Science.gov

Sample records for quarries

  1. Ancient quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    Using a unique set of remote sensing techniques, a team of University of Colorado researchers has detected mining pits dug by Montana Indians 10,000 years ago. The team used satellite images, aerial photographs, and ground tests to locate quarries where ancient North Americans obtained chert for making tools. Anthropology doctoral student Thomas Carr, Mort Turner, of the University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, and four undergraduate and graduate students developed 12 “spectral classes” characterizing distinct geologic and vegetation types found in the Horse Prairie Valley study area in southwest Montana. Their data included electromagnetic measurements of soil conductivity from a known Indian quarry in the area, where the altered bedrock contains veins of chert, and an adjacent area of disturbed soil. Using special computer software, the team compared characteristics of nearly one million 30-m2 pixels from a 1985 regional Landsat satellite image to those of the 12 spectral classes. Twelve possible ancient mining sites in the 800-square-mile research area were identified. During a later ground survey using GPS satellite receivers, eight of these were confirmed to be ancient Indian quarries.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TO THE POWER PLANT OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  3. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  4. Overall view of quarry from quarry wall, facing north, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of quarry from quarry wall, facing north, showing work areas in background - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  5. Deep Impact Spots Quarry

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-27

    Taken on April 25, 2005, sixty-nine days before it gets up-close-and-personal with a comet, NASA Deep Impact spacecraft successfully photographed its quarry, comet Tempel 1, at a distance of 39.7 million miles.

  6. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  7. Deep Impact Spots Quarry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine days before it gets up-close-and-personal with a comet, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft successfully photographed its quarry, comet Tempel 1, at a distance of 39.7 million miles. The image, taken on April 25, 2005, is the first of many comet portraits Deep Impact will take leading up to its historic comet encounter on July 4.

  8. Probabilistic prediction models for aggregate quarry siting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Larkins, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression techniques were used in a GIS framework to predict the spatial likelihood (prospectivity) of crushed-stone aggregate quarry development. The joint conditional probability models, based on geology, transportation network, and population density variables, were defined using quarry location and time of development data for the New England States, North Carolina, and South Carolina, USA. The Quarry Operation models describe the distribution of active aggregate quarries, independent of the date of opening. The New Quarry models describe the distribution of aggregate quarries when they open. Because of the small number of new quarries developed in the study areas during the last decade, independent New Quarry models have low parameter estimate reliability. The performance of parameter estimates derived for Quarry Operation models, defined by a larger number of active quarries in the study areas, were tested and evaluated to predict the spatial likelihood of new quarry development. Population density conditions at the time of new quarry development were used to modify the population density variable in the Quarry Operation models to apply to new quarry development sites. The Quarry Operation parameters derived for the New England study area, Carolina study area, and the combined New England and Carolina study areas were all similar in magnitude and relative strength. The Quarry Operation model parameters, using the modified population density variables, were found to be a good predictor of new quarry locations. Both the aggregate industry and the land management community can use the model approach to target areas for more detailed site evaluation for quarry location. The models can be revised easily to reflect actual or anticipated changes in transportation and population features. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

  9. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  10. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2014-05-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates of sliding and erosion is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Iverson (2012) introduced a new subglacial quarrying model that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness: larger rock bodies have lower strengths since they have greater possibility of containing a large flaw [Jaeger and Cook, 1979]. Inclusion of this effect strongly influences the erosion rates and questions the dominant role of sliding rate in standard models for subglacial erosion. Effective pressure, average bedslope, and bedrock fracture density are primary factors that, in addition to sliding rate, influence the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. Compared to model results using a

  11. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  12. VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  13. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  14. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UNQUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UN-QUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP IN BACKGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  16. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Fly ash disposal in a limestone quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    Approximately 740 000 tons of eastern bituminous coal fly ash were deposited at the abandoned Zullinger limestone quarry from 1973-1980. The quarry extended below the water table and was not lined to isolate the ash from the aquifer. Long-term groundwater pollution has apparently not resulted.

  18. Attenuation Analysis of Quarry Blast Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T.; Courtier, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we analyzed seismograms created by rock quarry blasts and the effect of rock composition and structure on the attenuation of seismic energy. Luck Stone, a well-known rock quarry company in Virginia, provided the seismic database with the goal of analyzing rates of attenuation at their Boscobel and Leesburg sites, which consist of different rock types (granite and diabase, respectively). Over the years, the sites where these quarries are located have become progressively more residential. As a result, public awareness of quarry blasting has increased, and vibrations in residential areas are increasingly reported. Luck Stone operates seismometers throughout the region and closely monitors vibrations. We analyzed changes in amplitude and frequency content of quarry blast seismograms using power spectra, and compare the rate of attenuation with the propagation distance and local rock type. Our results improve the understanding of how these different rocks types attenuate energy and may help quarries develop specific approaches to further diminish blast vibrations at these locations. We also briefly discuss a comparison of the quarry blast data with attenuation of seismic energy from local earthquakes in similar rock types.

  19. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  20. Looking northwest, first floor, South Wing, Paleontology Lab. The quarry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, first floor, South Wing, Paleontology Lab. The quarry wall can be seen through the window - Quarry Visitor Center, U.S. Highway 40, 8 miles north of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  1. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  2. View of quarry work area, facing east, with broken lintel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of quarry work area, facing east, with broken lintel in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  3. View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge site in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  4. View of four large bore holes on top of quarry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four large bore holes on top of quarry wall, facing northeast - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  5. View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill holes on face - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  7. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  8. 15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF UPPER SOUTH QUARRY AREA (negative is thin but printable) - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 14. PERSPECTIVE OF ROAD OR TRAMWAY AND RUBBLE IN QUARRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PERSPECTIVE OF ROAD OR TRAMWAY AND RUBBLE IN QUARRY NORTHWEST OF STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKERS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS, IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  12. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY PIT ("THE OLD PIT") WITH LEDGE PREPARED FOR LIMESTONE EXTRACTION. AN ELEVEN-HOLE SHOT WILL DISLODGE APPROXIMATELY 25,000 TONS OF LIMESTONE WHICH, AFTER LOADING AND CRUSHING, WILL BE USED FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION. THE CALERA QUARRY IS ONE OF FOUR ACTIVE VULCAN MATERIALS COMPANY QUARRIES IN THE DISTRICT. VULCAN MATERIALS, A FORTUNE 500 FIRM, ESTABLISHED IN BIRMINGHAM IN 1906 AS BIRMINGHAM SLAG COMPANY, VULCAN MATERIALS IS THE NATION'S FOREMOST PRODUCER OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE AND A LEADING CHEMICALS MANUFACTURER - Vulcan Material Company, Calera Quarry, 1614 Highway 84, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  13. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY PIT ('THE OLD PIT') WITH LEDGE PREPARED FOR LIMESTONE EXTRACTION. AN ELEVEN-HOLE SHOT WILL DISLODGE APPROXIMATELY 25,000 TONS OF LIMESTONE WHICH, AFTER LOADING AND CRUSHING, WILL BE USED FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION. THE CALERA QUARRY IS ONE OF FOUR ACTIVE VULCAN MATERIALS COMPANY QUARRIES IN THE DISTRICT. VULCAN MATERIALS, A FORTUNE 500 FIRM, ESTABLISHED IN BIRMINGHAM IN 1906 AS BIRMINGHAM SLAG COMPANY, VULCAN MATERIALS IS THE NATION'S FOREMOST PRODUCER OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE AND A LEADING CHEMICALS MANUFACTURER. - Vulcan Material Company, Calera Quarry, 1614 Highway 84, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  14. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  17. Modelling long-term landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vej Ugelvig, Sofie; Lundbek Egholm, David; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-04-01

    Glacial landscape-evolution models are useful tools when studying the mechanisms and long-term effects of glacial erosion. However, the difficulty of implementing the small-scale physics of abrasion and quarrying in large-scale landscape models has necessitated use of semi-empirical erosion laws, where sliding speed or total ice flux are the main parameters scaling the rate of erosion. Factors such as bed slope, effective pressure, and pre-existing fracture-density are known to also be of importance, however, especially for the mechanics of quarrying (Iverson, 2012). The objective of our study was to improve links between large-scale landscape models and the physics of subglacial quarrying. We used the quarrying model presented by Iverson (2012) to calculate the average efficiency of quarrying across many topographic steps. The computations were repeated for one million combinations of bed slope, effective pressure, and basal sliding speed. We then performed a power-law fit to the many resulting erosion rates in order to quantify the overall influence of the regional parameters (effective pressure, bed slope, and sliding rate). Based on these results we suggest a quarrying rule where, in addition to the strong influence of bedrock fracture-density, erosion rate scales with sliding speed to a power of 1, with bed slope to a power of 2, and with effective pressure to a power of 3. The high sensitivity to effective pressure implies a strong influence of meltwater hydrology on subglacial landscape evolution. To study this influence we implemented the new quarrying rule in a higher-order ice-sheet model coupled to a cavity-channel model for glacial hydrology. Computational experiments using steady-state hydrology predict that a well-drained glacier focuses quarrying in the upper parts of the glaciated catchment where water flux is small and slopes are steep, and in areas where ice is thick and the effective pressure high. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of

  18. Strength Characteristics of Quarry Dust in Replacement of Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam Prakash, K.; Hanumantha Rao, Ch, Dr

    2017-08-01

    The replacement of natural fine aggregate by using quarry dust leads to consumption of generated quarry dust, the requirement of land fill area can be reduced and solves the natural sand scarcity problem. The sand availability as a fine aggregate at low cost which needs the reason to search as a alternative material. Even it causes saddle to dump the crusher dust at one place which causes environmental pollution. The chemical analysis, specific gravity, sieve analysis and compressive strength is identified for various percentage and grades of concrete by replacement of sand with quarry dust.

  19. Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear Quonset huts, currently occupied by Quarry Glass, a fiberglass company. View northwest from loading dock. - Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Factory No. 1, 851 Pennsylvania Avenue, Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  20. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in...

  1. Glacial landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying: A multiscale computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-11-01

    Quarrying of bedrock is a primary agent of subglacial erosion. Although the mechanical theory behind the process has been studied for decades, it has proven difficult to formulate the governing principles so that large-scale landscape evolution models can be used to integrate erosion over time. The existing mechanical theory thus stands largely untested in its ability to explain postglacial topography. In this study we relate the physics of quarrying to long-term landscape evolution with a multiscale approach that connects meter-scale cavities to kilometer-scale glacial landscapes. By averaging the quarrying rate across many small-scale bedrock steps, we quantify how regional trends in basal sliding speed, effective pressure, and bed slope affect the rate of erosion. A sensitivity test indicates that a power law formulated in terms of these three variables provides an acceptable basis for quantifying regional-scale rates of quarrying. Our results highlight the strong influence of effective pressure, which intensifies quarrying by increasing the volume of the bed that is stressed by the ice and thereby the probability of rock failure. The resulting pressure dependency points to subglacial hydrology as a primary factor for influencing rates of quarrying and hence for shaping the bedrock topography under warm-based glaciers. When applied in a landscape evolution model, the erosion law for quarrying produces recognizable large-scale glacial landforms: U-shaped valleys, hanging valleys, and overdeepenings. The landforms produced are very similar to those predicted by more standard sliding-based erosion laws, but overall quarrying is more focused in valleys, and less effective at higher elevations.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. ON THE TOP BENCH, A 245 CATERPILLAR LOADER FILLS A 55-TON CATERPILLAR ROCK TRUCK WITH EXTRACTED DOLOMITE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE DOLOMITE CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Auditing a flooded quarry prior to marina development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, Priscilla W.

    1992-07-01

    Development of a marina in a flooded brownstone quarry will require construction of a canal to the Connecticut River through an isthmus separating the two systems. An environmental audit over a 16-month period developed quantitative limnological data required by regulatory agencies. The deep quarry basin, protected by high sandstone walls, became strongly stratified in summer. Development of littoral vegetation in the quarry was prevented by the steep sides of the basin. Unusual characteristics of the manmade quarry basin, compared to most natural lakes in Connecticut, included a mean depth of 14 m, an intense thermocline, and negative heterograde oxygen profiles with metalimnetic minima. Alkalinity, conductivity, and nutrient levels differed significantly between the quarry and the river. Mean chlorophyll a concentrations in the two systems were similar, but the distribution of phytoplankton classes were quite different. The environmental audit, by comparing physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the quarry to those of the river, allowed prediction of changes in trophic status when the two systems are joined.

  4. Numerical simulation of the dynamics evolution of alluvial mining quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T. P.; Lepikhin, A. P.; Parshakova, Ya N.

    2017-07-01

    Alluvial mining quarry (or placer mining) is one of the main techniques for extracting important building materials such as sand and gravels. Prediction of quarries detrimental effects on the hydraulic regimes of rivers, in particular on flow regimes, has been carried on in full details in 0, 1 and 2D problem formulations (in the latter case, a depth-averaging is applied). However, the prediction of the quarry behavior itself is unfeasible, though such information would be of paramount importance for estimating the adverse effect on the river bed. This work studies the dynamics evolution of alluvial mining quarries in the framework of two-dimensional formulation based on width-averaging. The Euler multiphase model, which allows simulating separately the behavior of several interacting phases, is implemented. The conducted numerical experiments show that the upstream part of the quarry is eroded more intensively than the downstream one, displacing the quarry up-stream. This effect was observed during numerous field case-studies.

  5. Stress Related Fracturing in Dimension Stone Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi Deliormanli, Ahmet; Maerz, Norbert H.

    2016-10-01

    In Missouri, the horizontal stresses (pressures) in the near surface rock are uncommonly high. While the vertical stresses in rock are simply a function of the weight of the overlying rock, near surface stresses can be many times higher. The near surface horizontal stresses can be in excess of 5 times greater than the vertical stresses. In this research, Flatjack method was used to measure horizontal stress in Red Granite Quarry in Missouri. The flat jack method is an approved method of measuring ground stresses. A saw cut is used to “relax” the stress in the ground by allowing the rock to deform inwards the cut. A hydraulic flat jack is used to inflate the slot; to push the rock back to its stressed position, as measured by a strain gauge on either side of the slot. The pressure in the jack, when the rock is exactly back to its original position, is equal to the ground stress before the saw cut was made. According to the results, present production direction for each pit is not good because the maximum stress direction is perpendicular with production direction. This case causes unintentional breakage results in the loss rock. The results show that production direction should be changed.

  6. SILICOSIS FROM QUARRYING AND WORKING OF GRANITE

    PubMed Central

    Ahlmark, A.; Bruce, T.; Nyström, Å

    1965-01-01

    Previous knowledge of silicosis in the Swedish granite industry suggested that the disease was neither common nor severe. In recent years, however, changes in working methods have involved a considerably increased formation of dust, and it was considered likely that the risk of contracting silicosis was increased. Reports from other countries supported this conjecture. The 34 known cases of silicosis caused by quarrying and working of granite in Sweden were therefore reviewed. The mean duration of exposure to siliceous dust when stage I silicosis was diagnosed was 32 years, and the mean age at diagnosis was 55 years. Despite the relatively long `prediagnosis' exposure to dust, the disease showed a pronounced tendency to progression, and six cases were complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. Eighty per cent of the men were awarded disablement benefit because of their pulmonary lesions, and four men died from silicosis alone or in combination with tuberculosis. In Swedish granite works there is room for considerable improvement in dust suppression. Careful checks of such preventive measures and periodic medical examination of exposed persons are strongly advocated. PMID:5836568

  7. Photon Shielding Features of Quarry Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Hernandez-Adame, Luis; Guzman-Garcia, Karen Arlete; Ortiz-Hernandez, Arturo Agustin; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Juarez-Alvarado, Cesar Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Cantera is a quarry tuff widely used in the building industry; in this work the shielding features of cantera were determined. The shielding characteristics were calculated using XCOM and MCNP5 codes for 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 0.662, 1, 2, and 3 MeV photons. With XCOM the mass interaction coefficients, and the total mass attenuation coefficients, were calculated. With the MCNP5 code a transmission experiment was modelled using a point-like source located 42 cm apart from a point-like detector. Between the source and the detector, cantera pieces with different thickness, ranging from 0 to 40 cm were included. The collided and uncollided photon fluence, the Kerma in air and the Ambient dose equivalent were estimated. With the uncollided fluence the linear attenuation coefficients were determined and compared with those calculated with XCOM. The linear attenuation coefficient for 0.662 MeV photons was compared with the coefficient measured with a NaI(Tl)-based γ-ray spectrometer and a 137Cs source.

  8. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry raw Material in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Yungreis, Z.; Braun, M.; Margaliot, M.

    2004-12-01

    During the past decade Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli standard (5098) which limit the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are often made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra, 232Th decay series and 40K that occur naturally in the Earth's crust. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced NORM (Te NORM) like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of the natural radioactivity in quarries in Israel, the dependency on the type of quarried substance and to asses the raw materials by radiation protection criteria. The study covered a total of 25 quarries all over Israel that manufacture different types of quarried substances (Limestone, Dolomite, Basalt, Gypsum etc.). Each of the quarries was sampled for three different aggregate sizes. The quarries were selected according to geological-geographical criteria such that all types of quarried materials throughout Israel will be investigated. The radionuclide measurement was performed by Gamma spectrometry according to standard procedures. A simulation was carried out on different concrete mixtures to asses the individual effective dose from the building materials. Results indicate large variations in the radionuclide concentration of raw materials in Israel. An optimization based on radiation protection criteria is proposed to minimize radiation exposure from building material.

  9. A procedure to evaluate environmental rehabilitation in limestone quarries.

    PubMed

    Neri, Ana Claudia; Sánchez, Luis Enrique

    2010-11-01

    A procedure to evaluate mine rehabilitation practices during the operational phase was developed and validated. It is based on a comparison of actually observed or documented practices with internationally recommended best practices (BP). A set of 150 BP statements was derived from international guides in order to establish the benchmark. The statements are arranged in six rehabilitation programs under three categories: (1) planning (2) operational and (3) management, corresponding to the adoption of the plan-do-check-act management systems model to mine rehabilitation. The procedure consists of (i) performing technical inspections guided by a series of field forms containing BP statements; (ii) classifying evidences in five categories; and (iii) calculating conformity indexes and levels. For testing and calibration purposes, the procedure was applied to nine limestone quarries and conformity indexes were calculated for the rehabilitation programs in each quarry. Most quarries featured poor planning practices, operational practices reached high conformity levels in 50% of the cases and management practices scored moderate conformity. Despite all quarries being ISO 14001 certified, their management systems pay low attention to issues pertaining to land rehabilitation and biodiversity. The best results were achieved by a quarry whose expansion was recently submitted to the environmental impact assessment process, suggesting that public scrutiny may play a positive role in enhancing rehabilitation practices. Conformity indexes and levels can be used to chart the evolution of rehabilitation practices at regular intervals, to establish corporate goals and for communication with stakeholders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 110. Catalog OPark Structure/Construction & Maintenance, 295 Quarry (Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Catalog O-Park Structure/Construction & Maintenance, 295 Quarry (Photographer and date unknown) QUARRY AT BIG RUN ROCK. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  11. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  12. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  13. Overdeepening development in a glacial landscape evolution model with quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, S. V.; Egholm, D. L.; Brædstrup, C. F.; Iverson, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified when considering bed abrasion, where rock debris transported in the basal ice drives erosion. However, the relation is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Field observations indicate that the principal mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying, which emphasize the importance of a better way of implementing erosion by quarrying in glacial landscape evolution models. Iverson (2012) introduced a new model for subglacial erosion by quarrying that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form in the lee of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is too high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness, which is neglected in previous quarrying models. Sliding rate, effective pressure, and average bedslope are the primary factors influencing the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. The influence of the effective pressure leads naturally to overdeepenings. However, in contrast to previously used erosion models

  14. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size < 4 mm will be of the order of 19 million tons. Converting this into construction aggregates is a major challenge in order to obtain satisfactory mass balance. This challenge is even bigger for quarries producing decorative stones. E.g. the quarrying and production of schist products for building purpose normally utilises as little as 10-15 % of the excavated rock. Oppdal in central Norway is a main supplier of schist products for flooring, roofing and decorative purpose. The high percentage of QW is due to strict requirements to the finished products, both regarding processing and the character of the parent rock. The need to deposit large amounts of QW is a serious setback for the quarry economy. Within a limited time horizon the volumes of QW can threaten the further exploitation by merely choking the quarry. On the opposite side - any process that can convert the QW into sellable products will give a tremendous added value for the producer. Besides, the area in question is about to drain out its available aggregate resources, having to rely on long-transported sand and gravel. This has consequences not only for the economy, but

  15. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  16. Studies on radon/thoron and their decay products in granite quarries around Bangalore city, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningappa, C.; Sannappa, J.; Chandrashekara, M. S.; Paramesh, L.

    2009-08-01

    The radon survey was performed in granite quarries around Bangalore rural district and Bangalore city as part of a lung cancer epidemiological study. Long duration measurements of indoor and outdoor radon, thoron and their progenies concentrations were made around granite quarries of Bangalore rural district by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD, LR-115, Type-II Plastic track detector) during summer and winter period (2006-07). The increase of radioactivity in granite quarries and inhalation dose to workers and populations near the quarries have been summarized. The higher concentrations of radon and thoron in granite quarries suggest radiation health effects on workers and public around the quarries is higher than permissible levels. The results are presented and analyzed with reference to ICRP limits.

  17. Geohydrology of the Gallup's Quarry area, Plainfield, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melvin, R.L.; Stone, J.R.; Craft, P.A.; Lane, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geohydrology of the Gallup's Quarry area in Plainfield, Connecticut was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to provide a preliminary framework for future remedial efforts. Gallup's Quarry, an inactive sand and gravel pit, was the site of unregulated disposal of an unknown volume of chemical wastes from at least the summer of 1977 until January 1978. Existing information collected for the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection during 1978-82 showed that ground water beneath Gallup's Quarry and adjacent land to the northwest was contaminated by organic and inorganic compounds. There is also some evidence for contamination of Mill Brook, which is located north and northwest of the disposal areas. Geologic mapping and subsurface data show that unconsolidated surficial materials up to 90 feet thick overlie fractured crystalline bedrock in most of the Gallup's Quarry area. The surficial materials consist primarily of stratified drift and till. Texture changes vertically and laterally within the stratified drift; grain size ranges from very coarse to fine. Till blankets the bedrock surface beneath the stratified drift and is a few feet to as much as 25 feet thick. Bedrock is exposed at land surface in a hill in the southeastern part of the quarry and slopes to depths of up to 90 feet beneath the area west and north of the disposal sites. The bedrock is a dark, fine-grained, fractured and jointed blastomylonite and hornblende gneiss of the Quinebaug Formation. It is likely that a west- northwest-trending fault is present in the bedrock beneath Gallup's Quarry; this fault, if present, may provide a preferential pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant transport. The principal horizontal direction of ground-water flow and movement of dissolved contaminants in the stratified drift was to the northwest of the waste-disposal areas toward Mill Brook in 1978. Estimates of average annual

  18. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls at Spitz quarry (NÖ, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald; Roncat, Andreas; Schweigl, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past, significant rockfalls, which pose a danger to persons, railways and roads, occurred in the quarry of Spitz (NÖ-Austria). An existing seismic warning system did not fulfill the expected efficiency and reliability standards since the ratio of well-detected events to undetected events or false alarms was not satisfactory. Our aim was to analyze how a seismic warning system must be designed in order to overcome these deficiencies. A small-scale seismic network was deployed in the Spitz quarry to evaluate the possibility of improving the early-warning rockfall monitoring network by means of seismic observations. A new methodology based on seismic methods, which enables the detection and location of rockfalls above a critical size, was developed. In order to perform this task, a small-scale (200x200 m2) passive seismic network comprised of 7 monitoring seismic stations acquiring data in continuous mode was established in the quarry of Spitz so that it covered the rockfall hazard area. On the 2nd of October 2015, an induced rockfall experiment was performed. It began at 09:00 a.m (local time, 07:00 UTC) and lasted about 1.5 hours. The entire data set was analyzed using the pSysmon software. In order to locate the impact point of the rock falls, we used a procedure based on the back-projection of the maximum resultant amplitude recorded at each station of the network within a time window to every grid-point covering the whole area of interest. In order to verify the performance of the employed algorithm for detection and localization, we performed man-induced rock falls. We also used a terrestrial laser scanner and a camera, not only to draw the rockfall block trajectories, but also to determine the volume of rock lost or gained in the different areas of the quarry. This allowed us to relate the lost mass with the strength of the collision (Pseudo-magnitude) of the rockfall, and draw and rebuild their associated trajectory. The location test performed

  19. Three-dimensional hydrogeophysical characterization and modeling of heterogeneous vadose zone of two quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, T.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Bièvre, G.; Goutaland, D.; Lassabatere, L.

    2009-12-01

    The potentially polluted sediments of the French ports, obtained by dredging maintenance operations, have to be disposed by filling-up open quarries. In these quarries, the discontinuities of the unsaturated zone can potentially lead to preferential flow. Indeed, flow anisotropy can be created either by: the original quarry structural discontinuities (faults, joints), the material sedimentary bedding, or some anthropogenic effect (i.e. cracking induced by the operation of the quarry). The objective of the paper is to estimate the role of the quarry heterogeneity on the unsaturated-zone water flow. A conceptual model based on the 3D structural recognition is proposed to study water flow. It is based on the recognition of the 3D geometric structure by using: (1) sedimentary structural geology principles, (2) geophysical measurements (Ground-Penetrating Radar and seismic refraction) performed on a representative zone of the quarry and (3) in-situ Beerkan infiltration tests for soil hydraulic characterization. This new approach has been tested on a small reference volume (about 50m x 30m x 10m) of two quarries: a Cenomanien sandstone quarry (Beausset, France), and a quartzite Ordovicien quarry (Laz, France). The hydrogeophysical approach makes it possible to account for stratigraphic discontinuity non visible from the soil surface. GPR method is appropriate to resolve both the sedimentary structure (direction, dip and bedding density) and the schistocity state of the reference volume. The seismic refraction completes the analysis allowing localization of the water table depth. Both capillary retention and hydraulic conductivity curves for the different materials of the quarries have been obtained for uniform lithologic units through single ring infiltration experiments and BEST (Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters) inverse analysis. Coupling geophysical and hydrodynamic approaches makes it possible to obtain in-situ a 3D realistic block representative of the

  20. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  1. Hand arm vibration syndrome among quarry workers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, Makoto; Shono, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Quoc Quan, Pham

    2005-03-01

    Few studies have focused on the health effects of vibrating tools on workers in the tropical area. Work conditions and health effects related to rock drill operation were studied in 102 quarry workers, including 73 rock drill operators in Vietnam. We aimed to clarify (1) risk of vibration exposure, (2) occurrence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF), and (3) characteristics of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Total weighted r.m.s. acceleration of the Chinese -or Russian-made rock drills, was 45-55 m/s(2). According to work observation studies, daily exposure time to vibration was 160-210 min. ISO5349 predicted that this exposure level would be associated with a high risk of HAVS in workers. We found no clear evidence of VWF. There may be several reasons why no worker exhibited VWF: (1) warmer work conditions, (2) younger and less experienced workers, (3) seasonal changes in work operations, and (4) healthy worker effect. On the other hand, 5-10% of rock drill operators might be suffering from moderate HAVS which was sensori-neural type dominant. There may be some characteristic features of HAVS among quarry workers in the tropical area.

  2. A remote underwater closure of Kerr Hollow Quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the totally remote clean closure of Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) on the Department of Energy Y-12 site in Oak Ridge, TN. KHQ is a flooded limestone quarry, used for the treatment of shock sensitive, water reactive, explosive, and compressed gas materials from 1960 until 1988 at which time it was closed and identified as a RCRA site. The treatment process left some 4000 containers on the bottom of KHQ. Most containers are empty; however, the remote possibility of existing unreacted materials coupled with the explosive nature of the materials themselves, dictated that KHQ be clean closed by totally remote means. The closure activity involved the use of a combination of commercially available remote underwater water equipment and the use of specially designed prototype equipment. The total cost and schedule duration will be close to the cost and schedule for an in-situ closure. This is the only totally remote RCRA closure, clean, or in-situ, ever performed. 2 figs.

  3. Environmental management of quarries as waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Sadek, S; Chahine, W

    2001-04-01

    Problems associated with the disposal of municipal solid waste have become a source of public concern worldwide as awareness of potential adverse environmental impacts and health threats from solid waste has increased. Communities are concerned about the generation and management of solid waste to the extent of refusing to allow new disposal facilities near their homes, often after witnessing the legacy of existing facilities. Under these conditions, the development of national policies for the management of solid waste becomes highly political, all while requiring appropriate technical solutions that ensure environmental protection and proper management plans that support an acceptable solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. In some locations, the conversion of old quarries into well-engineered and controlled landfills appears as a promising solution to a continuously increasing problem, at least for many decades to come. This paper describes the environmental impacts associated with solid waste disposal in a converted quarry site and the mitigation measures that can be adopted to alleviate potential adverse impacts. Environmental management and monitoring plans are also discussed in the context of ensuring adequate environmental protection during and after the conversion process.

  4. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  5. Natural recovery of different areas of a deserted quarry in South China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjun; Ren, Hai; Fu, Shenglei; Wang, Jun; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jinping

    2008-01-01

    A quarry is a surface mining operated place, which produces enormous quantities of gravel, limestone, and other materials for industrial and construction applications. Restoration and revegetation of deserted quarries are becoming increasingly important. Three areas of a typical quarry in South China: terrace for crushed materials (terrace), spoiled mound, and remaining side slope, were investigated, to compare the existing plant species and to study the relationship between environmental factors and revegetation. The plant species composition of these three areas was found to differ significantly after eight years of natural recovery. The typical plant communities found over them were composed of gramineous herbs, ferns, and shrubs. Soil organic matter, soil moisture, and soil bulk density were considered to be the major determining factors for vegetation succession. There existed abiotic and biotic thresholds during quarrying restoration. Suggestions had been presented that could have accelerated the process of natural recovery in quarries.

  6. GPR and seismic imaging in a gypsum quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dérobert, Xavier; Abraham, Odile

    2000-10-01

    A combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic imaging has been performed in a gypsum quarry in western Europe. The objective was to localize main cracks and damaged areas inside some of the pillars, which presented indications of having reached stress limits. The GPR imaging was designed from classical profiles with GPR processes and a customized, PC-based image-processing software. The detection of energy reflection seems to be an efficient process for localizing damaged areas. Seismic tomographic images have been obtained from travel time measurements, which were inverted using a simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) technique in order to provide a map of seismic velocities. The imaging and techniques employed are compared herein. The two techniques are complementary; seismic tomography produces a map of velocities related to the state of the pillar's internal stress, while radar data serve to localize the main cracks. Moreover, these imaging processes present similarities with respect to the damaged zone detection.

  7. John Tyndall's Vertical Physics: From Rock Quarries to Icy Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Michael S.

    2010-06-01

    I analyze, through the work of the Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-1893), the close relationship formed in the mid-nineteenth century between advances in the physical sciences and the rise of mountaineering as a sport. Along with groundbreaking experimental research in the physical sciences, Tyndall worked throughout his career to define and popularize the study of physics. He also was a pioneering mountaineer during the golden age of mountaineering. As he practiced his science, from rock quarries to the study of the blue sky, Tyndall’s interests in the fundamental forces of Nature brought him to the summits of mountains. His sojourns to the mountains, in turn, affected the manner in which he approached his researches. His science and mountaineering were tellingly mixed, and worked in unison to shape public perceptions of what physicists did during a period of increasing specialization and popularization of the field.

  8. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and depositional environment of the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, east-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, M.B.; Suarez, C.A.; Kirkland, J.I.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Grandstaff, D.E.; Terry, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, near Green River, Utah, is located at the base of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The quarry preserves a nearly monospecific accumulation of a new basal therizinosauroid, Falcarius utahensis. We used field descriptions and petrographic analysis to determine the depositional environment and development of the quarry strata. Results of these analyses suggest that the quarry represents multiple episodes of bone accumulation buried by spring and overbank flood deposits. Evidence for these previously undescribed spring deposits includes calcite macroscopic structures within the quarry strata - such as pisolites and travertine fragments - and calcite micromorphologies - including radial-fibrous, feather, and scandulitic dendrite morphologies and tufa clasts. At least two episodes of bone incorporation are preserved in the quarry based on their stratigraphic position and lithologic associations. The unique depositional setting in and around the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry appears to have been favorable for the preservation of vertebrate fossils and provides insight into early Cretaceous environments in North America. Copyright ?? 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  9. A proposed method for remote area mass quarrying

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, P.; Daniels, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Current practice in establishing quarries in remote areas with hilly or mountainous terrain tends to the use of airtracs (or similar pioneering units) drilling horizontal holes to establish a face, followed by bench development with light excavating equipment. The authors propose the use of a hybrid coyote blast design that incorporates long-round tunneling techniques. This method would, in effect, use down-the-hole (DTH) drills to advance the drift cut to the final depth, allowing longer and more rapid drift advances, and replace the cross-cut drifts with clusters of DTH holes to achieve the same explosives distribution. In cases where back wall control is a concern, the cross-cut could be augmented or even completely replaced with fan rings of DTH holes. Further, in cases where highly uniform material is required, these fan rings could be distributed throughout the rock mass. The primary advantage to this approach is a significant reduction in capital equipment and the support systems required for developing relatively large volumes of quarry material. Although drill factors will be lower than with conventional practice, explosives consumption should remain much the same. A single compressor capable of running high pressure air to operate the DTH hammer would double, at lower pressure, as the driver for pusher leg drills. A simple jack-bar system could be used for the DTH set-up, or a more elaborate mount could be designed to be attached to the mucking equipment. It is anticipated that a three man crew could easily handle the entire operation.

  10. Post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry at the Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) is located on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) property at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project. Until 1992, the primary mission of the Y-12 Plant was the production and fabrication of nuclear weapons components. Activities associated with these functions included production of lithium compounds, recovery of enriched uranium from scrap material, and fabrication of uranium and other materials into finished parts for assemblies. The Kerr Hollow Quarry was used for waste disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive and shock-sensitive chemicals and compressed gas cylinders. These materials were packaged in various containers and sank under the water in the quarry due to their great weight. Disposal activities were terminated in November, 1988 due to a determination by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation that the quarry was subject to regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1993. Methods of closure for the quarry were reviewed, and actions were initiated to close the quarry in accordance with closure requirements for interim status surface impoundments specified in Tennessee Rules 1200-1-11-.05(7) and 1200-1-11-.05(11). As part of these actions, efforts were made to characterize the physical and chemical nature of wastes that had been disposed of in the quarry, and to remove any containers or debris that were put into the quarry during waste disposal activities. Closure certification reports (Fraser et al. 1993 and Dames and Moore 1993) document closure activities in detail. This report contains the post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry site.

  11. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

  12. Field evidence for control of quarrying by rock bridges in jointed bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooyer, T. S.; Cohen, D. O.; Iverson, N. R.

