+-} 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  13. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Hossain, S.; Jain, S.; Rominsky, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M.; Abolins, M.; Benitez, J. A.; Brock, R.; Dyer, J.

    2008-07-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of {sigma}(pp{yields}tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7{+-}1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}|=1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|V{sub tb}|{<=}1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  14. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, Maria Ioana

    2016-08-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  15. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  16. The emergence of a heavy quark family on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano; Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-02-01

    Within the framework of the “Rome approach” for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  17. The Emergence of a Heavy Quark Family on a Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    1996-03-01

    Within the framework of the "Rome approach" for a lattice chiral gauge theory, the four-quark interaction with flavour symmetry is included. We analyse spontaneous symmetry breaking and compute composite modes and their contributions to the ground state energy. As a result, it is shown that the emergence of a heavy quark family is the energetically favoured solution.

  18. Measurement of the W-boson helicity fractions in top-quark decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Chwalek, Thorsten; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2007-05-01

    We present a measurement of the fractions F{sub 0} and F{sub +} of longitudinally polarized and right-handed W bosons in top-quark decays using data collected with the CDF II detector. The data set used in the analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of approximately 955 pb{sup -1}. We select t{bar t} candidate events with one lepton, at least four jets, and missing transverse energy. Our helicity measurement uses the decay angle {theta}*, which is defined as the angle between the momentum of the charged lepton in the W boson rest-frame and the W momentum in the top-quark rest-frame. The cos{theta}* distribution in the data is determined by full kinematic reconstruction of the t{bar t} candidates. We find F{sub 0}= 0.59 {+-} 0.12(stat){sup +0.07}{sub -0.06}(syst) and F{sub +}=-0.03 {+-} 0.06(stat){sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}(syst), which is consistent with the standard model prediction. We set an upper limit on the fraction of right-handed W bosons of F{sub +} {le} 0.10 at the 95% confidence level.

  19. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC

  20. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  1. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species asmore » a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and

  2. Comparison of proposed alternative methods for rescaling dialysis dose: resting energy expenditure, high metabolic rate organ mass, liver size, and body surface area.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter; Depner, Thomas A; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Chertow, Glenn M; Rocco, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    A number of denominators for scaling the dose of dialysis have been proposed as alternatives to the urea distribution volume (V). These include resting energy expenditure (REE), mass of high metabolic rate organs (HMRO), visceral mass, and body surface area. Metabolic rate is an unlikely denominator as it varies enormously among humans with different levels of activity and correlates poorly with the glomerular filtration rate. Similarly, scaling based on HMRO may not be optimal, as many organs with high metabolic rates such as spleen, brain, and heart are unlikely to generate unusually large amounts of uremic toxins. Visceral mass, in particular the liver and gut, has potential merit as a denominator for scaling; liver size is related to protein intake and the liver, along with the gut, is known to be responsible for the generation of suspected uremic toxins. Surface area is time-honored as a scaling method for glomerular filtration rate and scales similarly to liver size. How currently recommended dialysis doses might be affected by these alternative rescaling methods was modeled by applying anthropometric equations to a large group of dialysis patients who participated in the HEMO study. The data suggested that rescaling to REE would not be much different from scaling to V. Scaling to HMRO mass would mandate substantially higher dialysis doses for smaller patients of either gender. Rescaling to liver mass would require substantially more dialysis for women compared with men at all levels of body size. Rescaling to body surface area would require more dialysis for smaller patients of either gender and also more dialysis for women of any size. Of these proposed alternative rescaling measures, body surface area may be the best, because it reflects gender-based scaling of liver size and thereby the rate of generation of uremic toxins.

  3. Effects of dumb-bell exercise with and without energy restriction on resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and body composition in mildly obese women.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Suzuki, M

    1999-06-01

    The effects of dumb-bell exercise (aerobic-resistance exercise) with and without low calorie diet (LCD) therapy on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in 12 mildly obese women aged 19-20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: dumb-bell exercise with LCD (DEx + LCD group), and dumb-bell exercise only (DEx group). The subjects performed dumb-bell exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb-bells every day after dinner for approximately 20 min. In the DEx + LCD group, subjects also received a liquid-formula diet based on a commercially available diet supplement, Micro Diet, for two of their three daily meals. Thus, they were restricted to approximately 4.18 MJ of energy intake per day for 12 weeks. Subjects underwent several measurements (body composition, RMR and DIT tests) before commencing the experiment and again after 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12 week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in both the DEx + LCD and the DEx groups without reducing fat free mass (FFM). The decreases in body weight and body fat were significantly larger in the LCD + DEx group than in the DEx group. These results suggest that dumb-bell exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT. Micro Diet LCD may strengthen the effect of dumb-bell exercise on body weight and body fat, but weaken the effects on RMR and DIT.

  4. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  5. Current trends in non-accelerator particle physics: 1, Neutrino mass and oscillation. 2, High energy neutrino astrophysics. 3, Detection of dark matter. 4, Search for strange quark matter. 5, Magnetic monopole searches

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yudong |

    1995-07-01

    This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled `Neutrino Mass and Oscillation`, `High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics`, `Detection of Dark Matter`, `Search for Strange Quark Matter`, and `Magnetic Monopole Searches`. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author`s papers.

  6. Top quark properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ziqing

    2014-10-31

    The top quark physics has entered the precision era. The CDF and D0 collaborations are finalizing their legacy results of the properties of the top quark after the shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron three years ago. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have been publishing results from the LHC Run I with 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions, with many more forthcoming. We present a selection of recent results produced by the Tevatron and LHC experiments.

  7. Top quark forward-backward asymmetry and same-sign top quark pairs.

    PubMed

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; Li, Chong Sheng; Zhang, Hao

    2011-05-20

    The top quark forward-backward asymmetry measured at the Tevatron collider shows a large deviation from standard model expectations. Among possible interpretations, a nonuniversal Z' model is of particular interest as it naturally predicts a top quark in the forward region of large rapidity. To reproduce the size of the asymmetry, the couplings of the Z' to standard model quarks must be large, inevitably leading to copious production of same-sign top quark pairs at the energies of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We explore the discovery potential for tt and ttj production in early LHC experiments at 7-8 TeV and conclude that if no tt signal is observed with 1 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity, then a nonuniversal Z' alone cannot explain the Tevatron forward-backward asymmetry.

  8. Early neutron stars and quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, You-Chen; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Cheng-Wen; Ge, Yun-Zhao

    1988-03-01

    The existence of quark matter (QM) in hot early neutron stars is considered theoretically, using the method of Baym and Chin (1976) to calculate the pressure and density at the phase transition between neutron and quark matter for various temperatures. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that QM cores can exist whenever the temperature exceeds 10 to the 10th K, and that their radii increase with decreasing QM bag constant. The total energy emitted by a star during cooling is estimated as 10 to the 53rd erg, assuming conservation of baryon number.

  9. Single Top Quark Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Ronzani, Manfredi

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the most recent measurements of single top quark production performed by CDF and D0 collaborations in proton-antiproton collisions at Tevatron. Events are selected in the lepton+jets final state by CDF and D0 and in the missing transverse energy plus jets final state by CDF. The small single top signal in s-channel, t-channel and inclusive s+t channel is separated from the large background by using different multivariate techniques. We also present the most recent results on extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the single top quark cross section.

  10. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  11. Influence of Exercise on the Metabolic Profile Caused by 28 days of Bed Rest with Energy Deficit and Amino Acid Supplementation in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Naomi E.; Cadena, Samuel M.; Cloutier, Gregory; Vega-López, Sonia; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Muscle loss and metabolic changes occur with disuse [i.e. bed rest (BR)]. We hypothesized that BR would lead to a metabolically unhealthy profile defined by: increased circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, decreased circulating insulin-like-growth-factor (IGF)-1, decreased HDL-cholesterol, and decreased muscle density (MD; measured by mid-thigh computerized tomography). Methods We investigated the metabolic profile after 28 days of BR with 8±6% energy deficit in male individuals (30-55 years) randomized to resistance exercise with amino acid supplementation (RT, n=24) or amino acid supplementation alone (EAA, n=7). Upper and lower body exercises were performed in the horizontal position. Blood samples were taken at baseline, after 28 days of BR and 14 days of recovery. Results We found a shift toward a metabolically unfavourable profile after BR [compared to baseline (BLN)] in both groups as shown by decreased HDL-cholesterol levels (EAA: BLN: 39±4 vs. BR: 32±2 mg/dL, RT: BLN: 39±1 vs. BR: 32±1 mg/dL; p<0.001) and Low MD (EAA: BLN: 27±4 vs. BR: 22±3 cm2, RT: BLN: 28±2 vs. BR: 23±2 cm2; p<0.001). A healthier metabolic profile was maintained with exercise, including NormalMD (EAA: BLN: 124±6 vs. BR: 110±5 cm2, RT: BLN: 132±3 vs. BR: 131±4 cm2; p<0.001, time-by-group); although, exercise did not completely alleviate the unfavourable metabolic changes seen with BR. Interestingly, both groups had increased plasma IGF-1 levels (EAA: BLN:168±22 vs. BR 213±20 ng/mL, RT: BLN:180±10 vs. BR: 219±13 ng/mL; p<0.001) and neither group showed TNFα changes (p>0.05). Conclusions We conclude that RT can be incorporated to potentially offset the metabolic complications of BR. PMID:25317071

  12. Top quark kinematics and mass determination

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, H.H.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis is presented of 10 W + {ge} 3 jet events, each with evidence for the presence of a b quark, that were recently observed by the CDF collaboration. Seven of these events include a fourth jet and can be explicitly reconstructed as t{bar t} production. The best estimate of the top quark mass is M{sub t} = 174 {+-} 10{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} GeV/c{sup 2}. A study has also been performed to see if the kinematical properties of events with W + {ge} 3 jets gives evidence for top production. An excess of events with large jet energies, compared to that expected from direct production of W + {ge} 3 jets, is observed. A large fraction of these events also contain a b-quark and a fourth jet.

  13. The Thomas–Fermi quark model: Non-relativistic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Quan Wilcox, Walter

    2014-02-15

    The first numerical investigation of non-relativistic aspects of the Thomas–Fermi (TF) statistical multi-quark model is given. We begin with a review of the traditional TF model without an explicit spin interaction and find that the spin splittings are too small in this approach. An explicit spin interaction is then introduced which entails the definition of a generalized spin “flavor”. We investigate baryonic states in this approach which can be described with two inequivalent wave functions; such states can however apply to multiple degenerate flavors. We find that the model requires a spatial separation of quark flavors, even if completely degenerate. Although the TF model is designed to investigate the possibility of many-quark states, we find surprisingly that it may be used to fit the low energy spectrum of almost all ground state octet and decuplet baryons. The charge radii of such states are determined and compared with lattice calculations and other models. The low energy fit obtained allows us to extrapolate to the six-quark doubly strange H-dibaryon state, flavor symmetric strange states of higher quark content and possible six quark nucleon–nucleon resonances. The emphasis here is on the systematics revealed in this approach. We view our model as a versatile and convenient tool for quickly assessing the characteristics of new, possibly bound, particle states of higher quark number content. -- Highlights: • First application of the statistical Thomas–Fermi quark model to baryonic systems. • Novel aspects: spin as generalized flavor; spatial separation of quark flavor phases. • The model is statistical, but the low energy baryonic spectrum is successfully fit. • Numerical applications include the H-dibaryon, strange states and nucleon resonances. • The statistical point of view does not encourage the idea of bound many-quark baryons.

  14. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kie Sang; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  15. The discovery of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    In the period following World War II, there was a rapid development of particle physics. With the construction of synchrotrons and the development of detector technology, many new particles were discovered and the systematics of their interactions investigated. The invention of the bubble chamber played an especially important role in uncovering the rich array of hadrons that were discovered in this period.In 1961 Murray Gell-Mann [1] and Yuval Ne'eman [2] independently introduced a classification scheme, based on SU(3) symmetry, which placed hadrons into families on the basis of spin and parity. Like the periodic table for the elements, this scheme was predictive as well as descriptive, and various hadrons, such as the - , were predicted within this framework and were later discovered.In 1964 Gell-Mann [3] and George Zweig [4] independently proposed quarks as the building blocks of hadrons as a way of generating the SU(3) classification scheme. When the quark model was first proposed, it postulated three types of quarks: up (u), down (d), and strange (s), with charges 2/3, - 1/3, and - 1/3 respectively. Each of these was hypothesized to be a spin1/2 particle. In this model the nucleon (and all other baryons) is made up of three quarks, and each meson consists of a quark and an antiquark. For example, as the proton and neutron both have ero strangeness, they are (u,u,d) and (d,d,u) systems respectively.

  16. Resistance training and timed essential amino acids protect against the loss of muscle mass and strength during 28 days of bed rest and energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Space flight and bed rest (BR) result in losses of muscle mass and strength. Resistance training (RT) and amino acid (AA) supplementation are potential countermeasures to minimize these losses. However, it is unknown if timing of supplementation with exercise can optimize benefits, particularly with...

  17. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    SciTech Connect

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  18. Studies of top quark production at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; /Illinois U., Chicago

    2011-07-01

    I present recent results on top quark production in pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The studies were performed by the D0 collaboration using approximately 5 fb{sup -1} of data taken during Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron accelerator. The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle and completes the quark sector of the three-generation structure of the standard model (SM). It differs from the other quarks not only by its much larger mass, but also by its lifetime which is too short to build hadronic bound states. The SM predicts that top quarks are created via two independent production mechanisms at hadron colliders. The primary mode, in which a t{bar t} pair is produced from a gtt vertex via the strong interaction, was used by the D0 and CDF collaborations to establish the existence of the top quark in 1995. The second production mode of top quarks at hadron colliders is the electroweak production of a single top quark from a Wtb vertex. The predicted cross section for single top quark production is about half that of t{bar t} pairs but the signal-to-background ratio is much worse; observation of single top quark production has therefore until recently been impeded by its low rate and difficult background environment compared to the top pair production. In the following sections I will present results for the measurement of the t{bar t} pair and the single top quark production cross section using respectively 5.3 fb{sup -1} and 5.4 fb{sup -1} of data taken by the D0 experiment.

  19. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  20. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  1. Heavy quarks and lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2003-11-05

    This paper is a review of heavy quarks in lattice gauge theory, focusing on methodology. It includes a status report on some of the calculations that are relevant to heavy-quark spectroscopy and to flavor physics.

  2. The physics of heavy quark distributions in hadrons: Collider tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Lykasov, G. I.; Smiesko, J.; Tokar, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present a review of the current understanding of the heavy quark distributions in the nucleon and their impact on collider physics. The origin of strange, charm and bottom quark pairs at high light-front (LF) momentum fractions in hadron wavefunction-the "intrinsic" quarks, is reviewed. The determination of heavy-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) is particularly significant for the analysis of hard processes at LHC energies. We show that a careful study of the inclusive production of open charm and the production of γ / Z / W particles, accompanied by the heavy jets at large transverse momenta can give essential information on the intrinsic heavy quark (IQ) distributions. We also focus on the theoretical predictions concerning other observables which are very sensitive to the intrinsic charm contribution to PDFs including Higgs production at high xF and novel fixed target measurements which can be tested at the LHC.

  3. Top-quark and electroweak results from ATLAS and CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spighi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    A selection of top-quark and electroweak results performed by ATLAS and CMS are presented. The results obtained with proton-proton collision at the center of mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV cover the 2010-2012 data taking period. We present the total and differential cross sections of the top-quark pair, single top-quark and top-quark production in association with a Gauge boson, together with some of the main properties of the top-quark as mass, charge asymmetry and spin. Regarding the electroweak physics, we present the total cross sections of single and double bosons and show results on the lepton universality of electrons and muons, the weak mixing angle sinθw, the W helicity and the study of the Triple Gauge Coupling. All the presented results are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.

  4. The physics of heavy quark distributions in hadrons: Collider tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S. J.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Lykasov, G. I.; Smiesko, J.; Tokar, S.

    2016-12-18

    Here, we present a review of the current understanding of the heavy quark distributions in the nucleon and their impact on collider physics. The origin of strange, charm and bottom quark pairs at high light-front (LF) momentum fractions in hadron wavefunction—the “intrinsic” quarks, is reviewed. The determination of heavy-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) is particularly significant for the analysis of hard processes at LHC energies. We show that a careful study of the inclusive production of open charm and the production of γ/Z/W particles, accompanied by the heavy jets at large transverse momenta can give essential information on the intrinsic heavy quark (IQ) distributions. We also focus on the theoretical predictions concerning other observables which are very sensitive to the intrinsic charm contribution to PDFs including Higgs production at high xF and novel fixed target measurements which can be tested at the LHC.