    2011-12-01

    Quarrying is generally thought to be the most important mechanism by which glaciers erode bedrock. In quarrying models it is assumed that slow, subcritical, growth of pre-existing cracks rate-limits the process and occurs where there are large stress differences in the bed, such as near rock bumps where ice separates from the bed to form water-filled cavities. Owing to the direction of principal stresses in rocks associated with sliding and resultant cavity formation, models predict that quarrying will occur along cracks oriented perpendicular to the ice flow direction or parallel to zones of ice-bed contact. Preglacial cracks in rocks will tend to propagate mainly downward, and in sedimentary or some metamorphic rocks will merge with bedding planes, thereby helping to isolate rock blocks for dislodgement. In contrast to these model assumptions, new measurements of quarried surface orientations in the deglaciated forefield of nine glaciers in Switzerland and Canada indicate a strong correlation between orientations of pre-existing joints and quarried bedrock surfaces, independent of ice flow direction or ice-water contact lines. The strong correlation persists across all rock types, and rocks devoid of major joints lack quarried surfaces. We propose a new conceptual model of quarrying that idealizes the bedrock as a series of blocks separated by discontinuous preglacial joints containing intact rock bridges. Bridges concentrate stress differences caused by normal and shear forces acting at the rock surface. Failure of bridges is caused by slow subcritical crack growth enhanced by water pressure fluctuations. To lend credibility to this new model, we show field evidence of failed rock bridges in quarried surfaces and of rib marks on plumose structures that we interpret as arrest fracture fronts due to transient subglacial water-pressure fluctuations.

  13. Lung function impact from working in the pre-revolution Libyan quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Draid, Marwan M; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M; Ali, Ashraf M; Schmid, Kendra K; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure.

  14. Lung Function Impact from Working in the Pre-Revolution Libyan Quarry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Draid, Marwan M.; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M.; Ali, Ashraf M.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Gibbs, Shawn G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure. PMID:25961801

  15. Study of groundwater-quarry interactions in the context of energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Angélique; goderniaux, Pascal; de dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been discussed. However, these flooded quarries are generally in relation with an unconfined aquifer. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent water table. The objectives of this study is to understand the consequences of pumping/injection of large water volumes in a quarry on the adjacent unconfined aquifer. Numerical tools are used to understand the impact of oscillatory pumping in a quarry on the aquifer. Sinusoidal pumping are imposed on a generic quarry modelled with a 3D finite difference simulator. The period of the sinusoidal pumping is maximum 12 hours. We observe and study the propagation of this stress in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level variations in the quarry, as a function of the hydraulic parameters. Two different configurations have been considered: homogeneous hydraulic parameters in the porous media and the presence of a fractured zone in the vicinity of the quarry. Results show that the influence of the quarry - aquifer interactions on the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry remains low whatever the hydraulic parameters. The attenuation of the groundwater head fluctuations in the porous media logically increases with the distance of the quarry. In the homogeneous case, we have an equal propagation of the stress in all point of the environment. The maximal distance of propagation increases with the hydraulic conductivity and the porosity values. The presence of a fractured zone induces preferential flow paths, which distort significantly the zone impacted by the sinusoidal pumping. In the fracture, the

  16. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  17. Comparison of the occupational safety applications in marble quarries of Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey) by using Elmeri method.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Metin; Yesilkaya, Liyaddin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary is given about marble quarries in Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey), the Elmeri method is introduced, work accidents that can happen in marble quarries and their causes besides work safety behaviours in fields are explained, and the Elmeri monitoring method is applied and analysed. For this reason, marble quarries are divided into seven in terms of working conditions and active six quarries both in Carrara and Iscehisar areas, and work safety behaviours are analysed. Analysis process is based on True-False method; there are 18 items in total under six main topics; three items on each topic. The safety index for each section and the main topics are also calculated. According to the calculated safety indexes, Carrara area marble quarries (65.08%) are safer than Iscehisar area marble quarries (46.01%).

  18. Influence of grazing practices on cow milk quality: a case study on the Comarnic-Poieni bauxite quarry, Romania.

    PubMed

    Lorinţ, Csaba; Rădulescu, Monica; Buia, Grigore

    2012-04-01

    The current study represents a preliminary investigation made into the influence of cattle grazing in the area of a bauxite quarry (Comarnic-Poieni, Romania) on the cow milk chemistry. Weathering and surface runoff in the bauxite quarry contaminate the local chemistry of the soil, vegetation and water. During cattle transhumance, cyclic feeding patterns occur, with grazing alternating between clean pastures and the area of the quarry. Soil and water samples were collected from the contaminated area of the quarry. Raw milk samples were collected during two stages, corresponding to the periods of grazing on clean pasture and the quarry area, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the relationship between cattle grazing and the composition of milk was interpreted. Preliminary results indicated a direct correlation of increased concentration of Al in the milk, following grazing in the bauxite quarry.

  19. Hydrogeophysical characterization and 3D modeling of heterogeneous unsaturated zone of a sandstone quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, T.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Goutaland, D.; Bievre, G.; Thevenin, L.; Sevestre, J.; Lassabatère, L.; Perrodin, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The potentially polluted sediments of the French ports, obtained by dredging maintenance operations, have to be disposed by filling-up open quarries why discontinuities can potentially lead to preferential flow. Indeed, flow anisotropy can be created either by: the original quarry structural discontinuities (faults, joints), the material sedimentary bedding or some anthropogenic effect (i.e., cracking induced by the operation of the quarry). The objective of the study is to estimate the role of the quarry heterogeneity on the unsaturated- zone water flow. A conceptual model based on the 3D structural recognition is proposed to study water flow. It is based on the recognition of the 3D geometric structure by using: (1) sedimentary structural geology principles, (2) geophysical measurements (Ground-Penetrating Radar and seismic refraction) performed on a limited but representative zone of the quarry and (3) in-situ Beerkan infiltration tests for soil hydraulic characterization. This new approach has been tested on a small volume (45m x 30m x 8m) of a Cenomanian sandstone quarry on southern France. The hydrogeophysical approach makes it possible to account for stratigraphic discontinuity non visible from the soil surface. GPR resolution is appropriate to resolve the sedimentary structure (direction, dip and bedding density). The seismic refraction completes the analysis by the water table localization. Both capillary retention and hydraulic conductivity curves have been obtained for uniform geometric elements using the BEST algorithm (Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters). The resolution of the Richards equation with 3D COMSOL Multiphysics software seems to emphasize the fractures role according to the sandstone initial conditions. Coupling geophysical and hydrodynamic approaches makes it possible to obtain a 3D in-situ realistic block representative of the studied site. Flow modeling on this block makes it possible to evaluate the risk at the quarry scale.

  20. Kinematic multistation discriminator between local quarry blasts and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Shapira, Avi

    1998-12-01

    It has long been known that S waves on seismograms of local explosions are often accompanied by strong low-frequency, low-velocity, Rg surface wave trains, often significantly diminished for earthquakes. We utilize this fact to construct a new formal discriminator between earthquakes and explosions by measuring the S-surface-wave group velocity. The method is based on analysing the velogram; that is, the display of the envelope of ground motion versus group velocity V= R/T , where R is the epicentral distance and T the traveltime. We examine the distribution of seismic energy in time and space using envelopes of records from the Israel Seismic Network (ISN), from which we compute the velograms and observe differences in the velograms of quarry blasts and earthquakes. The data include 143 seismic events occurring in three areas (Galilee, Dead Sea, and Gilad) monitored by the ISN; the magnitude range is ML = 1.0-2.8 at distances of 15-310 km. From the velograms we measure the group velocity, Vms , within the 1-4 km s-1 range at which the velogram reaches its maximum for each available station. The resulting Vms (R) function is closely fitted by the empirical relationship a + b ln R, with a and b coefficients varying from event to event. A simple linear function c = b + 0.33a at a threshold C = 0.69 completely separates (a,b) pairs for the 67 Galilee events, and, for the 76 remaining events, one earthquake and four explosions are wrongly classified. After data validation and application of the Fisher linear discriminator, adapted to the events from Galilee, only two misidentified events remain for the whole data set.

  1. Flood Mitigating Effects of Open-Pit Quarrying in Rizal, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ybanez, R. L.; Ballesteros, C. C.; Baldago, M. C. B.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of flooding is already a common phenomenon in the Philippines where numerous tropical cyclones pass annually. The study is focused on flood hazards in Angono River Watershed in Rizal, Philippines which has historically experienced significant flooding events. Local residents believe that the open-pit quarrying activities in the area aggravates flooding in the town of Angono. To confirm this assumption, two-dimensional modelling of historically reconstructed as well as the present topography of the quarry area was done using FLO-2D software. The reconstructed topography modelling of the quarry area was digitally reconstructed using a 1:50 000 topographic map dating back prior to the start of quarrying. A digital elevation model (DEM) with 10x10 meters resolution, soil infiltration and saturation parameters, land use maps, and rainfall data were are the primary input of the model. The rainfall data were represented by Rainfall-Intensity-Duration-Frequency (RIDF) values sorted into 5-year, 25-year, and 100-year rainfall return rates. The delineated flood hazard maps produced will help in the interpretation and recognition of the effects of the presence of the quarry in the areas to rainfall intensity-specific flood hazards. In the simulated flood hazard map of the current topography, the total average affected area is 0.4742 square kilometers and 0.2541 square kilometers for the low and moderate flood hazard respectively. The reconstructed topography hazard map has a total average affected area of 0.4755 square kilometers and 0.3186 square kilometers for the low and moderate flood hazard respectively. This is a reduction of 2.3%-3.9% in the flood affected area is calculated with the presence of the quarry. This is because the quarried area serves as an artificial catchment basin which detains approximately 578,868 cubic meters of floodwaters from flowing directly to the lower watershed. The results of these models show that quarrying activities reduce

  2. The role of roadcuts, quarries, and other artificial exposures in geomorphology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, James F.

    2002-10-01

    Quarries and roadcuts are time-honored stopping points on geoscience field trips. Artificial exposures are good field sites for learning because of their accessibility, and the potential range of features they present for first-hand examination. On undergraduate-level field excursions, site discussions typically center on stratigraphic unit identification, correlation, depositional environments, paleontology, facies relationships, lithology, mineralogy, and/or structural features. It is rare (in my experience) for geomorphologic features and relationships to be the focus of attention, or even to receive more than passing mention. Yet, roadcuts and quarries offer much potential for learning about basic landform features, forms, and processes. This paper, with illustrated examples, discusses five general characteristics, present in artificial exposures, that offer opportunities for learning about geomorphology. (1) Roadcuts and quarries expose cross sections, not only of structure, but also of landforms, illustrating relationships between subsurface geology and the surface landscape. (2) The faces of roadcuts and quarries are anthropomorphic landforms of relatively well-known age and original form, two qualities that provide opportunities for discussing erosional modification over time. (3) These sites are generally nodes of intense geomorphic activity, useful for directly observing landform processes and their effects. The intensity of degradational and depositional processes at artificial exposures often produces (4) landform miniatures, and (5) landform analogs, both providing instructional examples or illustrations of geomorphic features. In addition to their utility to other geoscience sub-disciplines, roadcuts and quarries also offer important opportunities for students to learn about basic geomorphologic concepts, processes, and forms.

  3. Natural radioactivity measurements in the granite rock of quarry sites, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Hamzah, S.; Idi, Bello. Y.

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in the granite rocks of selected quarry sites in Johor state, Malaysia and their possible radiological effects. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the areas of study indicated varying values of 238U, 232Th and 40K. The highest values of 238U and 232Th concentrations (67±1 and 85±2 Bq kg-1, respectively) were observed at Kamad Quarry (IJM), whereas the highest value of 40K concentration (722±18 Bq kg-1) was detected in Kim Seng Quarry, while the values of activity concentration are lower in Hanson Quarry Products (Kulai) (25±0.5 for 238U, 24±0.5 for 232Th and 429±11 for 40K). Overall, 40K has the highest concentration in the granite rocks of the quarry sites, followed by 232Th and the least for 238U. The radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 94 and 239 Bq kg-1, the absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range between 47 and 112 nGy h-1, and effective dose ranged from 58 to 137 μSv h-1. Moreover, the internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity.

  4. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of quarry dust waste incorporated into fired clay brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Sarani, N. A.; Rahim, A. S. Abdul; Ismail, N.

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of quarry dust waste is dispose into landfills every year. This waste was obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. The increasing value of waste will have significant impact towards health and environment. Recycling such wastes by incorporating them into building materials is a practical solution for pollution problem. Therefore, this research was to examine the possibility of quarry dust to be incorporated in fired clay bricks. In this research, the composition and concentration of heavy metals were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The research also consists of physical and mechanical properties of the fired clay bricks by utilizing quarry dust waste. Brick was manufactured by incorporating different percentages of quarry dust waste which are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. All bricks sample was tested with physical and mechanical properties which were density, shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS) and compressive strength of the fired bricks. Furthermore, the density and shrinkage were also in standard range. All physical and mechanical results were complied with the BS 3921:1985 standard. The comprehensive experimental work described in this research investigated the possibility of incorporating quarry dust into fired clay bricks. These materials could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide a new disposal method for the waste.

  6. Ecological Filtering and Plant Traits Variation Across Quarry Geomorphological Surfaces: Implication for Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardelli, Federica; Sgorbati, Sergio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Citterio, Sandra; Gentili, Rodolfo

    2015-05-01

    Revegetation patterns after quarry abandonment have been widely studied from several ecological points of view, but a trait-based approach is still lacking. The aim of this study was to characterise the plant species assemblages and the associated functional traits filtered on different geomorphological surfaces in abandoned limestone quarry areas: artificial cliffs, embankments, and platforms. We then verified if species with certain traits were better able to overcome the dispersal and environmental filters necessary for establishment. To this aim, we analyzed 113 vegetation plots and collected data on 25 morphological, ecological, and dispersal traits to detect species adaptaions across these man-made environments. As a case study, we investigated the extraction basin of Botticino (Lombardy, Italy), the second largest in Italy. The results obtained by SIMPER and CCA analyses showed that rockiness, stoniness, slope, elevation, and time of surfaces are the main filters that varied across quarries and affected plant assemblages at the macro-scale level. Across the three geomorphological surfaces (meso-scale) of quarries, more specific abiotic filters selecting species were found. In turn, traits differentiation according to the three main geomorphological surfaces of quarry emphasized that further filters acting at the micro-scale imply differences in dispersal mechanisms and resource availability. This work highlighted the utility to study species assemblages and environmental filters to address quarry restoration according to the type of geomorphological surface. The investigation of some traits (chorological form, life forms, seed dispersal,s and plant height) can furnish some interesting indications for practice individuating further abiotic filters acting at the micro-scale.

  7. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing.

  8. Radiological and chemical characterization report for the planned Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant (QCSA) will be used in the support of the bulk waste removal of the Weldon Spring Quarry. Radiological and chemical characterization was performed on a 12 acre site where the QCSA will be constructed. The characterization revealed approximately .5 acres of radiologically contaminated land. No chemical contamination was found. 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Magnetostratigraphic age for the `Orce-Man' Tool-bearing Quarries, Granada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. R.; Gibert, L.; Gibert, J.

    2006-12-01

    The fossil quarries of southeastern Spain's Baza Basin have been producing abundant vertebrate remains for the last 30 years. Of specific interest are the lithic artifacts found in some excavations. During the last decade, hundreds of these Oldowan type tools were excavated from the stratigraphically equivalent quarries of Barranco Leon and Fuente Nueva-3, near the town of Orce. Lacking volcanic deposits, the chronology relies on magnetostratigraphy to estimate the age of these early homonins. Previously, the only confirmed results were from short sections around the quarries, where Reverse polarity was found. We have made an initiative to expand the magnetostratigraphy downward until a magnetozonation could be established. In concert, we expanded the lithostratigraphy both vertically and regionally, and expanded the fossil excavations into lower sites. The Reverse magnetozone was extended until 40m (n=70 samples) below the lithic artifact quarries. The lower, Normal magnetozone extended for another 12m (n=20), with an underlying Reverse zone of at least 5m. Regional lithostratigraphic work placed this section near the top of 600m of Neogene siltstones, sandstones and basin-fringing carbonates. An excavation at Fuente Nueva-1, at 25m below the lithic artifact quarries produced late MN-17 fauna, similar to those from the 1.7Ma site of Dmanisi, Georgia. These results argue for an assignment of C2n (Olduvai) for the Normal magnetozone. The overlying Reverse zone with all the fossil quarries has a total thickness of 60m, but is truncated by erosion. Interpolation within the pre-Jaramillo C1r zone, provides a minimum age for the span of lithic artifact quarries at 1.2-1.3Ma. The lower quarry with MN17 fauna gives a minimum age of 1.5Ma. The Normal magnetozone (which might be confused with modern magnetization) passed field tests for lateral continuity (0.2, 1.9, 3.7 km) and tilt (30°). Laboratory analysis shows that samples with similar lithology, but of Normal and

  10. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  11. Quantification of reduction in forced vital capacity of sand stone quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh Kumar; Chowdhary, G R; Chhangani, V D; Purohit, Gopal

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and these workers are exposed to different concentration of RSPM. It is found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations are main factors responsible to damage respiratory tract of worker. It is also revealed from the study that most of the workers are suffering from silicosis if the exposure duration is more than 15 years.

  12. Historic Context and Management Plan for the Quarry Pond Archeological Complex on Fort Drum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Carthage, N.Y. ERDC/CERL TR-12-7 31 In 1978, divers from the Jefferson County Underwater Rescue Team, in conjunction with personnel from Fort...Drum, conducted several underwater explorations of Quarry Pond. Among their discoveries were “two ore carts, drill bits, and some other mining...Quarry Pond Diving,” TA 14B (2009.054), Archaeological Investigations at Fort Drum 2009. ERDC/CERL TR-12-7 32 Figure 25. Sketch map showing initial

  13. Analysis of noise pollution in an andesite quarry with the use of simulation studies and evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Kosała, Krzysztof; Stępień, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verification of two partial indices proposed for the evaluation of continuous and impulse noise pollution in quarries. These indices, together with the sound power of machines index and the noise hazard index at the workstation, are components of the global index of assessment of noise hazard in the working environment of a quarry. This paper shows the results of acoustic tests carried out in an andesite quarry. Noise generated by machines and from performed blasting works was investigated. On the basis of acoustic measurements carried out in real conditions, the sound power levels of machines and the phenomenon of explosion were determined and, based on the results, three-dimensional models of acoustic noise propagation in the quarry were developed. To assess the degree of noise pollution in the area of the quarry, the continuous and impulse noise indices were used.

  14. Isotope characterisation of historical alabaster quarries in Western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Leroux, Lise; Bromblet, Philippe; Cooper, Anthony H.; Nestler, Angela; Guerrot, Catherine; Montech, Anne-Thérèse; Worley, Noel

    2015-04-01

    ranging from the 14th to 16th century from the Louvre Museum, Cleveland Museum of Fine Arts, the Petit Palais Museum in Avignon and several regional collections and monuments. Burke W. H., Denison R. E., Hetherington E. A., Koepnick R. B., Nelson H. F., and Otto J. B. (1982) Variation of seawater 87Sr/86Sr throughout Phanerozoic time. Geology 10, 516-519. Claypool G. E., Holser W. T., Kaplan I. R., Sakai H., and Zak I. (1980) The age curves of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation. Chem. Geol. 28, 199-260. Denison R. E., Kirkland D. W., and Evans R. (1998) Using strontium isotopes to determine the age and origin of gypsum and anhydrite beds. J. Geol. 106, 1-17. Kloppmann W., Leroux L., Bromblet P., Guerrot C., Proust E., Cooper A. H., Worley N., Smeds S. A., and Bengtsson H. (2014) Tracing Medieval and Renaissance Alabaster Works of Art Back to Quarries: A Multi-Isotope (Sr, S, O) Approach. Archaeometry 56, 203-219.

  15. Visual Analysis as a design and decision-making tool in the development of a quarry

    Treesearch

    Randall Boyd Fitzgerald

    1979-01-01

    In order to obtain local and state government approvals, an environmental impact analysis of the mining and reclamation of a proposed hard rock quarry was required. High visibility of the proposed mining area from the adjacent community required a visual impact analysis in the planning and design of the project. The Visual Analysis defined design criteria for the...

  16. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  17. Assessment of Rock Slope Stability in Limestone Quarries in the Tournai's Region (Belgium) Using Structural Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Deloge, K. Pierre-Alexandre; Deschamps, Benoît; Coudyzer, Christophe

    The Tournais region is characterised by famous outcrops of carboniferous limestone which is mined out for cement and raw material production. The four main quarries found in the Region, i.e. Gaurain-Ramecroix, Milieu, Antoing and Lemay; are owned by the three main cement producers in Belgium: Italcimenti, Holcim and CBR. The global production of limestone is about 20 millions tons per year, giving big pits with depths up to 150 m. With the growth of the pits, the quarries are approaching each other leading to the problem of managing the reserves contained in the separating walls and their mechanical stability. The limestone deposit is composed of different seams having varying thickness, chemical com- position and even mechanical properties. The deposit has an overall horizontal dip and is intersected by two main sets of discontinuities with a spacing of about 10 m or less. It is also crossed by a set of east to west faults but the quarries are implanted in the in between areas, so to not be crossed by these faults. The layers and specially the shallow ones are characterised by a typical karstic weathering giving open or filled cavities. This paper presents the global work quarried out in order to study the stability of the Lemays quarry. First a description of the orientation and spacing of discontinuities is presented, and an attempt made to correlate to the development of weathering. Mechanical laboratory tests have been performed and a qualification of the rock mass assessed. A coupled approach is then presented using a mining planning analysis and mechanical simulation (i.e. Finite Element method).

  18. Discrimination of earthquakes and quarry blasts in the Vértes Hills, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiszely, Márta; Győri, Erzsébet

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of earthquake catalogues with artificial events largely complicates the seismotectonic interpretations. It is especially true for the relatively low seismicity areas, as Hungary. The Vértes Hills are an interesting region in the country because the earthquake activity occurs in the vicinity of quarries. On 29 January 2011 an earthquake of magnitude ML4.5 occurred on the area near Oroszlány. The mainshock was followed by hundreds of small aftershocks until the end of the year. Magnitude of the recorded aftershocks varied from -0.6 to 3.5. Because of the small magnitudes of the aftershocks and the operating quarries in the Vértes Hills, discrimination of earthquakes and quarry blasts became a key issue. The problem is particularly challenging because the size of the events was low and the number of stations detecting them was limited. Studying the temporal distribution of the events, diurnal periodicity was found both in natural and artificial events that indicate the contamination. Discrimination based on the hypocentral parameters could not be used because of the location errors and the separation on the base of temporal distribution also failed. Therefore we analysed the waveforms of the events and their Fourier amplitude spectra. Within these we studied the polarity of P wave arrivals, the amplitude ratios of different phases (Rg and high frequency Pg/Sg). We studied the waveform similarities using cross-correlation methods; determined cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms to cluster the events. The earthquakes and blasts were arranged into different clusters. We computed spectrograms and because most of the quarry blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology, we computed binary spectrograms, too. We also studied the scalloping and steepness of spectra. The parameters computed from waveforms and spectra were jointly analysed using the mathematical method of Mahalanobis distance. We found that earthquakes and quarry blasts could be well

  19. Behavior and Release of Nitrogen at Mines and Quarries in Nordic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Teemu; Neitola, Raisa; Jermakka, Johannes; Merta, Elina; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

    2015-04-01

    The increased extraction of mineral resources and mining activities creates added pressure on the environmental issues and a proper water management in mining areas in Finland. Among others, nitrogen compounds released from explosives or from mining processes can have a detrimental effect on the environment. Thus, this project aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and generated better understanding of the discharge and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in mining areas. The sources and balances of explosives-originated nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries of different sizes were investigated and compared. Additionally, the focus was in 'nitrogen smudging' problem of waste rocks and the intensity, as well as evolution and chemical characteristics of their nitrogen contamination. According to the results, the total load of potential nitrogen to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. The main emission sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters. A lysimeter study showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The "nitrogen smudging" of natural stone quarrying left over stones is relatively low to begin with and enhanced by the rapid flushing by rainwater, thus the residues of explosives should not be considered to prevent the utilization of otherwise mineralogically inert waste rocks of good technical quality. The overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem. The research project "Solution for Control of Nitrogen Discharges at Mines and Quarries, (MINIMAN)" was realized during years 2012-2014 as a cooperative

  20. The impact of pumped water from a de-watered Magnesian limestone quarry on an adjacent wetland: Thrislington, County Durham, UK.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Large, A R G; Younger, P L

    2005-12-01

    Although quarrying is often cited as a potential threat to wetland systems, there is a lack of relevant, quantitative case studies in the literature. The impact of pumped groundwater discharged from a quarry into a wetland area was assessed relative to reference conditions in an adjacent fen wetland that receives only natural runoff. Analysis of vegetation patterns at the quarry wetland site, using Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the species indicator values of Ellenberg, revealed a clear disparity between community transitions in the quarry wetland and the reference site. Limited establishment of moisture-sensitive taxa, the preferential proliferation of robust wetland species and an overall shift towards lower species diversity in the quarry wetland were explicable primarily by the physico-chemical environment created by quarry dewatering. This encompassed high pH (up to 12.8), sediment-rich effluent creating a nutrient-poor substrate with poor moisture retention in the quarry wetland, and large fluctuations in water levels.

  1. Effect of flooding waves on a removal of pollutants from underwater quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    A characteristic feature of the effects of large-scale sandy gravel extruction from water bodies is the formation of a considerable underwater quarries, that strongly changes the hydrodynamical regimes of these water bodies. Traditionally, to estimate the consequences of the formation of the quarries researchers focus on lowering of the water level at limiting hydrological regimes which have fundamental importance for ensuring the sustainability of the different water intakes. Additionally, the changes in the velocity regimes of water body are estimated from the viewpoint of minimizing the possible erosion processes. There is the Verkhnekamskoye potassium and magnesium salts deposit (the largest in Russia and the second in the world) on Kama river (Kama Reservoir) within Berezniki-Solikamsk-industrial unit. For this deposit the consideration of the formation of quarries is much more complicated because of the presence of significant natural and technogenic output of brines into the Kama reservoir. In this case it is necessary to analyze the problem of estimating the accumulation of the brines in these underwater quarries and to calculate the intensity of the removal of pollutants at their washing due to the changes in the hydrological regime of the water body. The problem of changing the hydrodynamic regime, first of all the lowering of the water level and the calculation of the flow velocity can be solved very successfully in two-and even in one-dimensional approach and the problem of washing the underwater quarries is essentially three-dimensional. In this paper we simulate the removal of contaminants from the underwater quarry. The problem is solved in the framework of unsteady approach. The calculations show that in the flow near the bottom of quarry the vortex is formed whose direction is such that the front edge of the quarry is eroded. The computations and field observations show that, the upper, rather thin (<1 m) water layer in the quarry is washed during

  2. The Energy-Efficient Quarry: Towards improved understanding and optimisation of energy use and minimisation of CO2 generation in the aggregates industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ian; White, Toby; Owen, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Extraction and processing of rock materials to produce aggregates is carried out at some 20,000 quarries across the EU. All stages of the processing and transport of hard and dense materials inevitably consume high levels of energy and have consequent significant carbon footprints. The FP7 project "the Energy Efficient Quarry" (EE-Quarry) has been addressing this problem and has devised strategies, supported by modelling software, to assist the quarrying industry to assess and optimise its energy use, and to minimise its carbon footprint. Aggregate quarries across Europe vary enormously in the scale of the quarrying operations, the nature of the worked mineral, and the processing to produce a final market product. Nevertheless most quarries involve most or all of a series of essential stages; deposit assessment, drilling and blasting, loading and hauling, and crushing and screening. The process of determining the energy-efficiency of each stage is complex, but is broadly understood in principle and there are numerous sources of information and guidance available in the literature and on-line. More complex still is the interaction between each of these stages. For example, using a little more energy in blasting to increase fragmentation may save much greater energy in later crushing and screening, but also generate more fines material which is discarded as waste and the embedded energy in this material is lost. Thus the calculation of the embedded energy in the waste material becomes an input to the determination of the blasting strategy. Such feedback loops abound in the overall quarry optimisation. The project has involved research and demonstration operations at a number of quarries distributed across Europe carried out by all partners in the EE-Quarry project, working in collaboration with many of the major quarrying companies operating in the EU. The EE-Quarry project is developing a sophisticated modelling tool, the "EE-Quarry Model" available to the quarrying

  3. Evidence for In-situ Cretaceous Volcanism From La Conception Quarry in the Noumea Basin, New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickey, C.; Alexander, A.; Grande, R.; Robinson, S.; Nicholson, K.

    2009-05-01

    The Noumea Basin in New Caledonia, forms a narrow band, about 10-30km wide that extends from the city of Noumea north-westward towards La Tontouta for about 60km. The Noumea Basin represents a sequence of late Cretaceous basalts, rhyolites and marginal marine sedimentary typical of continental margin volcanic arcs. Directly north of the Tina Peninsula, in the Bay of La Conception, there is an old basalt quarry known as the La Conception Quarry. This project involved mapping La Conception quarry, which may be an extinct volcano. This is of particular importance as it is one of the only in-situ volcanic centers that exist in the South Pacific during the late Cretaceous. Through petrophraphic analyses of the basalts we determined that they have experienced minimal low-grade metamorphism, and that the temperatures and pressures never increased enough to re-orientate the phenocrysts. The quarry is roughly oval in shape, and is oriented north-south. The area of the exposed rock is roughly 0.5km2 and the quarry lake itself encompasses about of the exposed area. We mapped this site by using orientation of phenocrysts and vesicles to determine the direction of flow. We took measurements on the exposed rock every meter by setting up a square meter grid around the entire quarry. This was achieved by establishing a starting point, with a known GPS position, in the quarry and then having two groups of two people move directly north and south from that point. Compasses were used to orientate the lines of the grid; spray paint was used to mark the grid. According to the data we compiled, there are three different basaltic flows in La Conception quarry. These flows were discernable only on the west side of the quarry lake, and are stacked one on top of the other, forming a steep sided mound. On the east side of the quarry all orientations were random and there were no recognizable flows. Of the three flows we identified, the upper flow has random orientation of phenocrysts, the

  4. Removal of graffiti from quarry stone by high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of architectural monuments in urban areas is threatened by numerous attacks, among which the graffiti is sometimes one of the most important. Particularly, Morelia's historic center (Mexico) (appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO) suffers, for some years, a high number of graffiti. Most of these monuments in Morelia were built using a local stone called Pink Morelia Quarry. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility to remove the graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry using a high power diode laser treatment. An extensive experimental analysis of the operating conditions has been carried out leading to successful results. The optimal parameters to achieve a total removal of graffiti have been determined. We concluded that continuous wave regime leads to better results than modulated wave regime, additionally, a two laser passes process demonstrated a high performance.

  5. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  6. Quarry waste management and recovery: first results connected to Carrara marble ravaneti (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Chiappino, Claudia; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    Quarry waste (QW) represents a huge economic and environmental issue, due to loss of resources and to economic and environmental costs connected to waste management and landfilling activities. In many cases, valuable Raw Materials (RM) and Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) can be supplied by enhancing the QW recovery. In Italy large amounts of QW have been and still are dumped: such materials, if their quality (chemical, mineralogical, physical characteristics) and quantity are adequate, and if the impacts connected to their management are positive, can represent a valuable resource for SRM exploitation. Several dimension stone quarries have been and are interested by researches as for QW exploitation. Some researches show positive results, which are the basis for QW recovery (both from waste streams and from quarry dumps exploitation): a noticeable example is represented by Carrara marble waste. The Carrara quarry basin is characterized by ca. one hundred quarries for colored and white marble exploitation. The waste production can be summarized in: 80 Mm3 waste present in old quarry dumps (Ravaneti) and 3 Mm3/y of waste stream from quarrying activities. At present only 0.5 Mm3/y of QW is exploited for SRM production, causing a huge loss of resource. This has been the background for a preliminary research, on Carrara marble Ravaneti characterization, which was carried out thanks to the close cooperation between University of Torino, Società Apuana Marmi srl, and SET srl. In 2015, two QW dumping areas, Calocara and Lorano, were selected as representative for sampling activities. Three main sample categories were individuated based on granulometry (0.5-4 mm, 0-25 mm, 0-150 mm) to be characterized (size distribution, density, Atterberg limits, Los Angeles test, freezing and heat tests, flat and shape indexes, geochemistry, mineralogy). The results obtained are promising: the physical characterization shows an attitude for Carrara QW to be recovered as crushed materials

  7. U-series dating of the Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Wood Quarry (Steetley), Nottinghamshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, A. W. G.; Eggins, S.; Grün, R.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Jacobi, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the U-series dating of bones from Wood Quarry (Steetley Quarry Cave) using the diffusion-adsorption model to account for uranium uptake. The results give a weighted mean date of 66.8 ± 3.0 kyr, placing this assemblage within or just before Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 4. The fauna is thought to correlate with the Banwell Bone Cave mammal assemblage-zone of the Early Devensian in Britain. Our results support the idea that this assemblage-zone immediately precedes the assemblage represented nearby at Pin Hole in Creswell Crags which is contemporary with the Mid-Devensian and correlates with MIS 3. Our dates, and dates for the Banwell Bone Cave mammal assemblage-zone from Stump Cross Cavern and evidence from other sites may indicate a longevity for this fauna.

  8. A Method of Effective Quarry Water Purifying Using Artificial Filtering Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyulenev, M.; Garina, E.; Khoreshok, A.; Litvin, O.; Litvin, Y.; Maliukhina, E.

    2017-01-01

    The development of open pit mining in the large coal basins of Russia and other countries increases their negative impact on the environment. Along with the damage of land and air pollution by dust and combustion gases of blasting, coal pits have a significant negative impact on water resources. Polluted quarry water worsens the ecological situation on a much larger area than covered by air pollution and land damage. This significantly worsens the conditions of people living in cities and towns located near the coal pits, and complicates the subsequent restoration of the environment, irreversibly destroying the nature. Therefore, the research of quarry wastewater purifying is becoming an important mater for scholars of technical colleges and universities in the regions with developing open-pit mining. This paper describes the method of determining the basic parameters of the artificial filtering arrays formed on coal pits of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia), and gives recommendations on its application.

  9. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year`s survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  10. Geology of the Carnegie museum dinosaur quarry site of Diplodocus carnegii, Sheep Creek, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Kollar, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The holotype of Diplodocus carnegii Hatcher, 1901, consists of a partial skeleton (CM 84) that was recovered, along with a second partial skeleton of the same species (CM 94), from the upper 10 m of the Talking Rock facies of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation exposed along Bone Quarry Draw, a tributary of Sheep Creek in Albany County, Wyoming. A composite measured section of the stratigraphic interval exposed adjacent to the quarry indicates that the Brushy Basin Member in this area is a stacked succession of lithofacies consisting of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone and greenish brown, dense, fine-grained limestone. The more erosion resistant limestone layers can be traced over many hundreds of meters. Thus, these strata do not appear to represent a highly localized deposit such as a stream channel, oxbow lake, or backwater pond. The Sheep Creek succession is interpreted as representing a clastic-dominated lake where high turbidity and sediment influx produced deposition of calcareous mudstone. During drier periods the lake's turbidity decreased and limestone and dolomite precipitation replaced mud deposition. Microkarsting at the top of some limestone/ dolomite layers suggests subaerial deposition may have prevailed during these dry episodes. The quarry of D. carnegii was excavated within the top strata of one of the numerous intervals of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone that represent an ephemeral freshwater lake. The quarry strata are directly overlain by 0.3 m of dolomite-capped limestone that was deposited shortly after interment of D. carnegii in the lake mudstones. The close vertical proximity of the overlying limestone to the skeleton's stratigraphic: level suggests that the animal's carcass may have been buried beneath the drying lake deposits during a period of decreased rainfall.

  11. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the Marsala area (western Sicily) linked to underground quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamini, M.; Di Maggio, C.; Lollino, P.; Madonia, G.; Parise, M.; Vattano, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marsala territory (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. At some locations the Marsala Calcarenite is covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. Since the Roman period, due to the great abundance of calcarenite rocks, and to the facility of extraction, the Marsala area has been characterized by a high number of quarries for the extraction of this building materials. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth varying from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass, the interaction with the groundwater, the high costs of extraction, and the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries have been affected by instability processes, visible through collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which affect and severely damage the built-up area. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries will be analyzed in this paper. The aim is to provide a description of the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes based on field surveys, as well as to understand the generation mechanisms of these anthropogenic sinkholes by means of numerical modeling, based on rock laboratory testing data, that represents in these

  12. 77 FR 10472 - San Bernardino National Forest, Mountaintop Ranger District, California, Mitsubishi South Quarry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... mining laws (30 U.S.C. 21- 54), which confer a statutory right to enter upon the public lands to search... by revegetation monitoring. During the first two years, the 1.8-mile long haul road would be... depth of 5,365 feet above mean sea level or 1,215 feet below the quarry rim on the south. Phase 1A...

  13. 3-D Reconstruction of Pillow Ridge Structure and Stratigraphy, Vatnsskarð Quarry, Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia, E. A.; Kochtitzky, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Vatnsskarð quarry is one of two quarries along the northern half of the Krisuvik fissure segment on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwestern Iceland. The northern half of the segment comprises predominantly glaciovolcanic deposits including pillow lava units, with lesser subaqueous tuff-breccia, lapilli tuff, and hyaloclastite (sensu stricto). High-resolution measurements of individual pillow lavas, intrusions, and lateral stratigraphic variations provide new insight into the emplacement and eruptive processes for glaciovolcanic, pillow-dominated ridges. Field analysis included >50 pillow width/height field measurements, and DGPS tracks from traverses along outcrops, and laser-DGPS points on quarry walls. Our 3-D reconstructions are made using the detailed measurements tied to Gigapan© images, and photo reconstructions using Photoscan© software. The high-resolution Gigapan images facilitate detailed tracings of individual pillows, which are then used for en masse measurements of >500 individual pillow dimensions. The Pillow Size Distributions for individual stratigraphic units are then calculated using ImageJ. Previous work at Undirhliður quarry immediately to the north (Was et al., 2014, EOS, V41D-2839) showed that, using >5000 measurements, different stratigraphic units had distinct characteristic pillow sizes indicating either changes in lava fluxes or in spatial positions with respect to lava supply system. The opportunity to map changes in pillow sizes as well as the spatial relationship between intrusions related to the within-ridge magma supply and pillows provides detailed constraints on the physical mechanisms by which pillow ridges grow exogenously and endogenously.

  14. Testing different discrimination methods between microearthquakes and quarry blasts - a case study in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalocsai, Lilla; Kiszely, Márta; Süle, Bálint; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Due to the development of seismological network, increasing number of events have been detected in the last years in Hungary. However about 50% of these shocks were quarry blasts. Therefore decontamination of catalogue for revealing the reliable natural seismicity has become an important task. We have studied the events occurring in the surroundings of Mecsek Hills. The goal of our research was to find the best method to separate earthquakes and quarry blasts. In the first step we have studied the diurnal distributions of the events. Because of different focal mechanisms, the waveforms and amplitudes of arriving phases of earthquakes and quarry blasts are different. We have tested the most typical parameter, the P and S amplitude ratio, which is often used for separation. The waveform similarities have been analyzed using cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms. The earthquakes and the blasts of different quarries have been arranged into different clusters. We have computed spectrograms and because the blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology we have computed binary spectrograms too. Computation of binary spectra is a useful visualization method to recognize the delay-fired explosions, because it emphasizes the long-duration modulations of the spectra. It is made from the original spectra by application of a filter that replaces the spectral amplitudes with a binary code, which simply reflects the local spectral highs and lows. The modulations were present in most of the spectra of blasts and in contrast to the earthquakes, the modulations have been observable until the end of the spectrogram. We also have studied the scalloping and steepness of the spectra.

  15. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  16. Pulmonary problems among quarry workers of stone crushing industrial site at Umuoghara, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwibo, A N; Ugwuja, E I; Nwambeke, N O; Emelumadu, O F; Ogbonnaya, L U

    2012-10-01

    Respiratory problem is one of the major health hazards in dust-exposed workers; it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. To determine the prevalence of respiratory problems and lung function impairment among quarry workers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Respiratory problems and lung function were studied in 403 quarry workers aged 10-60 years. Respiratory problems were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models adapted for the study population. Lung function was assessed by spirometry and chest roentgenography. The respiratory problems found were chest pain (47.6%), occasional cough (40.7%), occasional shortness of breath (6.5%) and wheezing (5.2%). The mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values were significantly decreased with length of exposure-respectively, 3.52±0.77 and 3.91±0.72 L for <5 years; 2.79±0.68 and 3.09±0.87 L for 5-10 years; and 2.03±0.92 and 2.86±0.83 L for >10 years of exposure. Moreover, the mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values of smoker (3.37±0.81 and 3.56±1.02 L, respectively) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of non-smokers (3.68±1.02 and 3.89±0.99 L, respectively) working in the quarry site. Chronic exposure to dust due to stone quarrying may increase the risk of respiratory problems and impaired lung function-cigarette smokers are at higher risk.

  17. The results of palaeontological excavations in the Sadowa Góra quarry (2012-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Skreczko, Sylwia; Wolny, Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    Palaeontological fieldwork (2012-14) in the Sadowa Góra quarry carried out under the auspices of the University of Silesia, within the framework of a research project supported by the National Science Centre, helped to document the taxonomic diversity of Middle Triassic marine vertebrates from the Cracow-Silesia region. Accumulations of fossil bones are correlated with storm deposition and are time-averaged

  18. Prostate-specific antigen and its derivatives in young adults occupationally exposed to quarry pollutants in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ewenighi, Chinwe O; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Onyeanusi, Joel C; Babtunde, Adejumo; Onoh, Linus U M; Onoh, Gladys O; Ezeugwu, Uchechukwu

    2017-09-03

    To evaluate the level of total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and effect of duration of exposure to pollutants in quarry workers, 5 mls of blood sample was collected from participants: 72 male quarry workers exposed to quarry pollutants and 72 unexposed controls. PSA estimations were done using the principle of ELISA. Mean total PSA, free PSA, and free-total PSA ratio levels of quarry workers did not differ from those of controls and was below the cutoff for the risk of prostate diseases. Higher mean total PSA and free PSA were observed in workers exposed for > 3 years compared to the unexposed control and workers exposed for ≤ 3 years. Age-adjusted linear regression indicated significant association (R = 0.515; p < .001) between the duration of exposure and total PSA level in quarry workers. This study suggests that longer duration of exposure to the quarry pollutants may elevate PSA level if precautions are not taken to minimize dose of exposure.

  19. Analysis of the mobilization of solid loads and heavy metals in runoff waters from granite quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña González, Enrique; Suárez López, Joaquín; Delgado Martín, Jordi; Jácome Burgos, Alfredo; Puertas Agudo, Jerónimo

    2006-08-01

    The cutting operations of dimension stone at quarries produce a large amount of fines that, in turn, cause a negative environmental impact over local surface waters. This article presents a detailed analysis of the mobilized contamination associated with runoff waters in a large granite quarry (˜200 ha) which is located in Porriño (Galicia, NW Spain), the most important production centre of dimension stone in Spain. There, an intensive monitoring survey was developed in order to characterize the hydrology of the system as well as the release and transport of pollutants. This was accomplished by means of different control sections for the flow and by the collection of 52 random water samples. Automatic samplers were also used to collect 192 water samples associated with runoff generated by significant rain events. For each of the samples collected, a wide battery of analytic determinations was performed, including solid loads, turbidity, organic pollution, nutrient and selected metals. Upon careful examination it has been possible to obtain different parameters related to the contamination control, like the “event mean concentration” (EMC), maximum concentrations and specific sediment loads. Moreover, a comprehensive statistical study including parameter correlation and cumulative probability analyses helped to understand the pollutant mobilization behaviour within the quarry system. It can be concluded that mobilized contamination shows the anomalous presence of some metals, whose concentrations are in excess when compared to the natural rock. This excess metal amount must be attributed to an anthropogenic source associated to mining and cutting operations.

  20. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).

  1. The effects of a perturbed source on contaminant transport near the Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of a perturbed contamination source at the Weldon Spring quarry in St. Charles County, Missouri, on downstream solute concentrations were investigated using one-dimensional analytical solutions to an advection-dispersion equation developed for both constant-strength and multiple-stepped source functions. A sensitivity study using parameter base-case values and ranges consistent with the geologic conceptualization of the quarry area indicates that the parameters having the greatest effect on predicted concentrations are the distance from the quarry to the point of interest, the average linear groundwater velocity, the contaminant retardation coefficient, and the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation caused by response action activities. Use of base-case parameter value and realistic values for the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation produced a small effect on solute concentrations near the western extremity of the nearby municipal well field, as well as small uncertainties in the predicted results for the assumed model. The effect of simplifying assumptions made in deriving the analytic solution is unknown: use of a multidimensional flow and transport model and additional field work are needed to validate the model. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Block volume estimation from the discontinuity spacing measurements of mesozoic limestone quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (J(v)) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (V(b)), the mean volumetric joint count (J(vb)) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (V(in)) and volumetric joint count (J(vi)) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements.

  3. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  4. Role of transient water pressure in quarrying: A subglacial experiment using acoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T. S.; Iverson, N. R.; Thomason, J. F.; Jackson, M.

    2006-09-01

    Probably the most important mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying: the growth and coalescence of cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. Although evidence indicates that erosion rates depend on sliding speed, rates of crack growth in bedrock may be enhanced by changing stresses on the bed caused by fluctuating basal water pressure in zones of ice-bed separation. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step, 12 cm high with a crack in its stoss surface, was installed at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. Acoustic emission sensors monitored crack growth events in the step as ice slid over it. Vertical stresses, water pressure, and cavity height in the lee of the step were also measured. Water was pumped to the lee of the step several times over 8 days. Pumping initially caused opening of a leeward cavity, which then closed after pumping was stopped and water pressure decreased. During cavity closure, acoustic emissions emanating mostly from the vicinity of the base of the crack in the step increased dramatically. With repeated pump tests this crack grew with time until the step's lee surface was quarried. Our experiments indicate that fluctuating water pressure caused stress thresholds required for crack growth to be exceeded. Natural basal water pressure fluctuations should also concentrate stresses on rock steps, increasing rates of crack growth. Stress changes on the bed due to water pressure fluctuations will increase in magnitude and duration with cavity size, which may help explain the effect of sliding speed on erosion rates.

  5. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  6. Block Volume Estimation from the Discontinuity Spacing Measurements of Mesozoic Limestone Quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (Jv) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (Vb), the mean volumetric joint count (Jvb) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (Vin) and volumetric joint count (Jvi) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  7. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  8. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  10. Characterizing the microbial colonization of a dolostone quarry: implications for stone biodeterioration and response to biocide treatments.

    PubMed

    Cámara, Beatriz; De los Ríos, Asuncion; Urizal, Marta; de Buergo, Mónica Alvarez; Varas, Maria Jose; Fort, Rafael; Ascaso, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the microbial colonization of three fronts of an abandoned dolostone quarry (Redueña, Madrid, Spain) exposed to atmospheric conditions for different time periods since Roman times to the present. Through scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), endolithic colonization was predominantly detected in the most recently exposed front, while in the longer exposed quarry fronts, epilithic forms of growth were most often observed. These observations were confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Based on the distribution pattern of microbial colonization in the different quarry fronts, we then established a sequence of colonization events that took place over this long time frame. Bioalteration processes related to this sequential colonization were also identified. Characterizing these sequential processes can be useful for interpreting biodeterioration processes in historic dolostone monuments, especially those affecting constructions in the area of the Redueña stone quarry. In a second experimental stage, different biocide treatments were tested on this quarry rock to find the best way to avoid the microbial colonization effects identified. Through combined SEM-BSE/DGGE analysis, the efficacy of several biocides against the microorganisms inhabiting the dolostones was assessed after 4 and 16 months treatment. In general, all treatments were effective at reducing around 80% of the lichen cover, although effects on endolithic lithobiontic communities were dependent on how well the rock surface had been mechanically cleaned prior to treatment and gradually disappeared over time.

  11. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure in a granite quarry and processing factory.

    PubMed

    Tejado, J J; Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2016-09-01

    Workers in the granite industry face an occupational hazard: silicosis due to the crystalline silica present in inhalable dust. As granite can also present a variable, and occasionally significant, content of naturally occurring radionuclides, they may also face a radiological hazard. In order to assess the risk, a granite industry with a quarry and processing factory was selected to assess the occupational exposure. Three main potential pathways were observed: external irradiation, inhalation of granite dust, and radon exposure. The external dose rate was similar to that in a nearby farming area. A slight increment (0.016-0.076 mSv yr(-1)) was observed in the quarry and stockpile, due to quarry faces and granite blocks. The effective dose due to granite dust inhalation was 0.182  ±  0.009 mSv yr(-1) in the worst case scenario (3 mg m(-3) dust load in air and no use of filter masks). Thus, the mean value of the effective dose from these two pathways was 0.26 mSv yr(-1), lower than the reference level of 1 mSv yr(-1) for the general population. The annual mean value of radon concentration in the indoor air was 33 Bq m(-3). However, during granite processing works the radon concentration can increase up to 216 Bq m(-3), due to mechanical operations (sawing, polishing, sanding, etc). This radon concentration was below the 600 Bq m(-3) reference level for action in working places. Therefore, workers in this granite factory face no significant additional radiological exposure, and no-one needs to be designated as occupationally exposed and subject to individual dosimetry.

  13. Selection of site specific vibration equation by using analytic hierarchy process in a quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Kalayci, Ulku Ozer, Umit

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a new approach for the selection of the most accurate SSVA (Site Specific Vibration Attenuation) equation for blasting processes in a quarry located near settlements in Istanbul, Turkey. In this context, the SSVA equations obtained from the same study area in the literature were considered in terms of distance between the shot points and buildings and the amount of explosive charge. In this purpose, 11 different SSVA equations obtained from the study area in the past 12 years, forecasting capabilities according to designated new conditions, using 102 vibration records as test data obtained from the study area was investigated. In this study, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was selected as an analysis method in order to determine the most accurate equation among 11 SSAV equations, and the parameters such as year, distance, charge, and r{sup 2} of the equations were used as criteria for AHP. Finally, the most appropriate equation was selected among the existing ones, and the process of selecting according to different target criteria was presented. Furthermore, it was noted that the forecasting results of the selected equation is more accurate than that formed using the test results. - Highlights: • The optimum Site Specific Vibration Attenuation equation for blasting in a quarry located near settlements was determined. • It is indicated that SSVA equations changing over the years don’t give always accurate estimates at changing conditions. • Selection of the blast induced SSVA equation was made using AHP. • Equation selection method was highlighted based on parameters such as charge, distance, and quarry geometry changes (year).

  14. Experimental study on the strength parameter of Quarry Dust mixed Coconut Shell Concrete adding Coconut Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matangulu Shrestha, Victor; Anandh, S.; Sindhu Nachiar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous mixture constitute of cement as the main ingredient with a different mix of fine and coarse aggregate. The massive use of conventional concrete has a shortfall in its key ingredients, natural sand and coarse aggregate, due to increased industrialisation and globalisation. To overcome the shortage of material, an alternate material with similar mechanical properties and composition has to be studied, as replacement of conventional concrete. Coconut shell concrete is a prime option as replacement of key ingredients of conventional concrete as coconut is produced in massive quantity in south East Asia. Coconut shell concrete is lightweight concrete and different research is still ongoing concerning about its mix design and composition in the construction industry. Concrete is weak in tension as compared to compression, hence the fibre is used to refrain the crack in the concrete. Coconut fibre is one of many fibres which can be used in concrete. The main aim of this project is to analyse the use of natural by-products in the construction industry, make light weight concrete and eco-friendly construction. This project concerns with the comparison of the mechanical properties of coconut shell concrete and conventional concrete, replacing fine aggregate with quarry dust using coconut fibre. M25 grade of concrete was adopted and testing of concrete was done at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days. In this concrete mix, sand was replaced completely in volumetric measurement by quarry dust. The result was analysed and compared with addition of coconut fibre at varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. From the test conducted, coconut shell concrete with quarry dust has the maximum value at 4% of coconut fibre while conventional concrete showed the maximum value at 2% of coconut fibre.

  15. Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines.

    PubMed

    Rowe, E C; Williamson, J C; Jones, D L; Holliman, P; Healey, J R

    2005-01-01

    Pocket planting reclamation techniques developed in the 1970s for revegetating blocky quarrying waste have met with very limited success, often because the low water-holding capacity of the waste and limited root development within a small volume of planting pocket material result in severe drought mortality. We tested pocket planting approaches for waste tip reclamation at Europe's largest slate quarry, and compared materials for enhancing the continuity of water- and nutrient-holding down into the interior of the waste tip. When small compost-filled pocket planting bags were placed above slate processing fines (SPF) or water absorbent cross-linked polyacrylamide gel ("hydrogel"), tree growth rates increased in comparison with pocket planting bags alone. The SPF significantly improved tree survival especially during severe drought, but survival was not enhanced by the use of hydrogel. The sorption characteristics of hydrogel indicated that its presence may help to reduce nutrient leaching, but that it may have a negative effect on nitrogen availability. A more likely explanation for the poor performance of pure hydrogel is that it did not maintain sufficient available water, because of discontinuities caused by shrinkage and movement of the hydrogel, and/or degradation of water-holding capacity with environmental exposure. However, the root growth observed in the hydrogel treatments suggests that this technique, if adapted to reduce the effects of hydrogel shrinkage by using finer-grade hydrogel, mixing it with other soil-forming material, and reducing its exposure to extremes of temperature or sunlight, might have the potential to improve the growth and survival of trees planted on sites where delivery of heavy materials such as SPF is impractical. Fine mineral processing waste is freely available at active quarries and should be seen as a key resource for reclamation schemes.

  16. Role of transient water pressure in quarrying: A subglacial experiment using acoustic emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Thomason, J.F.; Jackson, M.

    2006-01-01

    Probably the most important mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying: the growth and coalescence of cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. Although evidence indicates that erosion rates depend on sliding speed, rates of crack growth in bedrock may be enhanced by changing stresses on the bed caused by fluctuating basal water pressure in zones of ice-bed separation. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step, 12 cm high with a crack in its stoss surface, was installed at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. Acoustic emission sensors monitored crack growth events in the step as ice slid over it. Vertical stresses, water pressure, and cavity height in the lee of the step were also measured. Water was pumped to the lee of the step several times over 8 days. Pumping initially caused opening of a leeward cavity, which then closed after pumping was stopped and water pressure decreased. During cavity closure, acoustic emissions emanating mostly from the vicinity of the base of the crack in the step increased dramatically. With repeated pump tests this crack grew with time until the step's lee surface was quarried. Our experiments indicate that fluctuating water pressure caused stress thresholds required for crack growth to be exceeded. Natural basal water pressure fluctuations should also concentrate stresses on rock steps, increasing rates of crack growth. Stress changes on the bed due to water pressure fluctuations will increase in magnitude and duration with cavity size, which may help explain the effect of sliding speed on erosion rates. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Assessing the role of coastal characteristics in erosional process of rocky shores by boulder quarrying.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causon Deguara, Joanna; Gauci, Ritienne

    2017-04-01

    Rocky coasts are considered as relatively stable coastlines, subject to erosional processes that change the landscape over long periods of time. Block quarrying is one such process, occurring when hydraulic pressure from wave impact dislodges boulders from within the outcropping bedrock. These dislodged boulders can be either deposited inland or dragged seaward by further wave action. This process can be evidenced from boulder deposits on the coast, as well as sockets and detachment scarps that are identified at the shoreline and in the backshore. This study seeks to identify the role of attributes such as aspect, geological structure and water depth have on erosion of rocky coasts through boulder quarrying processes. This is being done through observation of coastline morphology and an analysis of boulder accumulations and erosional features identified on a 3km stretch of rocky shore. The study area is situated on the SE coast of the Island of Malta (Central Mediterranean). The coastline being analysed generally trends NW - SE and consists of a series of limestone beds that dip slightly towards the NE. The boulder deposits observed along the site vary in size, quantity and position with respect to the shoreline. Whilst some areas exhibit large boulder accumulations, other areas are distinguished by the complete absence of such deposits. Taking into consideration the wave climate, the variable size, quantity and distribution of boulder accumulations observed along the site may indicate that geological structure and aspect play an important role in boulder dislodgment by wave action. Key words: rock coast, boulder quarrying, erosional process, Malta

  18. Airborne concentrations of chrysotile asbestos in serpentine quarries and stone processing facilities in Valmalenco, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Somigliana, Anna; Gemmi, Mauro; Bernabeo, Ferruccio; Savoca, Domenico; Cavallo, Domenico M; Bertazzi, Pier A

    2012-07-01

    Asbestos may be naturally present in rocks and soils. In some cases, there is the possibility of releasing asbestos fibres into the atmosphere from the rock or soil, subsequently exposing workers and the general population, which can lead to an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. In the present study, air contaminated with asbestos fibres released from serpentinites was investigated in occupational settings (quarries and processing factories) and in the environment close to working facilities and at urban sites. The only naturally occurrence of asbestos found in Valmalenco area was chrysotile; amphibole fibres were never detected. An experimental cut-off diameter of 0.25 μm was established for distinguishing between Valmalenco chrysotile and antigorite single fibres using selected area electron diffraction analyses. Air contamination from chrysotile fibres in the examined occupational settings was site-dependent as the degree of asbestos contamination of Valmalenco serpentinites is highly variable from place to place. Block cutting of massive serpentinites with multiple blades or discs and drilling at the quarry sites that had the highest levels of asbestos contamination generated the highest exposures to (i.e. over the occupational exposure limits) asbestos. Conversely, working activities on foliated serpentinites produced airborne chrysotile concentrations comparable with ambient levels. Environmental chrysotile concentrations were always below the Italian limit for life environments (0.002 f ml(-1)), except for one sample collected at a quarry property boundary. The present exposure assessment study should encourage the development of an effective and concordant policy for proper use of asbestos-bearing rocks and soils as well as for the protection of public health.

  19. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  20. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  1. Estimation of the surface displacement of ore mining quarry using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razakova, Maira G.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the TerraSAR-X InSAR data acquired from August 2011-October 2015 are employed to monitor the surface deformation of the mining quarry in the Central Kazakhstan. Our results show that there is a 0.5 - 1.0 cm motion per a month. Our InSAR measurement also indicate that one side has stopped moving. This differential motion may be due to the end of mining ore. This method should be useful for estimating the dynamic of the ore mining regions based on the geo-information technology combined with ground measurement.

  2. Quarries as educational resources - a research with students of a secondary school of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipe, Fernanda; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the results obtained in a research on science education involving 18 students of Biology and Geology of the 10th grade (15 years old) of the Secondary School of Figueiró dos Vinhos (Central Portugal). Framed on the curricular topic "Earth, a very special planet", the research included the conception, implementation and evaluation of an educational intervention aiming to answer the question: "How to stimulate meaningful and relevant learning about sustainable exploitation of geological resources, namely limestone?" The intervention occurred along 8 classes of 90 minutes each, which included practical work developed in small groups (3 students/each), and several activities both in the field and in the classroom (prior and after the fieldtrip). From the methodological point of view, this research is qualitative in nature, a study-case type, with data resulting from direct observation and content analysis of the answers presented by students to questionnaires (diagnostic and intervention assessment) and to worksheets, expressly created for the research. The main goal of the intervention was that the students, by developing practical activities centered upon a field trip to an abandoned limestone quarry located close to their homes, could learn to recognize the geological impacts arising from the exploitation of geological resources and acquire skills for collecting and processing relevant information about existing rules that control the operations in quarries, in order to develop critical thinking about the nature of exploitation of these types of resources, which may hinder the promotion of sustainable development. Concerning the intervention assessment, results reinforced the idea that quarries can provide an educational resource of great value for promoting substantive knowledge on geosciences, urgently needed and consistent with the development of critical and intervenient citizens, able to decide, at the right moment, how to behave

  3. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  4. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge.

  5. Study on Strength of Hybrid Mortar Synthesis with Epoxy Resin, Fly Ash and Quarry Dust Under Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, P.; Muni Reddy, M. G., Dr.; Adiseshu, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Blend and characterization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether based thermosetting polymer mortar comprising an epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust are presented here for the strength study. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative process in Extreme conditions of commercial epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust based paste. In this way, thermosetting based hybrid mortars characterized by a different contents of normalized Fly ash and Quarry dust by a homogeneous distribution of the resin have been attained. Once hardened, these new composite materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the Fly ash and Rock sand pastes since the Resin provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced number of micro cracks. The micro structural characterization allows pointing out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars. A correlation between micro-structural features and mechanical properties of the mortar has also been studied in Extreme conditions.

  6. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  7. Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

  8. Dispersion of TSP and PM(10) emissions from quarries in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Stern, Eli; Broday, David M

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluates AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion calculations of particulate matter emissions from stone quarries in two mountainous regions against TSP and PM10 measurements, using both observational and WRF-modeled meteorological data. Due to different model parameterization, AERMOD dispersion predictions were in better agreement with the measured concentrations than those obtained by CALPUFF. As expected, the smaller the distance between the meteorological station, the source (quarry) and the receptors, the better the predictions of both AERMOD and CALPUFF. In contrast, using in-situ wind field obtained by runs of the WRF meteorological model for the complex terrain study area provided, in general, less accurate dispersion estimates than when using (even remote) meteorological observations. In particular, using the three-dimensional WRF-modeled wind field within CALPUFF did not provide any advantage over using the two-dimensional wind field, which is the common procedure of AERMOD and CALPUFF. Dry deposition was more significant for ambient concentration estimation in AERMOD than in CALPUFF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  10. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  11. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  12. Effects of Water-Pressure Fluctuations on Glacial Erosion: a Quarrying Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T. S.; Thomason, J. F.; Jackson, M.

    2005-12-01

    Bedrock erosion by glaciers can play a dominant role in the evolution of high-latitude landscapes. The process that is least understood but probably responsible for most of this erosion is quarrying: the extension of preexisting cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. On mountain slopes failure of rock masses is commonly triggered by hydraulic transients caused by rainfall or snowmelt. In contrast, the large hydraulic transients that occur beneath glaciers are usually neglected in models of large-scale glacial erosion. Rather in these models erosion rates are assumed to be a simple function of sliding velocity or ice discharge. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step (0.12 m high) was installed under 213 m of ice at the bed of Engabreen, a temperate glacier in Norway. The step protruded upward into sliding ice and was inclined up-glacier. A crack, 2 mm wide and 31 mm deep, was cut across the step, normal to its stoss surface. Acoustic-emission sensors, tested in laboratory rock-fracture experiments, monitored the growth of the crack. Water was pumped under high pressure to the bed to simulate water-pressure fluctuations like those that occur in hydraulically active areas of glacier beds. These pump tests caused a cavity between the ice and bed to open and close down-glacier from the step. Normal stress on the step and the frequency of acoustic emissions increased markedly during closures of the cavity that followed decreases in water pressure. Acoustic emissions emanated from the base of the crack. Over a three-day period the locus of emission sources extended obliquely about 90 mm toward the base of the lee surface of the step, presumably reflecting crack extension. Post-experimental inspection of the step showed that it had indeed been quarried along the trajectory indicated by acoustic emissions. These data indicate that crack growth can occur rapidly as a result of stress differences in the bed caused by decreasing

  13. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  14. An Uncertainty Method for Probabilistic Analysis of Buildings Impacted by Rockfall in a Limestone Quarry in Fengshan, Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Bo; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ao; Du, Juan; Su, Hongrui; Yi, Hongqing

    2015-09-01

    Rockfall is a common occurrence in open-pit mines in China, and seriously threatens lives and buildings. The damage to buildings includes many uncertainty factors, such as the occurrence of rockfall, runout trajectory, and impact energy. A uncertainty method was used to assess the probability of rockfall impacting buildings. The process includes four steps: (A) Calculating the probability of rockfall occurrence. (B) Probability analysis of the rockfall reaching the building and its energy. (C) Calculation of the building's vulnerability to rockfall impact. (D) Probability assessment of the building collapse. (E) Design options for protecting the building from rockfall damage. The method is applied in an abandoned limestone quarry in Fengshan, southwestern China. The results indicate that rockfalls have two kinds of failure modes: slide and topple, whose failure probability is 0-0.488 in the different quarry zones. The probabilities of three buildings located at the bottom of the quarry of collapsing from rockfall impact are 0.188, 0.006, and 0.002. A rockfall platform and vegetation planting at the bottom of the quarry could prevent rockfall from reaching the buildings.

  15. An assessment of spontaneous vegetation recovery in aggregate quarries in coastal sand dunes in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  16. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the interceptor trench field study near the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to construct a groundwater interceptor trench near the Weldon Spring Quarry at the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. The trench would be located near two palustrine wetland areas. Impacts to wetland hydrology and biotic communities are expected to be negligible. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  17. Use of the McQuarrie equation for the computation of shear viscosity via equilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1991-04-01

    To date, the calculation of shear viscosity for soft-core fluids via equilibrium molecular dynamics has been done almost exclusively using the Green-Kubo formalism. The alternative mean-squared displacement approach has not been used, except for hard-sphere fluids, in which case the expression proposed by Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] has invariably been selected. When written in the form given by McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1976), Chap. 21], however, the mean-squared displacement approach offers significant computational advantages over both its Green-Kubo and Helfand counterparts. In order to achieve comparable statistical significance, the number of experiments needed when using the Green-Kubo or Helfand formalisms is more than an order of magnitude higher than for the McQuarrie expression. For pairwise-additive systems with zero linear momentum, the McQuarrie method yields frame-independent shear viscosities. The hitherto unexplored McQuarrie implementation of the mean-squared displacement approach to shear-viscosity calculation thus appears superior to alternative methods currently in use.

  18. An Assessment of Spontaneous Vegetation Recovery in Aggregate Quarries in Coastal Sand Dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  19. Particle size distribution and particle size-related crystalline silica content in granite quarry dust.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Greg; Hosgood, Howard Dean; Slade, Martin D; Borak, Jonathan

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that the relationship between empirically derived particle counts, particle mass determinations, and particle size-related silica content are not constant within mines or across mine work tasks. To better understand the variability of particle size distributions and variations in silica content by particle size in a granite quarry, exposure surveys were conducted with side-by-side arrays of four closed face cassettes, four cyclones, four personal environmental monitors, and a real-time particle counter. In general, the proportion of silica increased as collected particulate size increased, but samples varied in an inconstant way. Significant differences in particle size distributions were seen depending on the extent of ventilation and the nature and activity of work performed. Such variability raises concerns about the adequacy of silica exposure assessments based on only limited numbers of samples or short-term samples.

  20. The production of synthetic aggregate from a quarry waste using an innovative style rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, R J; Cresswell, D J F; van der Sloot, H A

    2002-06-01

    The large volumes of wastes generated by industrialised society has led to efforts to find practical uses for these wastes, whilst also offsetting the consumption of natural resources. This paper describes the use of an innovative rotary kiln to produce synthetic aggregates from a variety of waste streams. The main waste used was a quarry fines which was blended with either paper sludge, clay, or a dredged harbour sediment. The different combinations were extruded and fired in the kiln to produce a material suitable for natural aggregate replacement. Two of the synthetic aggregates produced were tested by incorporation in to concrete as coarse aggregate replacement. The concrete 28-day compressive strengths achieved were above 40 N mm(-2) and compared favourably with control concretes made with natural aggregates and a commercially available lightweight aggregate (Lytag). Leaching tests have also been carried out to assess the potential environmental impact of utilisation. Although not finalised, these tests have also given favourable results.

  1. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants.

  2. Ultrasonic characterization of granites obtained from industrial quarries of Extremadura (Spain).

    PubMed

    del Río, L M; López, F; Esteban, F J; Tejado, J J; Mota, M; González, I; San Emeterio, J L; Ramos, A

    2006-12-22

    The industry of ornamental rocks, such as granites, represents one of the most important industrial activities in the region of Extremadura, SW Spain. A detailed knowledge of the intrinsic properties of this natural stone and its environmental evolution is a required goal in order to fully characterize its quality. In this work, two independent NDT acoustic techniques have been used to measure the acoustic velocity of longitudinal waves in different prismatic granitic-samples of industrial quarries. A low-frequency transceiver set-up, based on a high-voltage BPV Steinkamp instrument and two 50 kHz probes, has been used to measure pulse travel times by ultrasonic through-transmission testing. In complementary fashion, an Erudite MK3 test equipment with an electromagnetic vibrator and two piezoelectric sensors has also been employed to measure ultrasonic velocity by means of a resonance-based method, using the same types of granite varieties. In addition, a comprehensive set of physical/mechanical properties have also been analyzed, according to Spanish regulations in force, by means of alternative methods including destructive techniques such as strength, porosity, absorption, etc. A large number of samples, representing the most important varieties of granites from quarries of Extremadura, have been analyzed using the above-mentioned procedures. Some results obtained by destructive techniques have been correlated with those found using ultrasonic techniques. Our experimental setting allowed a complementary characterization of granite samples and a thorough validation of the different techniques employed, thus providing the industry of ornamental rocks with a non-destructive tool that will facilitate a more detailed insight on the properties of the rocks under study.

  3. Implications of a quarrying theory for glacial landscape evolution models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; Egholm, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of glacial landscape evolution generally contain process descriptions that are conspicuously mismatched. In these models, descriptions of glacier flow are increasingly sophisticated, with clear derivation from mass, momentum and energy balances and well-known constitutive properties of ice. In contrast, bedrock erosion rules of these models are exceedingly heuristic. Erosion rate is commonly assumed to depend simply on the product of a bedrock erodibility coefficient and one of three variables: sliding velocity, ice discharge, or glacier power. A theoretical model of quarrying--thought to be the dominant process of glacial erosion--provides an explicit connection between bedrock erosion rates and glacier and bedrock characteristics. The model differs from past treatments of quarrying in that the dependence on sliding velocity arises from a treatment parallel to that used in the well-established theory of adhesive wear. Moreover, bedrock strength heterogeneity resulting from pre-glacial fractures is included using an experimentally-based Weibull distribution of rock strength. This strength distribution is predicated on the observation that larger rock bodies have lower strengths because they have a greater probability of containing a large fracture. Bedrock erosion rates increase with sliding velocity, but nonlinearity can be substantial and depends on the distribution of rock strength. Thus, bedrock susceptibility to erosion controls the form of the velocity dependence and cannot be adequately expressed with a coefficient. Perhaps more importantly, erosion rates generally increase with increasing effective pressure because diminished ice-bed separation in the lees of rock steps increases the probability of the glacier exploiting a major bedrock weakness. Erosion rates increase with increasing effective pressure even if the inverse dependence of sliding speed on effective pressure from glacier sliding rules is used in the theory. This dependence on effective

  4. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the "substances" approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the "matrix" approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments "1" and "2" presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while sediment "3

  5. D Modelling and Accuracy Assessment of Granite Quarry Using Unmmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Aguilera, D.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Mancera-Taboada, J.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; Gozalo-Sanz, I.; Arias-Perez, B.