  5. The physics of heavy quark distributions in hadrons: Collider tests

    DOE PAGES

    Brodsky, S. J.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Lykasov, G. I.; ...

    2016-12-18

    Here, we present a review of the current understanding of the heavy quark distributions in the nucleon and their impact on collider physics. The origin of strange, charm and bottom quark pairs at high light-front (LF) momentum fractions in hadron wavefunction—the “intrinsic” quarks, is reviewed. The determination of heavy-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) is particularly significant for the analysis of hard processes at LHC energies. We show that a careful study of the inclusive production of open charm and the production of γ/Z/W particles, accompanied by the heavy jets at large transverse momenta can give essential information on the intrinsicmore » heavy quark (IQ) distributions. We also focus on the theoretical predictions concerning other observables which are very sensitive to the intrinsic charm contribution to PDFs including Higgs production at high xF and novel fixed target measurements which can be tested at the LHC.« less

  6. Detecting heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Benenson, G.; Chau, L.L.; Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.E.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this exercise we examine the performance of a detector specifically configured to tag heavy quark (HQ) jets through direct observations of D-meson decays with a high resolution vertex detector. To optimize the performance of such a detector, we assume the small diamond beam crossing configuration as described in the 1978 ISABELLE proposal, giving a luminosity of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Because of the very large backgrounds from light quark (LQ) jets, most triggering schemes at this luminosity require high P/sub perpendicular to/ leptons and inevitably give missing neutrinos. If alternative triggering schemes could be found, then one can hope to find and calculate the mass of objects decaying to heavy quarks. A scheme using the high resolution detector will also be discussed in detail. The study was carried out with events generated by the ISAJET Monte Carlo and a computer simulation of the described detector system. (WHK)

  7. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Vejcik, S.; Berger, E.L.

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  8. Dissociation of heavy quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2002-09-01

    Using a temperature-dependent potential obtained from lattice gauge calculations of Karsch et al, we study the stability of heavy quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma. We find that only the Υ(1S) and ηb(1S) are bound in the quark-gluon plasma, and have a small binding energy. The quark-gluon plasma may be revealed by an Υ(1S) dilepton peak with an invariant mass close to twice the current b quark mass, which is lower than the Υ(1S) mass in free space. The quarkonia Υ(1S) and ηb(1S) can dissociate by collision with quarks and gluons in the quark-gluon plasma. The Υ(1S) and the ηb(1S) can also dissociate spontaneously at temperatures above the dissociation temperature 1.11 Tc, where Tc is the quark-gluon plasma phase transition temperature. At temperatures slightly above the dissociation temperature these states appear as resonances, which provides another signature for the quark-gluon plasma.

  9. Shear and bulk viscosities of quark matter from quark-meson fluctuations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Peixoto, Thiago C.; Roy, Victor; Serna, Fernando E.; Krein, Gastão

    2016-04-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of shear η and bulk ζ viscosities of quark matter due to quark-meson fluctuations. The quark thermal width originating from quantum fluctuations of quark-π and quark-σ loops at finite temperature is calculated with the formalism of real-time thermal field theory. Temperature-dependent constituent-quark and meson masses and quark-meson couplings are obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We found a nontrivial influence of the temperature-dependent masses and couplings on the Landau-cut structure of the quark self-energy. Our results for the ratios η /s and ζ /s , where s is the entropy density (also determined in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the quasiparticle approximation), are in fair agreement with results of the literature obtained from different models and techniques. In particular, our result for η /s has a minimum very close to the quantum lower bound, η /s =1 /4 π .

  10. FRS REST Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FRS exposes several REST services that allows developers to utilize a live feed of data from the FRS database. This web page is intended for a technical audience and describes the content and purpose of each service available.

  11. Top quark physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Jason

    2004-04-30

    The existence of the top quark, discovered by CDF and D0 in 1995, has been re-established in the burgeoning dataset being collected in Run 2 of the Tevatron at Fermilab. Results from CDF on the top quark production cross section and top quark mass are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The well-characterized top data samples will make it possible in the future to probe further for new physics in the top quark sector. This report summarizes recent CDF top quark physics results.

  12. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  13. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-antitop quark production with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Weinelt, Julia; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-12-01

    The Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab) operates the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, the is therefore the only collider which is today able to produce the heaviest known particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and D0 collaborations in 1995. At the Tevatron, most top quarks are produced via the strong interaction, whereby quark-antiquark annihilation dominates with 85%, and gluon fusion contributes with 15%. Considering next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions in the cross section of top-antitop quark production, leads to a slight positive asymmetry in the differential distribution of the production angle {alpha} of the top quarks. This asymmetry is due to the interference of certain NLO contributions. The charge asymmetry A in the cosine of {alpha} is predicted [14] to amount to 4-6%. Information about the partonic rest frame, necessary for a measurement of A in the observable cos {alpha}, is not accessible in the experiment. Thus, they use the rapidity difference of the top and the antitop quark as sensitive variable. This quantity offers the advantage of Lorentz invariance and is uniquely correlated with the cosine of {alpha}, justifying the choice of the rapidity difference to describe the behavior of cos {alpha}. In preparation for a measurement of the charge asymmetry, they conduct several Monte Carlo based studies concerning the effect of different event selection criteria on the asymmetry in the selected event samples. They observe a strong dependence of the measured asymmetry on the number of required jets in the particular event sample. This motivates further studies to understand the influence of additional gluon radiation, which leads to more than four observed jets in an event, on the rapidity distribution of the produced top quarks. They find, that events containing hard gluon radiation are correlated with a strong negative shift of the rapidity

  14. An S(3) symmetry of nonrelative quark models and a top- quark seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Hael Switzer

    1999-12-01

    This work explores problems in three areas of particle physics: electroweak symmetry breaking, the spectrum of the L = 1 baryons and the theory of large N baryons. The first chapter investigates the phenomenological consequences of the top quark seesaw mechanism for breaking electroweak symmetry. We first establish some criteria for a sound top quark seesaw model and then study two models that emerge from these requirements. Both models contain a heavy weak- inert fermion with the same hypercharge as the top quark but the second model contains an additional heavy weak- inert partner for the bottom quark. The low energy spectra of these theories have respectively one and two Higgs doublets. We then show that the current measurements of the rho-parameter require that the heavy fermion in the one doublet model have a mass of 5-7 TeV while in the two doublet model, the heavy partner of the bottom quark must have a mass of at least 10 TeV to agree with the measured decay width of the Z0. The second chapter presents a study of the L = 1 baryons in the quark model and the chiral quark model using an S3 symmetry, which corresponds to permuting the positions of the quarks within a baryon. Given a set of operators with known transformation properties under S3 and the spin-flavor group, the masses of the L = 1 baryons are determined in terms of a small number of unknown parameters. These parameters are fit to the observed mass spectrum for both the quark model and the chiral quark model. The latter model leads to a more satisfactory fit with the measured baryon masses. We also make predictions for the unobserved L = 1 baryons. The final chapter examines the large N limit of the generators of the completely symmetric N index representation of SU(m). In this limit, the group generators behave essentially like classical variables. We use this observation to derive an integral formula for the matrix elements of an arbitrary polynomial of the group generators between low-spin, s

  15. Heisenberg Uncertainty and the Allowable Masses of the Up Quark and Down Quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Brian

    2004-05-01

    A possible explanation for the inability to attain deterministic measurements of an elementary particle's energy, as given by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, manifests itself in an interesting anthropic consequent of Andrei Linde's Self-reproducing Inflationary Multiverse model. In Linde's model, the physical laws and constants that govern our universe adopt other values in other universes, due to variable Higgs fields. While the physics in our universe allow for the advent of life and consciousness, the physics necessary for life are not likely to exist in other universes -- Linde demonstrates this through a kind of Darwinism for universes. Our universe, then, is unique. But what are the physical laws and constants that make our universe what it is? Craig Hogan identifies five physical constants that are not bound by symmetry. Fine-tuning these constants gives rise to the basic behavior and structures of the universe. Three of the non-symmetric constants are fermion masses: the up quark mass, the down quark mass, and the electron mass. I will explore Linde's and Hogan's works by comparing the amount of uncertainty in quark masses, as calculated from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, to the range of quark mass values consistent with our observed universe. Should the fine-tuning of the up quark and down quark masses be greater than the range of Heisenberg uncertainties in their respective masses (as I predict, due to quantum tunneling), then perhaps there is a correlation between the measured Heisenberg uncertainty in quark masses and the fine-tuning of masses required for our universe to be as it is. Hogan; "Why the Universe is Just So;" Reviews of Modern Physics; Issue 4; Vol. 72; pg. 1149-1161; Oct. 2000 Linde, "The Self-Reproducing Inflationary Universe;" Scientific American; No. 5; Vol. 271; pg. 48-55; Nov. 1994

  16. The spin and flavor content of intrinsic sea quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bo-Qiang Ma; Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    The intrinsic quark-antiquark pairs generated by the minimal energy nonperturbative meson-baryon fluctuations in the nucleon sea provide a consistent framework for understanding a number of empirical anomalies observed in the deep inelastic quark-parton structure of nucleons: the flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea implied by the violation of Gottfried sum rule, the proton spin problem implied by the violation of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, and the outstanding conflict between two different determinations of the strange quark sea in the nucleon.

  17. Chiral extrapolations on the lattice with strange sea quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes-Genon, Sébastien

    2005-06-01

    The (light but not-so-light) strange quark may play a special role in the low-energy dynamics of QCD. Strange sea-quark pairs may induce significant differences in the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking in the chiral limits of two and three massless flavours, in relation with the violation of the Zweig rule in the scalar sector. This effect could affect chiral extrapolations of unquenched lattice simulations with three dynamical flavours, and it could be detected through the quark-mass dependence of hadron observables [S. Descotes-Genon, hep-ph/0410233].

  18. Summary of Single top quark production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, R.; CDF, on the

    2014-01-01

    The production of single-top quarks occurs via the weak interaction at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. Single top quark events are selected in the lepton+jets final state by CDF and D0 and in the missing transverse energy plus jets final state by CDF. Multivariate classifiers separate the s-channel and t-channel single-top signals from the large backgrounds. The combination of CDF and D0 results leads to the first observation of the s-channel mode of single top quark production. The t-channel and single top combined cross sections have also been measured.

  19. Semileptonic decays of Λ _c baryons in the relativistic quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental progress in studying weak decays of the Λ _c baryon we investigate its semileptonic decays in the framework of the relativistic quark model based on the quasipotential approach with the QCD-motivated potential. The form factors of the Λ _c→ Λ lν _l and Λ _c→ nlν _l decays are calculated in the whole accessible kinematical region without extrapolations and additional model assumptions. Relativistic effects are systematically taken into account including transformations of baryon wave functions from the rest to moving reference frame and contributions of the intermediate negative-energy states. Baryon wave functions found in the previous mass spectrum calculations are used for the numerical evaluation. Comprehensive predictions for decay rates, asymmetries and polarization parameters are given. They agree well with available experimental data.

  20. Measurement of the charge asymmetry and the W boson helicity in top-antitop quark events with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschbuehl, Dominic

    2005-12-23

    different helicities of the W boson. The second focus lies on the production process and the higher order QCD effect causing the charge asymmetry. In the following three chapters the experimental techniques of the CDF detector, hardware and the used software are introduced as well as. In this thesis t{bar t} candidates are selected in the decay mode t {yields} bl{nu}, {bar t} {yields} bjj and the charge conjugated state. An important ingredient for this measurement is the complete reconstruction of the top-antitop partonic process. The reconstruction of the partonic process requires the assignment of reconstructed objects, such as jets, the charged lepton and the missing transverse energy to parton level objects. This assignment implies a certain number of possible permutations and ambiguities. To achieve the optimal reconstruction of the event all combinations have to be considered and evaluated. To measure a t{bar t}-quantity one hypothesis has to be chosen. In chapter five we present a novel technique to fully reconstruct t{bar t} events. The technique is investigated in great detail by comparing to the Monte Carlo truth information. In the sixth chapter the background estimation is given. The identification and selection procedure on data is checked with Monte Carlo samples. Chapter seven describes the measurement of the W boson helicity in the top quark decay. The helicity of the W boson is measured via the angle between the W boson momentum in the top quark rest frame and the lepton momentum in the W boson rest frame. After correcting for acceptance and reconstruction effects the different helicity fractions are extracted by fitting the theoretical expected distribution. The systematic error is determined using the technique of pseudo experiments. In chapter eight the measurement of the charge asymmetry in top-pair production is presented. The measurement of the asymmetry is performed by using the difference of the top quark rapidities times the charge of the lepton

  1. Measurement of the front back asymmetry in top-antitop quark pairs produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Quarks, along with leptons and force carrying particles, are predicted by the Standard Model to be the fundamental constituents of nature. In distinction from the leptons, the quarks interact strongly through the chromodynamic force and are bound together within the hadrons. The familiar proton and neutron are bound states of the light ''up'' and ''down'' quarks. The most massive quark by far, the ''top'' quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments in March, 1995. The new quark was observed in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The mass of the top quark was measured to be 176 ± 13 GeV/c2 and the cross section 6.8$+3.6\\atop{-2.4}$ pb. It is the Q = 2/3, T3 = +1/2 member of the third generation weak-isospin doublet along with the bottom quark. The top quark is the final Standard Model quark to be discovered. Along with whatever is responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking, top quark physics is considered one of the least understood sectors of the Standard Model and represents a front line of our understanding of particle physics. Currently, the only direct measurements of top quark properties come from the CDF and D0 experiments observing p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at the Tevatron. Top quark production at the Tevatron is almost exclusively by quark-antiquark annihilation, q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ (85%), and gluon fusion, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ (15%), mediated by the strong force. The theoretical cross-section for this process is σt$\\bar{t}$ = 6.7 ± 0.8 pb for mt = 175 GeV/c2. Top quarks can also be produced at the Tevatron via q$\\bar{b}$' → tb and qg → q'tb through the weak interaction. The cross section for these processes is lower (3pb) and the signal is much more difficult to isolate as backgrounds are much higher. The top quark is predicted to decay almost exclusively into a W-boson and a bottom quark (t → Wb). The total decay width t → Wb is Λ = 1.50 GeV. This

  2. Phase Diagram and Instability of Dense Neutral Three-Flavor Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2006-07-11

    We address the phase structure of color superconducting quark matter at high quark density. Under the electric and color neutrality conditions there appear various phases as a result of the Fermi surface mismatch among different quark flavors induced by finite strange quark mass; the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, the u-quark superconducting (uSC) phase, the d-quark superconducting (dSC) phase, the two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phase, and the unpaired quark matter (UQM). Besides, when the Fermi surface mismatch is large enough to surpass the gap energy, the gapless superconducting phase is expected. We discuss the chromomagnetic instability problem and explore the instability regions on the phase diagram.

  3. Search for scalar bottom quarks from gluino decays in collisions at.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; di Giovanni, G P; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J L; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Dennis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-05-05

    We searched for scalar bottom quarks 156 pb(-1) of pp collisions at radicalS = 1.96 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Tevatron. Scalar bottom quarks can be produced from gluino decays in -parity conserving models of supersymmetry when the mass of the gluino exceeds that of the scalar bottom quark. Then, a scalar bottom quark can decay into a bottom quark and a neutralino. To search for this scenario, we investigated events with large missing transverse energy and at least three jets, two or more of which were identified as containing a secondary vertex from the hadronization of quarks. We found four candidate events, where 2.6 +/- 0.7 are expected from standard model processes, and placed 95% confidence level lower limits on gluino and scalar bottom quark masses of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c(2), respectively.

  4. Forward-Backward Asymmetry at High Mass in Top Quark Pair Production in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at Center of Mass Energy = 1.96 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppig, Andrew Peter

    We present a new measurement of the inclusive forward-backward tt¯ production asymmetry and its mass dependence. The measurements are performed with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L = 5.3 fb-1 of pp¯ collisions at s = 1.96 TeV, recorded with the CDF II Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in both the laboratory frame and the tt¯ rest frame, and in both cases are found to be consistent with CP conservation under interchange of t and t¯. In the tt¯ rest frame, the asymmetry is observed to increase with the invariant mass, Mtt¯, of the tt¯ system. Fully corrected parton-level asymmetries are derived in two regions of Mtt¯, and the asymmetry is found to be most significant at large Mtt¯ . For Mtt¯ ≥ 450 GeV/ c2, the parton-level asymmetry in the tt¯ rest frame is Att¯ = 0.475 +/- 0.114 compared to a next-to-leading order QCD prediction of 0.088 +/- 0.013.