    2012-07-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are automated systems whose main characteristic is that can be remotely piloted. This property is especially interesting in those civil engineering works in which the accuracy of the model is not reachable by common aerial or satellite systems, there is a difficult accessibility to the infrastructure due to location and geometry aspects, and the economic resources are limited. This paper aims to show the research, development and application of a UAV that will generate georeferenced spatial information at low cost, high quality, and high availability. In particular, a 3D modelling and accuracy assessment of granite quarry using UAV is applied. With regard to the image-based modelling pipeline, an automatic approach supported by open source tools is performed. The process encloses the well-known image-based modelling steps: calibration, extraction and matching of features; relative and absolute orientation of images and point cloud and surface generation. Beside this, an assessment of the final model accuracy is carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), imaging total station (ITS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in order to ensure its validity. This step follows a twofold approach: (i) firstly, using singular check points to provide a dimensional control of the model and (ii) secondly, analyzing the level of agreement between the realitybased 3D model obtained from UAV and the generated with TLS. The main goal is to establish and validate an image-based modelling workflow using UAV technology which can be applied in the surveying and monitoring of different quarries.

  6. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  7. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  8. Landscape Alteration by Pre-Pottery Neolithic Communities in the Southern Levant - The Kaizer Hilltop Quarry, Israel.

    PubMed

    Grosman, Leore; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Kaizer Hill, a quarry site located in the vicinity of the city of Modiin where remains of a single prehistoric cultural entity assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A were discovered. A systematic survey revealed that large-scale quarrying activities have left damage markings on the bedrock of the Hilltop and its slopes. We aim to present here our findings from the Hilltop, which are concerned with the human impact on rock surfaces and the lithic artifacts retrieved during the survey. It is evident that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A inhabitants of the area changed their landscape forever, "stripping" the caliche surface and penetrating it in search of flint bedded in the bedrock.

  9. Application of an integrated geotechnical and topographic monitoring system in the Lorano marble quarry (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Vanneschi, Claudio; Riccucci, Silvia; Francioni, Mirko; Gullì, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    Accurate slope stability analysis is essential for human activity in high-risk geological contexts. This may, however, not be enough in the case of quarrying where the dynamic and evolving environment also requires effective monitoring. A well-designed monitoring system requires the acquisition of a huge dataset over time, improving knowledge of the study area and helping to refine prediction from stability analysis. This paper reports the implementation of an integrated monitoring system in a marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy) and some of the results obtained. The equipment consists of a traditional geotechnical monitoring system (extensometers, crackmeters and clinometers) and two modern topographic monitoring systems (a terrestrial interferometer and a robotic total station). This work aims to provide in-depth knowledge of the large scale rock mass behaviour as a result of marble exploitation, thereby allowing continuous excavation. The results highlight the importance of integrating different monitoring systems.

  10. Landscape Alteration by Pre-Pottery Neolithic Communities in the Southern Levant – The Kaizer Hilltop Quarry, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Grosman, Leore; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Kaizer Hill, a quarry site located in the vicinity of the city of Modiin where remains of a single prehistoric cultural entity assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A were discovered. A systematic survey revealed that large-scale quarrying activities have left damage markings on the bedrock of the Hilltop and its slopes. We aim to present here our findings from the Hilltop, which are concerned with the human impact on rock surfaces and the lithic artifacts retrieved during the survey. It is evident that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A inhabitants of the area changed their landscape forever, “stripping” the caliche surface and penetrating it in search of flint bedded in the bedrock. PMID:26960156

  11. Comment on ``Relationship between McQuarrie and Helfand equations for the determination of shear viscosity from equilibrium molecular dynamics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.

    1994-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chialvo, Cummings, and Evans [Phys. Rev. E 47, 1702 (1993)] attempt to relate single-particle and collective expressions, due, respectively, to McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] for the calculation of shear viscosities in molecular dynamics simulations. We point out that their analysis does not correspond to the simulation algorithm they actually use, that the system-size dependence they derive and the extrapolation procedure they propose are incorrect, and that they have established no relation between their analysis and the shear viscosity. Our own analysis explains the simulation results in terms of the artificial way that periodic box boundary crossings are handled. We find no support for a link between the McQuarrie formula and any valid statistical mechanical expression for the shear viscosity.

  12. Relationship between McQuarrie and Helfand equations for the determination of shear viscosity from equilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Cummings, Peter T.; Evans, Denis J.

    1993-03-01

    A proof of the validity of the Chialvo-Debenedetti conjecture [Phys. Rev. A 43, 4289 (1991)], the crucial element to achieve an equivalence between the McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] shear-viscosity equations, is presented here. Some theoretical consequences of that validity are also discussed, such as the unification of most shear-viscosity expressions into one given by Andrews for first-order transport coefficients [J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3161 (1967)]. The system-size dependence of the McQuarrie shear-viscosity values is analyzed and an extrapolation method is proposed and tested to determine the asymptotic values.

  13. Field-scale tests for determining mixing patterns associated with coarse-bubble air diffuser configurations, Egan Quarry, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornewer, N.J.; Johnson, G.P.; Robertson, Dale M.; Hondzo, Miki

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District did field-scale tests in August-September 1996 to determine mixing patterns associated with different configurations of coarse-bubble air diffusers. The tests were done in an approximately 13-meter deep quarry near Chicago, Ill. Three-dimensional velocity, water-temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific-conductivity profiles were collected from locations between approximately 2 to 30 meters from the diffusers for two sets of five test configurations; one set for stratified and one set for destratified conditions in the quarry. The data-collection methods and instrumentation used to characterize mixing patterns and interactions of coarse-bubble diffusers were successful. An extensive data set was collected and is available to calibrate and verify aeration and stratification models, and to characterize basic features of bubble-plume interaction.

  14. The stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Bathonian "Great Oolite Group" of Woodeaton Quarry, Oxfordshire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Ronald; Stukins, Stephen; Raub, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Woodeaton Quarry, Oxfordshire, represents the most continuously exposed section of the Upper Bathonian 'Great Oolite Group' in the United Kingdom. Like most of the British Bathonian, it is lacking in reliable ammonite zonation from which to define a chronostratigraphy. The sedimentology of the succession can be broken up into two broad facies types: A clay rich, brackish lagoonal environment with intermixed freshwater-influenced flora and fauna; A marginal marine calcareous succession of an oolitic nature with periodic mud-drape intervals. The marginal marine depositional setting, the completeness of the Upper Bathonian stratigraphy and lack of biostratigraphically important macrofauna has motivated this study into the micropalaeontology of Woodeaton. The primary aims of this study are to use foraminifera and ostracods to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments and to refine the biostratigraphy of the Upper Bathonian. The studied succession commences at the top of the Taynton Limestone Formation, which fines upwards into the clay-rich Rutland Formation. Several species of marine ostracods known from the Mid-Upper Bathonian are recovered from the base of the Rutland Formation, such as Praeschuleridea confossa and Angliaecytherldea calvata, as well as fragments of fish scales and elasmobranch teeth. Freshwater influence is evident further up the Rutland Formation where freshwater charophytes, nested bivalves and ostracods of the genus Bisulcocypris have been found. The progression from the Rutland Formation's marine base into the freshwater influenced clays is clear from the varied micropalaeontological fauna. A return to marine conditions in the overlying White Limestone Formation can be observed through the increasing number of benthic foraminiferal taxa - with Spirillina and Lenticulina the most abundant - compared to the Rutland Formation. Within the Shipton and Ardley Members there are also indicative marine ostracod taxa present (including Acanthocythere

  15. Einstein-Kubo-Helfand and McQuarrie relations for transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpenbeck, Jerome J.

    1995-05-01

    The formal equivalence of the Green-Kubo and Einstein-Kubo-Helfand (EKH) expressions for transport coefficients is well known. For finite systems subject to periodic boundary conditions, the EKH relations are ambiguous as to whether the toroidal or infinite-checkerboard descriptions should be used for the coordinates. We first describe qualitatively the application of both descriptions to the calculation of the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients. We then show that the calculation of the self-diffusion coefficient using the infinite-checkerboard EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, while the toroidal calculation is not. For shear viscosity, we find that neither the toroidal nor infinite-checkerboard calculation from the EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, even though the formal theory presumably suggests that each is correct when the long-time limit is taken after the limit of large-system size. An alternative relation for the shear viscosity of finite periodic systems is derived from the Green-Kubo formula, consisting of the infinite-checkerboard expression plus correction terms having a fundamentally more complicated dependence on the coordinates and momenta. A simple qualitative analysis of the system-size dependence of the difference between the time-dependent Green-Kubo and the infinite-checkerboard EKH shear viscosities [η(tN) and η(C)E(tN), respectively] shows this difference to be of O(N1/3) (N being the number of particles) at early times. Monte Carlo molecular dynamics calculations of η(C)E(tN) for an equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres (diameter ratio of 0.4 and mass ratio of 0.03) confirm these large differences at a few mean free times, but suggest a long-time plateau value having the magnitude of the Green-Kubo result, but the values at 70 mean free times do not approach η(tN) with increasing N. Finally, we consider the one-particle, EKH-like, McQuarrie expression for shear viscosity

  16. Comment on ``Use of the McQuarrie equation for the computation of shear viscosity via equilibrium molecular dynamics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.; Brown, David; Masters, Andrew J.

    1994-03-01

    In a recent paper, Chialvo and Debenedetti [Phys. Rev. A 43, 4289 (1991)] consider single-particle and collective expressions due, respectively, to McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] for the calculation of shear viscosities in molecular-dynamics simulations. We point out an error in the discussion of origin independence in this paper, and show that the prescriptions set out in it are not related to the shear viscosity.

  17. Abandoned mines and their impact on the environment: Case studies from Franklin and Sterling Mines, NJ and Rondout Quarry, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkas, M.M.; Nehru, C.E. |

    1995-09-01

    Water logged abandoned mines have an impact on the environment. In this project we selected abandoned mines from two sets of different ore bodies to learn about their environmental impact. Franklin and Sterling Pb-Zn mines, NJ and the limestone quarry in Rondout formation, NY were selected as case study examples. In the Pb-Zn mines metalimestone is the country rock and in the Rondout quarry limestone is the country rock. Soil water samples from selected strategic locations were analyzed for toxic and related heavy metal elements such as Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and U. The levels of concentrations of these elements varied from one location to another according to the chemistry of the ore body and the ground movement throughout the area. In particular Cd, Cr and U concentration were variable from Franklin to Sterling mine. However, in the Rondout limestone (cement) quarry, higher concentrations of Cr and lower concentrations of Pb and Zn were noted. We conclude that ore body chemistry, mine dumps and tailing contaminated ponds along with the ground water movement throughout the area have an impact on the ground water and nearby river/stream contaminant chemistry in the areas.

  18. Elbow joint disorders in relation to vibration exposure and age in stone quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Suzuki, H; Momoi, Y; Yamada, S

    1993-01-01

    Elbow joint disorders were studied in relation to vibration exposure and age in 74 male stone quarry workers who operated mainly chipping hammers and sometimes rock drills. They were examined for range of active motion in elbow extension and flexion, and by means of radiographs of the elbow joint. Effects of age and vibratory tool operation on the elbow joint were statistically estimated using multiple regression analysis. In the analysis of all subjects, including those aged over 60 years, age was significantly related to the range of motion in extension and to radiographic changes in both elbows, and the duration of vibratory tool operation was associated with the range of right elbow flexion. Among subjects under the age of 60 years, duration of vibratory tool operation showed a significant dose-effect relationship to the range of flexion and radiographic changes in the right elbow, but there was no significant relationship with age. The present results suggest that the operation of chipping hammers and rock drills contributes to elbow joint disorders or osteoarthrosis, even when the effect of age is taken into account. Besides vibration exposure, it may be necessary to consider various loads on the elbow joint such as firmly grasping and pressing the tool against stones with the arm bent at about 90 degrees, and carrying stones.

  19. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  20. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  1. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)).

  2. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction on quarry tiles for human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.

  3. Accumulation and transformation of organic matter in different-aged dumps from sand quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E. V.

    2008-08-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different-aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a background (reference) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was characterized. It was shown that the pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus reserves in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the deposition of carbon dioxide; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the combustion heat of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages.

  4. Hydrogeologic Architecture of the San Andreas Fault near the Logan Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Erskine, J.; Fulton, P. M.; Carter, R.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogeologic properties of fault zones are critical to the faulting processes; however, they are not well understood and difficult to measure in situ. Recording the tidal response of water level is a useful method to measure the in-situ properties. We utilize an array of wells near the San Andreas Fault zone in the Logan Quarry to study the fault zone hydrogeologic architecture by measuring the water tidal response. The measured specific storage and permeability show that there is a localized zone near the fault with higher specific storage and larger permeability than the surrounding region. This change of properties might be related to the fault zone fracture distribution. Surprisingly, the change of the specific storage is the clearest signal. The inferred compliance contrast is consistent with prior estimates of elastic moduli change in the near-fault environment, but the hydrogeologic effects of the compliance change have never before been measured on a major active fault. The observed specific storage structure implies that the fault zone plays an important role in permeability enhancement by seismic shaking. In addition, the measured diffusivity is about 10-2 m2/s, which is comparable to the post-earthquake hydraulic diffusivity measured on the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault. This observed high diffusivity with little variability inside the fault zone might suggest the accumulated pore pressure during interseismic period distributes over a broad region.

  5. A bioremediation case of an ex-quarry area restored by paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Bonoli, Alessandra; Dall'Ara, Alice

    2012-02-20

    Most paper industry waste is in the form of sludge from paper production and recycle process paper. There has been an increasing use of paper sludge in environmental restoration, a practice that requires particular attention. This issue presents a case which demonstrates how the biogas production related to this kind of recovery system can represent a problem for environmental protection and public health. The case history relates to a former quarry area restored by means of paper sludge. After the filling, a substantial quantity of biogas was produced, with an external diffusion to sensible target as well. Initial investigations showed that the area was characterized by a large amount of paper mill sludge made unstable by anaerobic conditions. To date there are no proven technologies for this kind of treatment. In this case, for safety and naturalization as agricultural area, new methods of bioremediation were used and, in particular, an innovative physical, mechanical and biological intervention, based on bio-stabilization of paper mill sludge. The treatment is site-specific, based on the in-site paper sludge biostabilisation. To complete the intervention and in order to demonstrate its validity an important monitoring activity was performed, testing all the phases affected by the biological transformation.

  6. Simulation of the effects of nearby quarrying operations on ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, Gregory M.; Haefner, Ralph J.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates a municipal well field in southern Franklin County that is adjacent to a sand and gravel mining operation. Mining operations have the potential to alter ground-water flowpaths and change the sources of water to pumped wells. Previous ground-water-flow modeling of the area has shown that water pumped from the supply wells is derived from infiltration from nearby rivers and surrounding bedrock. Some of that water flows through existing quarries. Because water quality differs among these sources and is affected by the path along which water flows to the wells, five flow conditions were simulated to evaluate the influence of different mining scenarios on sources of water as related to the size and shape of contributing recharge areas (CRAs) to wells. The first simulation was based on a revision of an existing model by Schalk (1996). The second and third simulations included one in which a 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material within the quarry above the bedrock is left intact, and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed. The fourth and fifth simulations included one in which the 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material is left above the bedrock and the quarry is backfilled with fine- grained sand and silt (a byproduct of the mining operations), and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed before the quarry is backfilled with the fine-grained sand and silt. The results of the five model simulations indicate that the overall volumetric budgets among models change only slightly in response to changing conditions at the quarry. The most significant change is noted in the amount of water that the aquifers gained from constant head and river leakage. This change is due to the way the quarries were simulated and lower heads in the aquifers compared to those in simulations made with earlier models. Previously published model simulations showed that the 5-year CRAs did not extend into the area of the newest sand and

  7. Seismic scattering attribute for sedimentary classification of nearshore marine quarries for a major beach nourishment project: Case study of Adriatic coastline, Regione Abruzzo (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana; Contini, Paolo; De Girolamo, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Of fundamental importance for any major beach nourishment project using marine quarries is a correct sedimentary classification. The main purpose of such a classification is to identify sand with the appropriate features for beach nourishment. This task is more onerous when quarry sediments are heterogeneous and mixed with silt. This is typical of nearshore marine quarries. The presence of excess silt compromises the use of marine quarries because of the water turbidity that may be induced in the nourished beaches, especially when the beaches are protected by defense structures. Here we discuss the use of scattering amplitude of seismic data, acquired with a pinger source (2-10 kHz), to detect and classify the unconsolidated sediment of a marine quarry. A robust correlation was found between this seismic attribute and the silt content in the sediment. The scattering amplitude was numerically calculated from the seismic data and used to map slices of silt content at different depths. The results have been validated with sedimentary analysis of vibra- and rotary cores, and by the dredged material used for the beach nourishment. The marine quarry produced about 1.200.000 m3 of sand used to nourish eight different beach sites along the Adriatic coasts of the Regione Abruzzo (Italy). The large-scale sedimentary assessment of the area was based on seismic boomer data and the evaluation of the volume of dredged sediments on multibeam data surveyed before and after the exploitation of the quarry. The study shows that this approach is effective in sites with high lateral and vertical variations in the percentage of sand in the sediments.

  8. Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N

    2008-01-01

    Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments.

  9. Cobalt, chromium and nickel contents in soils and plants from a serpentinite quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago-Vila, M.; Arenas-Lago, D.; Rodríguez-Seijo, A.; Couce, M. L. Andrade; Vega, F. A.

    2015-03-01

    The former serpentinite quarry of Penas Albas (Moeche, Galicia, NW Spain) left behind a large amount of waste material scattered over the surrounding area, as well as tailing areas. In this area several soils were studied together with the vegetation growing spontaneously over them with the aim of identifying the bioavailability of heavy metals. The potential of spontaneous vegetation for phytoremediation and/or phytostabilization was evaluated. The pH of the soils ranges from neutral to basic, with very low organic matter and nitrogen contents. There are imbalances between exchangeable cations like potassium (K) and calcium (Ca), mainly due to high magnesium (Mg) content that can strongly limit plant production. Moreover, in all of the studied soils there are high levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) (>70, >1300 and >1300 mg kg-1, respectively). They exceed the intervention limits indicated by soil guideline values. Different soil extractions were performed in order to evaluate bioavailability. CaCl2 0.01 M is the most effective extraction reagent, although the reagent that best predicts plant availability is a mixture of low molecular weight organic acids. Festuca rubra, L. is the spontaneous plant growing in the soils that accumulates the highest amount of the metals, both in shoot and roots. Festuca also has the highest translocation factor values, although they are only >1 for Cr. The bioconcentration factor is >1 in all of the cases, except in the shoot of Juncus sp. for Co and Ni. The results indicate that Festuca is a phytostabilizer of Co and Ni and an accumulator of Cr, while Juncus sp. is suitable for phytostabilization.

  10. Co, Cr and Ni contents in soils and plants from a serpentinite quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago-Vila, M.; Arenas-Lago, D.; Rodríguez-Seijo, A.; Couce, M. L. Andrade; Vega, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Several soils developed on the former serpentinite quarry of Penas Albas (Moeche, Galicia, NW Spain) were studied, together with the vegetation growing spontaneously over them. The aim of this work was to identify the bioavailability of heavy metals and to evaluate the potential of spontaneous vegetation for the phytoremediation and/or phytostabilisation of these areas. The pH of the soils ranges from neutral to basic, with very low organic matter and nitrogen contents. There are imbalances between exchangeable cations that can strongly limit plant production. Moreover, in all of the soils there are high levels of Co, Cr and Ni (> 70, > 1500, and > 1325 mg kg-1, respectively). They exceed the intervention limits indicated in different guides. Different soil extractions were performed in order to evaluate bioavailability. CaCl2 0.01 M is the most effective extraction reagent, although the reagent that best predicts plant availability is the mixture of low molecular weight organic acids. Festuca rubra, L. is the spontaneous plant growing in the soils that accumulates the highest amount of the metals, both in shoot and roots. Festuca also has the highest translocation factor values, although they are only > 1 for Cr. The bioconcentration factor is > 1 in all of the cases, except in the shoot of Juncus sp. for Co and Ni. The results indicate that Festuca is a phytostabilizer of Co and Ni and an accumulator of Cr, while Juncus sp. is suitable for phytostabilization. Both of the studied species contribute towards the phytostabilisation of the soils and their recovery, improving their characteristics and making it possible to start planting other species.

  11. Earliest record of Platychoerops (Primates, Plesiadapidae), a new species from Mouras Quarry, Mont de Berru, France.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Costeur, Loïc; Lipman, Yaron

    2012-11-01

    Plesiadapids are extinct relatives of extant euarchontans (primates, dermopterans, and scandentians), which lived in North America and Europe during the Paleocene and Early Eocene. The only genus of plesiadapid whose species are absent from Paleocene strata is Platychoerops. Further, Platychoerops is the only group found in sediments post-dating the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (PEB) by a substantial period of time based on large samples. It is also substantially different from other plesiadapids in dental features thought to reflect ecology. Its evolution has been linked to the rapid global climate change and faunal turnover marking the PEB. Platychoerops and Plesiadapis tricuspidens have been reconstructed as members of a single lineage by some authors. We describe a specimen (right p3-m3) that we attribute to a new species, Platychoeropsantiquus, from the unequivocally Paleocene (MP6) Mouras Quarry of Mont de Berru, France. It has strong morphological affinities to Platychoerops daubrei yet co-occurs with many specimens of Plesiadapis tricuspidens, as well as the plesiadapid Chiromyoides campanicus. The existence of a species of Platychoerops prior to the PEB decouples the evolution of Platychoerops from the climate change and faunal turnover event associated with the PEB. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of Platychoerops with P. tricuspidens refutes the idea of a single lineage for these taxa. Instead, Platychoerops may be more closely related to North American Plesiadapis cookei (a previous alternate hypothesis). We suggest character displacement in a Paleocene immigrant population of P. cookei resulting from competition with sympatric P. tricuspidens, as a likely scenario for the evolution of Platychoerops.

  12. Importance of Radius of Influence and its Estimation in a Limestone Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, A. K.; Sahoo, L. K.; Ghosh, U. K.; Khond, M. V.

    2015-04-01

    Limestone mining at Lanjiberna limestone and dolomite quarry has created positive as well negative impacts on ground water. With further deepening of the mine, drawdown trend (negative effect) is observed and at the same time ground water recharge of the order of 4,527.48 m3/day, through mine pits (positive impact) is noticed. The aquifer present in the area is unconfined and mainly consists of weathered quartzite, phyllites, limestone and dolomite. To know the cumulative impact of mining on surroundings, the effective radius of influence (Re) for excavated mine area is calculated as 1,059 m. Here, it may be noted that three `concentric working pits' (Pit No. 2 & 6; Pit no 1 & 3 and Pit No 4 & 5) produces limestone at this mine and the pit-wise radius of influence (Ro) is estimated. Value of Ro for Pit-2 & 6 is 612.14 m; Pit-1 & 3 is 475 m and Pit-4 & 5 is 384.15 m. Its average i.e., Ro (for all three pits, cumulative) is estimated as 490 m. From this typical case study and estimation of Ro and Re values, it is concluded that the maximum and minimum value of overall impact/influence lies in between 0.49 and 1.05 km. These estimated values of `area of influence' are less compared to the whole mine lease area values. Local aquifer, which lies at shallower as well as at deeper depth had behaved consistently with respect to recharge and drawdown conditions. Thus, assessment of Ro and Re is extremely helpful for `integrated mine planning' to achieve targeted production, economically with minimum interruptions.

  13. Geochronological and taxonomic revisions of the middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil's Graveyard Formation, Texas) and implications for the early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Christopher J; Kirk, E Christopher; Townsend, K E Beth; Deino, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil's Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47-50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505-45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b.

  14. Geochronological and Taxonomic Revisions of the Middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil’s Graveyard Formation, Texas) and Implications for the Early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Christopher J.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Townsend, K. E. Beth; Deino, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil’s Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47–50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505–45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b. PMID:24988115

  15. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  16. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Khan, Kaffayatullah; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Khurram, Nauman; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions. PMID:28772999

  17. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Khan, Kaffayatullah; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Khurram, Nauman; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-06-11

    In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions.

  18. Kassite from the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas: the problem of cafetite and kassite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Milton, C.

    1986-01-01

    Small (<0.5 mm), brownish-pink platy rosettes and yellow spherules, in cavities in nepheline syenite at the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, have been identified as kassite, CaTi2O4(OH)2, a mineral previously known only from the Kola Peninsula, USSR. The X-ray powder and single-crystal data and density of the Magnet Cove kassite correspond with those reported by earlier workers for cafetite, (Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12.4H2O, from Kola, but the chemical and physical properties correspond with those given in their description of kassite.-J.A.Z.

  19. On the way of Friuli "yellow villages": the use of a calcareous-dolomitic sandstone in the surroundings of the quarrying area through the centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangipane, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The role of local stone building material in cultural and technological heritage is based on the definition of the area of use, as related to ancient transportation networks, allowing the movement of heavy blocks from the quarries to the building sites. It is the case of the result of several surveys carried out for the detection of the architectural elements, dating from Middle Age to 20th century, made of a yellowish calcareous-dolomitic sandstone, which have been found, hidden among renovated buildings and new construction, in Friuli region (NE Italy). on the way between the quarrying piedmont western area and the towns of Udine and Spilimbergo. Starting from the definition of the quarrying area, the contribution give notice of such architectural elements (frames, columns, …), both in vernacular architecture and in relevant buildings, putting in evidence the period of their realisation and their technological features.

  20. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The devastating effects of soil erosion in mining areas from arid/semiarid environments have prompted efforts geared toward an improvement of the soil physical conditions for a fast establishment of vegetal cover. Restoration practices that increase soil moisture content are essential in drylands where rainfall is irregular or insufficient in order to accelerate ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of organic amendments and mulches on the soil porosity as well as their impact on infiltration, five years after the beginning of an experimental restoration from limestone quarries in Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Nine plots 15 x 5 m were prepared at the site in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design. The first factor, organic amendment, had three levels: sewage sludge (SA), compost from domestic organic residues (CA) and no amendment (NA). The second factor, mulches, also had three levels: gravel (GM), woodchip (WM) and no mulch (NM). In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Infiltration was determined from rainfall simulations and soil porosity was assessed by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total porosity and pores distribution were measured according to pore shape (regular, irregular and elongated) and size (transmission pores [50-500 μm] and fissures [>500 μm]). Natural undisturbed soils around the mine area were used as a reference soil (RS). Restoration treatments showed higher total porosity, fissures and elongated pores than RS and we observed the highest values in treatments with WM. This fact is due to the disruption caused by the application of treatments rather that a good soil structure. Each combination exhibited different values of transmission pores, being greater in the combinations of NA-GM, SA-NM and CA-WM. Infiltration increased with the increase of the total porosity, fissures and elongated pores

  1. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  3. Weldon Spring quarry construction staging area and water treatment plant site remedial action characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The quarry construction staging area (QCSA) and water treatment plant (WTP) are located in the areas that border the western edge of the Weldon Spring quarry (WSQ). These facilities were constructed to support bulk waste removal from the WSQ. This area was contaminated with U-238, Ra-226, and Th-230 and was remediated prior to construction in order to allow release of the area for use without radiological restrictions. This report documents the methods of characterization, the remediation activities, and the post remedial action sampling methods and analytical results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. An epidemiological survey of respiratory morbidity among granite quarry workers in Singapore: chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Phoon, W H; Lee, H S; Ng, Y L; Tan, K T

    1992-05-01

    Respiratory symptoms of chronic bronchitis and measurements of lung function were studied in an epidemiological survey of the total population of workers currently employed in granite quarries in Singapore. There were 85 rock drilling and crushing workers with current exposure in high levels of silica dust. Their respiratory parameters were studied with reference to an internal comparison group of 154 quarry maintenance and transport workers with low dust exposure, and an external comparison group of 148 Telecoms postal delivery workers with no granite dust exposure. The highly exposed workers showed greater prevalences of chronic cough and phlegm, a mean reduction of 5% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The increased respiratory morbidity were independent of other factors such as age and smoking. Similar results were also noted after excluding those with silicosis (defined radiologically as profusion greater than 1/1 as read by at least two of three readers). This study strongly indicates a demonstrable risk of "occupational" bronchitis (mucus hypersecretion) and obstructive and restrictive lung function impairment, apart from the "classical" risk of silicosis. Measures taken to protect the health of workers exposed to silica dust should also be based on considerations taken to protect against the risk of these respiratory disorders as well.

  5. Ichnology of an upper carboniferous fluvio-estuarine paleovalley: The tonganoxie sandstone, buildex quarry, eastern Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Maples, C.G.; Lanier, Wendy E.

    1998-01-01

    Tidal rhythmites of the Tonganoxie Sandstone Member (Stranger Formation, Douglas Group) at Buildex Quarry, eastern Kansas, contain a relatively diverse ichnofauna. The assemblage includes arthropod locomotion (Dendroidichnites irregulare, Diplichnites gouldi type A and B, Diplopodichnus biformis, Kouphichnium isp., Mirandaichnium famatinense, and Stiaria intermedia), resting (Tonganoxichnus buildexensis) and feeding traces (Stiallia pilosa, Tonganoxichnus ottawensis); grazing traces (Gordia indianaensis, Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Helminthopsis hieroglyphica); feeding structures (Circulichnis montanus, Treptichnus bifurcus, Treptichnus pollardi, irregular networks), fish traces (Undichna britannica, Undichna simplicitas), tetrapod trackways, and root traces. The taxonomy of some of these ichnotaxa is briefly reviewed and emended diagnoses for Gordia indianaensis and Helminthoidichnites tenuis are proposed. Additionally, the combined name Dendroidichnites irregulare is proposed for nested chevron trackways. Traces previously regarded as produced by isopods are reinterpreted as myriapod trackways (D. gouldi type B). Trackways formerly interpreted as limulid crawling and swimming traces are assigned herein to Kouphichnium isp and Dendroidichnites irregulare, respectively. Taphonomic analysis suggests that most grazing and feeding traces were formed before the arthropod trackways and resting traces. Grazing/feeding traces were formed in a soft, probably submerged substrate. Conversely, the majority of trackways and resting traces probably were produced subaerially in a firmer, dewatered and desiccated sediment. The Buildex Quarry ichnofauna records the activity of a terrestrial and freshwater biota. The presence of this assemblage in tidal rhythmites is consistent with deposition on tidal flats in the most proximal zone of the inner estuary, between the maximum landward limit of tidal currents and the salinity limit further towards the sea.

  6. Geological 3D modeling for excavation activity in an underground marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneschi, Claudio; Salvini, Riccardo; Massa, Giovanni; Riccucci, Silvia; Borsani, Angelo

    2014-08-01

    The three-dimensional laser scanning technique has recently become common in diverse working environments. Even in geology, where further development is needed, this technique is increasingly useful in tackling various problems such as stability investigations or geological and geotechnical monitoring. Three-dimensional laser scanning supplies detailed and complete geometrical information in short working times, as a result of the acquisition of a large number of data-points that accurately model the detected surfaces. Moreover, it is possible to combine these data with high quality photographic images so as to provide important information for geological applications, as follows. A working approach, that combines terrestrial laser scanning and traditional geological surveys, is presented. A three-dimensional model, that includes information about the geological structure in an underground quarry in the Apuan Alps, is realized. This procedure is adaptable to other geological contexts, and because of its operating speed and accuracy it is invaluable for optimal excavation, in which a proper planning of quarrying activity is vital for safety and commercial reasons.

  7. High Cigarette and Poly-Tobacco Use Among Workers in a Dusty Industry: New Jersey Quarry Workers.

    PubMed

    Graber, Judith M; Worthington, Karen; Almberg, Kirsten S; Meng, Qingyu; Rose, Cecile S; Cohen, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco use is high among US extraction and construction workers, who can also incur occupational dust exposure. Information on different types of tobacco use among quarry/mine workers is sparse. During mandated training sessions, New Jersey quarry workers were surveyed about their tobacco use. Prevalence was calculated for single and multiple tobacco use by demographic and workplace characteristics; logistic regression was used to assess associations with smoking. Two hundred forty (97.1%) workers completed surveys. Among respondents, 41.7% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 35.4 to 48.3] currently used any tobacco product of whom 28.1% smoked cigarettes. In multivariate analysis, positive associations with smoking included working as a contractor versus mine employee (odds ratio 2.32, 95% CI 1.01 to 5.36) and a usual job title of maintenance (odds ratio 2.02, 95% CI 0.87 to 4.94). Industry-specific information may be helpful in developing targeted tobacco-cessation programs.