  5. Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, Richard; Weber, Fridolin; Spinella, William; Contrera, Gustavo; Orsaria, Milva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, an~improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars). In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in), the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.

  6. Searches for Heavy Quark States at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hok-Chuen Tom; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    This talk highlights the latest results of heavy quark searches from the ATLAS collaboration, mainly on resonance searches and vector-like quarks (VLQs) searches. Searches for it resonances using lepton-plus-jets events in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV are presented. Limits are set for BSM particles such as topcolor-assisted technicolor Z' TC , Kaluza-Klein (K-K) gluons gKK and K-K excitations of graviton GKK in the Randall-Sundrum model of extra dimensions. VLQs arise naturally in many models such as Little Higgs and Composite Higgs and typically couple preferably to the third generation SM quarks and weak bosons. Limits are set for vector-like bottom (B) and top (T) quarks decay to lepton-plus-jets final states via Hb+X and Ht+X channels in two analyses using 8 and 13 TeV datasets from ATLAS.

  7. Beauty-quark and charm-quark pair production asymmetries at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Haisch, Ulrich; Pecjak, Ben D.; Re, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The LHCb Collaboration has recently performed a first measurement of the angular production asymmetry in the distribution of beauty quarks and antiquarks at a hadron collider. We calculate the corresponding standard model prediction for this asymmetry at fixed order in perturbation theory. Our results show good agreement with the data, which are provided differentially for three bins in the invariant mass of the b b ¯ system. We also present similar predictions for both beauty-quark and charm-quark final states within the LHCb acceptance for a collision energy of √{s }=13 TeV . We finally point out that a measurement of the ratio of the b b ¯ and c c ¯ cross sections may be useful for experimentally validating charm-tagging efficiencies.

  8. Quark-gluon plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, Salah; Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2000-12-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERN-SPS are well described by the QGP-EoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 40A GeV in central Pb-Pb interactions.

  9. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  10. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  11. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directlymore » employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.« less

  12. Spin Measurement in Top Quark Events at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Linacre, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of polarisation and spin correlations are presented in events with top quarks produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of $5 fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 20 $fb^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors. The top quark polarization is measured in both single top quark production in the t-channel and $t\\bar{t}$ pair-production, from the angular distributions of charged leptons in the rest frame of their parent top quark. The spin correlations are measured in $t\\bar{t}$ events using various angular distributions of the decay products. The measurements are made using both template fitting methods and by unfolding the distributions to the parton-level, where differential measurements with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the $t\\bar{t}$ system are also made. The spin correlation measurements are used to search for new physics in the form of a light top squark or an anomalous top quark chromo-magnetic dipole moment. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  13. Recalling Quark Matter '83 and the birth of RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlam, Thomas W.

    2016-12-01

    I provide a brief review of the Quark Matter '83 meeting at Brookhaven, in the context of the decisive U.S. science policy actions during the summer of 1983 that led up to it. At the Brookhaven meeting a large community of nuclear and high energy physicists came together for the first time to examine the parameters for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, setting the stage for decades of quark matter research to follow.

  14. Heavy quark photoproduction in pp coherent interactions at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.; Meneses, A. R.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we analyze the possibility of constraining the QCD dynamics at high energies studying the heavy quark photoproduction at LHC in coherent interactions. The rapidity distribution and total cross section for charm and bottom production are estimated using three different phenomenological saturation models which successfully describe the HERA data. Our results indicate that the experimental study of the inclusive heavy quark photoproduction can be very useful to discriminate between the classical and quantum versions of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formalism.

  15. Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Cloet; W. Bentz; Anthony Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquarks channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.

  16. Search for supersymmetry in hadronic final states with missing transverse energy using the variables α T and b-quark multiplicity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\ \\mathrm{TeV}$

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Selvaggi, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Kuotb Awad, A. M.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Radics, B.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Maron, G.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Grigelionis, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. 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M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Caulfield, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Nelson, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. 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I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. 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F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Haupt, J.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-09-01

    An inclusive search for supersymmetric processes that produce final states with jets and missing transverse energy is performed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 11.7 fb-1 collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In this search, a dimensionless kinematic variable, α T, is used to discriminate between events with genuine and misreconstructed missing transverse energy. The search is based on an examination of the number of reconstructed jets per event, the scalar sum of transverse energies of these jets, and the number of these jets identified as originating from bottom quarks. No significant excess of events over the standard model expectation is found. Exclusion limits are set in the parameter space of simplified models, with a special emphasis on both compressed-spectrum scenarios and direct or gluino-induced production of third-generation squarks. For the case of gluino-mediated squark production, gluino masses up to 950–1125 GeV are excluded depending on the assumed model. Finally, for the direct pair-production of squarks, masses up to 450 GeV are excluded for a single light first- or second-generation squark, increasing to 600 GeV for bottom squarks.

  17. Search for supersymmetry in hadronic final states with missing transverse energy using the variables αT and b-quark multiplicity in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Keaveney, J; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Mohammadi, A; Reis, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Ceard, L; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Selvaggi, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins Junior, M; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Malek, M; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Soares Jorge, L; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Morovic, S; Tikvica, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Kuotb Awad, A M; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Brochet, S; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Tschudi, Y; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Calpas, B; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L

    An inclusive search for supersymmetric processes that produce final states with jets and missing transverse energy is performed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 11.7 fb(-1) collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In this search, a dimensionless kinematic variable, αT, is used to discriminate between events with genuine and misreconstructed missing transverse energy. The search is based on an examination of the number of reconstructed jets per event, the scalar sum of transverse energies of these jets, and the number of these jets identified as originating from bottom quarks. No significant excess of events over the standard model expectation is found. Exclusion limits are set in the parameter space of simplified models, with a special emphasis on both compressed-spectrum scenarios and direct or gluino-induced production of third-generation squarks. For the case of gluino-mediated squark production, gluino masses up to 950-1125 GeV are excluded depending on the assumed model. For the direct pair-production of squarks, masses up to 450 GeV are excluded for a single light first- or second-generation squark, increasing to 600 GeV for bottom squarks.

  18. Search for supersymmetry in final states with missing transverse energy and 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 b-quark jets in 7 TeV pp collisions using the variable α T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2013-01-01

    A search for supersymmetry in final states with jets and missing transverse energy is performed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=7 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb-1 collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In this search, a dimensionless kinematic variable, α T, is used as the main discriminator between events with genuine and misreconstructed missing transverse energy. The search is performed in a signal region that is binned in the scalar sum of the transverse energy of jets and the number of jets identified as originating from a bottom quark. No excess of events over the standard model expectation is found. Exclusion limits are set in the parameter space of the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, and also in simplified models, with a special emphasis on compressed spectra and third-generation scenarios.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Quark-mass dependence of two-nucleon observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lee, Tze-Kei; Liu, C.-P.; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    We study the potential implications of lattice QCD determinations of the S-wave nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths with unphysical light quark masses. If the light quark masses are small enough such that nuclear effective field theory (NEFT) can be used to perform quark-mass extrapolations, then the leading quark-mass dependence of not only the effective range and the two-body current, but also all the low-energy deuteron matrix elements up to next-to-leading-order in NEFT can be obtained. As a proof of principle, we compute the quark-mass dependence of the deuteron charge radius, magnetic moment, polarizability, and the deuteron photodisintegration cross section using the lattice calculation of the scattering lengths at 354 MeV pion mass by the ``Nuclear Physics with Lattice QCD'' (NPLQCD) collaboration and the NEFT power counting scheme of Beane, Kaplan, and Vuorinen (BKV), even though it is not yet established that the 354 MeV pion mass is within the radius of convergence of the BKV scheme. Once the lattice result with quark mass within the NEFT radius of convergence is obtained, our observation can be used to constrain the time variation of isoscalar combination of u and d quark mass mq, to help the anthropic principle study to find the mq range that allows the existence of life, and to provide a weak test of the multiverse conjecture.

  20. A Precision Measurement of the Top Quark Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Kevin Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the top quark mass using events recorded during a ~ 230 pb-1 exposure of the D0 detector to proton-anti-proton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts that the top quark will decay into a bottom quark and a W boson close to 100% of the time. The bottom quark will hadronize (bind with another quark) and produce a jet of hadronic particles. The W bosons can decay either into a charged lepton and a neutrino or a pair of quarks. this dissertation focuses on the top quark (t$\\bar{t}$) events in which one W decays hadronically and the other decays leptonically. Two methods of identifying t$\\bar{t}$ events from the large number of events produced are used. The first is based on the unique topology of the final state particles of a heavy particle. By using the topological information of the event, the t$\\bar{t}$ events can be efficiently extracted from the background. The second method relies on the identification of the remnants of the long lived bottom quarks that are expected to be produced in the decay of almost every top quark. Because the largest background processes do not contain bottom quarks, this is an extremely efficient way to select the events retaining about 60% of the t$\\bar{t}$ events and removing almost 90% of the background. A kinematic fit to the top quark mass is performed on the t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events using the final state particles that are seen in the detector. A likelihood technique is then used to extract the most likely value of the top quark mass, mt, and signal fraction. The result for the topological selection is mt = 169.9 ± 5.8(statistical)$+8.0\\atop{-7.8}$(systematic) GeV while the results on the sample selected from identification of a b quark in the event is mt = 170.6 ± 4.2(statistical)$+6.3\\atop{-6.8}$(systematic) GeV.

  1. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the

  2. Heavy quark quenching from RHIC to LHC and the consequences of gluon damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossiaux, P. B.; Nahrgang, M.; Bluhm, M.; Gousset, Th.; Aichelin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this contribution to the Quark Matter 2012 conference, we study whether energy loss models established for RHIC energies to describe the quenching of heavy quarks can be applied at LHC with the same success. We also benefit from the larger pT-range accessible at this accelerator to test the impact of gluon damping on observables such as the nuclear modification factor.

  3. Quark matter or new particles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  4. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  5. Exotic Signals of Vectorlike Quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Yu, Felix

    2016-12-06

    Vectorlike fermions are an important target for hadron collider searches. We show that the vectorlike quarks may predominantly decay via higher-dimensional operators into a quark plus a couple of other Standard Model fermions. Pair production of vectorlike quarks of charge 2/3 at the LHC would then lead to a variety of possible final states, including $t\\bar t + 4\\tau$, $t\\bar b\

  6. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or

  7. Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2009-04-17

    We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.

  8. Valence quark spin distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-09-01

    The hyperfine interactions of the constituent quark model provide a natural explanation for many nucleon properties, including the {Delta} - N splitting, the charge radius of the neutron, and the observation that the proton's quark distribution function ratio d(x)/u(x) {r_arrow} 0 as x {r_arrow} 1. The hyperfine-perturbed quark model also makes predictions for the nucleon spin-dependent distribution functions. Precision measurements of the resulting asymmetries A{sub 1}{sup p}(x) and A{sub 1}{sup n}(x) in the valence region can test this model and thereby the hypothesis that the valence quark spin distributions are ''normal''.

  9. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K. . High Energy Physics Div.); Strikman, M. AN SSSR, Leningrad . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10{sup 9} B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10{sup 9} B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Measuring the isotropization time of quark-gluon plasma from direct photons at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Roy, Pradip

    2009-05-15

    We calculate transverse momentum distribution of direct photons from various sources by taking into account the initial state momentum anisotropy of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and late stage transverse flow effects. To evaluate the photon yield from hadronic matter we include the contributions from baryon-meson reactions. The total photon yield, calculated for various combinations of initial conditions and transition temperatures, is then compared with the recent measurement of photon transverse momentum distribution by the PHENIX Collaboration. It is shown that because of the initial state anisotropy the photon yield from the QGP is larger by a factor of 8-10 than that of the isotropic case in the intermediate p{sub T} regime. It is also demonstrated that the presence of such an anisotropy can describe the PHENIX photon data better than the isotropic case in the present model. We show that the isotropization time thus extracted lies within the range 1.5{>=}{tau}{sub iso}{>=}0.5 fm/c for the initial conditions used here.

  11. Quark mass functions and pion structure in Minkowski space

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, Elmer P.; Gross, Franz L.; Pena, Maria Teresa; Stadler, Alfred

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the dressed quark mass function and the pion structure in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We use an interaction kernel in momentum space that is a relativistic generalization of the linear confining q-qbar potential and a constant potential shift that defines the energy scale. The confining interaction has a Lorentz scalar part that is not chirally invariant by itself but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism to work. We adjust the parameters of our quark mass function calculated in Minkowski-space to agree with LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. Results of a calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the relativistic impulse approximation using the same mass function are presented and compared with experimental data.

  12. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Luu, Thomas; Platter, Lucas

    2011-04-01

    We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created by a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way, we use lattice QCD data and a hierarchy of effective field theories. We find that the measured He4 abundances put a bound of -1%≲δmq/mq≲0.7% on a possible variation of quark masses. The effect of quark mass variations on the deuterium abundances can be largely compensated by changes of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Including bounds on the variation of η coming from WMAP results and adding some additional assumptions further narrows the range of allowed values of δmq/mq.

  13. Differences between heavy and light quarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.

    1997-11-10

    The quark Dyson-Schwinger equation shows that there are distinct differences between light and heavy quarks. The dynamical mass function of the light quarks is characterized by a sharp increase below 1 GeV, whereas the mass function of the heavy quarks is approximately constant in this infrared region. As a consequence, the heavy meson masses increase linearly with the current quark masses, whereas the light pseudoscalar meson masses are proportional to the square root of the current quark masses.

  14. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  15. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  16. Metabolic predictors of obesity. Contribution of resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fuel utilization to four-year weight gain of post-obese and never-obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Weinsier, R L; Nelson, K M; Hensrud, D D; Darnell, B E; Hunter, G R; Schutz, Y

    1995-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to identify abnormalities of energy expenditure and fuel utilization which distinguish post-obese women from never-obese controls. 24 moderately obese, postmenopausal, nondiabetic women with a familial predisposition to obesity underwent assessments of body composition, fasting and postprandial energy expenditure, and fuel utilization in the obese state and after weight loss (mean 12.9 kg) to a post-obese, normal-weight state. The post-obese women were compared with 24 never-obese women of comparable age and body composition. Four years later, without intervention, body weight was reassessed in both groups. Results indicated that all parameters measured in the post-obese women were similar to the never-obese controls: mean resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fasting and postprandial substrate oxidation and insulin-glucose patterns. Four years later, post-obese women regained a mean of 10.9 kg while control subjects remained lean (mean gain 1.7 kg) (P < 0.001 between groups). Neither energy expenditure nor fuel oxidation correlated with 4-yr weight changes, whereas self-reported physical inactivity was associated with greater weight regain. The data suggest that weight gain in obesity-prone women may be due to maladaptive responses to the environment, such as physical inactivity or excess energy intake, rather than to reduced energy requirements. PMID:7883999

  17. Color sextet vector bosons and same-sign top quark pairs at the LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Berger, E. L.; Cao, Q.-H.; Chen, C.-R.; Shaughnessy, G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Tokyo; Northwestern Univ.; Peking Univ.

    2010-12-08

    We investigate the production of beyond-the-standard-model color sextet vector bosons at the Large Hadron Collider and their decay into a pair of same-sign top quarks. We demonstrate that the energy of the charged lepton from the top quark semi-leptonic decay serves as a good measure of the top quark polarization, which, in turn determines the quantum numbers of the boson and distinguishes vector bosons from scalars.

  18. Production of b-quark jets at the Tevatron Collider in the Regge limit of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Saleev, V. A. Shipilova, A. V.

    2011-01-15

    The production of b-quark jets is considered in the approach of quasi-multi-Regge kinematics. This approach is based on the hypothesis of the Reggeization of t-channel gluons and quarks at high energies. Experimental data obtained by the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Tevatron Collider for various spectra of b-quark jets are described quite accurately without invoking free parameters.

  19. Measurement of the W boson helicity in top-antitop quark events with the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chwalek, Thorsten; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-10-01

    bosons depends on the Yukawa coupling of the top quarks, the measurement of F{sub 0} is sensitive to the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. Alternative models can lead to an altered F{sub 0} fraction. In this analysis the W helicity fractions are measured in a selected sample rich in t{bar B} events where one lepton, at least four jets, and missing transverse energy are required. All kinematic quantities describing the t{bar t} decay are determined. As a sensitive observable, we use the cosine of the decay angle {theta}*, which is defined as the angle between the momentum of the charged lepton in the W boson rest frame and the W boson momentum in the top quark rest frame. The data used in this analysis were taken with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II) in the years 2002-2006 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 955 pb{sup -1}. Previous CDF measurements of the W boson helicity fractions in top quark decays used either the square of the invariant mass of the charged lepton and the b quark jet, M{sub {ell}b}{sup 2}, or the lepton p{sub T} distribution as a discriminant. The D0 collaboration used a matrix-element method to extract a value of F{sub 0}; in a second analysis the reconstructed distribution of cos {theta}* was utilized to measure F{sub +}. CDF gives the latest value of F{sub 0} = 0.74{sub -0.34}{sup +0.22}, while D measured F{sub 0} = 0.56 {+-} 0.31. The CDF collaboration also gives the current upper limit of F{sub +} < 0.09.

  20. Experimental discrimination between charge 2e/3 top quark and charge 4e/3 exotic quark production scenarios.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-26

    We present the first experimental discrimination between the 2e/3 and 4e/3 top quark electric charge scenarios, using top quark pairs (tt) produced in pp collisions at (square root) s = 1.96 TeV by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We use 370 pb;{-1} of data collected by the D0 experiment and select events with at least one high transverse momentum electron or muon, high transverse energy imbalance, and four or more jets. We discriminate between b- and b-quark jets by using the charge and momenta of tracks within the jet cones. The data are consistent with the expected electric charge, |q|=2e/3. We exclude, at the 92% C.L., that the sample is solely due to the production of exotic quark pairs QQ with |q|=4e/3. We place an upper limit on the fraction of QQ pairs rho<0.80 at the 90% C.L.

  1. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, hadronic top decays with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hegeman, Jeroen Guido

    2009-01-16

    Of the six quarks in the standard model the top quark is by far the heaviest: 35 times more massive than its partner the bottom quark and more than 130 times heavier than the average of the other five quarks. Its correspondingly small decay width means it tends to decay before forming a bound state. Of all quarks, therefore, the top is the least affected by quark confinement, behaving almost as a free quark. Its large mass also makes the top quark a key player in the realm of the postulated Higgs boson, whose coupling strengths to particles are proportional to their masses. Precision measurements of particle masses for e.g. the top quark and the W boson can hereby provide indirect constraints on the Higgs boson mass. Since in the standard model top quarks couple almost exclusively to bottom quarks (t → Wb), top quark decays provide a window on the standard model through the direct measurement of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element Vtb. In the same way any lack of top quark decays into W bosons could imply the existence of decay channels beyond the standard model, for example charged Higgs bosons as expected in two-doublet Higgs models: t → H+b. Within the standard model top quark decays can be classified by the (lepton or quark) W boson decay products. Depending on the decay of each of the W bosons, t$\\bar{t}$ pair decays can involve either no leptons at all, or one or two isolated leptons from direct W → e$\\bar{v}${sub e} and W → μ$\\bar{v}$μ decays. Cascade decays like b → Wc → e$\\bar{v}$ec can lead to additional non-isolated leptons. The fully hadronic decay channel, in which both Ws decay into a quark-antiquark pair, has the largest branching fraction of all t$\\bar{t}$ decay channels and is the only kinematically complete (i.e. neutrino-less) channel. It lacks, however, the clear isolated lepton signature and is therefore hard to distinguish from the multi-jet QCD background. It

  2. Cool Quark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-22

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  3. Quark Gluon Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-05-07

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  4. Quark Gluon Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Matter is malleable and can change its properties with temperature. This is most familiar when comparing ice, liquid water and steam, which are all different forms of the same thing. However beyond the usual states of matter, physicists can explore other states, both much colder and hotter. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the hottest known state of matter – a state that is so hot that protons and neutrons from the center of atoms can literally melt. This form of matter is called a quark gluon plasma and it is an important research topic being pursued at the LHC.

  5. Measurements of heavy quark and lepton lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    The PEP/PETRA energy range has proved to be well-suited for the study of the lifetimes of hadrons containing the b and c quarks and the tau lepton for several reasons. First, these states comprise a large fraction of the total interaction rate in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation and can be cleanly identified. Second, the storage rings have operated at high luminosity and so produced these exotic states copiously. And finally, thanks to the interplay of the Fermi coupling strength, the quark and lepton masses, and the beam energy, the expected decay lengths are in the 1/2 mm range and so are comparatively easy to measure. This pleasant coincidence of cleanly identified and abundant signal with potentially large effects has made possible the first measurements of two fundamental weak couplings, tau ..-->.. nu/sub tau/W and b ..-->.. cW. These measurements have provided a sharp test of the standard model and allowed, for the first time, the full determination of the magnitudes of the quark mixing matrix. This paper reviews the lifetime studies made at PEP during the past year. It begins with a brief review of the three detectors, DELCO, MAC and MARK II, which have reported lifetime measurements. Next it discusses two new measurements of the tau lifetime, and briefly reviews a measurement of the D/sup 0/ lifetime. Finally, it turns to measurements of the B lifetime, which are discussed in some detail. 18 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  6. Top quark physics: Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Raymond; Gerdes, David; Jaros, John; Vejcik, Steve; Berger, Edmond L.; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cuypers, Frank; Drell, Persis S.; Fero, Michael; Hadley, Nicholas; Han, Tao; Heinson, Ann P.; Knuteson, Bruce; Larios, Francisco; Miettinen, Hannu; Orr, Lynne H.; Peskin, Michael E.; Rizzo, Thomas; Sarid, Uri; Schmidt, Carl; Stelzer, Tim; Sullivan, Zack

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  7. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin Mason et al.

    2004-01-05

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients.

  8. Properties of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Déliot, Frédéric; Hadley, Nicholas; Parke, Stephen; Schwarz, Tom

    2014-10-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known elementary particle, and it is often seen as a window to search for new physics processes in particle physics. A large program to study the top-quark properties has been performed both at the Tevatron and LHC colliders by the D0, CDF, ATLAS and CMS experiments. The most recent results are discussed in this article.

  9. Observation of single top-quark production.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-08-28

    We report observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of sigma(pp[over ]--> tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 + or - 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10(-7), corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

  10. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  11. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of the model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.

  12. Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; ...

    2016-03-14

    The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of themore » model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.« less

  13. Quark Confinement and Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  14. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cerrito

    2004-07-16

    Preliminary results on the measurement of the top quark mass at the Tevatron Collider are presented. In the dilepton decay channel, the CDF Collaboration measures m{sub t} = 175.0{sub -16.9}{sup +17.4}(stat.){+-}8.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 126 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV (Run II). In the lepton plus jets channel, the CDF Collaboration measures 177.5{sub -9.4}{sup +12.7}(stat.) {+-} 7.1(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, using a sample of {approx} 102 pb{sup -1} at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The D0 Collaboration has newly applied a likelihood technique to improve the analysis of {approx} 125 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV (Run I), with the result: m{sub t} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6(stat.) {+-}3.9(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. The latter is combined with all the measurements based on the data collected in Run I to yield the most recent and comprehensive experimental determination of the top quark mass: m{sub t} = 178.0 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 3.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  16. Strange-quark-matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-11-01

    We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 13 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that it is implausible that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, is a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation if strange matter is stable at an energy density exceeding about 5.4 times that of nuclear matter. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 34 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Search for supersymmetry in 8 TeV proton-proton collision events with bottom-quark jets and missing transverse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Benjamin

    In the absence of meaningful federal action, many states have adopted clean energy policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions. Among these policies is the energy efficiency resource standard (EERS), adopted by 33 states mostly in the last decade, which sets an energy consumption reduction target for some or all regulated utilities within a state. My paper examines what factors affect a state's likelihood of adopting an EERS, and whether those factors are different for EERS policies compared with other clean energy policies. The energy policy literature features many studies of clean energy policy adoption, but none have focused specifically on EERS adoption. I theorized that energy efficiency potential being relatively homogeneously distributed across states (compared to renewable energy potential) and efficiency's relative inexpensiveness as a resource would result in a unique set of factors being associated with the likelihood of EERS adoption. Specifically, I expected that three internal determinants--the presence of utility rate decoupling in a state, a state's political ideology, and the state's average retail price of residential electricity--affect a state's likelihood of adopting an EERS. To test these hypotheses, I estimated several multiple regression models using an event history analysis approach and found that citizen liberalism, level of electricity consumption, and a time counter variable were all statistically significant and positive predictors of state adoption of an EERS, all else equal. I found no association between decoupling or electricity price and EERS adoption, though in the case of the former that may be a result of insufficient data.

  18. Same-sign dilepton excesses and vector-like quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chuan-Ren; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Low, Ian

    2016-03-15

    Multiple analyses from ATLAS and CMS collaborations, including searches for ttH production, supersymmetric particles and vector-like quarks, observed excesses in the same-sign dilepton channel containing b-jets and missing transverse energy in the LHC Run 1 data. In the context of little Higgs theories with T parity, we explain these excesses using vector-like T-odd quarks decaying into a top quark, a W boson and the lightest T-odd particle (LTP). For heavy vector-like quarks, decay topologies containing the LTP have not been searched for at the LHC. The bounds on the masses of the T-odd quarks can be estimated in a simplifiedmore » model approach by adapting the search limits for top/bottom squarks in supersymmetry. Assuming a realistic decay branching fraction, a benchmark with a 750 GeV T-odd b' quark is proposed. In conclusion, we also comment on the possibility to fit excesses in different analyses in a common framework.« less

  19. Same-sign dilepton excesses and vector-like quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuan-Ren; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Low, Ian

    2016-03-15

    Multiple analyses from ATLAS and CMS collaborations, including searches for ttH production, supersymmetric particles and vector-like quarks, observed excesses in the same-sign dilepton channel containing b-jets and missing transverse energy in the LHC Run 1 data. In the context of little Higgs theories with T parity, we explain these excesses using vector-like T-odd quarks decaying into a top quark, a W boson and the lightest T-odd particle (LTP). For heavy vector-like quarks, decay topologies containing the LTP have not been searched for at the LHC. The bounds on the masses of the T-odd quarks can be estimated in a simplified model approach by adapting the search limits for top/bottom squarks in supersymmetry. Assuming a realistic decay branching fraction, a benchmark with a 750 GeV T-odd b' quark is proposed. In conclusion, we also comment on the possibility to fit excesses in different analyses in a common framework.

  20. Wigner Distributions of Quarks for Different Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Jai; Mukherjee, Asmita; Nair, Sreeraj

    2017-03-01

    We calculate quark Wigner distributions using the light-front wave functions in a dressed quark model. In this model, a proton target is replaced by a simplified spin-1/2 state, namely a quark dressed with a gluon. We calculate the Wigner distributions for different polarization configuration of quark and the target state in this model.

  1. Linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation in the quark-gluon plasma: Heavy quark evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Luo, Tan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-07-01

    A linearized Boltzmann transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of the D meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the Larege Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at √{sN N}=5.02 TeV is provided.

  2. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm-3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (˜ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  3. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; /Illinois U., Chicago

    2009-09-01

    The author reports on the observation of electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 Tev using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon, missing transverse energy, two, three or four jets, with one or two of them identified as originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, the measured cross section for the process p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb (for a top quark mass of 170 GeV). the probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup -7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance. Using the same dataset, the measured cross sections for the t- and the s-channel processes when determined simultaneously with no assumption on their relative production rate are 3.14{sub -0.80}{sup +0.94} pb and 1.05 {+-} 0.81 pb respectively, consistent with standard model expectations. The measured t-channel cross section has a significance of 4.8 standard deviations, representing the first evidence for the production of an individual single top process to be detected.

  4. Top quark physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio Sidoti

    2004-03-17

    After the successful Run I of the Tevatron (1992-1996),with the top quark discovery, both CDF and D0 experiments were extensively upgraded to meet the challenges of the Tevatron Run II collider. The energy of p{bar p} collisions at the Tevatron was increased from {radical}s = 1.8 TeV to {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. t{bar t} production cross section is expected to increase by a factor of {approx} 30%. Major upgrades in the Tevatron accelerator chain will increase the Run II instantaneous luminosity: the goal is to achieve L = 5 - 20 x 10{sup 31} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} while the highest luminosity reached up to now (September 2003) is 5.2 x 10{sup 31} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. In this paper we will present the top quark properties measured by both CDF and D0 with the first physics-quality data collected during the Run II (March 2002-January 2003). First we will review t{bar t} cross section measurements in the various decay channels; then top quark mass measurements will be presented.

  5. Observation of the s-channel and other studies of single top quarks at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Group, Robert Craig

    2014-01-01

    First observation of single-top-quark production in the s channel is reported. The result is based on the combination of the CDF and D0 measurements of the cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. A summary of other recent single-top-quark results are also included.

  6. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  7. Top quark physics

    SciTech Connect

    Menzione, A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the material presented in this report, comes from contributions to the parallel session PL20 of this conference. We summarise the experimental results of direct production of Top quarks, coming from the CDF and C0 Collaborations at Fermilab, and compare these results to what one expects within current theoretical understanding. Particular attention is given to new results such as all hadronic modes of t{bar t} decay. As far as the mass is concerned, a comparison is made with precision measurements of related quantities, coming from LEP and other experiments. An attempt is made to look at the medium-term future and understand which variables and with what accuracy one can measure them with increased integrated luminosity.

  8. Decays of the b quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndike, Edward H.; Poling, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental results on the decay of b-flavored hadrons are reviewed. Substantial progress has been made in the study of exclusive and inclusive B-meson decays, as well as in the theoretical understanding of these processes. The two most prominent developments are the continuing failure to observe evidence of decays of the b quark to a u quark rather than a c quark, and the surprisingly high level of B 0- overlineB0 mi xing which has recently been reported by the ARGUS collaboration. Notwithstanding these results, we conclude that the health of the Standard Model is excellent.

  9. {phi} meson production in pp annihilation at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Srisuphaphon, S.; Yan, Y.; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2011-10-01

    Apparent channel-dependent violations of the Okubo-Zwieg-Iizuka (OZI) rule in nucleon-antinucleon annihilation reactions in the presence of an intrinsic strangeness component in the nucleon are discussed. Admixture of ss quark pairs in the nucleon wave function enables the direct coupling to the {phi}-meson in the annihilation channel without violating the OZI rule. Three forms are considered in this work for the strangeness content of the proton wave function, namely, the uud cluster with a ss sea-quark component, kaon-hyperon clusters based on a simple chiral quark model, and the pentaquark picture uudss. Nonrelativistic quark model calculations reveal that the strangeness magnetic moment {mu}{sub s} and the strangeness contribution to the proton spin {sigma}{sub s} from the first two models are consistent with recent experimental data, where {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s} are negative. For the third model, the uuds subsystem with the configurations [31]{sub FS}[211]{sub F}[22]{sub S} and [31]{sub FS}[31]{sub F}[22]{sub S} leads to negative values of {mu}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub s}. With effective quark line diagrams incorporating the {sup 3}P{sub 0} model, we give estimates for the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest pp{yields}{phi}X (X={pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, {rho}{sup 0}, {omega}). Results for the branching ratios of {phi}X production from atomic pp s-wave states are for the first and third model found to be strongly channel dependent, in good agreement with measured rates.

  10. A study on Quark-Gluon plasma equation of state using thermal quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Somorendro Singh, S.

    2017-03-01

    We study the QGP equation of state (EoS) using a simple statistical model. In this, temperature dependent quark mass is used with the inclusion of curvature term. The EoS such as pressure, energy density, entropy and speed of sound at zero chemical potential are evaluated. The model results provide QGP EoS which are in good agreement with our earlier work and the lattice QCD data.

  11. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in Missing Transverse Energy and $b$-quark Final States Using Proton-Antiproton Collisions at 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dorland, Tyler McMillan

    2011-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in 6.4 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the DØ detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The final state considered is a pair of jets originating from b quarks and missing transverse energy, as expected from p$\\bar{p}$ → ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ production. The search is also sensitive to the WH → ℓvb$\\bar{b}$ channel, where the charged lepton is not identified. Boosted decision trees are used to discriminate signal from background. Good agreement is observed between data and expected backgrounds, and a limit is set at 95% C.L. on the section multiplied by branching fraction of (p$\\bar{p}$ → (Z/W)H) x (H → b$\\bar{b}$). For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, the observed limit is a factor of 3.5 larger than the value expected from the standard model.