  8. High cigarette and poly-tobacco use among workers in a dusty industry: New Jersey quarry workers

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Judith M.; Worthington, Karen; Almberg, Kirsten S.; Meng, Qingyu; Rose, Cecile S.; Cohen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tobacco use is high among US extraction and construction workers, who can also incur occupational dust exposure. Information on different types of tobacco use among quarry/mine workers is sparse. Methods During mandated training sessions, New Jersey quarry workers were surveyed about their tobacco use. Prevalence was calculated for single and multiple tobacco use by demographic and workplace characteristics; logistic regression was used to assess associations with smoking. Results 240 (97.1%) workers completed surveys. Among respondents, 41.7% (95% CI 35.4, 48.3) currently used any tobacco product of whom 28.1% smoked cigarettes. In multivariate analysis, positive associations with smoking included working as a contractor vs. mine employee (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.01, 5.36) and a usual job title of maintenance (OR 2.02, 95% 0.87, 4.94). Conclusions Industry-specific information may be helpful in developing targeted tobacco-cessation programs. PMID:27058491

  9. Biofouling of granite-rapakivi in St. Petersburg monuments and in the quarry in Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry; Panova, Elena; Alampieva, Elena; Olhovaya, Elena; Popova, Tatyana; Vlasov, Alexey; Zelenskaya, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Granite-rapakivi was widely used in the architecture of St. Petersburg: the facades of buildings, embankments of rivers and canals, bridges, sculptural monuments, pedestals, facing the metro stations. This stone is rapidly destroyed due to the peculiarities of its structure. Biofouling of granite is insufficiently studied. Cause the destruction of granite can be bacteria, microscopic algae, fungi, mosses, lichens, higher plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They often form specific lithobiotic communities that contribute to the destruction of granite-rapakivi. The objects of research were monuments of St. Petersburg (granite sculpture, facades, facing embankments) as well as granite-rapakivi quarries in Russia and Finland, where the stone was quarried for use in St. Petersburg. Sampling was carried out from the most typical biofouling sites. Different methods were applied for the study of damaged granite: petrographic analysis, light and scanning electron microscopy, methods for detection and identification of microorganisms, X-ray microprobe analysis. As result the main forms of granite destruction were described: fractures, ovoid weathering, granular disintegration, surface films, crusts and layers, pitting and fouling. Lichens, mosses, herbaceous and micromycetes were dominated on the granite-rapakivi in quarries. For example, in a Monferran quarry (Virolahti region) the complicated lithobiotic community was revealed. It included 30 species of micromycetes, 31 species of lichens, 10 species of moss. Bacteriological analysis showed the dominance of bacteria Bacillus, and actinomycetes in microbial biofilms. More than 100 species of plants were found on the granite embankments in St. Petersburg. They were confined to the cracks, seams of granite blocks. Plants and mosses were common to the granite embankments of rivers and canals in the central (historical) part of the city. Dimensions of mosses depend on the area of the deepening which they occupy. The most

  10. Along-axis variations in volcanology and geochemistry of a pillow-dominated tindar: Comparison of exposures in Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth quarries, Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, E.; Edwards, B. R.; Pollock, M.; Hauksdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hiatt, A. R.; Perpalaj, A.; Plascencia, E.; Reinthall, M.; Silverstein, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quarries at Undirhlithar and Vatnsskarth, which are part of the Krisuvik fissure system in southwestern Iceland, provide exceptional windows into the stratigraphy and emplacement processes for glaciovolcanic, pillow-dominated tindars. The two quarries are approximately three kilometers apart and expose slightly different aspects of the elongate, glaciovolcanic ridge system. At Undirhlithar, the ridge is only 0.5 km in width and the quarry walls expose a section almost across the entire ridge. Based on exposures in the quarry, this part of the ridge is dominated by ';pillow lava flows', which, along with subordinate intrusions and smaller volumes of tuff-breccia, make up six different lithofacies and at least four stratigraphic packages. Quarry walls in the southern half of the quarry approximate cross-sections through three different units of pillow flows, with the majority of pillows plunging less than 20 degrees. Size analysis from field measurements of 69 pillows in the lowermost unit (Lp1) showed an average width of 0.75 m (1 SD = 0.5 m), an average height of 0.5 m (1 SD = 0.25 m); the largest pillow was 2.9 m by 1.3 m, and the smallest pillow was 0.16 by 0.17 m; the average of plunges for 100 measurements was 11.0 degrees. We have also used high resolution images to make detailed maps of the pillow units. After digitally tracing individual pillows, we used ImageJ to analyze the size distribution of pillows in three of the flow units (Lp1 n=2500, Lp2 n=1250, Lp3 n=490). Our preliminary results show two trends: average pillow sizes decrease from east to west within unit Lp1, which has the longest east-west continuous exposure. The average sizes also decrease going up section vertically from Lp1 to Lp2 to Lp3.The northwestern and northeastern quarry walls appear to show more longitudinal sections through individual pillows, as well as a higher proportion of intrusions. Compositionally, the Undirhlíthar units can be divided into two groups: (1) older, plagioclase

  11. Goldquarryite, a new Cd-bearing phosphate mineral from the Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Gault, Robert A.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Goldquarryite, idealized formula CuCd2Al3(PO44F2(H2O)10(H2O 2, structure-derived formula (Cu0.70???0.30??1.00(Cd1.68Ca0.32??2.00Al3 (PO44F2(H2O)10[(H2O 1.60F0.40]??2.00, is triclinic, space group P1, with unit-cell parameters derived from crystal structure: a = 6.787(1), b = 9.082(2), c = 10.113(2) A??, ?? = 101.40(1)??, ?? = 104.27(1)??, ?? = 102.51(1)??, V = 568.7(3) A??3, a:b:c: = 0.7473:1:1.1135, Z = 1. The strongest seven reflections in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are [d(A??)(I)(hkl)]: 9.433(100)(001); 4.726(30)(002); 3.700(30)(022); 3.173(30b)(122, 113, 120, 003); 3.010(30)(122, 212); 2.896(30)(211); 2.820(50)(022). The mineral occurs on a single specimen collected from the 5,425-foot bench, Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada, as isolated clusters of radiating sprays of crystals and as compact parallel crystal aggregates, which are both found on and between breccia fragments. Sprays and aggregates never exceed 3 mm in longest dimension and typically average about 0.5 mm in size. Goldquarryite is a late-stage supergene mineral associated with opal, carbonate-fluorapatite and hewettite, on a host rock composed principally of brecciated and hydrothermally rounded jasperoid fragments which have been lightly cemented by late-stage silicification. Individual euhedral crystals are acicular to bladed, elongate [100], with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 20:1; the maximum size is 1.5 mm but most crystals do not exceed 0.4 mm in length. Forms are {010}, {001} major and {100} very minor. The mineral is pleochroic; translucent (masses) to transparent (crystals); very pale blue to blue-gray (crystals) or blue (masses); with a white streak and a vitreous to glassy luster. Goldquarryite is brittle, lacks cleavage, has an irregular fracture, and is nonfluorescent; hardness (Mohs') is estimated at 3-4; measured density is 2.78(1) g/cm3 (sink-float techniques using methylene iodide-acetone mixtures), calculated density is 2.81 g/cm3 (for formula and unit

  12. A Combined Remote Sensing-Numerical Modelling Approach to the Stability Analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D

  13. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  14. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Corrosivity and leaching behavior of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) made using bottom ash and quarry dust.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the corrosivity and leaching behavior of CLSM made using two different industrial wastes i.e. bottom ash from an incineration facility and quarry dust. The leachate samples were derived from fresh and hardened CLSM mixtures, and studied for leaching and electrical resistivity. The release of various contaminants and the consequent environmental impact caused by the contaminants were studied by the measurement of contaminants in the bleed, in the leachate at 28 days, and on the leachate derived from crushed block and whole block leaching done over a period of 126 days. Results indicated that the CLSM mixtures are non corrosive; diffusion was the leaching mechanism; and the contaminants were found to be moderate to low mobility.

  16. Assessment of impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh Kumar; Chowdhary, G R; Purohit, Gopal

    2006-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers. The workers were engaged in different types of activities such as drilling, loading and dressing. These different working conditions had different concentrations of RSPM, leading to different exposure levels in workers. It was found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations were the main factors responsible for damage to the respiratory tracts of the workers. The particles were deposited at various areas of the respiratory system and reduced the peak flow rate. It was also revealed from the study that most of the workers suffered from silicosis if the exposure duration was more than 20 years.

  17. Environmental rehabilitation of dismissed quarry areas in the Emilia Apennines (Italy) based on the exploitation of geosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Mauro; Coratza, Paola; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2016-04-01

    The landscape modifications induced by human activity in the past 50 years, due to quarrying in the catchment of Rio della Rocca (Province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy) and plans for its environmental rehabilitation, are illustrated. The study area is located in the northern Apennines margin, specifically in the municipality of Castellarano, and is characterised by a great variety of abiotic environments and high biodiversity. As regards the geological aspects of the area, the main lithological outcrops consists of yellow sandstones belonging to the Epi-Ligurian Sequence (Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene) and grey clays (Lower Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene) of the marine units of the Apennine margin. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the landscape evolution of this valley has been deeply influenced by the presence of rocks with different mechanical behaviour, gravitational and rainwash processes and, more recently, human activities. The latter have played a fundamental role in modelling the physical landscape of the area in recent times. In the Sassuolo area (Province of Modena), very close to the study area, there is the largest tile making district in the world, which was developed during the '60s and '70s of the 20th century, partly thanks to the wide availability of clayey raw materials with suitable technological properties. Since the mid-1950s the study area has been affected by intense quarrying activities which have largely modified its environmental and, in particular, geomorphological features. In the 1970s, three clay pits and four sandstone quarries were active in the area. The clay pits were used for tile production whereas the sandstone materials were utilised in large part for the building industry. This production scenario has radically changed during the past twenty years, with the progressive abandonment of quarries due to the introduction of ever-more restrictive environmental policies, imposing rigorous planning on mining activities

  18. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  19. Estimated hydrostatic/cryostatic pressures during emplacement of pillow lavas at Undirhlithar quarry, Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, A. R.; Pollock, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Hauksdottir, S.; Williams, M.; Reinthal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Undirhlithar quarry exposes the interior of the northern end of a pillow-dominated tindar on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland. The Reykjanes Peninsula has several tindars and tuyas, which are glaciovolcanic features emplaced within or beneath ice. Such features are rapidly becoming one of the fundamental tools for estimating paleo-ice thickness in order to better constrain models for reconstructing ice sheet extents. In Iceland, most estimates of past ice thickness come from geological evidence, such as the elevation of tuya passage zones (e.g., Pedersen et al., IAVCEI 2013), although various theoretical attempts have been made as well. For example, estimations have been calculated from postglacial isostatic uplift (e.g., Le Breton et al., J Geol Soc Lond 2010). An alternative approach for estimating paleo-ice thickness is to use the volatile contents of glaciovolcanic glasses. The extent of degassing of a volatile-saturated magma is, in part, a function of the pressure at which the magma is quenched to form glass. Therefore, pressures calculated from measured H2O contents in quenched basaltic pillow lava rims should record emplacement conditions. On the Reykjanes Peninsula, two studies have used this method to calculate past ice thickness: Mercurio et al. (AGU 2009) estimated a maximum thickness of 400 m for Sveifuháls, several km south of Undirhlithar. Schopka et al. (JGR 2006) analyzed glasses from the predominantly fragmental Helgafell ridge, ~ 2.5 km to the NE of Undirhlithar, and estimated a quenching pressure equivalent of up to ~ 200 m of ice; however, they noted that this disagrees with their estimate of overall ice thickness of ~ 500 m, based on the elevation of Helgafell. Although a growing number of studies are using volatile contents in a range of glass compositions to reconstruct ice thicknesses, many questions remain about the validity of the approach. This study focuses on the reproducibility of the technique using samples from

  20. Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction and Demolition Rubble for Use in Quarry Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on Lebanon and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. This research aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots). The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia and Zea mays (Corn). Results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis were conducted. The samples were tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. No contamination has been reported and an abundance of macronutrients and micronutrients was documented for the soil and compost. High alkalinity is due to the presence of concrete and the high percentage of Calcium Carbonate in Lebanese soils. Accordingly, the most adequate mixes for planting are treatments A (2:1:1) and B (1:0:1) and they should be pursued for a pilot scale study to test their potential use in quarry rehabilitation and

  2. A multidisciplinary study of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Mussentuchit Wash, Utah: a determination of the paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Eolambia caroljonesa dinosaur quarry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, J.R.; Brinkman, D.; Nichols, D.J.; Layer, P.; Burge, D.; Thayn, D.

    2007-01-01

    A quarry within the Cedar Mountain Formation in Mussentuchit Wash, Emery County, Utah, produced a fossil assemblage containing the remains of at least eight juvenile iguanodontid dinosaurs (Eolambia caroljonesa). The Cedar Mountain Formation lies stratigraphically between the Tithonian-Berriasian (Upper Jurassic) Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation and the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) Dakota Formation. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentological, geochronological, palynological, and paleontological data have been collected along a measured section at the site of the Cifelli #2 Eolambia caroljonesa Quarry. These data provide a chronostratigraphic and a biostratigraphic framework for the Cedar Mountain Formation and allow a detailed reconstruction of the paleoenvironment and the paleoecology of the local paleogeographic area from which E. caroljonesa have been recovered. Three 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 96.7 to 98.5 Ma have been obtained three stratigraphically distinct altered volcanic ash layers within the Mussentuchit Member, one of which passes through the E. caroljonesa quarry, that indicate that the quarry is latest Albian in age and that the stratigraphic boundary between the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation and the overlying Dakota Formation is at or near the Albian/Cenomanian boundary. Sedimentological and biostratigraphic data suggest that significant long-term and short-term climatic changes are recorded in the Cedar Mountain Formation. During deposition of the lower part of the formation, climatic conditions were warm and arid to semi-arid. During deposition of the upper part of the formation, conditions became more humid. The progressive change in climatic conditions was probably related to the transgression of the Mowry Sea from the north. Cyclic sedimentation in the Mussentuchit Member suggests high-frequency changes from wet to dry periods. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad Filza; Daud, Aziah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdullah, Baharudin

    2013-09-01

    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; p<0.001) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0; p=0.008), respectively. The knowledge, attitude and practice scores of the respondents were poor and the high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

  4. Carbonate measurements in PM10 near the marble quarries of Carrara (Italy) by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, E.; Piazzalunga, A.; Bernardoni, V.; Brambilla, L.; Fermo, P.; Massabò, D.; Molteni, U.; Prati, P.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.

    2011-11-01

    The concentration of carbonates in atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) is usually quite low. The surroundings of marble quarries are peculiar sites where the impact of carbonates in PM levels can be significant. We present here the results of a PM10 sampling campaign performed in Carrara (Italy). The town lies between the famous marble quarries and the harbour: about 1000 trucks per day transport marble blocks and debris from the quarries to the harbour passing through the town centre. PM10 was collected on daily basis on PTFE filters analyzed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Ion-Chromatography (IC). Carbonate concentration was measured by a non-destructive Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). Time series of elemental (Na-Pb by ED-XRF), ionic (SO 42-, NH 4+ by ion-chromatography) and carbonate (by FT-IR) concentration values were merged in a unique data set and a PMF analysis singled out the major PM10 sources in the area. Marble transportation turned out to be the major pollution source in the town accounting to PM10 for about 36%; this corresponded to a CaCO 3 average level of about 8 μg m -3 during working days. The FT-IR analysis was a crucial part of the work and an ad-hoc analytical procedure was specifically set up, calibrated, and tested as described in the text.

  5. The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1990-04-01

    One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Near-source surface seismic measurements for the NPE, NPE Calibration, Hunter`s Trophy, and Mineral Quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, R.E.; Leverette, J.A.; Stump, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    An extensive seismic network was deployed on the surface of Rainier Mesa for both the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) Calibration shot as well as the full scale NPE event. This network was very similar to previous deployments for the nuclear events MISTY ECHO, MINERAL QUARRY, and HUNTERS TROPHY. For the full scale NPE event three-component accelerometers and seismometers were fielded at 32 sites across the mesa. A slightly smaller network with 28 stations was in operation for the 300 pound NPE calibration event. The mesa top array included both accelerometers and seismometers. The accelerometers were used to obtain data from the main NPE event while the seismometers with their higher sensitivity were used to record the 300 pound cal shot and several hundred after events from the NPE. Large spatial variations in ground motion are evident in both the full mesa data set as well as a small (80 m on a side) aperture, 9-element triangular array. This paper summarizes the data and discusses wave propagation effects. A companion paper presents a comparative source analysis.

  7. Geoarchaeology at Gilman Falls: An Archaic Quarry and Manufacturing Site in Central Maine, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, D.; Kelley, A.R.; Berry, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations at the Milford Reservoir, central Maine, resulted in excavation and analysis of a Middle Archaic quarry and manufacturing site at Gilman Falls, dated to between 7300 and 6300 yr B.P. Lithological analysis indicates that the majority of the artifacts came from very local outcrops, providing low-grade metamorphic rocks. Native Americans used a specialized technique to reduce the granofels and other rocks to long rods, artifacts commonly placed in local cemeteries. The Gilman Falls site was largely abandoned once these artifacts were no longer in vogue. Therefore, access to particular bedrock outcrops seems to have played an important role in site selection. Gilman Falls and other early to middle Holocene sites are preserved where bedrock sill dams ponded water that deposited fine sand. Early site sedimentation history is paralleled by a drainage change in the headwaters of the Penobscot River. Evidence for lower mid-Holocene lake levels and a period of higher temperatures and lower precipitation may correlate with the sedimentation history. ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The benthic macrofauna from the Lower Maastrichtian chalk of Kronsmoor (northern Germany, Saturn quarry): taxonomic outline and palaeoecologic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelke, Julia; Esser, Klaus J. K.; Linnert, Christian; Mutterlose, Jörg; Wilmsen, Markus

    2016-12-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of the Lower Maastrichtian chalk of Saturn quarry at Kronsmoor (northern Germany) have been studied taxonomically based on more than 1,000 specimens. Two successive benthic macrofossil assemblages were recognised: the lower interval in the upper part of the Kronsmoor Formation (Belemnella obtusa Zone) is characterized by low abundances of macroinvertebrates while the upper interval in the uppermost Kronsmoor and lowermost Hemmoor formations (lower to middle Belemnella sumensis Zone) shows a high macroinvertebrate abundance (eight times more than in the B. obtusa Zone) and a conspicuous dominance of brachiopods. The palaeoecological analysis of these two assemblages indicates the presence of eight different guilds, of which epifaunal suspension feeders (fixo-sessile and libero-sessile guilds), comprising approximately half of the trophic nucleus of the lower interval, increased to a dominant 86% in the upper interval, including a considerable proportion of rhynchonelliform brachiopods. It is tempting to relate this shift from the lower to the upper interval to an increase in nutrient supply and/or a shallowing of the depositional environment but further data including geochemical proxies are needed to fully understand the macrofossil distribution patterns in the Lower Maastrichtian of Kronsmoor.

  9. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Flyrock Distance by Combined Multiple Regression Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation of Quarry Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaghani, Danial Jahed; Mahdiyar, Amir; Hasanipanah, Mahdi; Faradonbeh, Roohollah Shirani; Khandelwal, Manoj; Amnieh, Hassan Bakhshandeh

    2016-09-01

    Flyrock is considered as one of the main causes of human injury, fatalities, and structural damage among all undesirable environmental impacts of blasting. Therefore, it seems that the proper prediction/simulation of flyrock is essential, especially in order to determine blast safety area. If proper control measures are taken, then the flyrock distance can be controlled, and, in return, the risk of damage can be reduced or eliminated. The first objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for flyrock estimation based on multiple regression (MR) analyses, and after that, using the developed MR model, flyrock phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) approach. In order to achieve objectives of this study, 62 blasting operations were investigated in Ulu Tiram quarry, Malaysia, and some controllable and uncontrollable factors were carefully recorded/calculated. The obtained results of MC modeling indicated that this approach is capable of simulating flyrock ranges with a good level of accuracy. The mean of simulated flyrock by MC was obtained as 236.3 m, while this value was achieved as 238.6 m for the measured one. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was also conducted to investigate the effects of model inputs on the output of the system. The analysis demonstrated that powder factor is the most influential parameter on fly rock among all model inputs. It is noticeable that the proposed MR and MC models should be utilized only in the studied area and the direct use of them in the other conditions is not recommended.

  10. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  11. The added value of the new ESAW/Eurostat variables in accident analysis in the mining and quarrying industry.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Celeste; Soares, C Guedes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the causes and circumstances of occupational accidents in the Portuguese Mining and Quarrying (M&Q) activity sector. To this effect, it uses national accident data (2001-2003), giving particular attention to the newly implemented harmonized ESAW/Eurostat variables. The study begins with a broad description of the M&Q sector and identifies its "typical accident." A series of accident pyramids are used to discriminate between causal patterns of fatal and non-fatal accidents. The causation mechanisms of the "typical accidents" (fatal and non-fatal) are established by examining the statistical dependency between pairs of modalities of two key variables: the Contact and the Deviation. The results obtained by this method revealed certain details of the cause-effect mechanism that were unknown before, which also facilitate prioritizing preventive strategies. The study highlights the benefits of the new Eurostat variables for the production of accident statistics. The consistent adoption of harmonized classifications has a potentially positive impact on several communities: researchers will find it easier to compare their studies; the national authorities can plan more target-oriented preventive strategies; and the individual organizations may use this instrument to facilitate benchmarking of their performance indicators.

  12. A petrographic and geochemical study of the Wilkeson Sandstone, Eocene Carbonado Formation, at the quarry near Wilkeson, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Knoblach, D.A.

    1993-04-01

    The Wilkeson Sandstone is a light-gray (N 7--8), very well-indurated, fluvial, lenticular, well-sorted, medium- to coarse-grained, arkosic sandstone. Located near the northwest corner of Mount Rainier National Park, west-central Washington State, the Wilkeson Sandstone is an important key rock that was included in part of the former Wilkeson Sandstone(s)/Wilkeson Formation (Willis, 1898). Incorporated into the Eocene Carbonado Formation (Gard, 1968), it is often referenced in Puget Group geological studies. The Wilkeson Sandstone was derived from an eastern highland of plutonic, metamorphic and marine sedimentary rocks, and contains minor carbonized wood debris, and rare siltstone and mudstone clasts. The cross-bedded, subangular, bimodal, first-cycle sand grains are cemented by silica, with secondary nodules of specular hematite. The unit weathers grayish-orange (10YR 7/4) and black (N 1). In the Wilkeson quarry, the bedding strikes north 30 degrees west, and dips 53 degrees northeast. In an effort to distinguish the Wilkeson Sandstone from other sedimentation units, 120 selected samples were analyzed for 25 major and trace elements using an automated x-ray spectrometer. Petrography was done with scanning electron and polarizing light microscopes. Heavy mineral separation also was performed.

  13. The Punta Lucero Quarry site (Zierbena, Bizkaia): a window into the Middle Pleistocene in the Northern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Sala, Nohemi; Arceredillo, Diego; García, Nuria; Martínez-Pillado, Virginia; Rios-Garaizar, Joseba; Garate, Diego; Solar, Gonzalo; Libano, Iñaki

    2015-08-01

    The period between the end of the Early Pleistocene and the mid-Middle Pleistocene (roughly between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma BP) is of great interest in Western Europe. It witnessed several climatic oscillations and changes in the fauna, the demise of a hominin species and the appearance of another, along with important cultural and technological changes. Thus, the few available sites with these chronologies is vital to the understanding of the tempo and mode of these changes. Middle Pleistocene sites in the Northern Iberian Peninsula are very rare. Here we present the study of the site found at the Punta Lucero Quarry (Biscay province, Northern Iberian Peninsula), which includes for the first time the complete collection from the site. The fossil association from this site includes several ungulates, such as a Megacerine deer, Cervus elaphus, large bovids (likely both Bos primigenius and Bison sp. are present), Stephanorhinus sp., and carnivores, such as Homotherium latidens, Panthera gombaszoegensis, Canis mosbachensis and Vulpes sp. This association is typical of a middle Middle Pleistocene chronology and would be the oldest macro-mammal site in the Eastern Cantabrian region. This site would likely correspond to a chronology after Mode 1 technological complex and before the arrival of Mode 2 technology in this region. Thus, it offers a glimpse into the paleoecological conditions slightly prior to or contemporaneous with the first Acheulian makers in the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, Jonathan P.; Eberhart, Shawn L.; Clawson, Steven R.; Noto, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (CLDQ) is the densest deposit of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs discovered to date. Unlike typical Jurassic bone deposits, it is dominated by the presence of Allosaurus fragilis. Since excavation began in the 1920s, numerous hypotheses have been put forward to explain the taphonomy of CLDQ, including a predator trap, a drought assemblage, and a poison spring. In an effort to reconcile the various interpretations of the quarry and reach a consensus on the depositional history of CLDQ, new data is required to develop a robust taphonomic framework congruent with all available data. Here we present two new data sets that aid in the development of such a robust taphonomic framework for CLDQ. First, x-ray fluorescence of CLDQ sediments indicate elevated barite and sulfide minerals relative to other sediments from the Morrison Formation in the region, suggesting an ephemeral environment dominated by periods of hypereutrophic conditions during bone accumulation. Second, the degree of abrasion and hydraulic equivalency of small bone fragments dispersed throughout the matrix were analyzed from CLDQ. Results of these analyses suggest that bone fragments are autochthonous or parautochthonous and are derived from bones deposited in the assemblage rather than transported. The variability in abrasion exhibited by the fragments is most parsimoniously explained by local periodic re-working and re-deposition during seasonal fluctuations throughout the duration of the quarry assemblage. Collectively, these data support previous interpretations that the CLDQ represents an attritional assemblage in a poorly-drained overbank deposit where vertebrate remains were introduced post-mortem to an ephemeral pond during flood conditions. Furthermore, while the elevated heavy metals detected at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are not likely the primary driver for the accumulation of carcasses, they are likely the result of multiple sources; some metals may be

  15. New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph E; Warnock, Jonathan P; Eberhart, Shawn L; Clawson, Steven R; Noto, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (CLDQ) is the densest deposit of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs discovered to date. Unlike typical Jurassic bone deposits, it is dominated by the presence of Allosaurus fragilis. Since excavation began in the 1920s, numerous hypotheses have been put forward to explain the taphonomy of CLDQ, including a predator trap, a drought assemblage, and a poison spring. In an effort to reconcile the various interpretations of the quarry and reach a consensus on the depositional history of CLDQ, new data is required to develop a robust taphonomic framework congruent with all available data. Here we present two new data sets that aid in the development of such a robust taphonomic framework for CLDQ. First, x-ray fluorescence of CLDQ sediments indicate elevated barite and sulfide minerals relative to other sediments from the Morrison Formation in the region, suggesting an ephemeral environment dominated by periods of hypereutrophic conditions during bone accumulation. Second, the degree of abrasion and hydraulic equivalency of small bone fragments dispersed throughout the matrix were analyzed from CLDQ. Results of these analyses suggest that bone fragments are autochthonous or parautochthonous and are derived from bones deposited in the assemblage rather than transported. The variability in abrasion exhibited by the fragments is most parsimoniously explained by local periodic re-working and re-deposition during seasonal fluctuations throughout the duration of the quarry assemblage. Collectively, these data support previous interpretations that the CLDQ represents an attritional assemblage in a poorly-drained overbank deposit where vertebrate remains were introduced post-mortem to an ephemeral pond during flood conditions. Furthermore, while the elevated heavy metals detected at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are not likely the primary driver for the accumulation of carcasses, they are likely the result of multiple sources; some metals may be

  16. Risk of groundwater inrush in subterranean gypsum quarries: the case study of Moncalvo near Asti (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzato, Cinzia; Fiorucci, Adriano; Gianotti, Alberto; de Waele, Jo; Vigna, Bartolomeo

    2010-05-01

    During the realisation of underground excavations in gypsum bedrock there is a possibility of intercepting large karst voids that can be completely filled with water under a considerable hydraulic pressure. The casual breaching of such voids can cause sudden and abundant water inrushes with consequences concerning safety of the excavation area and flooding of the tunnels. The presence of air-filled caves of great dimensions can also cause problems related to collapse of walls, ceilings and floors. In the subterranean quarry of Moncalvo d'Asti (Central Piedmont, Italy) in January 2005 an important inrush (60,000 m3 overnight) occurred causing damage to machinery and the flooding of several kilometres of underground tunnels. This inrush was caused by the breaching of a thin diaphragm of rock that separated the quarry from a large water-filled cave with water pressure of around 300 kPa along the front of the excavation. The rapid emptying of this void has caused a partial collapse of the roof of one of the largest cave chambers with the formation at the surface of a 20 metre wide sinkhole. To prevent similar phenomena to happen in the future a hydrogeological study concerning the entire gypsum mass was carried out. These investigations included monitoring of water levels intercepted by a series of boreholes, measurements of flow rates of water veins encountered by the excavations and chemical analysis of the different types of water coming from several points. This study has evidenced the presence of different drainage networks and the existence of a main karst circuit fed by diffused infiltration and recharge from the overlying marly-silty deposits and from adjacent minor less karstified systems in particularly fractured sectors of the gypsum. The waters coming from the main karst circuit are chemically very different from the waters deriving from deeper pathways. To be able to continue the excavation of gypsum in safe conditions the water levels were lowered for a

  17. Multiscale approach to (micro)porosity quantification in continental spring carbonate facies: Case study from the Cakmak quarry (Denizli, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Eva; Foubert, Anneleen; Oligschlaeger, Dirk; Claes, Steven; Soete, Jeroen; Bertier, Pieter; Özkul, Mehmet; Virgone, Aurélien; Swennen, Rudy

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate spring deposits gained renewed interest as potential contributors to subsurface reservoirs and as continental archives of environmental changes. In contrast to their fabrics, petrophysical characteristics - and especially the importance of microporosity (< 1µm) - are less understood. This study presents the combination of advanced petrophysical and imaging techniques to investigate the pore network characteristics of three, common and widespread spring carbonate facies, as exposed in the Pleistocene Cakmak quarry (Denizli, Turkey): the extended Pond, the dipping crystalline Proximal Slope Facies and the draping Apron and Channel Facies deposits formed by encrustation of biological substrate. Integrating mercury injection capillary pressure, bulk and diffusion Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), NMR profiling and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements with microscopy and micro-computer tomography (µ-CT), shows that NMR T2 distributions systematically display a single group of micro-sized pore bodies, making up between 6 and 33% of the pore space (average NMR T2 cut-off value: 62 ms). Micropore bodies are systematically located within cloudy crystal cores of granular and dendritic crystal textures in all facies. The investigated properties therefore do not reveal differences in micropore size or shape with respect to more or less biology-associated facies. The pore network of the travertine facies is distinctive in terms of (i) the percentage of microporosity, (ii) the connectivity of micropores with meso- to macropores, and (ii) the degree of heterogeneity at micro- and macroscale. Results show that an approach involving different NMR experiments provided the most complete view on the 3-D pore network especially when microporosity and connectivity are of interest.

  18. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  19. Silica dust and lung cancer in the German stone, quarrying, and ceramics industries: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ulm, K; Waschulzik, B; Ehnes, H; Guldner, K; Thomasson, B; Schwebig, A; Nuss, H

    1999-04-01

    A work force based case-control study of lung cancer was performed in non-silicotic subjects exposed to crystalline silica to investigate the association between silica dust and lung cancer excluding the influence of silicosis. Two hundred and forty seven patients with lung cancer and 795 control subjects were enrolled, all of whom had been employed in the German stone, quarrying, or ceramics industries. Smoking was used as a matching criterion. Exposure to silica was quantified by measurements, if available, or otherwise by industrial hygienists. Several indices (peak, average and cumulative exposure) were used to analyse the relationship between the level of exposure and risk of lung cancer as odds ratios (OR). The risk of lung cancer is associated with the year of and age at first exposure to silica, duration of exposure, and latency. All odds ratios were adjusted for these factors. Considering the peak exposure, the OR for workers exposed to high levels (>/=0.15 mg/m3 respirable silica dust which is the current occupational threshold value for Germany) compared with those exposed to low levels (<0.15 mg/m3) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.58 to 1. 25). For the time weighted average exposure the OR was 0.91 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.46). The OR for the cumulative exposure was 1.02 (95% CI 0. 67 to 1.55). No increase in risk was evident with increasing exposure. This study shows no association between exposure to crystalline silica and lung cancer. The exclusion of subjects with silicosis may have led to dilution with respect to the level of exposure and therefore reduced the power to detect a small risk. Alternatively, the risk of getting lung cancer may be restricted to subjects with silicosis and is not directly linked to silica dust.

  20. Silica dust and lung cancer in the German stone, quarrying, and ceramics industries: results of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, K; Waschulzik, B; Ehnes, H; Guldner, K; Thomasson, B; Schwebig, A; Nuss, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A work force based case-control study of lung cancer was performed in non-silicotic subjects exposed to crystalline silica to investigate the association between silica dust and lung cancer excluding the influence of silicosis.
METHODS—Two hundred and forty seven patients with lung cancer and 795 control subjects were enrolled, all of whom had been employed in the German stone, quarrying, or ceramics industries. Smoking was used as a matching criterion. Exposure to silica was quantified by measurements, if available, or otherwise by industrial hygienists. Several indices (peak, average and cumulative exposure) were used to analyse the relationship between the level of exposure and risk of lung cancer as odds ratios (OR).
RESULTS—The risk of lung cancer is associated with the year of and age at first exposure to silica, duration of exposure, and latency. All odds ratios were adjusted for these factors. Considering the peak exposure, the OR for workers exposed to high levels (⩾0.15 mg/m3 respirable silica dust which is the current occupational threshold value for Germany) compared with those exposed to low levels (<0.15 mg/m3) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.25). For the time weighted average exposure the OR was 0.91 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.46). The OR for the cumulative exposure was 1.02 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.55). No increase in risk was evident with increasing exposure.
CONCLUSIONS—This study shows no association between exposure to crystalline silica and lung cancer. The exclusion of subjects with silicosis may have led to dilution with respect to the level of exposure and therefore reduced the power to detect a small risk. Alternatively, the risk of getting lung cancer may be restricted to subjects with silicosis and is not directly linked to silica dust.

 PMID:10092697

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of high-resolution Chalk groundwater geochemistry - Underground quarry at Saint Martin-le-Noeud, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, S.; Valdès, D.; Guérin, R.; Marlin, C.; Vitale, Q.; Benmamar, J.; Gombert, P.

    2014-11-01

    Chalk groundwater is an important aquifer resource in France because it accounts for a production of 12 million m3 y-1 with a large proportion reserved for drinking water. Processes occurring in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and the overlying superficial formations have a high impact on Chalk groundwater geochemistry and require better understanding. The study site is a former underground Chalk quarry located near Beauvais (France) that extends over 1200 m in length, at a depth ranging from 20 to 30 m. The water table intersects the cavity creating 15 underground “lake” that give access to the Chalk groundwater. Lakes geochemistry has been studied: water samples were collected in July 2013 and major ion concentrations were analyzed. UZ and clay-with-flints thickness above each lake were estimated qualitatively using an electromagnetic sensor (EM31) and Underground GPS. The results unexpectedly showed that groundwater quality varied widely in spatial terms for both allochthonous and autochthonous ions (e.g., HCO3- ranged from 2.03 to 4.43 meq L-1, NO3- ranged from 0.21 to 1.33 meq L-1). Principal component analysis indicated the impact of agricultural land use on water quality, with the intake of NO3- as well as SO42-, Cl- and Ca2+. Chalk groundwater geochemistry is compared with the nature and structure of the UZ. We highlight correlations (1) between thick clay-with-flints layers and the ions Mg2+ and K+, and (2) between UZ thickness and Na+. In conclusion, this paper identifies various ion sources (agriculture, clay-with-flints and Chalk) and demonstrates different processes in the UZ: dissolution, ionic exchange and solute storage.

  2. Risk evaluation and exposure control of mineral dust containing free crystalline silica: a study case at a quarry in the Recife Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Lira, Mario; Kohlman Rabbani, E; Barkokébas Junior, Beda; Lago, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    During the production of aggregates at quarry sites, elevated quantities of micro-particulate mineral dust are produced in all stages of the process. This dust contains appreciable amounts of free crystalline silica in a variety of forms which, if maintained suspended in the air in the work environment, expose the workers to the risk of developing occupational silicosis, which causes reduced ability to work and potential shortening of lifespan. This study was conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate workers' exposure to mineral dust containing free crystalline silica at a midsized quarry in the Recife metropolitan area, in the State of Pernambuco. It involved evaluation of the industrial process, collection and analysis of representative dust samples, and interviews with the management team of the company with the intent to assess the compliance of the company with Regulatory Standard (NR) 22--Occupational safety and health in mining. In order to assist the company in managing risks related to dust exposure, three protocols were developed, implemented and made available, the first based on NR 22, from which the company was also given an economic safety indicator, the second based on the recommendations and requirements of Fundacentro to implement a Respiratory Protection Program and, finally, an assessment protocol with respect to the guidelines of the International Labor Organization to implement a health and safety management system. This study also showed the inadequacy of the formula for calculating tolerance limits in Brazilian legislation when compared with the more strict internationally accepted control parameters. From the laboratory results, unhealthy conditions at the quarry site were confirmed and technical and administrative measures were suggested to reduce and control dust exposure at acceptable levels, such as the implementation of an occupational health and safety management system, integrated with other management systems. From these

  3. Investigation of intact rock geomechanical parameters' effects on commercial blocks' productivity within stone reserves: A case history of some quarries in Isfahan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarahmadi, Reza; Bagherpour, Raheb; Tabaei, Morteza; Sousa, Luis M. O.