  12. Off-forward quark-quark correlation function

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, Sabrina

    2006-09-01

    The properties of the nonforward quark-quark correlation function are examined. We derive constraints on the correlation function from the transformation properties of the fundamental fields of QCD occurring in its definition. We further develop a method to construct an Ansatz for this correlator. We present the complete leading order set of generalized parton distributions in terms of the amplitudes of the Ansatz. Finally we conclude that the number of independent generalized parton helicity changing distributions is four.

  13. Hadron formation from interaction among quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z. G.; Yang, C. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with the hadronization process of quark system. A phenomenological potential is introduced to describe the interaction between a quark pair. The potential depends on the color charge of those quarks and their relative distances. Those quarks move according to classical equations of motion. Due to the color interaction, coloring quarks are separated to form color neutral clusters which are supposed to be the hadrons.

  14. Rotating compact star with superconducting quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.K.; Nataraj, H.S.

    2006-02-15

    A compact star with a superconducting quark core, a hadron crust, and a mixed phase between the two is considered. The quark-meson coupling model for hadron matter and the color-flavor-locked quark model for quark matter is used to construct the equation of state for the compact star. The effect of pairing of quarks in the color-flavor-locked phase and the mixed phase on the mass, radius, and period of the rotating star is studied.

  15. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  16. Measurement of the helicity fractions of W bosons from top quark decays using fully reconstructed t anti-t events with CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-12-01

    The authors present a measurement of the fractions F{sub 0} and F{sub +} of longitudinally polarized and right-handed W bosons in top quark decays using data collected with the CDF II detector. The data set used in the analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of approximately 318 pb{sup -1}. They select t{bar t} candidate events with one lepton, at least four jets, and missing transverse energy. The helicity measurement uses the decay angle {theta}*, which is defined as the angle between the momentum of the charged lepton in the W boson rest frame and the W momentum in the top quark rest frame. The cos {theta}* distribution in the data is determined by full kinematic reconstruction of the t{bar t} candidates. They find F{sub 0} = 0.85{sub -0.22}{sup +0.15}(stat){+-}0.06(syst) and F{sub +} = 0.05{sub -0.05}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst), which is consistent with the standard model prediction. They set an upper limit on the fraction of right-handed W bosons of F{sub +} < 0.26 at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Formation of quark phases in compact stars and SN explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Drago, A.; Pagliara, G.; Pagliaroli, G.; Villante, F. L.; Vissani, F.

    2008-10-13

    We describe possible scenarios of quark deconfinement in compact stars and we analyze their astrophysical implications. The quark deconfinement process can proceed rapidly, as a strong deflagration, releasing a huge amount of energy in a short time and generating an extra neutrino burst. If energy is tranferred efficiently to the surface, like e.g. in the presence of convective instabilities, this burst could contribute to revitalize a partially failed SN explosion. We discuss how the neutrino observations from SN1987A would fit in this scenario. Finally, we focus on the fate of massive and rapidly rotating progenitors, discussing possible time separations between the moment of the core collapse and the moment of quark deconfinement. This mechanism can be at the basis of the interpretation of gamma ray bursts in which lines associated with heavy elements are present in the spectrum.

  18. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T

    2010-12-03

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) <7.6 GeV and a two-sided 68% CL interval of 0.3 GeV <Γ(t) <4.4  GeV for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  19. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  20. Unexpected manifestation of quark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-05-15

    A comparative analysis of some quark ensembles governed by a four-fermion interaction is performed. Arguments in support of the statement that the presence of a gas-liquid phase transition is a feature peculiar to them are adduced. The instability of small quark droplets is discussed and is attributed to the formation of a chiral soliton. The stability of baryon matter is due to a mixed phase of the vacuum and baryon matter.

  1. Precise measurement of the top-quark mass from lepton + jets events.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-10-31

    We measure the mass of the top quark using top-quark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets channel from data corresponding to 1 fb;{-1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We use a likelihood technique that reduces the jet energy scale uncertainty by combining an in situ jet energy calibration with the independent constraint on the jet energy scale (JES) from the calibration derived using photon+jets and dijet samples. We find the mass of the top quark to be 171.5+/-1.8(stat.+JES)+/-1.1(syst.) GeV.

  2. Radial Correlations Between Two Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Koponen, J.; Pennanen, P.; Michael, C.

    2002-04-01

    In nuclear many-body problems the short-range correlation between two nucleons is well described by the corresponding correlation in the two-body problem. Therefore, as a first step in any attempt at an analogous description of many-quark systems, it is necessary to know the two-quark correlation. With this in mind, we study the light quark distribution in a heavy-light meson with a static heavy quark. The charge and matter radial distributions of these heavy-light mesons are measured on a lattice with a light quark mass about that of the strange quark. Both distributions can be well fitted upto r ≈ 0.7 fm with the exponential form wi2 (r), where Wi(r) = A exp(-r/ri). For the charge(c) and matter(m) distributions rc ≈ 0.32(2)fm and rm ≈ 0.24(2)fm. We also discuss the normalisation of the total charge (defined to be unity in the continuum limit) and matter integrated over all space, finding 1.30(5) and 0.4(1) respectively for a lattice spacing ≈ 0.17 fm.

  3. Properties of the top quark

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, A. W.

    2014-09-24

    Recent measurements of top-quark properties at the LHC and the Tevatron are presented. Most recent measurements of the top quark mass have been carried out by CMS using $19.7/$fb of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data including the study of the dependence on event kinematics. ATLAS uses the full Run I data at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for a "3D" measurement that significantly reduces systematic uncertainties. D0 employs the full Run II data using the matrix element method to measure the top quark mass with significantly reduced systematic uncertainties. Many different measurements of the top quark exist to date and the most precise ones per decay channel per experiment have been combined into the first world combination with a relative precision of 0.44%. Latest updates of measurements of production asymmetries include the measurement of the \\ttbar production asymmetry by D0 employing the full Run II data set, by CMS and ATLAS (including the polarization of the top quark) employing both the full data set at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. CMS uses the full $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV data to measure the top quark polarization in single top production, the ratio ${\\cal R}$ of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wb) / {\\cal B}(t \\rightarrow Wq)$ and to search for flavor changing neutral currents. The results from all these measurements agree well with their respective Standard Model expectation.

  4. Photon initiated single top quark production via flavor-changing neutral currents at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldouzian, Reza; Clerbaux, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Single top quark production is a powerful process to search for new physics signs. In this work we propose and investigate a search for top quark flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) via a photon using direct single top quark production events in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at CERN. We show that the direct single top quark final state can provide constraints on the strengths of top-quark-γ and top-quark-gluon FCNC couplings simultaneously. Results of a search for direct single top quark production at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV performed by the ATLAS Collaboration are used to set first experimental limits on the anomalous FCNC top decay branching fractions B (t →u γ )<0.05 % and B (t →c γ )<0.14 % via direct single top quark production. Finally, the sensitivity of the proposed channel for probing the top-quark-γ couplings at 13 TeV is presented.

  5. Measurement of b-quark Jet Shapes at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Alison

    2006-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the measurement of b-quark jet shapes at CDF. CDF is an experiment located at Fermilab, in the United States, which studies proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96TeV. To reach this energy, the particles are accelerated using the Tevatron accelerator which is currently the highest energy collider in operation. The data used for this analysis were taken between February 2002 and September 2004 and represent an integrated luminosity of about 300 pb-1. This is the first time that b-quark jet shapes have been measured at hadron colliders. The basis of this measurement lies in the possibility of enhancing the b-quark jet content of jet samples by requiring the jets to be identified as having a displaced vertex inside the jet cone. Such jets are called tagged. This enhances the b-quark jet fraction from about 5% before tagging to 20-40% after tagging, depending on the transverse momentum of the jets. I verified that it is possible to apply this secondary vertex tagging algorithm to different cone jet algorithms (MidPoint and JetClu) and different cone sizes (0.4 and 0.7). I found that the performance of the algorithm does not change significantly, as long as the sub-cone inside which tracks are considered for the tagging is kept at the default value of 0.4. Because the b-quark purity of the jets is still relatively low, it is necessary to extract the shapes of b-quark jets in a statistical manner from the jet shapes both before and after tagging. The other parameters that enter into the unfolding equation used to extract the b-quark jet shapes are the b-jet purities, the biases due to the tagging requirement both for b- and nonbjets and the hadron level corrections. The last of these terms corrects the measured b-jet shapes back to the shapes expected at hadron level which makes comparisons with theoretical models and other experimental results possible. This measurement shows that, despite relatively

  6. Nuclear equation of state in a relativistic independent quark model with chiral symmetry and dependence on quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R. N.; Mohanty, D. K.; Panda, P. K.; Frederico, T.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the properties of nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner with a quark-meson coupling mechanism incorporating the structure of nucleons in vacuum through a relativistic potential model; where the dominant confining interaction for the free independent quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically average potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. Corrections due to spurious center of mass motion as well as those due to other residual interactions, such as the one gluon exchange at short distances and quark-pion coupling arising out of chiral symmetry restoration, have been considered in a perturbative manner to obtain the nucleon mass in vacuum. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ and ω mesons through mean field approximations. The relevant parameters of the interaction are obtained self-consistently while realizing the saturation properties such as the binding energy, pressure, and compressibility of the nuclear matter. We also discuss some implications of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter along with the nucleon and nuclear σ term and the sensitivity of nuclear matter binding energy with variations in the light quark mass.

  7. Top Quark Spin Correlations at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Head, Tim; /Manchester U.

    2010-07-01

    Recent measurements of the correlation between the spin of the top and the spin of the anti-top quark produced in proton anti-proton scattering at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 Tev by the CDF and D0 collaborations are discussed. using up to 4.3 fb{sup -1} of data taken with the CDF and D0 detectors the spin correlation parameter C, the degree to which the spins are correlated, is measured in dileptonic and semileptonic final states. The measurements are found to be in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  8. Top quark mass measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    We present recent measurements of the mass of the top quark performed at the Tevatron $p\\bar{p}$ collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. These measurements use the full Run II data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 9.3 fb$^{-1}$. We also report the first world combination of the measurements from the Large Hadron Collider and Tevatron experiments resulting in a top mass of 173.34 {\\pm} 0.76 GeV with a relative precision of 0.44\\%.

  9. Rest tremor suppression may separate essential from parkinsonian rest tremor.

    PubMed

    Papengut, Frank; Raethjen, Jan; Binder, Andreas; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-07-01

    Rest tremor at 4-6 Hz is typical for classical rest tremor (PT) of Parkinson's disease (PD). But rest tremor also appears in other tremor syndromes and may therefore cause a misdiagnosis. In this study we evaluated if suppression of tremor during movement onset is a characteristic feature of Parkinsonian Tremor distinguishing PT from Essential tremor (ET) and if this sign can be reliably diagnosed. Clinically diagnosed patients with PT (n = 44) and ET (n = 22) with rest tremor were included. Video sequences were recorded according to a standardized protocol focusing on the change of tremor amplitude during transition from rest to posture (test 1) or to a target-directed movement (test 2). These videos were assessed for rest tremor suppression by 4 reviewers (2 specialists and 2 residents) blinded to the clinical diagnosis and were compared to the personal assessment of an unblinded movement disorder specialist. Rest tremor suppression was found in 39/44 PD patients and in 2/22 patients with ET during the personal assessment. Rest tremor suppression showed a high sensitivity (0.92-1.00) and an acceptable specificity (0.69-0.95) for PD tremor in both tests. The interrater-reliability of the video-sequences was good to very good (κ 0.73-0.91). Less than 3% of the video sequences were misclassified. We conclude that the assessment of the suppression of rest tremor during movement initiation is a simple and reliable tool to separate PT from rest tremor in ET also suggesting that the mechanisms of rest tremor in these two diseases are different.

  10. Quark models of dibaryon resonances in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, J. L.; Huang, H. X.; Pang, H. R.; Wang Fan; Wong, C. W.

    2009-02-15

    We look for {delta}{delta} and N{delta} resonances by calculating NN scattering phase shifts of two interacting baryon clusters of quarks with explicit coupling to these dibaryon channels. Two phenomenological nonrelativistic chiral quark models giving similar low-energy NN properties are found to give significantly different dibaryon resonance structures. In the chiral quark model (ChQM), the dibaryon system does not resonate in the NNS waves, in agreement with the experimental SP07 NN partial-wave scattering amplitudes. In the quark delocalization and color screening model (QDCSM), the S-wave NN resonances disappear when the nucleon size b falls below 0.53 fm. Both quark models give an IJ{sup P}=03{sup +}{delta}{delta} resonance. At b=0.52 fm, the value favored by the baryon spectrum, the resonance mass is 2390 (2420) MeV for the ChQM with quadratic (linear) confinement, and 2360 MeV for the QDCSM. Accessible from the {sup 3}D{sub 3}{sup NN} channel, this resonance is a promising candidate for the known isoscalar ABC structure seen more clearly in the pn{yields}d{pi}{pi} production cross section at 2410 MeV in the recent preliminary data reported by the CELSIUS-WASA Collaboration. In the isovector dibaryon sector, our quark models give a bound or almost bound {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup {delta}}{sup {delta}} state that can give rise to a {sup 1}D{sub 2}{sup NN} resonance. None of the quark models used have bound N{delta}P states that might generate odd-parity resonances.

  11. Static quark-antiquark potential in the quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2015-02-27

    We present a state-of-the-art determination of the complex valued static quark-antiquark potential at phenomenologically relevant temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. Its values are obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD simulations using spectral functions extracted via a novel Bayesian inference prescription. We find that the real part, both in a gluonic medium, as well as in realistic QCD with light u, d, and s quarks, lies close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge and shows Debye screening above the (pseudo)critical temperature T_{c}. The imaginary part is estimated in the gluonic medium, where we find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop resummed perturbation theory in the deconfined phase.

  12. Ultrasoft Quark Damping in High-T QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Abdessamad; Daira-Aifa, Nacera; Bouakaz, Karima

    2007-02-27

    We determine the ultrasoft quark damping rates in the context of next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop summed perturbation of high-temperature QCD. Three types of divergences are encountered: infrared, light-cone and at specific points determined by the gluon energies. The infrared divergence persists and is logarithmic whereas the two others are circumvented.

  13. Wormhole geometries supported by quark matter at ultra-high densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental ingredient in wormhole physics is the presence of exotic matter, which involves the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). In this context, we investigate the possibility that wormholes could be supported by quark matter at extreme densities. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the structure of baryons show that strange quark matter, consisting of the u, d and s quarks, is the most energetically favorable state of baryonic matter. Moreover, at ultra-high densities, quark matter may exist in a variety of superconducting states, namely, the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase. Motivated by these theoretical models, we explore the conditions under which wormhole geometries may be supported by the equations of state (EOS) considered in the theoretical investigations of quark-gluon interactions. For the description of the normal quark matter, we adopt the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model EOS, while the color superconducting quark phases are described by a first-order approximation of the free energy. By assuming specific forms for the bag and gap functions, several wormhole models are obtained for both normal and superconducting quark matter. The effects of the presence of an electrical charge are also taken into account.

  14. Prospects for collider searches for dark matter with heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Artoni, Giacomo; Lin, Tongyan; Penning, Bjoern; Sciolla, Gabriella; Venturini, Alessio

    2013-08-05

    We present projections for future collider searches for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks. Such production channels give rise to final states with missing transverse energy and one or more b-jets. Limits are given assuming an effective scalar operator coupling dark matter to quarks, where the dedicated analysis discussed here improves significantly over a generic monojet analysis. We give updated results for an anticipated high-luminosity LHC run at 14 TeV and for a 33 TeV hadron collider.

  15. Dynamics of Quarks in a 2D Flux Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelkin, Andrey V.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a compactification of the (3+1) into (1+1) dimensional space-time [1], the quark states inside the 2D flux tube are studied for the case of a linear transverse confining potential. The derived states are classified by both the projections of the orbital momentum and the spin along the tube direction. The spectrum of the fermion states is evaluated. It is found that the energy eigenvalues of the quarks appear to be approximately related to the square root of the eigenvalues of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.

  16. Decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ and quark masses $m_b$ and $m_c$ from HISQ simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Komijani, J.; et al.

    2016-11-22

    We present a progress report on our calculation of the decay constants $f_B$ and $f_{B_s}$ from lattice-QCD simulations with highly-improved staggered quarks. Simulations are carried out with several heavy valence-quark masses on $(2+1+1)$-flavor ensembles that include charm sea quarks. We include data at six lattice spacings and several light sea-quark masses, including an approximately physical-mass ensemble at all but the smallest lattice spacing, 0.03 fm. This range of parameters provides excellent control of the continuum extrapolation to zero lattice spacing and of heavy-quark discretization errors. Finally, using the heavy-quark effective theory expansion we present a method of extracting from the same correlation functions the charm- and bottom-quark masses as well as some low-energy constants appearing in the heavy-quark expansion.

  17. Small-x Asymptotics of the Quark Helicity Distribution.

    PubMed

    Kovchegov, Yuri V; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D

    2017-02-03

    We construct a numerical solution of the small-x evolution equations derived in our recent work [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 072.JHEPFG1029-847910.1007/JHEP01(2016)072] for the (anti)quark transverse momentum dependent helicity TMDs and parton distribution functions (PDFs) as well as the g_{1} structure function. We focus on the case of large N_{c}, where one finds a closed set of equations. Employing the extracted intercept, we are able to predict directly from theory the behavior of the quark helicity PDFs at small x, which should have important phenomenological consequences. We also give an estimate of how much of the proton's spin carried by the quarks may be at small x and what impact this has on the spin puzzle.

  18. Measurements of the Top Quark at the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrito, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    The authors present recent preliminary measurements of the top-antitop pair production cross section and determinations of the top quark pole mass, performed using the data collected by the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Tevatron Collider. In the lepton plus jets final state, with semileptonic B decay, the pair production cross section has now been measured at CDF using {approx} 760 pb{sup -1} of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. A measurement of the production cross section has also been made with {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of data in the all-jets final state by the CDF Collaboration. The mass of the top quark has now been measured using {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of collision data using all decay channels of the top quark pair, yielding the most precise measurements of the top mass to date.

  19. Structure of pentaquarks Pc+ in the chiral quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Ping, Jialun; Wang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The recent experimental results of the LHCb Collaboration suggested the existence of pentaquark states with a charmonium. To understand the structure of the states, a dynamical calculation of 5-quark systems with quantum numbers I JP=1/2 (1/2 )±,1/2 (3/2 )±and1/2 (5/2 )±is performed in the framework of the chiral quark model with the help of the Gaussian expansion method. The results show that there are several negative parity resonance states while all of the positive parity states are the scattering states. The Pc(4380 ) state is suggested to be the pentaquark state of Σc*D ¯. Although the energy of ΣcD ¯* is very close to the mass of Pc(4450 ), the inconsistent parity prevents the assignment. The calculated distances between quarks confirm the molecular nature of the states.

  20. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorcé, Cédric; Pasquini, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  1. Top Quark Properties Measurements with the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Quijada, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Results on recent measurements of top quark properties with the ATLAS experiment at the European Laboratory, CERN, are shown. The measurements are performed using the full data set recorded during the LHC Run-I. The full data set consists of a collected integrated luminosities ∫Tdt of 4.6 fb-1 recorded at a proton-proton collision energy of √s = 7 TeV and 20.3 fb-1 collected at 8 TeV. The mentioned top quark properties include: spin correlation, charge asymmetry, W-boson polarization, color flow, top mass and top width in events with a top and anti-top quark pair (tt). An introduction to the LHC and the ATLAS detector is included and latest main results from this experiment. The contents include the current world benchmark results for the different properties and plans for future measurements during the ongoing LHC Run-II.

  2. Quark mass variation constraints from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, P; Luu, T; Platter, L

    2010-12-13

    We study the impact on the primordial abundances of light elements created of a variation of the quark masses at the time of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In order to navigate through the particle and nuclear physics required to connect quark masses to binding energies and reaction rates in a model-independent way we use lattice QCD data and an hierarchy of effective field theories. We find that the measured {sup 4}He abundances put a bound of {delta}-1% {approx}< m{sub q}/m{sub 1} {approx}< 0.7%. The effect of quark mass variations on the deuterium abundances can be largely compensated by changes of the baryon-to-photon ratio {eta}. Including the bounds on the variation of {eta} coming from WMAP results and some additional assumptions narrows the range of allowed values of {delta}m{sub q}/m{sub q} somewhat.

  3. Small-x Asymptotics of the Quark Helicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2017-02-01

    We construct a numerical solution of the small-x evolution equations derived in our recent work [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 072., 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)072] for the (anti)quark transverse momentum dependent helicity TMDs and parton distribution functions (PDFs) as well as the g1 structure function. We focus on the case of large Nc, where one finds a closed set of equations. Employing the extracted intercept, we are able to predict directly from theory the behavior of the quark helicity PDFs at small x , which should have important phenomenological consequences. We also give an estimate of how much of the proton's spin carried by the quarks may be at small x and what impact this has on the spin puzzle.

  4. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  5. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  6. Resting energy expenditure; assessment methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Blasco Redondo, Raquel

    2015-02-26

    El gasto energético total diario de un individuo (GETD) representa la energía que el organismo consume. Está constituido por la suma de: tasa metabólica basal (TMB), termogénesis endógena (TE) y gasto energético ligado a la actividad física (GEAF). La determinación del GETD considerando la actividad física y el estado de salud de una persona, es muy importante para ajustar el cálculo de la necesidad nutricional para cada individuo. La TMB es la mínima cantidad de energía que un organismo requiere para estar vivo. Constituye del 60 al 70% del GETD en la mayoría de los adultos sedentarios, en tanto, en los individuos físicamente muy activos es de aproximadamente el 50%. Varía dependiendo de la composición corporal, especialmente de la masa corporal magra. El metabolismo basal expresado como TMB, es diferente a la tasa metabólica en reposo (TMR) o Gasto Energético en Reposo (GER); este último se obtiene cuando la determinación se hace en reposo y en las condiciones descritas para la TMB pero no en ayuno, incluyendo por tanto la energía utilizada para el aprovechamiento biológico de los alimentos. Habitualmente, el GER se determina por medio de diferentes técnicas como la calorimetría indirecta, la bioimpedancia eléctrica, el agua doblemente marcada, las ecuaciones predictivas, entre otras. Estos métodos son utilizados en la práctica clínica y en estudios científicos. Sin embargo, debido a la inconsistencia de los resultados de estas investigaciones, todavía no hay un consenso respecto a su aplicabilidad aunque la evidencia señala que la medición del consumo de oxígeno, es el método de mayor precisión. Objetivos: Esta revisión tiene como objetivo exponer los componentes del gasto energético en reposo, así como las técnicas para su determinación y estimación, señalando sus ventajas, limitaciones y aplicaciones prácticas. Resultados: Parte de las técnicas de evaluación del gasto energético descritas en esta revisión, quedan relegadas, por su complejidad y coste al ámbito de la investigación. Durante mucho tiempo la calorimetría indirecta, quedó también restringida a este campo. Sin embargo, los avances tecnológicos han permitido el desarrollo de equipos precisos ligeros y asequibles que permiten que en la actualidad sea un método muy útil en el espacio clínico de la determinación del GER.

  7. A top quark mass measurement using a matrix element method

    SciTech Connect

    Linacre, Jacob Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the mass of the top quark is presented, using top-antitop pair (t$\\bar{t}$) candidate events for the lepton+jets decay channel. The measurement makes use of Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collision data at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV, collected at the CDF detector. The top quark mass is measured by employing an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal (t$\\bar{t}$) and background (W+jets) matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterised jet-to-parton mapping functions. The likelihood function is maximised with respect to the top quark mass, the fraction of signal events, and a correction to the jet energy scale (JES) of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction (ΔJES) provides an in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using 578 lepton+jets candidate events corresponding to 3.2 fb -1 of integrated luminosity, the top quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4± 1.4 (stat+ΔJES) ±1.3 (syst) GeV=c2, one of the most precise single measurements to date.

  8. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Top quark pair production in proton anti-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Blekman, Freya

    2005-04-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ cross section in the all-jets channel, measured in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using data collected with the D0 detector. The dataset used for this analysis has an integrated luminosity equivalent to L = 162.5 ± 10.6 pb-1. A t$\\bar{t}$ cross section measurement is a test of the Standard Model predictions for heavy quark production, and the first step towards measurements of the mass and other properties of the top quark. The presented measurement of the cross section for the process p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ uses the decay channel where both top quarks decay to quarks. The top quark first decays to a b quark and a W boson, and then, for this particular channel, the W boson decays hadronically. Hence, events with six energetic quarks are expected, which ideally leads to events with six jets. These so called all-jets events have a significantly larger branching fraction than other t$\\bar{t}$ decay channels. The large branching fraction in the all-jets channel means that a significant sample of t$\\bar{t}$ candidates can be extracted, which can subsequently be used for studies of top quark properties, like the top mass. The background, multijet production through Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) has a cross section three to four orders of magnitude larger than expected for t$\\bar{t}$ production. The analysis presented in this thesis uses the decay vertices of long-lived b-flavored mesons to identify the b jets. With the silicon detector installed at the start of Run 2 of the Tevatron, the D0 experiment is now able to use this method for b identification. The presence of b quarks in the event makes it possible to reduce the background to a few percent of the original sample, while only rejecting around 45% of the t$\\bar{t}$ content in the sample.

  10. Using the Moon As A Low-Noise Seismic Detector For Strange Quark Nuggets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Chui, Talso; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Herrin, Eugene T.; Nakamura, Yosio; Paik, Ho Jung; Penanen, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Doris; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Young, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Strange quark matter made of up, down and strange quarks has been postulated by Witten [1]. Strange quark matter would be nearly charge neutral and would have density of nuclear matter (10(exp 14) gm/cu cm). Witten also suggested that nuggets of strange quark matter, or strange quark nuggets (SQNs), could have formed shortly after the Big Bang, and that they would be viable candidates for cold dark matter. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [2], an SQN may pass through a celestial body releasing detectable seismic energy along a straight line. The Moon, being much quieter seismically than the Earth, would be a favorable place to search for such events. We review previous searches for SQNs to illustrate the parameter space explored by using the Moon as a low-noise detector of SQNs. We also discuss possible detection schemes using a single seismometer, and using an International Lunar Seismic Network.

  11. Determination of the temperature dependence of the up- and down-quark masses in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C. A.; Hernandez, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the sum of the QCD up- and down-quark masses, (mu+md) and the pion decay constant, fπ, are determined from two thermal finite energy QCD sum rules for the pseudoscalar-current correlator. This quark mass remains mostly constant for temperatures well below the critical temperature for deconfinement/chiral-symmetry restoration. As this critical temperature is approached, the quark mass increases sharply with increasing temperature. This increase is far more pronounced if the temperature dependence of the pion mass (determined independently from other methods) is taken into account. The behavior of fπ(T) is consistent with the expectation from chiral symmetry, i.e. that it should follow the thermal dependence of the quark condensate, independently of the quark mass.

  12. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  13. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  14. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, G. ); Kim, C.S. )

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  15. Separation of quark and gluon jets in high-p/sub T/ events

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestrand, T.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest a procedure, based on the kinematics of qg-scattering in high-p/sub T/ events, whereby it is possible to obtain enriched samples of quark and gluon jets. At SppS energies this could be used to indicate whether quark and gluon jet fragmentation agree or not. At higher energies the application would rather be to study the differences in the parton cascades, i.e. jet substructure.

  16. Heavy-quark transport coefficients in a hot viscous quark-gluon plasma medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santosh K.; Chandra, Vinod; Alam, Jan-e.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy-quark (HQ) transport coefficients have been estimated for a viscous quark-gluon plasma (QGP) medium, utilizing a recently proposed quasi-particle description based on a realistic QGP equation of state (EoS). Interactions entering through the EoS significantly suppress the temperature dependence of the drag coefficient of QGP, compared to those of an ideal relativistic system of quarks and gluons. The inclusion of shear and bulk viscosities through the corrections to the thermal phase space factors of the bath particles alters the magnitude of the drag coefficient; the enhancement is significant at lower temperatures. In the competition between the effects of the EoS and dissipative corrections through phase space factors, the former eventually dictate how the drag coefficient would behave as a function of temperature and how much it quantitatively digresses from the ideal case. The observations suggest a significant impact of both the realistic EoS and the viscosities on the HQs transport at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider collision energies.

  17. Equilibration in quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.; Alam, J.; Mohanty, P.

    2011-07-01

    The hydrodynamic expansion rate of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is evaluated and compared with the scattering rate of quarks and gluons within the system. Partonic scattering rates evaluated within the ambit of perturbative Quantum Choromodynamics (pQCD) are found to be smaller than the expansion rate evaluated with ideal equation of state (EoS) for the QGP. This indicate that during the space-time evolution the system remains out of equilibrium. Enhancement of pQCD cross sections and a more realistic EoS keep the partons closer to the equilibrium.

  18. NLO evolution of 3-quark Wilson loop operator

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, I.; Grabovsky, A. V.

    2015-01-07

    It is well known that high-energy scattering of a meson from some hadronic target can be described by the interaction of that target with a color dipole formed by two Wilson lines corresponding to fast quark-antiquark pair. Moreover, the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude is governed by the evolution equation of this color dipole with respect to rapidity. Similarly, the energy dependence of scattering of a baryon can be described in terms of evolution of a three-Wilson-lines operator with respect to the rapidity of the Wilson lines. We calculate the evolution of the 3-quark Wilson loop operator in the next-to-leading order (NLO) and present a quasi-conformal evolution equation for a composite 3-Wilson-lines operator. Thus we also obtain the linearized version of that evolution equation describing the amplitude of the odderon exchange at high energies.

  19. NLO evolution of 3-quark Wilson loop operator

    DOE PAGES

    Balitsky, I.; Grabovsky, A. V.

    2015-01-07

    It is well known that high-energy scattering of a meson from some hadronic target can be described by the interaction of that target with a color dipole formed by two Wilson lines corresponding to fast quark-antiquark pair. Moreover, the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude is governed by the evolution equation of this color dipole with respect to rapidity. Similarly, the energy dependence of scattering of a baryon can be described in terms of evolution of a three-Wilson-lines operator with respect to the rapidity of the Wilson lines. We calculate the evolution of the 3-quark Wilson loop operator in themore » next-to-leading order (NLO) and present a quasi-conformal evolution equation for a composite 3-Wilson-lines operator. Thus we also obtain the linearized version of that evolution equation describing the amplitude of the odderon exchange at high energies.« less

  20. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  1. The QCD equation of state with charm quarks from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Michael

    Recently, there have been several calculations of the QCD equation of state (EoS) on the lattice. These calculations take into account the two light quarks and the strange quark, but have ignored the effects of the charm quark, assuming that the charm mass (mc ≈ 1300 MeV) is exponentially suppressed at the temperatures which are explored. However, future heavy ion collisions, such as those planned at the LHC, may well probe temperature regimes where the charm quarks play an important role in the dynamics of the QGP. We present a calculation of the charm quark contribution to the QCD EoS using p4-improved staggered fermions at Nt = 4, 6, 8. This calculation is done with a quenched charm quark, i.e. the relevant operators are measured using a valence charm quark mass on a 2+1 flavor gauge field background. The charm quark masses are determined by calculating charmonium masses (metac and mJ/Psi) and fixing these mesons to their physical masses. The interaction measure, pressure, energy density, and entropy density are calculated. We find that the charm contribution makes a significant contribution, even down to temperatures as low as the pseudo-critical temperature, Tc. However, there are significant scaling corrections at the lattice spacings that we use, preventing a reliable continuum extrapolation.

  2. Measurements of top quark properties in top pair production and decay at the LHC using the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jindariani, Sergo

    2016-05-31

    Measurements are presented of the properties of top quarks in pair production and decay from proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The top quark-antiquark charge asymmetry is measured using the difference of the absolute rapidities of the reconstructed top and anti-top kinematics, as well as from distributions of the top quark decay products. The measurements are performed in the decay channels of the tt¯ pair into both one and two leptons in the final state. The polarization of top quarks and top pair spin correlations are measured from the angular distributions of top quark decay products. The W-boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. The flavor content in top-quark pair events is measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W-boson and a b -quark relative to all top quark decays, R=B(t→Wb)/B(t→Wq) , and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element Vtb as well as the width of the top quark resonance. Finally, all of the results are found to be in good agreement with standard model predictions.