    2017-10-01

    One of the common methods to determine commercial blocks productivity (CBP) in reserves of dimension stone is through the study of the discontinuities' network. However, this determination remains a difficult task due to geographical heterogeneity and lack of access to all reserves' formations. This study presents a new method based on various geomechanical tests performed on intact rocks that assessed the CBP of a dimension stones' rock mass. Assuming that a dimension stone's rock mass comprised a large block of an intact rock, due to tectonics, the geomechanical properties of this block had direct effects on the discontinuities created within it. Therefore, the geomechanical properties of the intact rock may be related to the CBP of a stone reserve. Based on this factor, this study explored the relationship among some geomechanical properties, including failure angle, uniaxial compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity, and CBP by using data acquired from 21 dimension stone quarries consisting of travertine, marble, and onyx groups. According to the results obtained from the analysis of the Isfahan province's Iranian quarries, failure angle was not highly related to the reserve's CBP. In marble quarries, CBP may decrease, if the compressive strength of an intact rock exceeds 60 MPa. Among the studied parameters, the saturated-to-dry ratio's modulus of elasticity had the greatest relationship to the CBP. Generally, the presented diagrams displayed that the correlation between geomechanical properties and the CBP were an appropriate guide in determining the potential cost-effectiveness of a accessing a particular rock reserve during the early exploration phase.

  4. Seasonal-scale abrasion and quarrying patterns from a two-dimensional ice-flow model coupled to distributed and channelized subglacial drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, Flavien; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Pimentel, Sam

    2014-08-01

    Field data and numerical modeling show that glaciations have the potential either to enhance relief or to dampen topography. We aim to model the effect of the subglacial hydraulic system on spatiotemporal patterns of glacial erosion by abrasion and quarrying on time scales commensurate with drainage system fluctuations (e.g., seasonal to annual). We use a numerical model that incorporates a dual-morphology subglacial drainage system coupled to a higher-order ice-flow model and process-specific erosion laws. The subglacial drainage system allows for a dynamic transition between two morphologies: the distributed system, characterized by an increase in basal water pressure with discharge, and the channelized system, which exhibits a decrease in equilibrium water pressure with increasing discharge. We apply the model to a simple synthetic glacier geometry, drive it with prescribed meltwater input variations, and compute sliding and erosion rates over a seasonal cycle. When both distributed and channelized systems are included, abrasion and sliding maxima migrate ~ 20% up-glacier compared to simulations with distributed drainage only. Power-law sliding generally yields to a broader response of abrasion to water pressure changes along the flowline compared to Coulomb-friction sliding. Multi-day variations in meltwater input elicit a stronger abrasion response than either diurnal- or seasonal variations alone for the same total input volume. An increase in water input volume leads to increased abrasion. We find that ice thickness commensurate with ice sheet outlet glaciers can hinder the up-glacier migration of abrasion. Quarrying patterns computed with a recently published law differ markedly from calculated abrasion patterns, with effective pressure being a stronger determinant than sliding speeds of quarrying rates. These variations in calculated patterns of instantaneous erosion as a function of hydrology-, sliding-, and erosion-model formulation, as well as model

  5. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  6. Devonian Terrestrial Revolution: the palaeoenvironment of the oldest known tetrapod tracks, Zachełmie Quarry, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiedzki, G.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous trackways and isolated prints with digit impressions, which are similar to the foot anatomy of early tetrapods such as Ichthyostega, were found on the three dolomite bed-surfaces in the lower part of the Wojciechowice Formation exposed in the Zachełmie Quarry in the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland), (Niedźwiedzki et al., 2010). The age of the tetrapod track-bearing strata is well-constrained, but the detailed sedimentology of the lower section with tetrapod ichnites is still under study. The Wojciechowice Formation represent one of the first carbonate stages of a transgressive succession that begins with Early Devonian continental to marginal marine clastics and culminates in the development of a Givetian coral-stromatoporoid carbonate platform. The tetrapod track-bearing complex is composed of grey to reddish, thin- to medium-bedded dolomitic shales and marly dolomite mudstones. These deposits from the tetrapod track-bearing horizon lack definitive marine body fossils, and may have formed in a marginal marine environment, e.g. around a coastal lagoon. Mudcracks, columnar peds, root traces, and microbially induced sedimentary structures were found in three distinct pedotypes of very weakly to weakly developed paleosols (Retallack, 2011). Conodonts of the costatus zone (mid-Eifelian) were found 20 m above the uppermost surface with tetrapod tracks in limestones of the upper Wojciechowice Formation, which contain also brachiopod and crinoidal debris. The overlying Kowala Formation is a marine coral limestone and dolostone. The parts of profile with tetrapod ichnites and invertebrate and conodont fossils contain also records of invertebrate traces. Seven ichnotaxa are distributed among four recognized ichnoassemblages. The recognized ichnocoenoses are typical for the shallow-marine (Cruziana ichnofacies) and land-water transitional (Skolithos/Psilonichnus ichnofacies) carbonate depositional environments. The ichnocoenoses are dominated by trace

  7. Variable mineral composition of metamorphic rocks from a single quarry compared to their ASR potential (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stastna, Aneta; Sachlova, Sarka; Pertold, Zdenek; Nekvasilova, Zuzana; Prikryl, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most damaging factors for concrete structures. ASR originates due to the presence of reactive silica (SiO2) that reacts with alkaline ions under wet conditions. The reaction mechanism consists of four different steps: initial attack of OH- compounds on SiO2 at aggregate-cement paste boundary; formation of silanol groups at SiO2 surface; formation of siloxane groups and their polymerization; adsorption of alkaline and Ca2+ ions and formation of alkali-silica gels. Alkali-silica gels tend to absorb water molecules and swell causing increasing internal pressures in concrete and microcracking. The most reactive aggregates are mainly composed of amorphous and/or fine-grained SiO2-rich phases. In the Czech Republic, ASR was observed in deteriorating concrete structures containing very fine-grained quartz (quartz in tuffaceous sandstones and greywackes), as well as quartz indicating variable degree of deformation (quartz in quartzite, granodiorite and various metamorphic rock types). In this study, mineralogical-petrographic methods (polarizing, electron and cathodoluminescence microscopy) were combined with the accelerated mortar bar test (following the standard ASTM C1260), with the aim to quantify the ASR potential, as well as to distinguish reactive mineral phases. Different aggregate varieties from the Těchobuz quarry (Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic) have been compared. Mineralogical-petrographic characteristics permit a distinction between 1) medium-grained plagioclase quartzite and 2) fine-grained biotite-plagioclase-quartz paragneiss and 3) fine-grained calc-silicate rock. Mineralogical composition of the first type is quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + diopside + pyrite + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The second type has mineral assemblage including quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + pyrite + tourmaline + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The third type contains

  8. Increasing compliance with protective eyewear to reduce ocular injuries in stone-quarry workers in Tamil Nadu, India: a pragmatic, cluster randomised trial of a single education session versus an enhanced education package delivered over six months.

    PubMed

    Adams, James S K; Raju, Renu; Solomon, Victor; Samuel, Prasanna; Dutta, Amit K; Rose, Jeyanth S; Tharyan, Prathap

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of standard education versus enhanced education in increasing compliance with protective eyewear to prevent ocular injuries in stone-quarry workers. Pragmatic, allocation concealed, participant and outcome assessor blinded, cluster randomised trial. Six stone-quarries around Vellore, Tamil Nadu, South India. 204 consenting adult stone quarry workers. Protective eyewear plus enhanced education (one education session, plus 11 sessions of group education, individual discussions, and educational plays over six months) versus protective eyewear plus standard education (one education session and 5 follow up visits). The primary outcomes were observer-rated compliance with protective eyewear and reduction in incidence of ocular injuries (slit-lamp examination by an observer blinded to allocation status) at three and six months. Analysis was by intention to treat. Quarries and participants were similar at enrolment. All quarries; 92/103 (90%) of workers in three quarries given enhanced intervention, and 91/101 workers (89%) in three quarries given standard education, completed six months follow up. Compared to standard education, enhanced education significantly increased compliance with protective eyewear by 16% (95% CI 3-28%) at three months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.8); and by 25% (95% CI 11-35%) at six months (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.8). Protective eyewear and enhanced education reduced the incidence of eye injuries at three months by 16% (95% CI 7-24%); and standard education by 13% (95% CI 4-22%), compared to the three months before interventions. The cumulative reduction over baseline in eye injuries at the six months was greater with enhanced education (12% decrease; 95% CI 3-21%) than with standard education (7% decrease; 95% CI 17% decrease to 3% increase). However, this incidence did not differ significantly between intervention arms at three months (OR 0.7% 95% CI 0.3-2.1); and at six months (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5). Provision of appropriate

  9. Radiological characterization of the ancient Roman tuff-pozzolana underground quarry in Orvieto (Italy): A natural laboratory to revisit the interactions between radionuclides and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nuccetelli, C; Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Ampollini, M; Cardellini, F; Tonnarini, S; Kovler, K; Vargas Trassiera, C

    2017-03-01

    Orvieto (Italy) has a large network of underground tunnels quarried to extract tuff and pozzolana by Etruscans and Romans. One of these tunnels was chosen as natural laboratory to compare different radiation measurement and dose assessment methods. Indeed, tuff and pozzolana are very rich in natural radioactivity and are interesting from the radiation protection point of view since they are still used as building materials. In order to characterize this site an in situ experimental procedure was followed. It consisted in measurements carried out with different instruments: two portable gamma ray spectrometers, two gamma dose rate meters, two radon monitors and one two channel working level monitor. Samples of tuff and pozzolana stones were also collected to be measured with gamma spectrometry in laboratory. Due to the high content of (238)U, (232)Th (more than 200 Bq kg(-1) for both radionuclides) and (40)K (more than 2000 Bq kg(-1)) of tuff and pozzolana, elevated levels of exposure to natural radioactivity were found: indeed, with different instruments and approach, a gamma dose rate of about 1 μGy h(-1) and an average radon concentration of about 10,000 Bq m(-3), with a Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) of 288 MeV cm(-3), were measured. The radiological characteristics of Orvieto underground quarry make it a perfect site for "in field" intercomparisons of different measurement and dose assessment methods.

  10. Mining the Metadata Quarries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A., Ed.; Guenther, Rebecca; McCallum, Sally; Greenberg, Jane; Tennis, Joseph T.; Jun, Wang

    2003-01-01

    This special section of the "Bulletin" includes an introduction and the following articles: "New Metadata Standards for Digital Resources: MODS (Metadata Object and Description Schema) and METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)"; "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools"; "Data Collection for…

  11. Mining the Metadata Quarries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A., Ed.; Guenther, Rebecca; McCallum, Sally; Greenberg, Jane; Tennis, Joseph T.; Jun, Wang

    2003-01-01

    This special section of the "Bulletin" includes an introduction and the following articles: "New Metadata Standards for Digital Resources: MODS (Metadata Object and Description Schema) and METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)"; "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools"; "Data Collection for…

  12. Geochemical and lithostratigraphic constraints on the formation of pillow-dominated tindars from Undirhlíðar quarry, Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Meagen; Edwards, Benjamin; Hauksdóttir, Steinunn; Alcorn, Rebecca; Bowman, Lindsey

    2014-07-01

    Undirhlíðar quarry on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland exposes an almost complete cross-section of a pillow-dominated tindar. Detailed mapping and geochemical analyses of the quarry walls show that glaciovolcanic lithologies are controlled not only by ice conditions, but also by complex changes in magmatic conditions. Undirhlíðar's glaciovolcanic deposits are dominated by pillow lavas (Lp1-3) but also include dikes (Ld1-3) and shallow intrusions, and interbedded tuff (T), lapilli tuff (LT) and tuff-breccia (TB). Lithostratigraphic variations record shifts in eruptive vents and styles, including evidence for explosive subaqueous activity. Petrographically, the units can be subdivided into plagioclase-phyric and olivine-phyric, while compositionally the units define two trace element populations: (1) incompatible element-enriched (LaN/SmN ~ 1.6; Nb/Zr ~ 0.15) rocks comprising the lower (older) pillow units (Lp1-2), and (2) less-enriched (LaN/SmN ~ 1.3; Nb/Zr ~ 0.125) units including dikes (Ld1-3), west wall pillows (LpW), and the upper (younger) pillow units (Lp3). The combined lithostratigraphic, petrographic, and geochemical relationships suggest a four-stage model for the formation of Undirhlíðar: (1) an initial effusive phase (Lp1-2) that built the bulk of the ridge, which erupted olivine-free, incompatible element-enriched lava, (2) an explosive phase, which generated lenses of TB and LT, now exposed on the eastern side of the ridge, (3) a second effusive phase (Ld1-2, LpW) exposed in the west side of the quarry, which intruded the initial effusive deposits and erupted pillow lavas that drape over the western edge of the existing ridge; this effusive phase is distinguished from the first as a less-enriched magma bearing large olivine phenocrysts, and (4) a final effusion on the east side of the quarry, which intruded (Ld3) units LT and TB, and erupted a capping layer of pillow lavas (Lp3). The products of this effusive event are genetically

  13. How spatial variations of chalk groundwater geochemistry are related to superficial formations and infiltration processes of unsaturated zone (quarry of Saint Martin le Noeud, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, Sarah; Valdès-Lao, Danièle; Guérin, Roger; Gombert, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Chalk is complex because of its dual porosity and because of superficial layers more or less thick and more or less permeable. Furthermore there is few knowledge in understanding of groundwater infiltration and dissolution processes in the chalk unsaturated zone (UZ). The role of superficial formations has to be studied especially. The experimental site is an ancient underground quarry of chalk which extends over 1200 m long and 150 m wide (30 m depth) in Saint Martin le Noeud, south of Beauvais, France. This quarry is particularly interesting to study infiltration and dissolution processes indeed this site allows to access to the interface between the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. Water percolates from the top of the quarry more or less depending on the season. Water table outcrops in the cave and makes about 20 underground lakes. Above the quarry chalk is covered clay-with-flints (CWF) and loess, in surface there are cultivated crops fields. On the first year of the study, physicochemical parameters: temperature, depth, pH, conductivity were recorded in seven lakes with high frequency (every hour). During the same period we sampled the 20 lakes water every month to measure major ions. During this sampling period, percolation was not sufficient to collect percolated water. Results of underground GPS, electric resistivity tomography and observations of three borehole showed that thickness unsaturated zone and that the thicknesses of the superficial formations vary a lot spatially. Three interesting points (separated by less than 1 km) are presented: the above the Pedro lake (25 m of UZ, a few cm of CWF), above the Stalactites lake (30 m of UZ, more than 2.40 m of CWF); above the Blue lake (35 m depth, 60 cm of CWF). First results of chemistry showed that the temporal variation is very low during the first year but there spatial variation is very important at quarry scale. The geochemistry of the lakes are very different: HCO3- varies from 100 to 250mg

  14. The benthic fauna from the lower Maastrichtian chalk of Kronsmoor (Saturn quarry, northern Germany): composition and palaeoecologic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelke, Julia; Linnert, Christian; Mutterlose, Jörg; Wilmsen, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The Saturn quarry near Kronsmoor (northern Germany) offers an undisturbed section of upper Campanian to lower Maastrichtian chalks. The target interval of the DFG project "Biodiversity and plankton-benthos coupling: an integrated ecosystem analysis from the Late Cretaceous Chalk" is focused on the lower Maastrichtian Belemnella obtusa Zone to mid-Belemnella sumensis Zone, i.e. to the uppermost Kronsmoor and lowermost Hemmoor formations. In this interval, a conspicuous increase in macrofossil abundance without apparent lithofacies changes has been observed and the project intends to integrate planktic, benthic and geochemical proxies for a comprehensive understanding of the Chalk Sea ecosystem. The aim of this study is the analysis of the benthic community. In a first step, the benthic body fossils of the c. 25-m-thick section were semi-quantitatively studied based on a collection of more than 1,000 specimens. Two successive benthic macrofossil assemblages were recognised: the lower interval (upper part of the Kronsmoor Formation, B. obtusa Zone) is characterized by low abundances, only about 100 macroinvertebrates were collected, mostly irregular and regular echinoids, brachiopods and crinoids. The upper interval (B. sumensis Zone) shows an eight times higher macroinvertebrate abundance and a conspicuous dominance of brachiopods, increasing from only 30 to over 500 specimens. In order to quantify the observed qualitative palaeoecological changes, 33 bulk samples of about 6 kg each were retrieved in a distance of c. 0.75 m. The bulk samples were frozen and thawed, washed and sieved in different sizes. The fraction 500 μm-1 mm and >1 mm were picked, sorted and counted. A diverse assemblage of bryozoans, foraminifers, shell fragments of brachiopods and bivalves, spines and test fragments of different echinoid taxa, parts of asteroids and ophiuroids, sponge debris, crinoids and small serpulids, is present. Reduced abundances in the lower part and generally higher

  15. Comparison of water absorption methods: testing the water absorption of recently quarried and weathered porous limestone on site and under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Agárdi, Tamás; Karolina Cebula, Ágnes; Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The water absorption of weathering sensitive stones is a critical parameter that influences durability. The current paper compares different methods of water absorption tests by using on site and laboratory tests. The aims of the tests were to assess the water absorption of un-weathered quarry stones and various weathering forms occurring on porous limestone monuments. For the tests a Miocene porous limestone was used that occurs in Central and Western Hungary and especially near and in Budapest. Besides the Hungarian occurrences the same or very similar porous limestones are found in Austria, Slovakia and in the Czech Republic. Several quarries were operating in these countries. Due to the high workability the stone have been intensively used as construction material from the Roman period onward. The most prominent monuments made of this stone were built in Vienna and in Budapest during the 18th -19th century and in the early 20th century. The high porosity and the micro-fabric of the stone make it prone to frost- and salt weathering. Three different limestone types were tested representing coarse-, medium- and fine grained lithologies. The test methods included Rilem tube (Karsten tube) tests and capillary water absorption tests. The latter methodology has been described in detail in EN 1925:2000. The test results of on-site tests of weathered porous limestone clearly show that the water absorption of dissolved limestone surfaces and crumbling or micro-cracked limestone is similar. The water absorption curves have similar inclinations marking high amount of absorbed water. To the contrary, the white weathering crusts covered stone blocks and black crusts have significantly lower water absorptions and many of these crusts are considered as very tight almost impermeable surfaces. Capillary water absorption tests in the laboratory allowed the determination of maximum water absorption of quarried porous limestone. Specimens were placed in 3 mm of water column and the

  16. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included.

  17. The growth of pines germinated from woodchip mulch in restored soils from semiarid SE Spain quarries is enhanced by organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles, Isabel; Lázaro-Suau, Roberto; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    The use of pine woodchips in soil restoration in calcareous quarries is a relatively low-cost mulching technique to improve soil water conservation and decrease soil erosion, contributing to improve soil quality. Besides these two important effects, woodchip mulch is also a potential source of seeds which can germinate if environmental conditions during earlier stages are adequate. Pine germination has been observed in experimental plots treated with pine woodchips used as mulch in one of the driest regions in Europe (SE Spain). This side-effect provided an interesting opportunity to analyse the influence of topsoil and two organic wastes (compost from domestic organic waste and sewage sludge from urban water treatment plant) in mine soils on the germinated pines (Pinus halepensis Mill.) and the plant cover (revegetated native plants and spontaneous vegetation). Number, height and basal diameter of pines and the total plant cover were measured 6 years after the applications of topsoil and organic amendments. Results showed that organic wastes increased the pine growth and the total plant cover which could favour in turn the physico-chemical soil properties and its quality in the medium-long term. However, organic amendments negatively influencing the number of germinated pines. The likely growth of pine seedlings derived from the pine cones which come with pine woodchips used as mulch, when enhanced by organic amendments, adds a positive value in quarry restoration even under very dry climatic conditions. However, it is necessary to continue monitoring the development of vegetation to form a more precise idea about whether the development of the pines is globally beneficial, since the pines could outcompete the local native plants.

  18. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Dababiya Quarry Section, Egypt: New evidence for environmental changes from mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P.; Scheibner, C.; Speijer, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    In the Dababiya Quarry section, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) consists of a succession of five characteristic beds that can be traced throughout eastern Egypt. The base of these beds defines the Global boundary Stratotype Section and and Point (GSSP) of the Eocene. Previous studies of mineralogical and geochemical proxies have suggested a period of euxinic conditions from the onset of the PETM up to the beginning of the recovery phase (Aubry et al., 2007). Dupuis et al. (2003) described prominent mineralogical changes (increase of illite and chlorite-smectite mixed layers) that occurred contemporaneous to the maximum negative carbon isotope values. A sea-level fall immediately preceding the onset of the PETM, followed by a sea-level rise and enhanced upwelling during the PETM is postulated in Egypt (Speijer and Wagner, 2002). However, a detailed study of the Dababiya Quarry beds, and specifically their element geochemistry, is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the Dababiya Quarry section by X-ray diffractometry (XRD; bulk rock and clay mineralogy) as well as by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF; major and trace elements and rare earth elements, REE) to detail the succession of environmental events during the PETM. (i) The absence of carbonate (as low as <2 wt%) in the basal event bed 1 indicates severe carbonate dissolution. A sharp short-lived increase in siliciclastic detritus (PETM) as well as an increase of chlorite and illite as well as well-crystallized smectite suggest deposition during low sea-level and increased weathering rates. Event bed 1 is also strongly deprived in REEs and shows high Zr/Rb ratios, indicative for input of coarse siliciclastic detritus. (ii) Subsequently, during the peak phase of the PETM, i.e. during the maximum negative shift of the Carbon Isotope Excursion ("CIE"), a short-lived period of pronounced anoxic sedimentary conditions is indicated by sediment lamination, absence of benthic life, elevated TOC

  19. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  20. Kink zone localization, structurally-controlled instability, and large-scale rock slope failure at the Mt. Gorsa porphyry quarry (Trentino, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Rock slope failure is controlled by rock mass strength and anisotropy, and by slope-scale persistent fractures with different spacing, eventually resulting in complex mechanisms as large-scale flexural toppling, block toppling, and kink band slumping. Despite these mechanisms have been studied, their interplay in large rock slope failure is often difficult to ascertain in complex geological settings. We studied the 250 m high porphyry quarry slopes of Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). Two slopes facing to N and E are carved in Permian rhyolithic ignimbrites, providing spectacular exposures of the inherited geological structure. Despite the strong intact rock, rock mass has a complex structure due to the occurrence of thermal cooling joints, persistent tectonic fractures, and joint sets. Evidence of ongoing displacement of the northern quarry face in 2003 motivated geotechnical and geophysical site investigation, and the initiation of displacement monitoring activities. GB-InSAR measurements using a LiSALab system captured large-scale slope dilation involving 400.000 m3. Further GB-InSAR measurements have been carried out since 2010. In order to understand the mechanisms governing large-scale deformation and failure of the northern slope, we carried out a comprehensive field and modelling study exploiting terrestrial photo mapping, field structural analysis and discontinuity surveys at different locations. On the northern face, 190 Geological Strength Index (GSI) surveys along benches, DEM structural analysis (COLTOP3D), and analysis of GB-InSAR data were carried out, and relationships among rock mass quality, 2003 landslide extent, and measured displacements established. Data show that slope instability is locally constrained by close and persistent cooling joints steeply dipping to the south (K1), persistent fault surfaces moderately dipping to the NNW (K2), and joint sets steeply dipping to NE and WNW (K3 and K4). NNW-dipping, top-to-N kink bands up to 2m wide also

  1. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  2. 150 years of land degradation and development: loss of habitats, natural resources due to quarrying and industrialization followed by land reclamation in the heart of Budapest city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The urban development and land degradation is an accelerated process in the 21st century; however several examples are known when this happened in the past. A historic case study is discussed in this research when clump of three former small towns (named: Buda, Pest and Óbuda) became a million population city more than hundred years ago invoking significant land degradation, drastic and surprising changes in land use. Budapest which is now the capital of Hungary has seen rapid land use changes in the past 150 years especially from 1850'ies to early 20th century. The population of the city rapidly grown from the end of 19th century to early 20th century; i.e. it is tripled from 1880 to 1920 and reached nearly 1 million in 40 years. This population boom induced significant land degradation, changes in land use and loss of habitats. The paper presents examples how the land use has changed in the past 105 years with historic maps and interpreted cases suggesting different pathways leading to land degradation. The first one focuses on vineyards and grape cultivation and explains how these areas were first converted to limestone quarries to provide construction material to the city and then transformed to urban habitat in the early 20th century again. The cellars - former quarry galleries - than were used for housing (urban habitat) and later were used as storage facilities and mushroom cultivation sites. At present these subsurface openings cause high risk of land development (collapse) and limit the land use of the given area. The current paper also outlines the development of the city via the perspective of natural resources, since drinking water and industrial water need modified the land development and urbanization. Another example is also given how the brewery industry exploited natural resources and the surface water use was shifted to exploitation of karstic waters causing land degradation and drop of water table. Additional example demonstrates how the former

  3. Toward a holistic environmental impact assessment of marble quarrying and processing: proposal of a novel easy-to-use IPAT-based method.

    PubMed

    Capitano, Cinzia; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Ferrante, Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    Marble is a natural dimension stone that is widely used in building due to its resistance and esthetic qualities. Unfortunately, some concerns have arisen regarding its production process because quarrying and processing activities demand significant amounts of energy and greatly affect the environment. Further, performing an environmental analysis of a production process such as that of marble requires the consideration of many environmental aspects (e.g., noise, vibrations, dust and waste production, energy consumption). Unfortunately, the current impact accounting tools do not seem to be capable of considering all of the major aspects of the (marble) production process that may affect the environment and thus cannot provide a comprehensive and concise assessment of all environmental aspects associated with the marble production process. Therefore, innovative, easy, and reliable methods for evaluating its environmental impact are necessary, and they must be accessible for the non-technician. The present study intends to provide a contribution in this sense by proposing a reliable and easy-to-use evaluation method to assess the significance of the environmental impacts associated with the marble production process. In addition, an application of the method to an actual marble-producing company is presented to demonstrate its practicability. Because of its relative ease of use, the method presented here can also be used as a "self-assessment" tool for pursuing a virtuous environmental policy because it enables company owners to easily identify the segments of their production chain that most require environmental enhancement.

  4. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC.

  5. The ratio between corner frequencies of source spectra of P- and S-waves—a new discriminant between earthquakes and quarry blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataeva, G.; Gitterman, Y.; Shapira, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares the P- and S-wave displacement spectra from local earthquakes and explosions of similar magnitudes. We propose a new approach to discrimination between low-magnitude shallow earthquakes and explosions by using ratios of P- to S-wave corner frequencies as a criterion. We have explored 2430 digital records of the Israeli Seismic Network (ISN) from 456 local events (226 earthquakes, 230 quarry blasts, and a few underwater explosions) of magnitudes Md = 1.4-3.4, which occurred at distances up to 250 km during 2001-2013 years. P-wave and S-wave displacement spectra were computed for all events following Brune's source model of earthquakes (1970, 1971) and applying the distance correction coefficients (Shapira and Hofstetter, Teconophysics 217:217-226, 1993; Ataeva G, Shapira A, Hofstetter A, J Seismol 19:389-401, 2015), The corner frequencies and moment magnitudes were determined using multiple stations for each event, and then the comparative analysis was performed.

  6. Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco)

    PubMed Central

    Daujeard, Camille; Geraads, Denis; Gallotti, Rosalia; Lefèvre, David; Mohib, Abderrahim; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco. PMID:27120202

  7. Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Daujeard, Camille; Geraads, Denis; Gallotti, Rosalia; Lefèvre, David; Mohib, Abderrahim; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco.

  8. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  9. Public health assessment for Weldon Spring quarry/plant/pits (USDOE) St. Charles, St. Charles County, Missouri, region 7. Cerclis No. MO3210090004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (chemical plant site), is a former uranium processing facility located in eastern Missouri on the property of the former U.S. Army Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. Surface water, soil, sludge, sediment, and groundwater within the chemical plant site contain chemical and radioactive contaminants. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reviewed on-site chemical exposure information and site conditions. ATSDR also prepared several Health Consultations on chemical and radioactive contaminants in areas on and off the DOE chemical plant site. ATSDR also reviewed on-site and off-site radiological exposure information and conditions. The exposure scenarios ATSDR evaluated include: trespassers swimming in quarry or raffinate pits; reservists performing field activities in the training area; anglers fishing, hunters haunting, and hikers hiking in the conservation areas; residents drinking from off-site private wells; staff and students attending the Francis Howell High School; and consumers of crops (e.g., corn) grown in conservation areas.

  10. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly

  11. Detection and location of repeated events using waveform cross correlation and the Principal Component Analysis: quarry blasts at Jordan phosphate mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, Ivan; Ben Horin, Yochai; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail; Yeldin, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed an extensive set of signals measured by 3-C stations HRFI, PRNI, and EIL from repeated blasts at a phosphate mine in Jordan. For a given station, all available blasts were used as master events, i.e. as waveform templates, and then as slave events, i.e. sought signals, in waveform cross correlation (WCC) processing. The number of signals is more than 1000 at each station. To find the best parameters for a standard STA/LTA detector, which was applied to the resulting traces of cross correlation coefficient (CC), we used varying number of components: all 3 components or Z-component only; template lengths from 5 s to 40 s; and a set of octave filters from 1 Hz to 16 Hz. Three stations are situated in approximately the same direction from the phosphate quarry and have the same sampling rate. We cross- correlated signals obtained at different stations and found an unusually high level of similarity, which is close to the level of similarity between signals at one station. A Principle Component Analysis was also applied to the whole set of signals at each station through the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique. The level of normalized eigenvalues falls to 0.2 and below for the first five to ten components. Several PCA eigenvectors, which are used as waveform templates, from the first ten were able to find all signals at CC-traces, when the WCC method was applied. Therefore, one can use a few principal components for comprehensive signal detection. Using the signals at three stations from the same events, we applied the method of relative location based on the difference of arrival times relative to a preselected set of master events. The original signals and the templates obtained with the SVD were both used for the relative location. To improve the accuracy of location one should extend the set of stations to provide a much better azimuthal coverage.

  12. Use of organic petrology in sequence stratigraphic interpretations: Example from the Eocene-Oligocene boundary section, St. Stephens Quarry, Washington County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, M.A.; Hazel, J.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The type and preservation of organic matter is related to the depositional systems tract in which the sediments were deposited. Shelf sediments in the transgressive systems tract contain sparse, highly degraded phytoclasts whereas organic matter in the highstand systems tract is dominated by well-preserved phytoclasts introduced to the shelf during progradation. Because of this relationship, integration of data from organic petrology with sedimentologic and biostratigraphic results provides greater resolution in locating critical surfaces (sequence boundaries, transgressive surfaces, and surfaces of maximum starvation) that bound depositional systems tracts within the depositional sequence. The Eocene Oligocene shelf sediments exposed in St. Stephens Quarry provide an excellent example of the relationship between depositional systems tract and organic matter deposition. Deposition of the Shubuta Clay in the transgressive systems tract terminated with the surface of maximum starvation. This surface is marked by a thin (<2 cm), laterally extensive, phosphate-rich shell lag that contains only minor amounts of highly degraded phytoclasts. Graphic correlation of biostratigraphic data reveals a marine hiatus (120,000 years) within the shell lag. Deposition in the subsequent highstand systems tract resulted in an increase in well-preserved phytoclasts in the overlying Bumpnose Limestone and Red Bluff Clay. A transgressive surface forms the contact between the Red Bluff Clay and the Mint Springs Marl. Phytoclasts are less common and more degraded in the Mint Springs above the transgressive surface than in the Red Bluff below. No hiatus is observed at this surface, suggesting that the type 2 sequence boundary is conformable at this section and may exist in the Red Bluff below the transgressive surface. This integrated approach confirms and refines previous sequence stratigraphic work performed on this important Gulf Coast section.

  13. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  14. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions <63 μm, 63-150 μm, 150-250 μm, and 250 μm-2mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in adhering versus

  15. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Herries, Andy I.R.; Menter, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ) are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date), early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample) is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid and aardvark

  16. Geochemical characterization and Redox signals of the uppermost Barremian - lowest Aptian of the Eastern Prada Quarry section, Organyà Basin, south-central Pyrenees, Catalunya, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llaguno, J. R.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present the results of a high-resolution, multiproxy study of a 29 m section of dark nodular limestones and marlstones of the Eastern Prada Mountain Quarry section. The layers yield low bioturbation index (2-3) and TOC up to 1.88 wt. %, with microfacies of dark micrite, and isotropic fabric. Allochems consist of rare ostracods, radiolaria, fragments of echinoderms, ammonites, gastropods, benthic and planktic foraminifera. Globigerinelloides blowi indicates a Barremian-early Aptian age. Porosity consists of vugs filled with apparent bitumen throughout the section. Qualitative EDS analyses indicate CaCO3 predominates in the matrix, in agreement with smear slides showing abundance of calcareous nannofossils, mostly nannoconid fragments. δ13Corg values vary from -26.24 ‰ at 0.7 m, to -23.78 ‰, ( 2.46 ‰ change) at 18.04 m, with higher fluctuations up to 27 m. δ15N values range from 1.82 ‰ to 5.95 ‰ positively correlated with the δ13Corg, especially between 18 m - 27 m. Biomarkers from 16 samples show dominance of short chain n-alkanes (

  17. Crabtree Creek Quarry Pit Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Service LABORATORY j Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 : li (b26 Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The...Avenue PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Room 535 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. CCESSION NO. Federal Building, Raleigh, NC 27601 11. TITLE (Include Security

  18. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  19. Paleoenvironments of the Lower Aptian Paja Formation at the Curití Quarry Section (Santander, Colombia), Evidence from Redox-Sensitive Trace Elements and Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sanchez-hernandez, Y.

    2013-05-01

    We present new evidence from redox-sensitive trace elements for variations in the ancient oxygen levels within a 14m thick section of Barremian-Aptian sediments at the Curití Quarry, Santander, Colombia. The succession includes the top 1.56m of the carbonate-dominated Rosablanca Formation (mid and Upper Barremian), uncomformably overlain by the base of the mudrock-dominated Paja Formation in beds that postdate Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a. Trace element analysis by LA-ICP-MS was carried out on 23 samples for geochemical redox indicators. The boundary bed between the two units is a phosphatic and pyritic biomicrite with condensed mid, Upper Barremian, and Lower Aptian? benthic and nektonic fossil assemblages. These beds display low TOC (0.16%), high P content (2%), low V/Cr (0.67), high Ni/Co ratio (21.09 ), intermediate V/(V+Ni) ratio (0.61 ), high U/Th ratio (1.7), and low V/Mo (1.14) driven by low V and low Mo concentrations. The above geochemical values are interpreted as revealing the effect of low sedimentary rates at the site inducing low preservation of organic matter, and phosphatization in a shallow marine environment with variable oxygenation levels though time, fluctuating from fully oxygenated to anoxic. The richest interval in OM (TOC: 3.91- 8.19%), from 3.7 to 5.4m, within the Lower Aptian beds of Paja Fm, includes organic-rich clay shales and crystalline clayey limestones. These beds are devoid of benthic foraminifera and macrofossils, but include rare ostracods, scarce phosphatic fish remains, calcispheres, and planktonic foraminifera. The interval shows consistently high values in the ratios of Ni/Co (6.43-17.31) and V/Cr (1.28-1.94). V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios would suggest suboxic to anoxic conditions in the water column during deposition within that time interval. In the same segment the V/(V+Ni) ratio range from 0.6 to 0.67, and the V/Mo show values between 2.25 and 4.48. Variations through time of these two ratios show a very similar behavior, and V

  20. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  1. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, L.W.; Mercier, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits.