  3. Measurements of top quark properties in top pair production and decay at the LHC using the CMS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Jindariani, Sergo

    2016-05-31

    Measurements are presented of the properties of top quarks in pair production and decay from proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The data were collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The top quark-antiquark charge asymmetry is measured using the difference of the absolute rapidities of the reconstructed top and anti-top kinematics, as well as from distributions of the top quark decay products. The measurements are performed in the decay channels of the tt¯ pair into both one and two leptons in the final state. The polarization of topmore » quarks and top pair spin correlations are measured from the angular distributions of top quark decay products. The W-boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. The flavor content in top-quark pair events is measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W-boson and a b -quark relative to all top quark decays, R=B(t→Wb)/B(t→Wq) , and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element Vtb as well as the width of the top quark resonance. Finally, all of the results are found to be in good agreement with standard model predictions.« less

  4. Measurement of top quark pair production cross section in proton antiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1.96TeV in the tau+ jets final state using 1fb-1 of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Sohrab

    This dissertation presents a new measurement of pp¯ → tt¯X production at s = 1.96 TeV using 974.2 pb-1 of data collected with the DO detector between 2002 and 2006. We focus on the final state where the W boson from one of the top quarks decays into a tau lepton and its associated neutrino, while the other W boson decays into a quark-antiquark pair. We aim to select those events in which the tau lepton subsequently decays hadronically, meaning to one or three charged hadrons, zero or more neutral hadrons and a tau neutrino (the charge conjugate processes are implied in all of the above). The observable signature thus consists of a narrow calorimeter shower with associated track(s) characteristic of a hadronic tau decay, four or more jets, of which two are initiated by b quarks accompanying the W's in the top quark decays, and a large net missing momentum in the transverse plane due to the energetic neutrino-antineutrino pair that leave no trace in the detector media. The preliminary result for the measured cross section is: stt= 6.9+1.2-1.2 stat +0.8-0.7 syst +/-0.4lumi pb. This indicates that our finding is consistent with the Standard Model prediction.

  5. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  6. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  7. Comparing the drag force on heavy quarks in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2007-12-15

    Computations of the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a thermal state of strongly coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory have appeared recently. I compare the strength of this effect between N=4 gauge theory and QCD, using the static force between external quarks to normalize the 't Hooft coupling. Comparing N=4 and QCD at fixed energy density then leads to a relaxation time of roughly 2 fm/c for charm quarks moving through a quark-gluon plasma at T=250 MeV. This estimate should be regarded as preliminary because of the difficulties of comparing two such different theories.

  8. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  9. The Chiral Quark Soliton Model for the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, T.; Toki, H.

    1992-03-01

    We study the chiral invariant quark model lagrangians under the Hartree approximation for construction of a hedgehog solution with the baryon number B = 1. We take into account the Dirac sea contributions to the energy and various densities in terms of the heat-kernel method. With the parameters of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model lagrangian fixed by the meson properties, we do not find any B = 1 hedgehog solutions except for one case, even which is, however, unstable against small perturbation. We study then the Diakonov-Petrov model lagrangian, which is introduced by investigating the properties of the quark field in the instanton background in QCD. We find in this case stable hedgehog solutions under the heat-kernel regularization method in some parameter region. We study also the isoscalar-vector type (omega-meson type) correlations among quarks for the nucleon properties. The hedgehog energy, the baryon root mean square radius and the axial vector coupling constant g_{A} are calculated as a function of the omega-quark coupling strength.

  10. Multiplicity difference between heavy- and light-quark jets revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokshitzer, Yu L.; Fabbri, F.; Khoze, V. A.; Ochs, W.

    2006-02-01

    The perturbative QCD approach to multiparticle production predicts a characteristic suppression of particle multiplicity in a heavy-quark jet as compared to a light-quark jet. In the modified leading logarithmic approximation (MLLA) the multiplicity difference δ_{Qell} between heavy- and light-quark jets is derived in terms of a few other experimentally measured quantities. The earlier prediction for b-quarks needs revision in the light of new experimental results and the improvement in the understanding of the experimental data. We now find δ_{bell} = 4.4±0.4. The updated MLLA results on δ_{bell} and δ_{cell} are compared with the present data from e + e - annihilation. Their expected energy independence is confirmed within the energy range between 29 and 200 GeV; the absolute values are now in better agreement with experiment than in the previous analysis, and the remaining difference can be attributed largely to next-to-MLLA contributions, an important subset of which are identified and evaluated.

  11. Surface effects in color superconducting strange-quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oertel, Micaela; Urban, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Surface effects in strange-quark matter play an important role for certain observables which have been proposed in order to identify strange stars, and color superconductivity can strongly modify these effects. We study the surface of color superconducting strange-quark matter by solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations for finite systems ('strangelets') within the MIT bag model, supplemented with a pairing interaction. Because of the bag-model boundary condition, the strange-quark density is suppressed at the surface. This leads to a positive surface charge, concentrated in a layer of {approx}1 fm below the surface, even in the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. However, since in the CFL phase all quarks are paired, this positive charge is compensated by a negative charge, which turns out to be situated in a layer of a few tens of fm below the surface, and the total charge of CFL strangelets is zero. We also study the surface and curvature contributions to the total energy. Because of the strong pairing, the energy as a function of the mass number is very well reproduced by a liquid-drop type formula with curvature term.

  12. A precise measurement of the top quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Brian N.

    2007-04-01

    We present a measurement of the mass of the top quark using data from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. Events are selected from the single lepton plus jets final state (t$\\bar{t}$ → W+bW-$\\bar{b}$ → ℓvbq$\\bar{q}$'$\\bar{b}$). The top quark mass is extracted using a calculation of the probability density for a t$\\bar{t}$ final state to resemble a data event. This probability density is a function of both top quark mass and energy scale of calorimeter jets, constrained in situ with the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb-1 integrated luminosity, we achieve the single most precise measurement of top quark mass to date of 170.8 ± 2.2 (stat.) ± 1.4 (syst.) GeV/c2, where the quoted statistical uncertainty includes uncertainty from the determination of the jet energy scale.

  13. Interpreting the neutron's electric form factor: Rest frame charge distribution or foldy term?

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-12-01

    The neutron's electric form factor contains vital information on nucleon structure, but its interpretation within many models has been obscured by relativistic effects. The author demonstrates that, to leading order in the relativistic expansion of a constituent quark model, the Foldy term cancels exactly against a contribution to the Dirac form factor F{sub 1} to leave intact the naive interpretation of G{sup n}{sub E} as arising from the neutron's rest frame charge distribution.

  14. Heavy-quark QCD exotica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.; Mitchell, Ryan E.; Swanson, Eric S.

    2017-03-01

    This review presents an overview of the remarkable progress in the field of heavy-quark exotic hadrons over the past 15 years. It seeks to be pedagogical rather than exhaustive, summarizing both the progress and specific results of experimental discoveries, and the variety of theoretical approaches designed to explain these new states.

  15. Observation of the Top Quark

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G.A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Aronson, S.H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R.E.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S.R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.O.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M.K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Franzini, P.; Fredriksen, S.; Fuess, S.; Galjaev, A.N.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, S.; Geld, T.L.; Genik, R.J. II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gibbard, B.; Glaubman, M.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Y.E.

    1995-04-03

    The D0 Collaboration reports on a search for the standard model top quark in {ital p{bar p}} collisions at {radical}{ital s}=1.8TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50pb{sup {minus}1}. We have searched for {ital t{bar t}} production in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels with and without tagging of {ital b}-quark jets. We observed 17 events with an expected background of 3.8{plus_minus}0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2{times}10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. We conclude that we have observed the top quark and measured its mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat) {plus_minus}22 (syst) GeV/{ital c}{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4{plus_minus}2.2pb.

  16. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs.

  17. Observation of the Top Quark

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  18. Top Quark Studies at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-11-26

    Years after its discovery in 1995 by CDF and D0, the top quark still undergoes intense investigations at the Tevatron. Using up to the full Run II data sample, new measurements of top quark production and properties by the D0 Collaboration are presented. In particular, the first observation of single top quark s-channel production, the measurement of differential tbar t distributions, forward-backward tbar t asymmetry, a new measurement of the top quark mass, and a measurement of the top quark charge are discussed.

  19. Measurements of top quark properties at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-11-01

    The top quark with its mass of about 172 GeV/c{sup 2} is the most massive fundamental particle observed by experiment. In this talk they highlight the most recent measurements of several top quark properties performed with the CDF detector based on data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities up to 1 fb{sup -1}. These results include a search for top quark pair production via new massive resonances, measurements of the helicity of the W boson from top-quark decay, and a direct limit on the lifetime of the top quark.

  20. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  1. Constituent Quark Model Description of Charmonium Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.; Hernandez, E.

    2013-10-01

    We review how quark models are able to describe the phenomenology of the charm meson sector. The spectroscopy and decays of charmonium and open charm mesons are described in a particular quark model and compared with the data and the results of other existing models in the literature. A quite reasonable global description of the heavy meson spectra is reached. A new assignment of the ψ(4415) resonance as a 3D state leaving aside the 4S state to the X(4360) is tested through the analysis of the resonance structure in e+e- exclusive reactions around the ψ(4415) energy region. We make tentative assignments of some of the XYZ mesons. To elucidate the structure of the 1+cs states, i.e., Ds1(2460) and Ds1(2536), we study the strong decay properties of the Ds1(2536) meson. We also perform a calculation of the branching fractions for the semileptonic decays of B and Bs mesons into final states containing orbitally excited charmed and charmed-strange mesons, which have become a very important source of information about the structure of heavy mesons. Analysis of the nonleptonic B-meson decays into D(*)DsJ are also included.

  2. Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at √{s }=7 T e V using the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. 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E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Ryzhov, A.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced t and t ¯ quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=7 TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles θ1 and θ2 between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the t t ¯ rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of cos θ1.cos θ2 is sensitive to the spin correlation between the t and t ¯ quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.

  3. Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.

    2016-01-13

    A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced t and $\\bar{t}$ quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles θ$_1$ and θ$_2$ between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the $t\\bar{t}$ rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of cosθ$_1$ ∙ cosθ$_2$ is sensitive to the spin correlation between the t and $\\bar{t}$ quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.

  4. Electroweak corrections to top quark pair production in association with a hard photon at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yong; Song, Mao; Li, Gang

    2017-03-01

    We present the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections to the top quark pair production associated with a hard photon at the current and future hadron colliders. The dependence of the leading order (LO) and NLO EW corrected cross sections on the photon transverse momentum cut are investigated. We also provide the LO and NLO EW corrected distributions of the transverse momentum of final top quark and photon and the invariant mass of top quark pair and top-antitop-photon system. The results show that the NLO EW corrections are significant in high energy regions due to the EW Sudakov effect.

  5. Next-to-Leading Order QCD Corrections to Three-Jet Cross Sections with Massive Quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuther, W.; Brandenburg, A.; Uwer, P.

    1997-07-01

    We calculate the cross section for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation into three jets for massive quarks at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, both on and off the Z resonance. Our computation allows the implementation of any jet clustering algorithm. We give results for the three-jet cross section involving b quarks for the JADE and Durham algorithms at c.m.energies {radical}(s)=m{sub Z} . We also discuss a three-jet observable that is sensitive to the mass of the b quark. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Effect of exercise on the pseudodiabetes of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of intensive isotonic exercise and isometric exercise (with its low metabolic rate) during bed rest on plasma insulin and glucose tolerance test was investigated. The subjects were seven healthy men, 19 to 22 years in age, 166 to 188 cm in height, and 62.40 to 103.80 kg in weight; maximal oxygen uptakes ranged from 3.36 to 4.38 liters/min. It appears that bed-rest-induced glucose intolerance is diminished with increasing energy expenditure during both bed rest and recovery.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts generated from phase transition of neutron stars to quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of compact stars is believed to be able to produce various violent phenomena in our universe. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) might result from the phase transition of a neutron star to a quark star and calculate the energy released from the conversion. In our study, we utilize the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to describe the hadronic phase of neutron stars, while an improved quasi-particle model is adopted to describe the quark phase of quark stars. With quark matter equation-of-state (EOS) more reliable than models used before, it is found that the energy released is of the order of 1052 erg, which confirms the validity of the phase transition model.

  8. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  9. Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.

  10. Precision top-quark mass measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-10-12

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron √s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb(-1). Using a sample of tt¯ candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, M(top)=172.85±0.71(stat)±0.85(syst) GeV/c(2).

  11. Electromagnetic recombination spectra at the quark-hadron phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Clint; Pratt, Scott

    2016-10-01

    Because quarks carry electric charge, they can radiate light when they change energy levels, which is exactly what happens when they hadronize. This is true not only in jets but also in heavy-ion collisions, where a thermalized plasma of quarks and gluons cools into a gas of hadrons. First, direct emission of photons from two quarks coalescing from the continuum into pions is calculated using the quark-meson model. The yield of final-state photons to pions is found to be about e2/gπq q 2 , which is on the order of a percent. Second, the yield of photons from the decay of highly excited color singlets, which may exist ephemerally during hadronizaton, is estimated. Because these contributions occur late in the reaction, they should carry significant elliptic flow, which may help explain the large observed flow of direct photons by the PHENIX Collaboration at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The enhanced emission also helps explain the PHENIX Collaboration's surprisingly large observed γ /π ratio.

  12. LHCb pentaquarks in constituent quark models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, P. G.; Entem, D. R.; Fernández, F.

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered Pc(4380) + and Pc(4450) + states at LHCb have masses close to the D bar Σc* and Dbar*Σc thresholds, respectively, which suggest that they may have significant meson-baryon molecular components. We analyze these states in the framework of a constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables, being the model parameters, therefore, completely constrained. The Pc(4380) + and Pc(4450) + are studied as molecular states composed by charmed baryons and open charm mesons. Several bound states with the proper binding energy are found in the D bar Σc* and Dbar*Σc channels. We discuss the possible assignments of these states from their decay widths. Moreover, two more states are predicted, associated with the D bar Σc and Dbar*Σc* thresholds.

  13. Hadronic-to-Quark-Matter Phase Transition: Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebergal, Brian

    the explosive transition mentioned above - after a newly-formed u,d,s-quark star has cooled below a critical temperature. It is shown how the energy release from the expulsion of color-magnetic vortices can reheat quark stars to exceptionally high temperatures, matching observations of soft gamma repeaters, anomalous x-ray pulsars, and x-ray dim isolated neutron stars (SGRs, AXPs, XDINs). Moreover, using numerical investigations of the temperature evolution, evidence is given for the ancestral linkage of SGRs, AXPs, & XDINs. By appealing to the time delay needed for a quark star to cool and enter the color-superconducting phase, estimations are given for the density at which quarks deconfine. Using parameters determined by astrophysical observations, this density is found to be of the order of 5 times that of nuclear saturation.

  14. Top quark results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present the latest results on the top quark obtained by the CDF experiment using a data sample of about 110 {ital pb}{sup -1} collected at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We briefly describe the candidate events selection and then discuss the production cross section determination and the mass measurement. The study of two new decay channels (all hadronic and ``tau dilepton``) is also reported.

  15. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  16. Heavy quark production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    C. Paus

    2002-11-13

    The contribution summarizes the latest results from CDF on heavy quark production. Results from top, bottom and charm production are included. Some new analysis using Run I (1991-1994) data have become available. More importantly there are a number of results using Run II data which began in April 2001. The data indicate the potential of CDF for bottom and charm production physics in the near future.

  17. Radiative leptonic Bc decay in the relativistic independent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2008-12-01

    The radiative leptonic decay Bc-→μ-ν¯μγ is analyzed in its leading order in a relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratio for this decay in the vanishing lepton mass limit is obtained as Br(Bc→μνμγ)=6.83×10-5, which includes the contributions of the internal bremsstrahlung and structure-dependent diagrams at the level of the quark constituents. The contributions of the bremsstrahlung and the structure-dependent diagrams, as well as their additive interference parts, are compared and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, the predicted photon energy spectrum is observed here to be almost symmetrical about the peak value of the photon energy at Ẽγ≃(MBc)/(4), which may be quite accessible experimentally at LHC in near future.

  18. Isoscalar-vector interaction and hybrid quark core in massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G. Y.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Liu, Y. X.; Liu, B.

    2013-05-01

    The hadron-quark phase transition in the core of massive neutron stars is studied with a newly constructed two-phase model. For nuclear matter, a nonlinear Walecka type model with general nucleon-meson and meson-meson couplings, recently calibrated by Steiner, Hemper and Fischer, is taken. For quark matter, a modified Polyakov-Nambu—Jona-Lasinio model, which gives consistent results with lattice QCD data, is used. Most importantly, we introduce an isoscalar-vector interaction in the description of quark matter, and we study its influence on the hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of massive neutron stars. With the constraints of neutron star observations, our calculation shows that the isoscalar-vector interaction between quarks is indispensable if massive hybrids star exist in the universe, and its strength determines the onset density of quark matter, as well as the mass-radius relations of hybrid stars. Furthermore, as a connection with heavy-ion-collision experiments we give some discussions about the strength of isoscalar-vector interaction and its effect on the signals of hadron-quark phase transition in heavy-ion collisions, in the energy range of the NICA at JINR-Dubna and FAIR at GSI-Darmstadt facilities.