  2. Evaluation of Wheel Loaders in Open Pit Marble Quarrying by Using the AHP and Topsis Approaches / Ocena pracy ładowarki na podwoziu kołowym w odkrywkowej kopalni marmuru w oparciu o metody AHP i topsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Mete; Topaloǧlu, Şeyda; Malli, Tahir

    2013-03-01

    The marble mining in Turkey has been rising since the early 80's. In relation to that, the marble income has become noticeably bigger than those of other mining sectors. In recent years, marble and natural stone export composes half of the total mine export with a value of two billion dollars. This rapid development observed in marble operation has increased the importance of mining economics, income-expenditure balance and cost analysis. The most important cost elements observed in marble quarrying are machinery and equipment, labor costs and geological structures of the field. The aim of this study is to is to propose a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to evaluate the wheel loader alternatives and select the best loader under multiple criteria. A two-step methodology based on two MCDM methods, which are namely the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), are used in the evaluation procedure. More precisely, AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria and TOPSIS is applied to rank the wheel loader alternatives. The proposed approach also provides a relatively simple and very well suited decision making tool for this type of decision making problems.

  3. Mardels, natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this 'environmental catastrophe'. The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath degradation, resulting in the second extension of sand drifting. To improve our knowledge about the evolution of plaggen soils we can combine data of pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of plaggic deposits. Species, present in pollen spectra of plaggic deposits, can have three sources: 1. Pollen, already present in sods, used in the stable to produce manure. 2. Pollen, originating from flowering crop species. 3. Pollen, originating from flowering species in the surroundings. Species, present in biomarker spectra, can have three sources: 1. Biomarkers from tissues, present in sods, used for manure production. 2. Biomarkers from decomposed roots of crop species. 3. Biomarkers from straw of crop species, used in the stable for manure production. Comparison pollen and biomarker spectra of samples of a regular Anthrosol (Posteles, NE-Netherlands) and a Buried (Nabbegat, SE-Netherlands, buried around 1800 AD) Plaggic Anthrosol yielded some interesting features: a. The biomarker spectra of the 2Ap horizons (agricultural layer below the plaggic deposits) are dominated by biomarkers of deciduous trees (dominated by Quercus), indicating the use of organic litter from the forests. These trees are also present in the pollen spectra. b. The biomarker spectra of the plaggic deposits are dominated by crop species (Avena, Secale, Fagpyrum), Calluna is absent in most of the spectra. This is different from pollen spectra where Calluna is present, together with crop species and transported pollen of other species. Only the biomarker spectra of the upper 10 cm of the plaggic horizons are dominated by Calluna. c. Comparison of the spectra of the buried and regular Plaggic Anthrosols show the contribution of biomarkers of roots of Zea mais (introduced around 1950 AD), suppressing the other species. The negligible percentages of Calluna in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggest an overestimating of the use of heath sods in the traditional interpretation of the genesis of plaggic horizons, the dominance of crop species in biomarker spectra of plaggic deposits suggests underestimating of the use of straw as source material for the production of organic stable manure to fertilize ancient arable fields. While the results of biomarker analyses seem to indicate compelling new insights in the practices of plaggen agriculture in The Netherlands, we wish to stress that the biomarker method using VERHIB is still in the early stages of its development and some care must be taken with the interpretation of the results. References: 1. van Mourik, J.M., Slotboom, R.T., Wallinga, J., 2011. Chronology of plaggic deposits; palynology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Posteles (NE-Netherlands). Catena 84, 54-60. 2. Van Mourik, J.M., Seijmonsbergen, A.C., Slotboom, R.T. and Wallinga, J, (2011a). The impact of human land use on soils and landforms in cultural landscapes on aeolian sandy substrates (Maashorst, SE Netherlands). Quaternary International 265 (2012) 74-89.

  4. Agism in the Workplace: An Elusive Quarry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglit, Howard

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the passage of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 and interpretations and policies that have been derived from this act. Problems that have arisen from the application of the act are discussed. (CH)

  5. Nevadaite, (Cu2+, Al, V3+)6 [Al8 (PO4)8 F8] (OH 2 (H2O)22, a new phosphate mineral species from the Gold Quarry mine, Carlin, Eureka County, Nevada: description and crystal structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Foord, E.E.; Erd, Richard C.; Evans, H.T.; Jensen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Nevadaite, (Cu2+, ???, Al, V3+)6 (PO4)8 F8 (OH)2 (H2O)22, is a new supergene mineral species from the Gold Quarry mine, near Carlin, Eureka County, Nevada, U.S.A. Nevadaite forms radiating clusters to 1 mm of prismatic crystals, locally covering surfaces more that 2 cm across; individual crystals are elongate on [001] with a length:width ratio of > 10:1 and a maximum diameter of ???30 ??m. It also occurs as spherules and druses associated with colorless to purple-black fluellite, colorless wavellite, strengitevariscite, acicular maroon-to-red hewettite, and rare anatase, kazakhstanite, tinticite, leucophosphite, torbernite and tyuyamunite. Nevadaite is pale green to turquoise blue with a pale powder-blue streak and a vitreous luster; it does not fluoresce under ultra-violet light. It has no cleavage, a Mohs hardness of ???3, is brittle with a conchoidal fracture, and has measured and calculated densities of 2.54 and 2.55 g/cm3, respectively. Nevadaite is biaxial negative, with ?? 1.540, ?? 1.548, ?? 1.553, 2V(obs.) = 76??, 2V(calc.) = 76??, pleochroic with X pale greenish blue, Y very pale greenish blue, Z blue, and with absorption Z ??? X > Y and orientation X = c, Y = a, Z = b. Nevadaite is orthorhombic, space group P21mn, a 12.123(2), b 18.999(2), c 4.961(1) A?? , V 1142.8(2) A??3, Z = 1, a:b:c = 0.6391:1:0.2611. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are: 6.077(10)(200), 5.618(9)(130), 9.535(8)(020), 2.983(6)(241), 3.430(4)(041), 2.661(4)(061 , and 1.844(4)(352). A chemical analysis with an electron microprobe gave P2O5 32.54, Al2O3 27.07, V2O3 4.24, Fe2O3 0.07, CuO 9.24, ZnO 0.11, F 9.22, H2O (calc.) 23.48, OH ??? F -3.88, sum 102.09 wt.%; the valence states of V and Fe, and the amount of H2O, were determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 63.65 anions (including 21.65 H2O pfu) is (CU2+2.00 Zn0.02 V3+0.98 Fe3+0.01 Al1.15)??4.16 Al8 P7.90 O32 [F8.37 (OH 1.63]??10 (H2O

  6. Kapundaite, (Na,Ca)[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 4][superscript 3+](PO[subscript 4])[subscript 4](OH)[subscript 3]·5H[subscript 2]O, a new phosphate species from Toms quarry, South Australia: Description and structural relationship to mélonjosephite

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Stuart J.; Birch, William D.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Christy, Andrew G.; Pluth, Joseph J.; Pring, Allan; Raudsepp, Mati; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2010-06-22

    Kapundaite, ideally (Na,Ca){sub 2}Fe{sub 4}{sup 3+}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, is a new mineral (IMA2009-047) from Toms phosphate quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. The new mineral occurs as cavernous aggregates of fibers up to several centimeters across, associated with leucophosphite, natrodufrenite, and meurigite-Na crystals and amorphous brown, black, and/or greenish coatings. Individual kapundaite crystals are very thin flattened fibers up to a few millimeters in length, but typically no more than a few micrometers in thickness. The main form observed is {l_brace}100{r_brace}; other forms in the [010] zone are present, but cannot be measured. Crystals of kapundaite are pale to golden yellow, transparent to translucent, have a yellow streak and silky luster, and are non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is estimated to be about 3; no twinning or cleavage was observed. Kapundaite is biaxial (+), with indices of refraction = 1.717(3), {beta} = 1.737(3), and {gamma} = 1.790(3). 2V could not be measured; 2V{sub calc} is 64.7{sup o}. The optical orientation is Z = b, Y {approx} c with weak pleochroism: X = nearly colorless, Y = light brown, Z = pale brown; absorption: Y > Z > X. No dispersion was observed. The empirical chemical formula (mean of seven electron microprobe analyses) calculated on the basis of 24 O is (Ca{sub 1.13}Na{sub 0.95}){sub {Sigma}2.08}(Fe{sub 3.83}{sup 3+}Mn{sub 0.03}Al{sub 0.02}Mg{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}3.89}P{sub 3.92}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2.11}O. Kapundaite is triclinic, space group P{sub {bar 1}}, a = 6.317(5), b = 7.698(6), c = 9.768(7) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 105.53(1){sup o}, {beta} = 99.24(2){sup o}, {gamma} = 90.09(2){sup o}, V = 451.2(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 1. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom} (I) (hkl)]: 9.338 (100) (001), 2.753 (64) (2{sub {bar 1}}1), 5.173 (52) (011), 2.417 (48) ({sub {ovr 21}}3, 202, 0{sub {bar 1}}4), and

  7. Data Report on the Littleton Quarry Blast Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-26

    QB2 15 1-8. Shot Hole Configuration for Shot QB3 16 1-9. Histogram Showing Number of Individual Shots vs Time Separation for Shot QB3 17 1-10. (a...Station Al0 59 1-31. (a) Three-Component Accelerogram of Shot QB3 Recorded at Station Al 60 1-31. (b) Amplitude Spectra for Three Components of Shot QB3 ...Recorded at Station Al 61 1-32. (a) Three-Component Accelerogram of Shot QB3 Recorded at Station A2 62 vii 1-32. (b) Amplitude Spectra for Three

  8. Regional Discrimination of Quarry Blasts, Earthquakes and Underground Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-07

    COLLEGE PA. (DWWNSSN) RSNY 44.5483 -74.5300 357 ADIRONDACK N.Y. (RSTN) RSON 50.8589 -93.7022 357 RED LAKE ONTARIO (RSTN) 27 A map is shown in Figure 12...Center for Earth Sciences Seismological Laboratory/Div. of University of Southern California Geological & Planetary Sciences University Park California... Park , CA 94025-3493 La Jolla, CA 92093 Professor Steven Grand Dr. S. Bratt University of Texas at Austin Science Applications Int’l Corp. Dept of

  9. Stone Quarries and Sourcing in the Carolina Slate Belt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    have become almost routine.” In addition to obsidian, 5 IRWIN AND STEPONAITIS volcanic rocks such as andesite , dacite, and silicified...rhyolite” and are represented by seven samples of meta- andesite and metalatite from three areas (Figure B.4). All but two of the samples were collected...a hilltop with a localized outcrop of small boulders of andesite porphyry. A revisit revealed that the site had recently been destroyed by

  10. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    Reclaimed mine sites have been evaluated so that the public, industry, and land planners may recognize there are innovative designs available for consideration and use. People tend to see cropland, range, and road cuts as a necessary part of their everyday life, not as disturbed areas despite their high visibility. Mining also generates a disturbed landscape, unfortunately one that many consider waste until reclaimed by human beings. The development of mining provides an economic base and use of a natural resource to improve the quality of human life. Equally important is a sensitivity to the geologic origin and natural pattern of the land. Wisely shaping out environment requires a design plan and product that responds to a site's physiography, ecology, function, artistic form, and publication perception. An examination of selected sites for their landscape design suggested nine approaches for mining reclamation. The oldest design approach around is nature itself. Humans may sometimes do more damage going to an area in the attempt to repair it. Given enough geologic time, a small-site area, and stable adjacent ecosystems, disturbed areas recover without mankind's input. Visual screens and buffer zones conceal the facility in a camouflage approach. Typically, earth berms, fences, and plantings are used to disguise the mining facility. Restoration targets social or economic benefits by reusing the site for public amenities, most often in urban centers with large populations. A mitigation approach attempts to protect the environment and return mined areas to use with scientific input. The reuse of cement, building rubble, macadam meets only about 10% of the demand from aggregate. Recognizing the limited supply of mineral resources and encouraging recycling efforts are steps are steps in a renewable resource approach. An educative design approach effectively communicates mining information through outreach, land stewardship, and community service. Mine sites used for art show a celebration of beauty and experience -- abstract geology. The last design approach combines art and science in a human-nature ecosystem termed integration. With environmental concerns, an operating or reclaimed mine site can no longer be considered isolated from its surroundings. Site analysis of mine works needs to go beyond site-specific information and relate to the regional context of the greater landscape. Understanding design approach can turn undesirable features (mines and pits) into something perceived as desirable by the public.

  11. Exploration, mining and quarrying: Operational equipment and component. Buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This is a buyers guide of mining related equipment and services. The guide is broken down into an index of these goods and services and then cross referenced to a alphabetical provider list. The provider list is worldwide in scope and provides addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers. Goods and services contain approximately 1,350 entries with a wide scope of applications to the mineral industry.

  12. Shared Governance at Lincoln University: An Elusive Quarry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies those factors that led to American Association of University Professors (AAUP) representation at the nation's oldest degree-granting Historically Black College University (HBCU). In the span of 18 months, Lincoln Faculty overwhelmingly embraced unionism when the body agreed to have AAUP as its official agent in the collective…

  13. Quarry Quest. A Field Trip Guide to the Indiana Limestone District, Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewmaker, Sherman N.

    This guide provides information for planning a field trip to the Indiana Limestone District. This district, located in Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana, is responsible for material that has dominated the building-limestone market in the United States for nearly a century. A few of the many well-known buildings using Indiana limestone are the…

  14. Quarry Creek - Excavation, Analysis and Prospect of a Kansas City Hopewell Site, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    earliest farmers of that region (Smith 1992). Relying on the cultivation of small gardens of indigenous plants such as sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ...such as marshelder (Iva annua) and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) and starchy seeded annuals like chenopod (Chenopodium berlandeiri), little barley...DTI7 C’E l BY- Aveitbllty Cdous f~:1and/Or Dist j Special iii L I’ ••: TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ............................................. i

  15. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Devils Fork Roadless Area, Scott County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behum, Paul T.

    1984-01-01

    The Devils Fork Roadless Area is located at the eastern edge of the Appalachian coal region and is within the Cumberland Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province. Most of the area is drained by Devil Fork and its tributaries. Clinch Rock Branch of Straight Creek, Roddy Branch of Valley Creek, and Stinking Creek, all tributary to the Clinch River, drain small fringe tracts. Altitudes range from about 1,550 ft on the lower part of Straight Fork to about 3,490 ft at Cox Place on Little Mountain. Vegetation varies from mixed hardwoods in the uplands to thickets of conifer, rhododendron, and laurel in moist protected areas, as in coves along drainage courses.

  16. TIDAL VARIATION OF SEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES IN A MASSACHUSETTS GRANITE QUARRY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Sembera, Eugene D.; Westerlund, Rober E.; Fletcher, Jon B.; Reasenberg, Paul; Agnew, Duncan C.

    1985-01-01

    A seismic survey was conducted at a Massachusetts granite quary in the intervals (230d 23h, 231d11h) and (231d22h, 233d10h), 1983 (U. T. ) along a 148 m baseline situated in nearly flat topography. Two sets of nearly orthogonal joint systems are observed in the granite. The results are interpreted in terms of the velocity changes of seismic rays as the two joint systems open and close due to the tidal stress. Refs.

  17. A balefill facility in a sand/gravel quarry and a question of wetland jurisdiction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.

    1998-12-31

    The Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC), a municipal corporation of 26 city members, proposed to construct and operate a baled waste landfill facility as part of a comprehensive solid waste management and disposal program which included recycling. After a lengthy site selection process, SWANCC informed the US Army Corps of Engineers Chicago District of its intentions to convert a 298-acre sand/gravel pit to construct a state-of-the-art sanitary balefill facility. After twice determining it did not have jurisdiction, the Corps informed SWANCC that Waters of the United States, as defined in 33 CFR part 328.3(a), were present on the property. The Corps in its 404 permit review denied the permit because the mined landscape represented significant natural character and supported valuable wetland aquatic ecosystem. This paper presents the details of this project, the mined landscape`s environmental conditions based upon a multidisciplinary team site investigations of soils, hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, and wetland functions, and the extraordinary Corps decision that has sent this case to the federal district courts. This court case outcome may profoundly affect future mining and rehabilitation activities.

  18. Establishment of vegetation in constructed wetlands using biosolids and quarry fines

    SciTech Connect

    Danehy, T.P.; Zick, R.; Brenner, F.; Chmielewski, J.; Dunn, M.H.; Cooper, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    A common problem with constructing wetlands on abandoned mine sties is the lack of adequate soil needed to establish vegetation. One component of a full-scale passive treatment system built at Jennings Environmental Education Center in Brady Township, Butler County, PA addressed this issue through the development of a field trial to find an inexpensive alternative substrate for wetland plants. A simple soil recipe was followed which called for the mixing of an inorganic material with a nutrient-rich organic material. The inorganic constituent used was silt-size pond cleanings from a sand and gravel operation. The organic material used was a composted product made from exceptional-quality biosolids. Both soil components were obtained from local sources (less than 16 kilometers (12 miles) from the site) and mixed on site with a Caterpillar 963 track loader. The soil was used to construct a channel wetland 3 meters (10 feet) wide by 61 meters (200 feet) long. A seed mixture which contained 24 different wetland plant species native to western Pennsylvania was added to the substrate prior to releasing the water from the vertical flow system into the wetland. After one year, the vegetation was studied to determine the percent cover and species composition in order to document the effectiveness of this method of wetland construction. The preliminary results of this study indicate that this is an effective means to establish and sustain wetland vegetation. The addition of a fabricated substrate consisting of composted biosolids and silt can be a very effective method to establish dense and diverse vegetation in a constructed wetland.

  19. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (by Donald A. McQuarrie and John D. Simon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey D.

    1998-05-01

    University Science Books: Sausalito, CA, 1997. xxiii + 1270 pp. Figs and tables. 10.28 x 7.27 x 2.34 in. ISBN 0-935702-99-7. $80.00. This book will not appeal to traditionalists. Those willing to take a fresh look at the subject, however, will find this well-executed text an attractive alternative. Most undergraduate physical chemistry textbooks begin with thermodynamics, then proceed to quantum chemistry and finally to statistical thermodynamics and kinetics. This structure derives from the classic textbooks such as Physical Chemistry by Alberty and Silbey, which traces its origin to the Outline of Theoretical Chemistry written by Herbert Getman in 1913 when thermodynamics was the core of physical chemistry and quantum mechanics was in its infancy. Occasional authors have tried to deviate from this orthodoxy. I learned my undergraduate physical chemistry from the solid textbook written in 1964 by a University of Washington team: Eggers, Gregory, Halsey, and Rabinovitch. That text opens with quantum mechanics, as does the elegant and sophisticated book by Berry, Rice, and Ross. None of these books has been very successful, however, partly because they challenge tradition in a pedagogically conservative profession.

  20. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  1. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  2. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  3. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  4. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  5. Maps showing mines, quarries, and prospects, with analyses of samples, Gee Creek Wilderness, Polk and Monroe counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Behum, Paul T.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent U.S. Bureau of Mines field investigation, 21 samples were collected (fig. 2) and were submitted to the Bureau's Reno Metallurgy Research Center, Reno, Nev., for analysis. All samples were tested for 40 elements by semiquantitative spectrographic analyses. Additional testing by atomic absorption, neutron activation, and wet chemical techniques was performed for selected elements on some samples. Two shale samples were submitted to the Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa Metallurgy Research Center, Tuscaloosa, Ala., for the evaluation of ceramic properties. 

  6. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  7. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, Randolph County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behum, Paul T.; Hammack, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Physiographically, the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area is in the Allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus province and is situated at the eastern edge of the Appalachian coal region. Cheat Mountain, a northeast-trending ridge, is bordered on the west by the right fork of Files Creek and on the east by Shavers Fork and its tributaries. Most of the area occupies an elevated plateau capped by resistant sandstone and conglomerate. Altitudes range form 2,320 ft on Lime Kiln Run to more than 3,900 ft on Cheat Mountain. The topography ranges from relatively flat in the uplands to very steep in the canyons along tributaries of Shavers Fork. The area is heavily forested with vegetation varying from mixed hardwoods on the western slope of Cheat Mountain to thickets of conifers in the uplands. Hemlocks are sparsely interspersed and red spruce, the dominant tree at higher elevations prior to logging in the mid 1920's, is again reforesting upland areas. Rhododendron and laurel flourish in moist protected areas along drainage courses and in coves.

  8. Mine-Machinery Mechanic (mining & quarrying) 620.281-078--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, K.K.; Trevits, M.A. . Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography.

  10. Quarries of Culture: An Ethnohistorical and Environmental Account of Sacred Sites and Rock Formations in Southern California's Mission Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Sacred sites and Rock Formations throughout Southern California's India Country are described by Indians as ancestral markers, origin and place-name locales, areas of deity habitation, and power sources. Early ethnographers were keen to record the traditional stories and meanings related to them by their Native collaborators. Rock formations…

  11. Quarries of Culture: An Ethnohistorical and Environmental Account of Sacred Sites and Rock Formations in Southern California's Mission Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Sacred sites and Rock Formations throughout Southern California's India Country are described by Indians as ancestral markers, origin and place-name locales, areas of deity habitation, and power sources. Early ethnographers were keen to record the traditional stories and meanings related to them by their Native collaborators. Rock formations…

  12. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  13. Geological Control on Stability of Excavated Rock Slope at Jeruklegi Claystone Quarry, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Faisal Fathani, Teuku

    2010-05-01

    PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk is a well-known company for cement production in Cilacap, Central Java, Indonesia. In cement manufacturing, certain raw materials such as limestone, claystone and other supplementary materials are required. In a mean time, the company is conducting claystone mining to support the cement industry. Currently, the exploitation has covered the area of approximately 103 ha. Due to the increment need of more claystone to achieve the expecting amount of cement production, the company plans to extend existing mining site up to 250 ha with maximum depth of +10m above the sea level. However, such development may eventually lead to major slope failures which essentially affect the sustainability and the safety of the mine. Understanding that various negative impacts may appear during the mining operation, which possibly result in personal injury, potential life loss, property damage and other socio-economic consequences, it is crucial to assess slope stability conditions of the mining pit to ensure safety of the mine. The study is mainly focused on analysis of the rock mass behaviours under specific geological control and earthquake trigger through the application of finite element method. Based on the assessment result, the zone where covered by discontinuous rock mass, absorbent lithology and steep slope geometry in combination with presence of groundwater, is estimated to be potential to slope movement in form of rock falls and/or rock slides which could be possibly predicted to occur as a consequence of heavy rainfall intensity, un-controlled slope excavation and ground vibration. And, the stable slope inclination is suggested not to be steeper than 60˚, with the maximum width of 3m and maximum height of 6m.

  14. Pyroxene zonation trends in mafic nepheline syenite and ijolite, Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove igneous alkalic complex, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, M.J.K.; Ross, M.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions of pyroxenes from mafic nepheline syenite and ijolite from Magnet Cove (NS and IJ) define zoning trends that reflect changing conditions in the crystallizing magmas and are used to contrast Magnet Cove with other alkalic complexes. The Na-Mg-Fe/sup 2 +/+Mn plot is used to compare NS and IJ pyroxenes with pyroxenes from nepheline syenites from S. Qoroq Centre, Greenland, and the Coldwell Complex intrusions, Ontario. Trends from the three areas are similar, but differences exists. Zoning in individual NS grains is greater than ranges for individual intrusions from S. Qoroq. Also, NS pyroxenes with compositions more magnesisan than Mg/sub 50/Nag are more Al-rich than S. Qoroq and Coldwell pyroxenes, indicating crystallization from a more undersaturated magma. These NS pyroxenes also contain 2-3 times more Ti and Fe/sup 3 +/. Despite different concentrations of Al, Ti, and Fe/sup 3 +/, the general crystallization trends shown by all elements considered are similar in NS and S. Qoroq pyroxenes. Sparse biotite and the absence of amphibole in NS indicate an H/sub 2/O-poor parent magma compared with those of the Coldwell and S. Qoroq nepheline syenites, which contain these phases. Mg-rich biotites and pyroxenes in IJ indicate that it formed from a less evolved liquid than NS.

  15. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  16. 27 CFR 555.103 - Transactions among licensees/permittees and transactions among licensees and holders of user...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport rocketry, road... the explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport...

  17. 27 CFR 555.103 - Transactions among licensees/permittees and transactions among licensees and holders of user...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport rocketry, road... the explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport...

  18. 27 CFR 555.103 - Transactions among licensees/permittees and transactions among licensees and holders of user...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport rocketry, road... the explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport...

  19. 27 CFR 555.103 - Transactions among licensees/permittees and transactions among licensees and holders of user...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport rocketry, road... the explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport...

  20. 27 CFR 555.103 - Transactions among licensees/permittees and transactions among licensees and holders of user...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport rocketry, road... the explosive materials, e.g., resale, mining, quarrying, agriculture, construction, sport...

  1. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America - Preliminary results from the Lincoln quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.; Noggle, S.; Curry, B.; Grimm, E.

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event ("chronozone") near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North America over several millennia (about 10,000 to 14,000 BP) during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, including the YD interval. Several sites containing logs or stumps have been identified and we are in the process of initial sampling or re-sampling them for this project. Here, we report on a site in central Illinois containing a deposit of logs initially thought to be of YD age preserved in alluvial sands. The assemblage of wood represents hardwood (angiosperm) trees, and the ring-width characteristics are favorable to developing formal tree-ring chronologies. However, 4 new radiocarbon dates indicate deposition of wood may have taken place over at least 8000 14C yr (6000-14,000 BP). This complicates the effort to develop a single floating chronology of several hundred years at this site, but it may provide wood from a restricted region over a long period of time from which to develop a sequence of floating chronologies, the timing of deposition and preservation of which could be related to paleoclimatic events and conditions.

  2. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America : preliminary results from the Lincoln Quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    Treesearch

    Irina P. Panyushkina; Steven W. Leavitt; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Sarah Noggle; Brandon Curry; Eric Grimm

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event (“chronozone”) near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North...

  3. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Daniela; Raddatz, Maik; Wings, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented. Our new analysis contradicts previous preliminary assignment of the Langenberg atoposaurids to Theriosuchus. Knoetschkesuchus gen. nov. is characterized in particular by the presence of two dental morphotypes in the maxilla and dentary, slit-like secondary choanae within a narrow groove on the surface of the pterygoid, absence of lacrimonasal contact, presence of an antorbital foramen and an external mandibular fenestra, and proportional characters of the interorbital and intertemporal region. A similar combination of characters allows attribution of Theriosuchus guimarotae to Knoetschkesuchus, forming the new combination Knoetschkesuchus guimarotae. Our analysis provides an osteological basis for the separation of Theriosuchus and Knoetschkesuchus and helps further delineate generic differences in other closely related crocodylomorphs. Our phylogenetic analysis corroborates inclusion of Knoetschkesuchus into Atoposauridae and supports a position of Atoposauridae within Eusuchia.

  4. Map showing quarries, mines, prospects, and sample data in and near the James River Face Wilderness, Bedford and Rockbridge counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Ross, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    The area, on the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains, is drained by small tributaries of the James River.  Altitudes range from 600 ft where U.S. Route 501 crosses the James River to 3,073 ft on Highcock Knob.

  5. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston counties, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mory, Peter C.; Behum, Paul T.; Ross, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    No mining activities are being conducted in the study area at present.  Previous mining has been limited to small-scale production of limestone and coal.  Two oil and gas test holes have been drilled inside the study area.

  6. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Maik

    2017-01-01

    We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented. Our new analysis contradicts previous preliminary assignment of the Langenberg atoposaurids to Theriosuchus. Knoetschkesuchus gen. nov. is characterized in particular by the presence of two dental morphotypes in the maxilla and dentary, slit-like secondary choanae within a narrow groove on the surface of the pterygoid, absence of lacrimonasal contact, presence of an antorbital foramen and an external mandibular fenestra, and proportional characters of the interorbital and intertemporal region. A similar combination of characters allows attribution of Theriosuchus guimarotae to Knoetschkesuchus, forming the new combination Knoetschkesuchus guimarotae. Our analysis provides an osteological basis for the separation of Theriosuchus and Knoetschkesuchus and helps further delineate generic differences in other closely related crocodylomorphs. Our phylogenetic analysis corroborates inclusion of Knoetschkesuchus into Atoposauridae and supports a position of Atoposauridae within Eusuchia. PMID:28199316

  7. Silicosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in most rock beds. Silica dust forms during mining, quarrying, tunneling, and working with certain metal ores. ... risk. These jobs include: Abrasives manufacturing Glass manufacturing Mining Quarrying Road and building construction Sand blasting Stone ...

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING EAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF THREEPART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THREE-PART METAL WEDGE EMBEDDED IN EDGE OF QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTHWEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  11. DETAIL OF TWO LARGE BORE HOLES ON TOP OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TWO LARGE BORE HOLES ON TOP OF SOUTH QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  14. VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING SOUTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  16. VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LINE OF DRILL HOLES WITH METAL WEDGES, IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  17. VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  18. DETAIL OF THREE SMALL DRILL HOLES ON TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THREE SMALL DRILL HOLES ON TOP OF WEST QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  19. New insights into the Middle Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironment of the Northern Iberian Peninsula (Punta Lucero Quarry site, Biscay): A combined approach using mammalian stable isotope analysis and trophic resource availability modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Laura; Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Libano, Iñaki; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2017-08-01

    The northern coastal area of the Iberian Peninsula shows an excellent archaeo-paleontological record with a unique representation of Pleistocene mammalian fossils. While the Late Pleistocene is better recorded, the Middle Pleistocene record remains more fragmentary. The Punta Lucero site (Biscay) has yielded the most important fossil assemblage of the middle Middle Pleistocene for the northern Iberian Peninsula in both, number of identified specimens and taxonomic diversity. Punta Lucero constitutes a unique opportunity to evaluate Middle Pleistocene mammalian resource and habitat use, and trophic dynamics employing a combined approach: biogeochemical analysis and mathematical modeling. Stable isotope analysis points to resource partitioning between Punta Lucero cervids and bovids. Stable isotope analysis and trophic modeling evidence resource overlap and interspecific competition among predators, especially between the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium latidens and the European jaguar Panthera gombaszoegensis. The trophic resource availability modeling assumes that Canis mosbachensis consumed a 20% of preys of more than 10 kg, mainly as carrion. Thus, while there would be a taxonomic overlap with those preys consumed by the large felids, the different strategy would have facilitated the coexistence of these canids with larger carnivores. Trophic modeling indicates a high competition among the predator guild. The potential presence of hominins in the area would have reached to an unsustainable situation. However, the potential presence of other prey species, such as Equus sp., would have made the ecosystem more sustainable. The methodology followed in this study highlights the potential of multidisciplinary approaches in the assessment of Pleistocene faunal dynamics.

  20. 7 CFR 330.105 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY... products; soil; stone and quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; and any other product or article of any...; soil; stone or quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; or other products or articles which...

  1. 7 CFR 330.105 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY... products; soil; stone and quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; and any other product or article of any...; soil; stone or quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; or other products or articles which...

  2. 7 CFR 330.105 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY... products; soil; stone and quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; and any other product or article of any...; soil; stone or quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; or other products or articles which...

  3. 7 CFR 330.105 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY... products; soil; stone and quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; and any other product or article of any...; soil; stone or quarry products under § 330.300; garbage; or other products or articles which...

  4. 77 FR 12004 - Stanislaus National Forest, CA; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Statement for Candy Rock Quarry Management AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare... limitations on recreational target shooting at Candy Rock Quarry near Hathaway Pines, California. The purpose... Rock Quarry in the context of safety, public health, and applicable law, regulation and policy. If...

  5. Ergodic Dynamics by Design: A Route to Predictable Multi-Robot Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    space ( McQuarrie , 1976, pp. 554). This section has demonstrated that dynamics with a high degree of ergodic- ity are achievable on physical robot...microscopic behavior and macroscopic structures ( McQuarrie , 1976). Typical system sizes for classical work are sig- nificantly larger (∼ 1023) than the...436. McQuarrie , D. A. (1976). Statistical Mechanics. Harper and Row. reprinted by University Sci- ence Books, Sausalito, CA., USA in 2000. Potts, R. B

  6. 5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BUILDING, LABORATORY, AND OFFICE. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  7. General Air Quality Permit Request for Coverage: US Silica - Parshall Transload Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to Request for Coverage under Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities General Permit Indian Reservation, US Silica, Parshall Transload Facility, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota.

  8. 7 CFR 330.111 - Advance notification of arrival of aircraft and watercraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.111...

  9. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ..., Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. NAICS Sector 21 contains four industries with receipts... Sector 21, Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction. DATES: SBA must receive comments to this... factors that SBA evaluates include average firm size, startup costs and entry barriers, industry...

  10. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT HASTINGS: ARCH PROVIDED ACCESS TO STONE QUARRY. PLATE XVII, PAGE 106. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  12. 7 CFR 330.300 - Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soil from foreign countries or Territories or...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300 Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1 1 The movement of soil...

  13. 7 CFR 330.300 - Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soil from foreign countries or Territories or...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300 Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1 1 The movement of soil...

  14. 7 CFR 330.300a - Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts of Canada from certain restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts... FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300a Administrative instructions exempting soil from...

  15. 7 CFR 330.300a - Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts of Canada from certain restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts... FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300a Administrative instructions exempting soil from...

  16. 7 CFR 330.300 - Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soil from foreign countries or Territories or...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300 Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1 1 The movement of soil...

  17. 7 CFR 330.300 - Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soil from foreign countries or Territories or...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300 Soil from foreign countries or Territories or possessions. 1 1 The movement of soil...

  18. 7 CFR 330.300a - Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts of Canada from certain restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts... FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300a Administrative instructions exempting soil from...

  19. 7 CFR 330.300a - Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts of Canada from certain restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts... FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300a Administrative instructions exempting soil from...

  20. 7 CFR 330.300a - Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts of Canada from certain restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions exempting soil from parts... FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.300a Administrative instructions exempting soil from...

  1. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, ca. 1921 (original print located in the National Archives & Records Administration, Still Picture Branch, Panama Canal Collection Series 185-G, #453, Washington, D.C.). Aerial view of Quarry Heights and Balboa from Sosa Hill - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Profile of the non-fuel, non-metal mining industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This profile provides an overview of SIC code 14, which includes mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels; and establishments engaged primarily in mining or quarrying, developing mines, or exploring for non-fuel, nonmetallic minerals. Also included are certain well and brine operations, and primary preparation plants engaged in crushing, grinding, and washing.

  6. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V.N.; Malahova, M.N.; Martysevich, P.N.; Mihaylova, N.N.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F. D.; Edomin, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  7. Environmental Assessment for the Repair, Reconstruction, and/or Replacement of the Main Base Runway, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). The NESHAPs were established for benzene, vinyl chloride, radionuclides, mercury , asbestos, beryllium...temporary camps, rock shelters, milling stations, lithic deposits, quarries, cremations , rock features, and rock art. Historic period archaeological sites...Runway Prehistoric period sites include villages, temporary camps, rock shelters, milling stations, lithic deposits, quarries, cremations , rock

  8. Workshop on Recent Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to the Study of the Electrical Double Layer Held at San Jose, California on 23-25 July 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    RECOMMENDATIONS The meeting closed with a general discussion ilitiated by a pan l consisting of Parsons, Conway, Valleau, ’ McQuarrie , Trasatti -nd t:haired by...University of North Carolina Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, ENGLAND Chapel Hill, NC 27514 A. Hebert D. McQuarrie ALTUS Department of Chemistry 1610 Crane Court

  9. Henry’s Law Constants for 2-Azidoethanamine Hypergols: Estimates From a Density Functional Theory/Polarizable Continuum Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    of ),298( iG corrg are based on the ideal gas law and the calculation of S via a standard method ( McQuarrie , 1999). 6 An issue in the...Amine Azide-Based Hydrazine Alternative Hypergols; ARL-TR-4516; U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 2008. McQuarrie , D. A

  10. Tomography and Location Problems in China Using Regional Travel-Time Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AIC) as a norm (Akaike, 1973; McQuarrie and Tsai, 1998). From a practical viewpoint, the AIC is used to determine the damping constants in a damped...Upper mantle velocity structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau from Pn travel time tomography, J. Geophysical Research, 102, 493-505. McQuarrie , A

  11. 5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT, FILL CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, PERSPECTIVE OF ABUTMENT AND INCLINED PLANE ON WEST SIDE OF PA ROUTE 56 - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. 6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MIDSLOPE VICINITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE UP INCLINED PLANE FROM MID-SLOPE VICINITY, CUT CONFIGURATION - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY OF VIEW BELONGING RO MR. FAXON, OF QUINCY. (f) Ext- Photo of full size model of old car. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  16. 1. LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OFFICE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OFFICE; LABORATORY AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, Office, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  17. 75 FR 49520 - Landmarks Committee of the National Park System Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... CONGRESSIONAL CEMETERY, Washington, DC Kansas WESTERN BRANCH, NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS... STATION, Lake County, MN New York WOODLAWN CEMETERY, Bronx, NY North Dakota LYNCH QUARRY, Dunn County,...

  18. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  19. Quantification of Rock Damage from Small Explosions and its Effect on Shear-Wave Generation: Phase I - Homogeneous Crystalline Rock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    law of underground detonations, Bull Seism . Soc. Am. 61: 1675. Richter, D. A. (1987). Barre granite quarries, Barre, Vermont, in Geological Society of America Field Guide - Northeastern Section, 239-242. 501

  20. Acushnet, Mass. Company Resolves Clean Water Concerns

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A company with a mining, quarry and stone crushing facility in Acushnet, Mass. will now comply with Clean Water Act requirements, which will better protect people’s health and the local environment.

  1. 7 CFR 354.3 - User fees for certain international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quarry products from areas in Canada listed in § 319.77-3 of this chapter as being infested with gypsy moth. (vii) Vessels returning to the United States after traveling to Canada solely to take on fuel. (c...

  2. 7 CFR 354.3 - User fees for certain international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quarry products from areas in Canada listed in § 319.77-3 of this chapter as being infested with gypsy moth. (vii) Vessels returning to the United States after traveling to Canada solely to take on fuel. (c...

  3. 7 CFR 354.3 - User fees for certain international services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... quarry products from areas in Canada listed in § 319.77-3 of this chapter as being infested with gypsy moth. (vii) Vessels returning to the United States after traveling to Canada solely to take on fuel. (c...

  4. 19. LOOKING NORTH ALONG ROAD BISECTING SITE; PEBBLE LIME SILO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOOKING NORTH ALONG ROAD BISECTING SITE; PEBBLE LIME SILO ON THE RIGHT, MAIN SUPPLY BUILDING AND MACHINE SHOP ON THE LEFT. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  5. 8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Environmental view facing northwest showing pond in relationship to house - John Bly House, East side of County Road 857, just north of intersection with Quarry Run Road, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  6. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such natural environment swimming facilities as rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, quarries, reservoirs... natural environment swimming facilities as rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, wharfs, piers, canals, or... making shops, toy manufacturing shops, and pallet shops. The term shall not include construction sites...

  7. Fisher Sand & Gravel New Mexico, Inc. General Air Quality Permit: Related Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the Fisher Sand & Gravel – New Mexico, Inc., Grey Mesa Gravel Pit General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country.

  8. 7 CFR 330.111 - Advance notification of arrival of aircraft and watercraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.111 Advance...

  9. 9. LOOKING EAST AND TOWARD SMALL TANK, 60FOOT SQUARE BASIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING EAST AND TOWARD SMALL TANK, 60-FOOT SQUARE BASIN (ON EXTREME RIGHT) AND 125-FOOT BASIN (IN BACKGROUND). - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, Tanks & Settling Basins, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  10. 76 FR 62442 - Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... course to restore all or a portion of the golf course landscape to meadow and riparian habitat. To select... golf course. The quarry restoration was removed after further assessment because California State Parks...

  11. 13. VIEW NORTH, PERSPECTIVE OF TOWER VICINITY, ROAD/TRAMWAY, AND RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTH, PERSPECTIVE OF TOWER VICINITY, ROAD/TRAMWAY, AND RUBBLE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 4. J. E. HERMAN HOUSE, built 1899, of SOFT CLAYLIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. J. E. HERMAN HOUSE, built 1899, of SOFT CLAY-LIKE MATERIAL THAT WAS QUARRIED AND THEN HARDENED ON CONTACT WITH AIR AND SUNSHINE. IT HAS NO DOORWAY TO STREET. - Town of Liebenthal, Liebenthal, Rush County, KS

  13. Environmental Improvement Of Opencast Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, S.; Sushko, A.; Filatov, Yu; Kislyakov, M.; Kislyakov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Existing classifications of waste dumps in the quarries are given and their phenomenological nature is clarified. The need to identify the essence of the term "dump" is shown as well as the idea of "dump" as an artificial formation with everted and mixed rocks distanced from the quarry. Essential classification of man-made rock formations in quarries is developed. Characteristic of variations of man-made waste formations in quarries is developed. To reduce harmful effects of open-pit mining, dumps should be substituted with strat-lays - man-made structures relevant to natural stratification of litho-substances. Construction of strat-lays would improve ecological and technological culture of open cast mining.

  14. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  15. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  16. 32 CFR 644.503 - Methods of disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.503 Methods of disposal. Standing timber, crops, sand, gravel, or stone-quarried products, authorized...

  17. Blasting methods for heterogeneous rocks in hillside open-pit mines with high and steep slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chang, Z. G.; Chao, X. H.; Zhao, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    In the arid desert areas in Xinjiang, most limestone quarries are hillside open-pit mines (OPMs) where the limestone is hard, heterogeneous, and fractured, and can be easily broken into large blocks by blasting. This study tried to find effective technical methods for blasting heterogeneous rocks in such quarries based on an investigation into existing problems encountered in actual mining at Hongshun Limestone Quarry in Xinjiang. This study provided blasting schemes for hillside OPMs with different heights and slopes. These schemes involve the use of vertical deep holes, oblique shallow holes, and downslope hole-by-hole sublevel or simultaneous detonation techniques. In each bench, the detonations of holes in a detonation unit occur at intervals of 25-50 milliseconds. The research findings can offer technical guidance on how to blast heterogeneous rocks in hillside limestone quarries.

  18. Sources Approved for Coverage under the SQCS General Permit in Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sources on Indian country reservation lands that the Region 8 has approved for coverage under the General Air Quality Permit for New and Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country (SQCS General Permit).

  19. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  20. Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending from the bridge in the foreground. This way to allow maximum water flow during floods and rainy periods. - Weaverland Bridge, Quarry Road spanning Conestoga Creek, Terre Hill, Lancaster County, PA

  1. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other Government agencies. (e) Excess timber, sand, gravel and stone-quarried products, and growing... public domain pursuant to §§ 644.376 through 644.384. (g) Prefabricated movable structures, such...

  2. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other Government agencies. (e) Excess timber, sand, gravel and stone-quarried products, and growing... public domain pursuant to §§ 644.376 through 644.384. (g) Prefabricated movable structures, such...

  3. 32 CFR 644.351 - Excess property exempted from reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other Government agencies. (e) Excess timber, sand, gravel and stone-quarried products, and growing... public domain pursuant to §§ 644.376 through 644.384. (g) Prefabricated movable structures, such...

  4. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  5. 25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF GLAZE KILN NO. 2, SHOWING HOW SAGGERS AND LOOSE QUARRY TILES WERE STACKED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. 78 FR 19523 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... opportunities and encourage nonmotorized recreation such as hiking, biking, backpacking, horseback riding, and paddling. NPS would also strengthen partnerships to improve visitor experience. Alibates Flint Quarries... recreation, enhance traditional activities, and improve resource protection. The focus would be on providing...

  7. View of drill holes with found chisel on rock face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of drill holes with found chisel on rock face in work area, facing northeast - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (d) Portion of old machinery now lying beside track. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  9. Environmental impacts of the gypsum mining operation at Maqna area, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harthi, Abbas

    2001-11-01

    The impacts of quarrying of the gypsum deposits on the environment at Maqna, Tabuk, were evaluated by intensive field studies including in situ testing, mapping and sampling of gypsum and well water. Field and laboratory tests were made to determine the engineering properties including tensile and compressive strengths, unit weight, fracture spacing and the rock quality designation (RQD) values. Results were used to determine the most suitable method for quarrying and extraction. Chemical analyses of gypsum and water well samples were conducted along with mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results show that there are no harmful impacts on the environment of the studied area associated with the extraction and quarrying of the gypsum deposits at the Maqna area. They also revealed that the gypsum can be quarried using a ripping technique, which does not create noise and/or vibration in the surrounding areas.

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED BY CHISEL METHOD OF DRILLING - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  11. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 workers in high risk jobs such as abrasive blasting, foundry work, stonecutting, rock drilling, quarry work ... activities. The most severe exposures generally occur during abrasive blasting with sand to remove paint and rust ...

  12. 1. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OIL/CLEANING SUPPLY BUILDING (SIDING AND ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST TOWARD OIL/CLEANING SUPPLY BUILDING (SIDING AND ROOF VISIBLE TO THE LEFT); GAS PUMP SHED IN CENTER (IN SHADOWS). - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, Oil-Cleaning Supply Building, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  13. SIDE ELEVATION, CATERPILLAR 245B SERIES II HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR ('OR BACKHOE') ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE ELEVATION, CATERPILLAR 245B SERIES II HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR ('OR BACKHOE') USED FOR LOADING AND MOVING EXTRACTED STONE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Left side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Rear elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Longitudinal section. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Second floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). Front elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama). First floor plan. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original drawing located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), Right side elevation. - Quarry Heights, Officers' Quarters, Parkinson Lane, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. Perspective of east arch section, showing five panels made up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of east arch section, showing five panels made up of diagonal suspension ribs and vertical ribs. The abutments, piers, wing walls, coping and deck are of concrete. - Weaverland Bridge, Quarry Road spanning Conestoga Creek, Terre Hill, Lancaster County, PA

  2. Santa Ana River Main Stem Including Santiago Creek, Counties of Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino, California. Phase I General Design Memorandum. Main Report and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    This in turn would displace a portion of a least tern nesting colony at the river mouth. The California least tern is a Federally protected...woodland provides food and cover for larg numbers of rodents, doves, and other non-gae species, which in turn are prey to foxes, coyotes, hawks, and eagles...Limestone quarries in the upper basin have been in production since the turn of the century and still have ample reserves. Other quarries in the Riverside

  3. Merced County Streams Project, Castle Reservoir, California Intensive Cultural Resources Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    Sierran quarries were not systematically exploited after A.D. 500. These quarries apparently supplied most of the obsidian upon which the bifaces in...peoples in the foothills. Gayton (1948), for example, records that the Mono traded unfinished obsidian blades to theI Yokuts. If Ericson is correct... obsidian dating and tracing. Unpublished Ph.D. disser- tation, Department of Anthropology, University of Cali- fornia, Los Angeles. Fenenga, Franklin 1977

  4. Correlation of Hemingfordian and Barstovian land mammal assemblages, lower part of Caliente Formation, Cuyama Valley area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.S.; Lander, E.B.

    1988-03-01

    Reevaluation of faunas from the Caliente Formation allows the following correlations with similar ones elsewhere in California and in Nebraska. Padrones Spring local fauna (CIT 312: Ticholeptus smithi, Merychippus carrizoensis; 16.5-14.6 Ma) = Red Division Quarry LF (Barstow Formation 16.5-16.3 Ma), unnamed middle Hemingfordian local fauna (Red Valley Member, Box Butte Formation). Hidden Treasure Spring local fauna (UCMP V-5674, -5676: M. carrizoensis, Ticholeptus zygomaticus.; M. cf. M. seversus) . = lower Yermo local fauna (Barstow Formation). West Dry Canyon LF (lower) (last occurrence, M. carrizoensis; UCMP V-6766: first occurrence, medium-size Brachycrus laticeps) = unnamed local fauna (lower part, Unit 3, Punchbowl Formation), upper Yermo local fauna, Ginn Quarry local fauna (Hemingford Group). West Dry Canyon local fauna (upper) (last occurrence, medium-size B laticeps) = lower Green Hills local fauna (resistant breccia member, Barstow formation, upper Steepside Quarry), early late Hemingfordian, lower Sheep Creek local fauna (lower member, Sheep Creek Formation, Greenside, Long Quarries). Lower Dome Spring local fauna (UCMP V-5670, -5824, -6768: small B. laticeps) = early (pre-type) Barstovian upper Green Hills local fauna, (Camp, Green Hills, Oreodont Quarries; 16.3-15.0), lowest Snake Creek local fauna (lower member, Olcott Formation, Trojan Quarry; 16.7-15.1 Ma).

  5. The Solnhofen Limestone: A stony heritage of many uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Kramar, Sabina; Cooper, Barry J.

    2016-04-01

    High above the valley of the River Altmühl (Bavaria, Germany), between Solnhofen to the west and Kelheim to the east, numerous quarries give access to thinly plated limestone from the Upper Jurassic, some 150 million years before the present. The main quarry areas lie around the town of Eichstätt and between the villages of Solnhofen, Langenaltheim and Mörnsheim. Here limestone slabs have been quarried for several hundred years, some even in Roman times. Solnhofen Limestone is famous worldwide; not only because it is a beautiful building stone of high quality, but also because of the exceptionally well-preserved fossils it contains -among them the early bird Archaeopteryx. The quarry industry between Solnhofen and Eichstätt has shaped a cultural landscape, with old and new quarries sunk into the plain and numerous spoil heaps rising above it, for the rock is not all economically useful. But many of the spoil heaps and the old quarries are environmentally protected as they provide a habitat for some rare plants and animals. It is not necessary to cut the Solnhofen Limestone with a saw: it is split by hand into thin and even slabs or sheets which are used for flagstones and wall covers, which since centuries are sold world-wide. Locally it also serves as roof tiles for traditional houses. Thick slabs of especially fine quality may be found near Solnhofen and Mörnsheim and are used for lithography printing.

  6. Candoglia Marble and the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano": a resource for Global Heritage Stone Designation in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Castelli, Daniele; Corbetta, Elio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Alpine marbles have been widely used in the past for celebrated, both indoor and outdoor, applications. Among them, the Candoglia Marble, a worldwide known and appreciated georesource, and its "bastard brother" from the nearby Ornavasso area were and are exploited in the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarry basin of Northwestern Italian Alps. They crop out as lenses (up to 30 m in thickness) interlayered within high-grade paragneisses of the Ivrea Zone, a section of deep continental crust that experienced amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism of Palaeozoic age. The Candoglia and Ornavasso Marbles are pinkish to greyish, coarse-grained (> 3 mm), calcitic marbles with frequent, cm-thick, dark-greenish silicate layers containing diopside and tremolite; minor minerals include quartz, epidote, sulphides, Ba-feldspar, barite and, occasionally, phlogopite. First record of quarrying activities in the area arises to the Roman age (Ornavasso quarrying area). Both the Ornavasso and Candoglia Marbles were widely employed in local construction (San Nicola Church and Torre della Guardia at Ornavasso, Madonna di Campagna Church at Verbania, San Giovanni in Montorfano Church), but they became famous thanks to their application for the "Duomo di Milano" since the fourteenth century. At the beginning, the building stones employed for the construction of the Gothic style, Duomo di Milano were quarried in the Ornavasso area, but in a short time, the Candoglia quarry (property of the so-called "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" that incessantly takes care of the Cathedral Church from 1387 A.D.) became the main quarry for the construction and maintenance of the Cathedral. The Candoglia quarry developed during the centuries, from open pit small quarries to a unique underground quarry, characterised by a very peculiar quarrying activities (subvertical bench characterized by strong lateral forces, which have to be contrasted and monitored). The Candoglia Marble was preferred to Carrara marbles

  7. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  8. Application of deterministic deconvolution of ground-penetrating radar data in a study of carbonate strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Franseen, E.K.; Miller, R.D.; Weis, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    We successfully applied deterministic deconvolution to real ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data by using the source wavelet that was generated in and transmitted through air as the operator. The GPR data were collected with 400-MHz antennas on a bench adjacent to a cleanly exposed quarry face. The quarry site is characterized by horizontally bedded carbonate strata with shale partings. In order to provide groundtruth for this deconvolution approach, 23 conductive rods were drilled into the quarry face at key locations. The steel rods provided critical information for: (1) correlation between reflections on GPR data and geologic features exposed in the quarry face, (2) GPR resolution limits, (3) accuracy of velocities calculated from common midpoint data and (4) identifying any multiples. Comparing the results of deconvolved data with non-deconvolved data demonstrates the effectiveness of deterministic deconvolution in low dielectric-loss media for increased accuracy of velocity models (improved at least 10-15% in our study after deterministic deconvolution), increased vertical and horizontal resolution of specific geologic features and more accurate representation of geologic features as confirmed from detailed study of the adjacent quarry wall. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DOSAGE DES ELEMENTS EN TRACE DES CALCAIRES AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHEOLOGIE

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-05-01

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows them to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  10. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  11. Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The US Department of the Army used the Weldon Spring site to produce dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives from 1941 to 1946. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor of the DOE) used the site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates from 1957 to 1966. The quarry was used by the Army and the AEC for waste disposal beginning in the early 1940s; it was last used for disposal in 1969. Wastes placed in the quarry include TNT and DNT residues and radioactively contaminated materials. A summary of disposal activities at the quarry is presented. As part of the environmental compliance process at the Weldon Spring site, a baseline risk evaluation (BRE) was prepared to assess the potential risks associated with contamination present at the quarry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. The Colossi of Memnon Revisited: Recent research has established the source of the stone of the two 720-ton statues at Thebes.

    PubMed

    Heizer, R F; Stross, F; Hester, T R; Albee, A; Perlman, I; Asaro, F; Bowman, H

    1973-12-21

    The only areas that are likely to have furnished the original stone for the Colossi of Memnon are near Cairo (Gebel el Ahmar), Aswan, and possibly Silsileh. Neutron activation analysis of samples from the colossi shows them to be distinctly different from samples obtained from the three known quarries near Aswan and from the quarries near Silsileh and Edfu, but very similar to samples obtained from Gebel el Ahmar. Petrographic analysis of colossi and quarry samples also provides strong evidence that the colossi came from Gebel el Ahmar. The blocks used by the engineers of Septimius Severus to reconstruct the north colossus were shown by neutron activation analysis to have originated from a deposit other than Gebel el Ahmar. The composition of these blocks conformed with samples taken from the quarries 8 and 9 km north of Edfu (the quartzite deposit closest to Thebes) and from the Aswan quarries. Petrographic analysis associated these reconstruction blocks with Edfu but not with Aswan. Neutron activation analysis of other artifacts in the area of the colossi indicates that they also came from Cairo rather than Aswan.

  13. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

  14. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  15. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Northwestern States Portland Cement Company site, Mason City, IA. (First remedial action), June 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    The Northwestern States Portland Cement site, a cement manufacturing facility, is in Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Calmus Creek flows between the Northwestern States Portland Cement Company (NWSPCC) facility and another cement manufacturing plant facility located just north of the site. The site includes a 150-acre area named the West Quarry where NWSPCC disposed of 2 million tons of waste cement kiln dust from 1969 to 1985. Local ground water and surface water have been impacted by elevated pH levels as a result of waste cement kiln dust disposal in the West Quarry. The Record of Decision addresses the contamination source, the cement kiln dust disposed of in the West Quarry, and the resulting ground water and surface water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water and surface water are organics including phenols; metals including chromium and lead; and other inorganics including waste cement kiln dust.

  17. Contributions of non-destructive testing for determining the provenance of the granites used in the Roman Amphitheatre from Emerita Augusta, Badajoz, Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, M. Isabel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Pizzo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The Archaeological Ensemble of Emérita Augusta (Mérida, Badajoz, Spain) was listed a World Heritage Site in 1993 by UNESCO. One of the monuments that belongs to this Archaeological Ensemble is the Roman amphitheatre, mainly built with granite from quarries located near the city. Every urban centre in the Roman Empire, in addition to many rural sites, had one or more local quarries from which they extracted the bulk of their stone. In Mérida, there are a group of documented quarries located near the ancient city. In this work the authors have been investigating five of these documented outcrops which, due the distance from the monument or the existence of ancient Roman routes of communication with the city, can be the possible original quarries. The provenance of these materials with which the monument is built is of significant interest in terms of the restoration and conservation and from a historical point of view of the monument. Nowadays, there are many examples of identification of the original quarries that use destructive procedures and techniques which are based on the physical, petrographical, geochemical, magnetic or mechanical properties that are a function of the mineralogical and textural characteristics of the rock. In this work, the combined use of two non-destructive and on-site techniques, ultrasonic velocity and surface hardness determined with a Schmidt hammer rebound tester, allows to determine first, the quality and degree of decay in the granites, usually affecting the material surface and consisting of a decline in surface cohesion, and second, it can discriminate possible provenance areas of the rock used in the building. These two techniques are very useful for this purpose for several reasons. Their combined use allows the selection of the most representative blocks and ashlars for sampling. This reduces sampling to a minimum showing representative results for the whole building, especially in the case of performing ageing tests in the

  18. [Dust concentration analysis in non-coal mining. Exposure evaluation based on measurements performed by occupational hygiene laboratories in the years 2001-2005 in Poland].

    PubMed

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Non-coal mining includes the extraction of materials for construction (stone, gravel, sand and clay), chemical industry (salt and sulfur), metallurgy (metal ores, uranium and thorium) and other mining and quarrying. Regardless of the type of mining company one of the most common health hazards in this sector is exposure to high concentrations of dust occurring during the extraction of materials. Such activities as drilling, use of blasting agents, processing of raw material, its transportation and loading are the source of large amounts of dust containing crystalline silica. Data on exposure to dust, collected by industrial hygiene laboratories on the basis of dust concentration measurements in the work environment, were obtained from the sanitary inspection service. The analysis of dust concentrations at workplaces in non-coal mining covered the years 2001-2005. The average concentration of inhalable and respirable dust and the degree of results dispersion at workposts in different branches of non-coal mining (according to NACE rev1.1) were evaluated. Also there was estimated the percentage of surveys indicating dust concentrations above hygiene standards. Almost 5000 measurements of dust concentrations were performed in the years under study. The highest concentration of inhalable dust was noted for the production of salt (5.51 mg/m3), other mining and quarrying (4.30 mg/m3) and quarrying of slate (3.77 mg/m3). For respirable dust the highest concentrations were noted in other mining and quarrying (1.10 mg/m3), quarrying of slate (1.09 mg/m3) and quarrying of stone (0.81 mg/m3). Exposure to high concentrations of dust during the extraction of non-carbon is still an important hazard to human health. Almost for all workposts under study the excess of hygiene standards were observed.

  19. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  20. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  1. Minerals Yearbook Volume 1, Metals and Minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy.  Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.

  2. 7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOP OF INCLINED PLANE AND EAST FACE OF CUT STONE TOWER - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, PERSPECTIVE DOWN INCLINED PLANE FROM TOP OF ABUTMENT TO CONEMAUGH RIVER AND AREA OF LOWER INCLINE - Laurel Hill Quarry, Incline Plane, Both sides of State Route 56, 2.4 miles East of State Route 711, Seward, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Crustal thickness variations across the Blue Ridge mountains, southern Appalachians: an alternative procedure for migrating wide-angle reflection data

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Hawman

    2008-01-01

    Migration of wide-angle reflections generated by quarry blasts suggests that crustal thickness increases from 38 km beneath the Carolina Terrane to 47–51 km along the southeastern flank of the Blue Ridge. The migration algorithm, developed for generating single-fold images from explosions and earthquakes recorded with isolated, short-aperture arrays, uses the localized...

  5. Be a Citizen Scientist!: Celebrate Earth Science Week 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    During Earth Science Week (October 8-14, 2006), millions of citizen scientists worldwide will be sampling groundwater, monitoring weather, touring quarries, exploring caves, preparing competition projects, and visiting museums and science centers to learn about Earth science. The American Geological Institute organizes this annual event to…

  6. Time Detectives: A Visual Trip Through Life in Early Sioux Falls. Teacher's Manual for Time Detectives Loan Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, Stacy; Van Roessel, Nancy

    This manual was designed as part of a visual resource kit focusing on the history and culture of late 19th century Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Ten topics are addressed: (1) "Fort Dakota"; (2) "Streets of Sioux Falls"; (3) "Shops"; (4) "Businesses"; (5) "Public Schools"; (6) "Quarrying";…

  7. 75. Photographic copy of historic photo, September 25, 1935 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Photographic copy of historic photo, September 25, 1935 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). CCC CREW WORKING ON ROAD AND QUARRY TO SUPPLY ROCK FOR REFACING DEER FLAT RESERVOIR DAM. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  8. Developing biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.

    PubMed

    Pitz, Carline; Mahy, Grégory; Vermeulen, Cédric; Marlet, Christine; Séleck, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, university scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature, and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (1) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (2) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (3) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (4) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry.

  9. 29 CFR 776.15 - “Production.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such goods, or in any closely related process or occupation directly essential to the production... of such goods, 55 and include those whose work is closely related and directly essential thereto, 56... exclusively, this includes that large group of employees engaged in mines, oil fields, quarries, and...

  10. 29 CFR 776.15 - “Production.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such goods, or in any closely related process or occupation directly essential to the production... of such goods, 55 and include those whose work is closely related and directly essential thereto, 56... exclusively, this includes that large group of employees engaged in mines, oil fields, quarries, and...

  11. 26 CFR 521.109 - Real property income, natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income, natural resource... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.109 Real property income, natural resource... from the operation of mines, quarries, oil wells or other natural resources may, for such taxable year...

  12. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income and natural resource... and natural resource royalties. (a) General. Income of whatever nature derived by a nonresident alien... from such property, and royalties in respect of the operation of mines, quarries, or other natural...

  13. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Real property income and natural resource... and natural resource royalties. (a) General. Income of whatever nature derived by a nonresident alien... from such property, and royalties in respect of the operation of mines, quarries, or other natural...

  14. 26 CFR 521.109 - Real property income, natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Real property income, natural resource royalties... Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.109 Real property income, natural resource... from the operation of mines, quarries, oil wells or other natural resources may, for such taxable year...

  15. Magnetostratigraphy of the Orce region (Baza Basin), SE Spain: New chronologies for Early Pleistocene faunas and hominid occupation sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. R.; Gibert, Ll.; Gibert, J.

    2007-02-01

    The Orce fossil quarries, in the Baza Basin of southeastern Spain, are a rich source of Early Pleistocene Palaeolithic tools and vertebrate remains. Geologic fieldwork during the last decade has placed these fossiliferous strata within the context of a thick Neogene continental sequence. Detailed lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic results indicate that at least the upper 60 m of this sequence are of Early Pleistocene age. The quarried strata (Venta Micena, Barranco León and Fuentenueva-3) are from a narrow time span (<100 ka) starting before 1.3 Ma. A new, lower excavation at ˜1.5 Ma (Fuentenueva-1 quarry) has a distinctly older fauna. These Orce strata provide a high resolution, Early Pleistocene record of grassland fauna that shows the end of Mammal Neogene fauna (MN17) in the Fuentenueva-1 site (with Gazella borbonica, Equus stenonis) and the beginning of more characteristic Pleistocene fauna in the Venta Micena site (with Hippopotamus antiquus, Equus granatensis, Homo sp.). Thus far, no evidence for human occupation has been found within the earlier Fuentenueva-1 quarry, although many of the same terminal MN17 species have been found with hominids on the other side of Europe at the Dmanisi site (earliest Pleistocene) in the Republic of Georgia.

  16. Tephrochronology and tephrostratigraphy of two Pleistocene continental fossiliferous successions from central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, F.; Bigazzi, G.; Bonadonna, F. P.; Centamore, E.; Cioni, R.; Zanchetta, G.

    2003-09-01

    The stratigraphical context of two Middle Pleistocene fossiliferous palaeosols from Central Italy (Abruzzo and Tuscany) have been studied. Small mammals and molluscs occur in both palaeosols, which are covered by tephra layers that were analysed using an interdisciplinary approach. Application of fission-track dating to apatites separated from the Case Picconetto tephra (Pescara, Abruzzo), yielded an age of 0.48 +/- 0.04 Ma, indistinguishable from those previously determined for the Campani Quarry (Lower Valdarno, Tuscany) (0.46 +/- 0.05 Ma and 0.48 +/- 0.05 Ma). Geochemical and petrographic investigations indicate that these tephra originated from different volcanoes, the Alban Hills Volcanic Complex and the Vico Volcano (Latium) respectively. Small mammal and mollusc assemblages indicate different palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions for the Case Picconetto and Campani Quarry palaeosols. Warm and humid conditions can be inferred for the Campani Quarry site, whereas open and cold conditions can be inferred for Case Picconetto. On the basis of faunal data, fission-track dates and attribution of tephra to specific volcanic eruptions, we suggest a correlation of these faunas with marine oxygen isotope stage 14 (Case Picconetto) and with marine oxygen isotope stage 11 (Campani Quarry), respectively. Copyright

  17. Be a Citizen Scientist!: Celebrate Earth Science Week 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    During Earth Science Week (October 8-14, 2006), millions of citizen scientists worldwide will be sampling groundwater, monitoring weather, touring quarries, exploring caves, preparing competition projects, and visiting museums and science centers to learn about Earth science. The American Geological Institute organizes this annual event to…

  18. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    University Press, Cambridge, UK. Harris, D.B. (1991). A waveform correlation method for identifying quarry explosions. Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 81...Identify Repeating Mine Blasts in Eastern Kazakhstan. Seism . Res. Lett., 79, 393–399. Prieto, G.A., Parker, R.L. & Vernon, F.L. (2009). A Fortran 90

  19. 75 FR 10634 - Agricultural Inspection and AQI User Fees Along the U.S./Canada Border

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ..., gypsy moths, and other hitchhiking pests that can attach themselves to nonagricultural items as well as... quarry products from areas in Canada listed in Sec. 319.77-3 as being infested with gypsy moth. Therefore... (Tephritidae)), found in containers that originated in Mexico, and the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2224 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlling motor vehicles during air pollution emergency episodes. (b) The requirements of § 51.230(d) of... Pollution Control Regulations are disapproved. (2) Definition of person. For the purposes of the plan... quarrying and processing of agricultural limestone. Therefore, section 53-3424 of the Tennessee Code...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2224 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controlling motor vehicles during air pollution emergency episodes. (b) The requirements of § 51.230(d) of... Pollution Control Regulations are disapproved. (2) Definition of person. For the purposes of the plan... quarrying and processing of agricultural limestone. Therefore, section 53-3424 of the Tennessee Code...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2224 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlling motor vehicles during air pollution emergency episodes. (b) The requirements of § 51.230(d) of... Pollution Control Regulations are disapproved. (2) Definition of person. For the purposes of the plan... quarrying and processing of agricultural limestone. Therefore, section 53-3424 of the Tennessee Code...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2224 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlling motor vehicles during air pollution emergency episodes. (b) The requirements of § 51.230(d) of... Pollution Control Regulations are disapproved. (2) Definition of person. For the purposes of the plan... quarrying and processing of agricultural limestone. Therefore, section 53-3424 of the Tennessee Code...

  4. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  5. Application of preliminary risk analysis at marble finishing plants in Recife's metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    de Melo Neto, Rútilo P; Kohlman Rabbani, Emilia R

    2012-01-01

    The finishing of marble occurs in quarries all over Brazil, being the most significant dimension of the ornamental stone sector, with 7,000 businesses. Recife's Metropolitan Area (RMR) contains approximately 106 marble quarries, 25 of them unionized. The study focused on the application of Preliminary Risk Analysis, conducted at two unionized quarries: M1, a small business; and the second, M2, considered a micro enterprise. In this analysis both the administrative and the productive sectors were evaluated. The fieldwork was done in the month of December 2010. The study revealed that the two quarries carried moderate risks in the administrative sector, mainly due to ergonomic factors, and that in the productive sectors the risks were high, specifically because of excess noise, dust material, and precarious electrical installations. Using the results of the qualitative analysis as a base, the need for quantitative study presents itself in order to determine the most adequate modes of protection to be of assistance in the management of these risks, guaranteeing the safety and health of the worker and consequently the improvement in productivity in this sector.

  6. Stream Restoration to Manage Nutrients in Degraded Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historic land-use change can reduce water quality by impairing the ability of stream ecosystems to efficiently process nutrients such as nitrogen. Study results of two streams (Minebank Run and Big Spring Run) affected by urbanization, quarrying, agriculture, and impoundments in...

  7. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  8. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  9. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  10. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  11. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  12. 7 CFR 330.108 - Authority to issue administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.108 Authority to issue... plant pests into the United States or interstate. In addition, whenever the Deputy Administrator shall...

  13. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant pests... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.203 Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in...

  14. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of...

  15. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  16. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  17. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.202...

  18. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of...

  19. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  20. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The...

  1. 7 CFR 330.108 - Authority to issue administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.108 Authority to issue... plant pests into the United States or interstate. In addition, whenever the Deputy Administrator shall...

  2. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... to move a plant pest when, in his opinion, such movement would involve a danger of dissemination of...

  3. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant pests... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.203 Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in...

  4. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... to move a plant pest when, in his opinion, such movement would involve a danger of dissemination of...

  5. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206...

  6. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... to move a plant pest when, in his opinion, such movement would involve a danger of dissemination of...

  7. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of...

  8. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... to move a plant pest when, in his opinion, such movement would involve a danger of dissemination of...

  9. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to...

  10. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.202...

  11. 7 CFR 330.108 - Authority to issue administrative instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.108 Authority to issue... plant pests into the United States or interstate. In addition, whenever the Deputy Administrator shall...

  12. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... to move a plant pest when, in his opinion, such movement would involve a danger of dissemination of...

  13. 7 CFR 330.207 - Permits for movement of organisms issued by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.207 Permits... pests, any further conditions of movement to carry out the purposes of the Plant Protection Act which...

  14. 7 CFR 330.207 - Permits for movement of organisms issued by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.207 Permits... pests, any further conditions of movement to carry out the purposes of the Plant Protection Act which...

  15. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of...

  16. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.202...

  17. 7 CFR 330.207 - Permits for movement of organisms issued by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.207 Permits... pests, any further conditions of movement to carry out the purposes of the Plant Protection Act which...

  18. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.202...

  19. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to...

  20. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant pests... PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.203 Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in...