  19. Quark masses and strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Maezawa, Y.; Petreczky, P.

    2016-08-30

    We present a determination of the strange, charm and bottom quark masses as well as the strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using highly improved staggered quark action. The ratios of the charm quark mass to the strange quark mass and the bottom quark mass to the charm quark mass are obtained from the meson masses calculated on the lattice and found to be mc/ms = 11.877(91) and mb/mc = 4.528(57) in the continuum limit. We also determine the strong coupling constant and the charm quark mass using the moments of pseudoscalar charmonium correlators: αs(μ = mc)more » = 0.3697(85) and mc(μ = mc) = 1.267(12) GeV. Our result for αs corresponds to the determination of the strong coupling constant at the lowest energy scale so far and is translated to the value αs(μ = MZ, nf = 5) = 0.11622(84).« less

  20. Quark masses and strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Maezawa, Y.; Petreczky, P.

    2016-08-30

    We present a determination of the strange, charm and bottom quark masses as well as the strong coupling constant in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using highly improved staggered quark action. The ratios of the charm quark mass to the strange quark mass and the bottom quark mass to the charm quark mass are obtained from the meson masses calculated on the lattice and found to be mc/ms = 11.877(91) and mb/mc = 4.528(57) in the continuum limit. We also determine the strong coupling constant and the charm quark mass using the moments of pseudoscalar charmonium correlators: αs(μ = mc) = 0.3697(85) and mc(μ = mc) = 1.267(12) GeV. Our result for αs corresponds to the determination of the strong coupling constant at the lowest energy scale so far and is translated to the value αs(μ = MZ, nf = 5) = 0.11622(84).

  1. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  2. Special symmetric quark mass matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Marcos, J. I.

    1998-12-01

    We give a procedure to construct a special class of symmetric quark mass matrices near the democratic limit of equal Yukawa couplings for each sector. It is shown that within appropriate weak-bases, the requirements of symmetry and arg[det(M)]=0 are very strong conditions, that necessarily lead to a Cabibbo angle given by Vus=sqrt(md/ms), and to Vcb~ms/mb, in first order. In addition, we prove that the recently classified ansätze, which also reproduce these mixing matrix relations, and which were based on the hypothesis of the Universal Strength for Yukawa couplings, where all Yukawa couplings have equal moduli while the flavour dependence is only in their phases, are, in fact, particular cases of the generalized symmetric quark mass matrix ansätze we construct here. In an excellent numerical example, the experimental values on all quark mixings and masses are accommodated, and the CP violation phase parameter is shown to be crucially dependent on the values of mu and Vus.

  3. [Rest for safety: which stakes?].

    PubMed

    Mion, G; Ricouard, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 were promulgated the texts regulating rest and safety, in the USA (approved by the ACGME) and in France (January 9th, 2001 and September 14th, 2001). The institution of the "rest for safety", an eleven hours duration interruption of activity, immediately after a night-call, can be viewed as a progress in the search for safety. Several studies showed a link between excessive work hours and occurrence of medical incidents related to tiredness. However published data do not show a link between tiredness and patients endangering. The tiredness resulting from sleep deprivation and disturbances in circadian rhythms is a cumulative phenomenon erased by a period of rest. In spite of a large individual variability, tiredness increases anxiety scores, irritability, depression and it deteriorates cognitive performances. The concept of "prophylactic" rest considers that a subject cannot start, rested, a work if he did not sleep at least 5 hours the previous night, or 12 hours during the previous 48 hours. The second important aspect of the rest for safety is the long-term prevention of potential pathologies in medical staff, in particular burnout syndrome. In our profession, night calls are considered most stressful; the psychological stress related to anticipation and night context causes measurable cardiovascular disturbances in anesthesiologists. Shift-work sleep disorders may induce gastric ulcers, heart attacks, metabolic syndrome, depression and accidents related to somnolence. Long duration work-hours, accompanied by sleep deprivation, may double the risk of car accidents in junior physicians, in whom vigilance levels can compare with those of patients concerned by narcolepsy or with the cognitive disturbances induced by alcohol intoxication. Reduced work-hours improve vigilance and divide by three the rate of serious medical errors. True opportunities of sleep and control of sleep duration at the individual level could be suggested. The idea that taking the

  4. The Top Quark Mass, Systematic Limitations, and my Tracker-Driven Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Garberson, Ford

    2008-08-01

    Top quark mass measurements have achieved an unexpected level of accu- racy in the last several years. This accuracy is only possible because of a new procedure that calibrates away the dominant jet energy uncertainty of past mea- surements. In this thesis I present some studies illustrating my suspicions that this procedure is leading them to claim overly optimistic results. Additionally, I present three measurements of the top quark mass that will be almost entirely independent of jet energies, and will thus serve as important cross checks of the standard measurements once enough statistics have been collected. I perform my measurements of the top quark mass in the lepton plus jets channel with approximately 1.9 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the CDF detector using quantities with minimal dependence on the jet energies. One measurement exploits the transverse decay length of b-tagged jets to determine a top quark mass of 166.9+9.5 (stat)±2.9 (syst) GeV/c2, and another the transverse momentum of electrons and muons from W decays to determine a top quark mass of 173.5+8.8 - (stat) ± 3.8 (syst) GeV/c2. I combine these quantities in a vi third, simultaneous mass measurement to determine a top quark mass of 170.7 ± 6.3 (stat) ± 2.6 (syst) GeV/c2.

  5. Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2000-03-10

    Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

  6. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  7. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  8. Top quark mass: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Gaston; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    The top quark is the most massive elementary particle discovered thus far. Its large mass may help explain the mechanism by which fundamental particles gain mass - the Standard Model's greatest standing mystery. Today the top quark mass, together with the W boson mass, plays an important role in constraining the Higgs boson mass. The current status of the top quark mass measurement and a brief outline of the expectation at the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider will be covered.

  9. Top quark mass measurements at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2007-10-01

    The top quark mass is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model as well as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The CDF Collaboration has measured the top quark mass with high precision in all decay channels with complementary methods. A combination of the results from CDF gives a top quark mass of 170.5{+-}1.3(stat.){+-}1.8(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Multiplicity Difference Between Heavy and Light Quark Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Fabrizio

    2007-11-01

    A peculiar prediction of perturbative QCD, with the assumption of Local Parton Hadron Duality, is that the difference in mean hadron multiplicity between heavy and light quark initiated events in e+e- annihilation, δQℓ, is energy independent. In the Modified Leading Logarithmic Approximation (MLLA), the numerical value of the constant is derived in terms of a few experimentally measurable quantities. While the energy independence of δQℓ has been succesfully verified experimentally for b-quarks up to the highest LEP2 energy, the numerical prediction originally published in 1992, δ MLLAbl = 5.5 ± 0.8, clearly overestimates the experimental results. In this work, done in collaboration with Yuri L. Dokshitzer, Valery A. Khoze and Wolfgang Ochs, we show that the original MLLA prediction needs a revision, in the light of new experimental results and the improvement in the understanding of the experimental data. We now find δ MLLAbl = 4.4 ± 0.4, in better agreement with experiment, and we show that the remaining difference can be attributed largely to next-to-MLLA contributions, an important subset of which are identified and evaluated. The situation for charmed quarks is also reviewed.

  11. Multiplicity Difference between Heavy and Light Quark Jets Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Fabrizio

    2006-04-01

    A peculiar prediction of perturbative QCD, obtained within the Local Parton Hadron Duality (LPHD) framework, is that the multiplicity difference δQl between heavy and light quark jets produced in e+e- annihilation is energy independent. In the Modified Leading Logarithmic Approximation (MLLA) the corresponding constant is derived in terms of a few experimentally measurable quantities. While the energy independence of δQl has been succesfully verified experimentally for b-quarks up to the highest LEP2 energy, its numerical prediction (δblMLLA = 5.5 ± 0.8) overestimates the experimental results. The work presented in this talk, done in collaboration with Yuri L. Dokshitzer, Valery A. Khoze and Wolfgang Ochs, shows that in the light of new experimental results and the improvement in the understanding of the experimental data, this prediction needs indeed a revision. We now find δbl = 4.4 ± 0.4, in better agreement with experiment, and we shaw that the remaining difference can be attributed largely to next-to-MLLA contributions, an important subset of which are identified and evaluated. The situation with charmed quarks is also reviewed.

  12. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.

  13. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2008-08-01

    In 1995 the last missing member of the known families of quarks, the top quark, was discovered by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab near Chicago. Until today, the Tevatron is the only place where top quarks can be produced. The determination of top quark production and properties is crucial to understand the Standard Model of particle physics and beyond. The most striking property of the top quark is its mass--of the order of the mass of a gold atom and close to the electroweak scale--making the top quark not only interesting in itself but also as a window to new physics. Due to the high mass, much higher than of any other known fermion, it is expected that the top quark plays an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking, which is the most prominent candidate to explain the mass of particles. In the Standard Model, electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by one Higgs field, producing one additional physical particle, the Higgs boson. Although various searches have been performed, for example at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP), no evidence for the Higgs boson could yet be found in any experiment. At the Tevatron, multiple searches for the last missing particle of the Standard Model are ongoing with ever higher statistics and improved analysis techniques. The exclusion or verification of the Higgs boson can only be achieved by combining many techniques and many final states and production mechanisms. As part of this thesis, the search for Higgs bosons produced in association with a top quark pair (t$\\bar{t}$H) has been performed. This channel is especially interesting for the understanding of the coupling between Higgs and the top quark. Even though the Standard Model Higgs boson is an attractive candidate, there is no reason to believe that the electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by only one Higgs field. In many models more than one Higgs boson are expected to exist, opening even more

  14. Top Quark Production Asymmetries AFBt and AFBl

    DOE PAGES

    Berger, Edmond L.; Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Chuan-Ren; ...

    2012-02-14

    A large forward-backward asymmetry is seen in both the top quark rapidity distribution AFBt and in the rapidity distribution of charged leptons AFBl from top quarks produced at the Tevatron. We study the kinematic and dynamic aspects of the relationship of the two observables arising from the spin correlation between the charged lepton and the top quark with different polarization states. We emphasize the value of both measurements, and we conclude that a new physics model which produces more right-handed than left-handed top quarks is favored by the present data.

  15. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Weigang

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  16. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  17. The quark revolution and the ZGS - new quarks physics since the ZGS

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J. |

    1994-12-31

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described.

  18. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  19. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration is a significant risk factor for weight gain, particularly in African Americans and men. Increased caloric intake underlies this relationship but it remains unclear whether decreased energy expenditure is a contributory factor. The current study assessed the impact of sleep restriction and recovery sleep on energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian men and women. Methods Healthy adults participated in a controlled laboratory study. After two baseline sleep nights, subjects were randomized to an experimental (n=36; 4h sleep/night for 5 nights followed by 1 night 12h recovery sleep) or control condition (n=11; 10h sleep/night). Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry in the morning after overnight fasting. Results Resting metabolic rate—the largest component of energy expenditure—decreased after sleep restriction (−2.6%, p=0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n=14), African Americans (n=22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (p=0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (p=0.013) regardless of sleep duration. Conclusions Sleep restriction decreased morning resting metabolic rate in healthy adults, suggesting that sleep loss leads to metabolic changes aimed at conserving energy. PMID:26538305

  20. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  1. Review of meson spectroscopy: quark states and glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1981-11-01

    A group of three lectures on hadron spectroscopy are presented. Topics covered include: light L = 0 mesons, light L = 1 mesons, antiquark antiquark quark quark exotics, a catalogue of higher quark antiquark excitations, heavy quarkonium, and glueballs. (GHT)

  2. Measurements of the top-quark decay width and mass at CDF using the template method.

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jian

    2012-05-10

    Measurements of the top quark decay width and mass are presented using the tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. A data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity is used for the top quark width measurement. Two estimators, the reconstructed top quark mass and the mass of hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different input top quark widths and deviations from nominal CDF jet energy scale (ΔJES) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters. ΔJES is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale at CDF. By applying a Feldman-Cousins limit-setting approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γtop < 7.6 GeV and a two-sided 68% CL interval of (0.3 GeV, 4.4) GeV assuming a top quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c2, which are consistent with the standard model prediction. The measurement of the top quark mass uses a data sample of tt events in 5.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the same detector. Candidate events in the top quark mass measurement are required to have large missing transverse energy, no identified charged leptons, and four, five, or six jets with at least one jet tagged as coming from a b quark. This analysis considers events from the semileptonic tt decay channel, including events that contain tau leptons. The measurement is based on a multidimensional template method, in a similar way to the top quark width measurement, and the top quark mass is measured to be Mtop = 172.32 ± 2.37 ± 0.98 GeV/c2 .

  3. Anomalous resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quarks at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, I. T.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, O.; Uenel, G.

    2009-11-01

    Considering the present limits on their masses from the Tevatron experiments, the fourth-family quarks are expected to have masses larger than the top quark. Because of their expected large masses, they could have different dynamics than the third-family quarks of the standard model. The resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quark t{sup '} has been studied via the anomalous production subprocess gq{sub i}{yields}t{sup '} (where q{sub i}=u, c) at the LHC, with center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 14 TeV. The signatures of such a process are discussed within the standard model decay modes. The sensitivity to the anomalous coupling {kappa}/{lambda}=0.1 TeV{sup -1} can be reached at {radical}(s)=10 TeV and L{sub int}=100 pb{sup -1}.

  4. Bethe-Salpeter dynamics and the constituent mass concept for heavy quark mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Souchlas, N.; Stratakis, D.

    2010-06-01

    The definition of a quark as heavy requires a comparison of its mass with the nonperturbative chiral symmetry breaking scale which is about 1 GeV ({Lambda}{sub {chi}{approx}1} GeV) or with the scale {Lambda}{sub QCD{approx}}0.2 GeV that characterizes the distinction between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For quark masses significantly larger than these scales, nonperturbative dressing effects, or equivalently nonperturbative self-energy contributions, and relativistic effects are believed to be less important for physical observables. We explore the concept of a constituent mass for heavy quarks in the Dyson-Schwinger equations formalism, for light-heavy and heavy-heavy quark mesons by studying their masses and electroweak decay constants.

  5. On-shell parameter fixing in the quark-meson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Andersen, Jens O.; Kneschke, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The quark-meson model is often used as an effective low-energy model for QCD to study the chiral transition at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential μB. The parameters in the quark-meson model can be found by expressing them in terms of the sigma mass mσ, the pion mass mπ, the constituent quark mass mq and the pion decay constant fπ. In practice, this matching is done at tree level, which is inconsistent once loop effects of the effective potential are taken into account. We show how to properly perform the matching in the quark-meson model by using the on-shell and the minimal subtraction renormalization schemes relating the physical masses and the pion decay constant to the running mass parameter and couplings. We map out the phase diagram in the μB- T plane and compare our results with other approximations.

  6. Quark-gluon tagging with shower deconstruction: Unearthing dark matter and Higgs couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira de Lima, Danilo; Petrov, Petar; Soper, Davison; Spannowsky, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The separation of quark and gluon initiated jets can be an important way to improve the sensitivity in searches for new physics or in measurements of Higgs boson properties. We present a simplified version of the shower deconstruction approach as a novel observable for quark-gluon tagging. Assuming topoclusterlike objects as input, we compare our observable with energy correlation functions and find a favorable performance for a large variety of jet definitions. We address the issue of infrared sensitivity of quark-gluon discrimination. When this approach is applied to dark matter searches in monojet final states, limitations from small signal-to-background ratios can be overcome. We also show that quark-gluon tagging is an alternative way of separating weak boson from gluon-fusion production in the process p +p →H +jet+jet+X .

  7. Precise measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets topology at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Tsukuba U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. They analyze events from the single lepton plus jets final state (t{bar t} {yields} W{sup +}bW{sup -}{bar b} {yields} lvbq{bar q}{bar b}). The top quark mass is extracted using a direct calculation of the probability density that each event corresponds to the t{bar t} final state. The probability is a function of both the mass of the top quark and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets, which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, they achieve the single most precise measurement of the top quark mass, 170.8 {+-} 2.2(stat.) {+-} 1.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  8. Measurements of the top-quark mass using charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; González, B. Álvarez; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burke, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P. F.; di Canto, A.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Genser, K.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; da Costa, J. Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Koay, S. A.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath,