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Sample records for quartz coesite stishovite

  1. Comparison between thermochemical and phase stability data for the quartz-coesite-stishovite transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. S.; Chipman, D. W.; Takahashi, T.

    1979-01-01

    Phase stability and elasticity data have been used to calculate the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes at 298 K and 1 bar associated with the quartz-coesite and coesite-stishovite transformations in the system SiO2. For the quartz-coesite transformation, these changes disagree by a factor of two or three with those obtained by calorimetric techniques. The phase boundary for this transformation appears to be well determined by experiment; the discrepancy, therefore, suggests that the calorimetric data for coesite are in error. Although the calorimetric and phase stability data for the coesite-stishovite transformation yield the same transition pressure at 298 K, the phase-boundary slopes disagree by a factor of two. At present, it is not possible to determine which of the data are in error. Thus serious inconsistencies exist in the thermodynamic data for the polymorphic transformations of silica.

  2. High-pressure infrared sepctra of alpha-quartz, coesite, stishovite and silica glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Q.; Hemley, R. J.; Kruger, M. B.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-01-01

    High-pressure infrared absorption spectra of alpha-quatz, coesite, stishovite, and SiO2 glass are consistent with the primary compression mechanism of the initially tetrahedrally bonded phases being the bending of the Si-O-Si angle at pressures less than 10-20 GPa. At higher pressures, up to 40 GPa, we observe a decline in the intensity of the infrared SiO4 asymmetric-stretching vibrations of all three phases, with an increase in the relative amplitude between 700 and 900/cm. This change in intensities is attributed to an increase in the average coordination number of silicon through extreme distortion of tetrahedra. At pressures above approximately 20 GPa, the low-pressure crystalline polymorphs gradually become amorphous, and the infrared spectra provide evidence for an increase in silicon coordination in these high-density amorphous phases. The pressure-amorphized samples prepared from quartz and coesite differ structurally both from each other and from silica glass that has been compressed, and the high pressure spectra indicate that these materials are considerably more disordered than stishovite under comparable pressure conditions. Average mode Grueneisen parameters calculated for quartz, stishovite and fused silica from both infrared and Raman spectra are compatible with the corresponding thermodynamic value of the Grueneisen parameter, however, that of coesite is significantly discrepant.

  3. Luminescence of silicon dioxide different polymorph modification: Silica glass, α-quartz, stishovite, coesite

    SciT

    Trukhin, A. N., E-mail: truhins@cfi.lu.lv

    2014-10-21

    Stishovite, coesite, oxygen deficient silica glass as well as irradiated α-quartz, exhibit two luminescence bands: a blue one and an UV one both excitable in the range within optical gap. There are similarities in spectral position and in luminescence decay kinetics among centers in these materials. The interpretation was done on the model of Oxygen Deficient Centers (ODC) [1]. The ODC(II) or twofold coordinated silicon and ODC(I) are distinguished. ODC(I) is object of controversial interpretation. The Si-Si oxygen vacancy [2] and complex defect including latent twofold coordinated silicon [3] are proposed. Remarkably, this luminescence center does not exist in asmore » grown crystalline α-quartz. However, destructive irradiation of α-quartz crystals with fast neutrons, γ rays, or dense electron beams [4–6] creates ODC(I) like defect. In tetrahedron structured coesite the self trapped exciton (STE) luminescence observed with high energetic yield (∼30%) like in α-quartz crystals. STE in coesite coexists with oxygen deficient-like center. In octahedron structured stishovite STE was not found and only ODC exists.« less

  4. Quartz-coesite-stishovite relations in shocked metaquartzites from the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, John G.; Boonsue, Suporn

    2018-01-01

    Coesite and stishovite are developed in shock veins within metaquartzites beyond a radius of 30 km from the center of the 2.02 Ga Vredefort impact structure. This work focuses on deploying analytical field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, and Raman spectrometry to better understand the temporal and spatial relations of these silica polymorphs. α-Quartz in the host metaquartzites, away from shock veins, exhibits planar features, Brazil twins, and decorated planar deformation features, indicating a primary (bulk) shock loading of >5 < 35 GPa. Within the shock veins, coesite forms anhedral grains, ranging in size from 0.5 to 4 μm, with an average of 1.25 μm. It occurs in clasts, where it displays a distinct jigsaw texture, indicative of partial reversion to a less dense SiO2 phase, now represented by microcrystalline quartz. It is also developed in the matrix of the shock veins, where it is typically of smaller size (<1 μm). Stishovite occurs as euhedral acicular crystals, typically <0.5 μm wide and up to 15 μm in length, associated with clast-matrix or shock vein margin-matrix interfaces. In this context, the needles occur as radiating or subparallel clusters, which grow into/over both coesite and what is now microcrystalline quartz. Stishovite also occurs as more blebby, subhedral to anhedral grains in the vein matrix (typically <1 μm). We propose a model for the evolution of the veins (1) precursory frictional melting in a microfault ( 1 mm wide) generates a molten matrix containing quartz clasts. This is followed by (2) arrival of the main shock front, which shocks to 35 GPa. This generates coesite in the clasts and in the matrix. (3) On initial shock release, the coesite partly reverts to a less dense SiO2 phase, which is now represented by microcrystalline quartz. (4) With continued release, stishovite forms euhedral needle clusters at solid-liquid interfaces and as anhedral crystals in the matrix. (5) With

  5. Kinetics of the coesite to quartz transformation

    Mosenfelder, J.L.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The survival of coesite in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks has important implications for the exhumation of subducted crustal rocks. We have conducted experiments to study the mechanism and rate of the coesite ??? quartz transformation using polycrystalline coesite aggregates, fabricated by devitrifying silica glass cylinders containing 2850H/106 Si at 1000??C and 3.6 GPa for 24h. Conditions were adjusted following synthesis to transform the samples at 700-1000??C at pressures 190-410 MPa below the quartz-coesite equilibrium boundary. Reaction proceeds via grain-boundary nucleation and interface-controlled growth, with characteristic reaction textures remarkably similar to those seen in natural UHP rocks. We infer that the experimental reaction mechanism is identical to that in nature, a prerequisite for reliable extrapolation of the rate data. Growth rates obtained by direct measurement differ by up to two orders of magnitude from those estimated by fitting a rate equation to the transformation-time data. Fitting the rates to Turnbull's equation for growth therefore yields two distinct sets of parameters with similar activation energies (242 or 269 kJ/mol) but significantly different pre-exponential constants. Extrapolation based on either set of growth rates suggests that coesite should not be preserved on geologic time scales if it reaches the quartz stability field at temperatures above 375-400??C. The survival of coesite has previously been linked to its inclusion in strong phases, such as garnet, that can sustain a high internal pressure during decompression. Other factors that may play a crucial role in preservation are low fluid availability - possibly even less than that of our nominally "dry" experiments - and the development of transformation stress, which inhibits nucleation and growth. These issues are discussed in the context of our experiments as well as recent observations from natural rocks. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. The nature, distribution and genesis of the coesite and stishovite associated with the pseudotachylite of the Vredefort Dome, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, J. E. J.

    1991-04-01

    The Vredefort Dome represents the uplift centre of a well known 2.00 Ga old impact structure of unusually large magnitude. Shock features like shatter cones, planar features and high-pressure silica polymorphs are common. The present study deals with the description, mode of occurrence, field distribution and post-shock metamorphic alteration of coesite and stishovite which were poorly documented up to now. These minerals occur as unusually large crystals in the quartzite of the wall rock in contact with very thin pseudotachylite veins. In the pseudotachylite itself, which can be interpreted as a friction and/or a shock recovery melt, fine needles of kyanite are ubiquitous. It is proposed that these thin pseudotachylites (A-type) formed during the transit of the shock wave. They preceded the development of thick pseudotachylite and microbreccia veins (B-type) which formed during the tensional period which immediately followed. From comparison with the model of formation of high-pressure polymorphs in porous sandstone, it is suggested that higher pressure and stress was concentrated along the A-type veins at the arrival of the shock front. At this time the quartz was transformed into a "high-pressure phase" which was probably poorly crystalline. Behind the shock front, that is during the rarefaction, the pressure was progressively released and the polymorphs crystallized from this initial "high-pressure phase". Stishovite crystallized first, followed by coesite. The high-pressure conditions may have lasted an unusually long time due to the magnitude of the Vredefort impact. This long time, probably about one second, may account for the large size of the coesite and stishovite crystals. Most of the high-pressure silica polymorphs are corroded to a variable degree by secondary quartz and preserved only in a restricted area of the impact structure. This alteration is attributed to post-shock metamorphism due to the temperature of the rock before impact plus the heat

  7. Heat capacity and thermodynamic properties for coesite and jadeite, reexamination of the quartz-coesite equilibrium boundary

    Hemingway, B.S.; Bohlen, S.R.; Hankins, W.B.; Westrum, E.F.; Kuskov, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The heat capacities of synthetic coesite and jadeite were measured between about 15 and 850 K by adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental data were smoothed and estimates were made of heat capacities to 1800 K. The following equations represent our estimate of the heat capacities of coesite and jadeite between 298.15 and 1800 K: [see original article for formula]. Tables of thermodynamic values for coesite and jadeite to 1800 K are presented. The entropies of coesite and jadeite are 40.38 ?? 0.12 and 136.5 ?? 0.32 J/(mol.K), respectively, at 298.15 K. The entropy for coesite derived here confirms the value published earlier by Holm et al. (1967). We have derived an equation to describe the quartz-coesite boundary over the temperature range of 600 to 1500 K, P(GPa) = 1.76 + 0.001T(K). Our results are in agreement with the enthalpy of transition reported by Akaogi and Navrotsky (1984) and yield -907.6 ?? 1.4 kJ/mol for the enthalpy of formation of coesite from the elements at 298.15 K and 1 bar, in agreement with the value recommended by CODATA (Khodakovsky et al. 1995). Several sources of uncertainty remain unacceptably high, including: the heat capacities of coesite at temperatures above about 1000 K; the heat capacities and volumetric properties of ?? quartz at higher pressures and at temperatures above 844 K; the pressure corrections for the piston cylinder apparatus used to determine the quartz-coesite equilibrium boundary.

  8. Stresses and pressures at the quartz-to-coesite phase transformation in shear deformation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B.; Stünitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.

    2016-11-01

    Coesite was found in quartz aggregates, experimentally deformed at confining pressures of 1.0-1.5 GPa and temperatures between 600°C and 900°C. The confining pressure (Pc) and, in most cases, the mean stress (σm) of the experiments were below those of the quartz-to-coesite phase transformation. Yet coesite formed when the maximum principal stress (σ1) was within the P-T range of the coesite stability field. In one sample, the euhedral coesite grains were corroded indicating that coesite started to transform back to quartz. It is inferred that this sample started to deform with σ1 above the quartz-to-coesite phase transformation and, with ongoing deformation, σ1 decreased to values in the quartz stability field due to strain weakening. In all cases, σ1 triggered the quartz-to-coesite reaction as well as the reverse reaction, suggesting that σ1 is the critical parameter for the quartz-to-coesite transformation—not Pc or σm. With progressive deformation, the coesite laths rotated toward the shear plane as more rigid particles with the sense of shear. In case of back reaction, new quartz grains exhibit no systematic crystallographic relationship with respect to old coesite. The experiments cover different degrees of pressure "overstepping," different temperatures, and different experimental durations at P and T, and deformation always enhances the reaction kinetics. The observation that σ1 is critical for a pressure-dependent phase transformation (also for reversals) poses questions for the thermodynamic treatment of such phase transformations.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of the Quartz to Stishovite Transition in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.; Towler, Mike; Lopez Rios, Pablo; Drummond, Neil; Needs, Richard

    2007-03-01

    The quartz-stishovite transition has been a long standing problem for density functional theory (DFT). Although conventional DFT computations within the local density approximation (LDA) give reasonably good properties of silica phases individually, they do not give the energy difference between quartz and stishovite accurately. The LDA gives stishovite as a lower energy structure than quartz at zero pressure, which is incorrect. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been shown to give the correct energy difference between quartz and stishovite (about 0.5 eV/formula unit) (Hamann, PRL 76, 660, 1996; Zupan et al., PRB 58, 11266, 1998), and it was generally thought that the GGA was simply a better approximation than the LDA. However, closer inspection shows that other properties are not better for the GGA than the LDA, so there is room for improvement. A new density functional that is an improvement for most materials unfortunately does not improve the quartz-stishovite transition (Wu and Cohen, PRB 73, 235116, 2006). We are performing QMC computations using the CASINO code to obtain the accurate energy difference between quartz and stishovite to obtain more accurate high pressure properties, and to better understand the errors on DFT and how DFT can be improved.

  10. Discovery of coesite and shocked quartz associated with the upper Eocene cpx spherule layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, T.; Glass, B. P.

    2002-01-01

    At least two major impact ejecta layers have been discovered in upper Eocene strata. The upper layer is the North American microtektite layer. lt consists tektite fragments, microtektites, and shocked mineral grains (e.g., quartz and feldspar with multiple sets of PDFs, coesite and reidite (a high-pressure polymorph of zircon)). The slightly older layer contains clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherules and microtektites associated with an Ir anomaly. The North American tektite layer may be derived from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, and the cpx spherule layer may from the Popigai impact crater. A cpx spherule layer associated with a positive Ir anomaly was recently found at ODP Site 709, western Indian Ocean. A large sample (Hole 709C, core 31, section 4, 145-150 cm), originally used for a study of interstitial water by shipboard scientists, was acquired for the purpose of recovering a large number of spherules for various petrographic and geochemical studies. A split of the sample (50.35 g) was disaggregated and wet-sieved. More than 17,000 cpx spherules and several hundred microtektites (larger than 125 microns) were recovered from the sample. Rare white opaque grains were observed in the 125-250 micron size fraction after removal of the carbonate component using dilute HCI. Seven of the white opaque grains were X-rayed using a Gandolfi camera and six were found to be coesite (probably mixed with lechatelierite). Eighty translucent colorless grains from the 63-125 micron size fraction were studied with a petrographic microscope. Four of the grains exhibit one to two sets of planar deformation features (PDFs). The only other possible known occurrence of shocked minerals associated with the cpx spherule layer is at Massignano, Italy, where pancake-shaped clay spherules (thought to be diagenetically altered cpx spherules are associated with a positive Ir anomaly and Ni- rich spinel crystals. Shocked quartz grains with multiple sets of PDFs also occur at this site

  11. Calibrating the Grigg's' Apparatus using Experiments performed at the Quartz-Coesite Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, R.; Stunitz, H.; Richter, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Griggs deformation apparatus is increasingly used for shear experiments. The tested material is placed on a 45° pre-cut between two forcing blocks. During the experiment, the axial displacement, load, temperature, and confining pressure are recorded as a function of time. From these records, stress, strain, and other mechanical data can be calculated - provided the machine is calibrated. Experimentalists are well aware that calibrating a Griggs apparatus is not easy. The stiffness correction accounts for the elastic extension of the rig as load is applied to the sample. An 'area correction' accounts for the decreasing overlap of the forcing blocks as slip along the pre-cut progresses. Other corrections are sometimes used to account for machine specific behaviour. While the rig stiffness can be measured very accurately, the area correction involves model assumptions. Depending on the choice of the model, the calculated stresses may vary by as much as 100 MPa. Also, while the assumptions appear to be theoretically valid, in practice they tend to over-correct the data, yielding strain hardening curves even in cases where constant flow stress or weakening is expected. Using the results of experiments on quartz gouge at the quartz-coesite transition (see Richter et al. this conference), we are now able to improve and constrain our corrections. We introduce an elastic salt correction based on the assumption that the confining pressure is increased as the piston advances and reduces the volume in the confining medium. As the compressibility of salt is low, the correction is significant and increases with strain. Applying this correction, the strain hardening artefact introduced by the area correction can be counter-balanced. Using a combination of area correction and salt correction we can now reproduce strain weakening, for which there is evidence in samples where coesite transforms back to quartz.

  12. Friction measurements in piston-cylinder apparatus using quartz-coesite reversible transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akella, J.

    1979-01-01

    The value of friction determined by monitoring piston displacement as a function of nominal pressure on compression and decompression cycles at 1273 K is compared with the friction value obtained by reversing the quartz-coesite transition at 1273 and 1073 K in a talc-glass-alsimag cell (Akella and Kennedy, 1971) and a low-friction salt cell (Mirwald et al., 1975). Quenching runs at 1273 K gave double values of friction of 0.25 GPa for the talc-glass-alsimag cell and 0.03 GPa for the salt cell. The piston-displacement technique gave somewhat higher values. Use of piston-displacement hysteresis loops in evaluating the actual pressure on a sample may lead to overestimates for decompression runs and underestimates for compression runs.

  13. Stresses and pressures at the quartz-coesite transition in shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, B.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments on quartz (qtz) gouge were performed in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus at displacement rates of ~1.3 x 10-5 mms-1 or ~1.3 x 10-4 mms-1, at Pc= 1.0 GPa or 1.5 GPa and T = 600°C to 800°C. The starting material is a natural hydrothermally grown single crystal that was crushed to a powder with grain size d < 100 µm. Coesite (coe) is found if the maximum principle stress (σ1) is in the coe stability field. In general Pc and the mean stress (Pm) of these samples are below the quartz-coesite phase transition (QCT). Coe is not found if σ1 is below the QCT. At T = 600 °C, σ1is always in the coe stability field. But coe is only present in the high strain experiment, indicating slow transformation kinetics. In one sample we observed that σ1crosses the QCT during the loading part and after progressive weakening crosses the QCT back into the qtz stability field. The microstructure of this sample shows the formation of coe and the reverse transformation from coe to qtz. The coe growth penetrates the sample and coe grows around and in between larger qtz clasts. At high stresses, where Pm is also above the QCT, coe often forms radiating aggregates. At lower stresses, where only σ1 lies in the stability field of coe, and at low strain the coe grains have a preferred orientation of the b-axes (sub-) parallel to σ1. With increasing strain, the rigid coe grains rotate and align with the preferred qtz fabric. For coe to be found, it is sufficient that σ1 reaches values above the transformation pressure. If σ1 drops back into the qtz stability field during an experiment, a back-reaction from coe to qtz is observed. It appears therefore that the pressure that defines the QCT is not Pc or Pm, but σ1.

  14. First natural occurrence of coesite

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  15. High-pressure synthesis of mesoporous stishovite: potential applications in mineral physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagno, Vincenzo; Mandal, Manik; Landskron, Kai; Fei, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Recently, we have described a successful synthesis route to obtain mesoporous quartz and its high-pressure polymorph coesite by nanocasting at high pressure using periodic mesostructured precursors, such as SBA-16 and FDU-12/carbon composite as starting materials. Periodic mesoporous high-pressure silica polymorphs are of particular interest as they combine transport properties and physical properties such as hardness that potentially enable the industrial use of these materials. In addition, synthesis of mesoporous crystalline silica phases can allow more detailed geology-related studies such as water/mineral interaction, dissolution/crystallization rate and the surface contribution to the associated thermodynamic stability (free energy and enthalpy) of the various polymorphs and their crossover. Here, we present results of synthesis of mesoporous stishovite from cubic large-pore periodic mesoporous silica LP-FDU-12/C composite as precursor with an fcc lattice. We describe the synthesis procedure using multi-anvil apparatus at 9 GPa (about 90,000 atm) and temperature of 500 °C. The synthetic mesoporous stishovite is, then, characterized by wide and small-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Results show that this new material is characterized by accessible mesopores with wide pore size distribution, surface area of ~45 m2/g and volume of pores of ~0.15 cm3/g. Results from gas adsorption indicate that both porosity and permeability are retained at the high pressures of synthesis but with weak periodic order of the pores.

  16. Evidence of Former Stishovite in Metamorphosed Sediments: Exhumation from >300 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhang, J.; Green, H. W.; Jin, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Deep subduction of continental rocks or sediments is difficult because they are buoyant relative to mantle compositions. Nevertheless, it has been shown that during continental collision, such rocks can be subducted to ~200km and returned to the surface. At pressures equivalent to ~300 km, experimental studies indicate that continental rocks will become more dense than ambient mantle and therefore presumably lose their ability to return to the surface buoyantly. We have discovered distinctive aluminum- and iron-bearing oxide inclusions (oriented kyanite and hercynite) in quartz of high-pressure pelitic rocks from the Altyn Tagh, western China that may represent rocks subducted to approximately this point of no return. The inclusions exhibit all of the characteristics of phases exsolved from solid solution except that they have no topotaxy with their host quartz; in many cases, the oriented inclusions cross high-angle quartz grain boundaries with no deviation in their orientations. The abundance of these phases (~1 vol%) is also incompatible with the known solubility of Fe and Al in either quartz or coesite. We have performed laboratory experiments at high pressure and found that these observations are consistent with the possibility that the oxides precipitated from stishovite, which is stable only above ~10GPa. These observations strongly suggest that these pelitic (clay-rich) sediments have been subducted to at least 300 km and returned to the surface.

  17. Coesite in suevites from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Jackson, John C.; Horton, J. Wright; Chou, I-Ming; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of coesite in suevites from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure is confirmed within a variety of textural domains in situ by Raman spectroscopy for the first time and in mechanically separated grains by X-ray diffraction. Microtextures of coesite identified in situ investigated under transmitted light and by scanning electron microscope reveal coesite as micrometer-sized grains (1–3 μm) within amorphous silica of impact-melt clasts and as submicrometer-sized grains and polycrystalline aggregates within shocked quartz grains. Coesite-bearing quartz grains are present both idiomorphically with original grain margins intact and as highly strained grains that underwent shock-produced plastic deformation. Coesite commonly occurs in plastically deformed quartz grains within domains that appear brown (toasted) in transmitted light and rarely within quartz of spheroidal texture. The coesite likely developed by a mechanism of solid-state transformation from precursor quartz. Raman spectroscopy also showed a series of unidentified peaks associated with shocked quartz grains that likely represent unidentified silica phases, possibly including a moganite-like phase that has not previously been associated with coesite.

  18. Experimental constraints on coesite abundances in eclogite and implications for the X seismic discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Nadia; Woodland, Alan B.; Klimm, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    We have experimentally tested the possibility that the coesite-stishovite transition in eclogite bodies is responsible for the X discontinuity, a locally observed, low-impedance jump in seismic wave velocities at 260-330 km depth. We determined phase relations and free SiO2 abundances in three natural-analog eclogite compositions that simulate different subduction scenarios in terms of pressure-temperature conditions and whether or not melt extraction occurred. Eclogitic compositions representing residues after either shallow or deep melting contain either no coesite or else too little (<4 wt %) to produce the observed impedance contrast for the X discontinuity. Only an unmodified mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) composition was found to contain just enough coesite (6-8 wt %) to be consistent with the expected impedance contrast when it transforms to stishovite. However, we assert that MORB cannot remain compositionally unmodified during subduction down to ~300 km. Fluid loss due to dehydration reactions during the transformation from basalt to eclogite lowers bulk SiO2 content. In addition, the MORB wet solidus intersects the coesite-stishovite boundary at ~290 km, implying that at greater depths a melt phase should be present before stishovite stability is reached. Our data indicate that melt generation is an efficient means of lowering the free SiO2 content in the mineral assemblage. This study also confirms previous work indicating that exsolution of SiO2 from the Ca-Eskola (Ca0.5AlSi2O6) component in clinopyroxene is not a feasible mechanism for producing significant stishovite upon reaching its stability field. We conclude that the coesite-stishovite transition in eclogite bodies is not a viable petrological explanation for the X discontinuity.

  19. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Kaercher, Pamela M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; ...

    2014-11-07

    Although the crystal structure of the high pressure SiO 2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, little is known about the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation in stishovite. Insight into CPO and associated deformation mechanics of stishovite would provide important information for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. To study CPO development, we converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. We collected diffraction patterns in radial geometry to examine in situ development of crystallographic preferred orientationmore » and find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling suggests the most likely slip systems at high pressure and ambient temperature are pyramidal and basal slip.« less

  20. Experimental measurements of shock properties of stishovite

    SciT

    Furnish, M.D.; Ito, E.

    1995-10-01

    We have synthesized, characterized and performed Hugoniot measurements on monolithic samples of stishovite, a high pressure polymorph of silica. Synthesis was accomplished in a multianvil press with pyrophyllite gaskets and carbon heaters. The samples had densities ranging from 3.80 to 4.07, corresponding to stishovite volume fractions of 0.7 to 0.87, a range confirmed by NMR analysis. They had no significant impurities except less than 1% carbon. Samples {approximately} 1 mm thick and 3 mm diameter were tested in reverse- and forward-ballistics modes on a two-stage light gas gun, using velocity interferometry diagnostics. Impact velocities ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 km/sec.more » Hugoniot stresses for the four successful tests ranged from 65 to 225GPa. At higher stresses significant uncertainties arise due to impact tilt/nonplanariy issues. Results are consistent with earlier predictions of the stishovite Hugoniot based on quartz-centered Hugoniot data, static-compression (diamond-anvil cell) data and hydrostatic multianvil cell data. Release behavior appears to be frozen. These results are remarkable in view of the small size of the samples used.« less

  1. Experimental measurements of shock properties of stishovite

    SciT

    Furnish, M.D.; Ito, E.

    1996-05-01

    We have synthesized, characterized and performed Hugoniot measurements on monolithic samples of stishovite. Synthesis was accomplished in a multianvil press with pyrophyllite gaskets and carbon heaters. The samples had densities ranging from 3.80 to 4.07Mg/m{sup 3}, corresponding to stishovite volume fractions of 0.7 to 0.87, a range confirmed by NMR analysis. They had no significant impurities except less than 1{percent} carbon. Samples {approximately}1 mm thick and 3 mm diameter were tested in reverse- and forward-ballistics modes on a two-stage light gas gun, using velocity interferometry diagnostics. Impact velocities ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 km/sec. Hugoniot stresses for the four successfulmore » tests ranged from 65 to 225GPa. At higher stresses significant uncertainties arise due to impact tilt/nonplanarity issues. Results are consistent with earlier predictions of the stishovite Hugoniot based on quartz-centered Hugoniot data, static-compression (diamond-anvil cell) data and hydrostatic multianvil cell data. Release behavior appears to be frozen. These results are remarkable in view of the small size of the samples used. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  2. Si-29 NMR spectroscopy of naturally-shocked quartz from Meteor Crater, Arizona: Correlation to Kieffer's classification scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Cygan, R. T.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied solid state Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to five naturally-shocked Coconino Sandstone samples from Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of examining possible correlations between NMR spectral characteristics and shock level. This work follows our observation of a strong correlation between the width of a Si-29 resonance and peak shock pressure for experimentally shocked quartz powders. The peak width increase is due to the shock-induced formation of amorphous silica, which increases as a function of shock pressure over the range that we studied (7.5 to 22 GPa). The Coconino Sandstone spectra are in excellent agreement with the classification scheme of Kieffer in terms of presence and approximate abundances of quartz, coesite, stishovite, and glass. We also observe a new resonance in two moderately shocked samples that we have tentatively identified with silicon in tetrahedra with one hydroxyl group in a densified form of amorphous silica.

  3. High-pressure phase transitions of α-quartz under nonhydrostatic dynamic conditions: A reconnaissance study at PETRA III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Eva-Regine; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Danilewsky, Andreas; Langenhorst, Falko; Ehm, Lars; Trullenque, Ghislain; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Hypervelocity collisions of solid bodies occur frequently in the solar system and affect rocks by shock waves and dynamic loading. A range of shock metamorphic effects and high-pressure polymorphs in rock-forming minerals are known from meteorites and terrestrial impact craters. Here, we investigate the formation of high-pressure polymorphs of α-quartz under dynamic and nonhydrostatic conditions and compare these disequilibrium states with those predicted by phase diagrams derived from static experiments under equilibrium conditions. We create highly dynamic conditions utilizing a mDAC and study the phase transformations in α-quartz in situ by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Phase transitions of α-quartz are studied at pressures up to 66.1 and different loading rates. At compression rates between 0.14 and 1.96 GPa s-1, experiments reveal that α-quartz is amorphized and partially converted to stishovite between 20.7 GPa and 28.0 GPa. Therefore, coesite is not formed as would be expected from equilibrium conditions. With the increasing compression rate, a slight increase in the transition pressure occurs. The experiments show that dynamic compression causes an instantaneous formation of structures consisting only of SiO6 octahedra rather than the rearrangement of the SiO4 tetrahedra to form a coesite. Although shock compression rates are orders of magnitude faster, a similar mechanism could operate in impact events.

  4. High-pressure phase transitions of α-quartz under nonhydrostatic dynamic conditions: A reconnaissance study at PETRA III

    SciT

    Carl, Eva-Regine; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Liermann, Hanns-Peter

    Hypervelocity collisions of solid bodies occur frequently in the solar system and affect rocks by shock waves and dynamic loading. A range of shock metamorphic effects and high-pressure polymorphs in rock-forming minerals are known from meteorites and terrestrial impact craters. In this paper, we investigate the formation of high-pressure polymorphs of α-quartz under dynamic and nonhydrostatic conditions and compare these disequilibrium states with those predicted by phase diagrams derived from static experiments under equilibrium conditions. We create highly dynamic conditions utilizing a mDAC and study the phase transformations in α-quartz in situ by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Phase transitions ofmore » α-quartz are studied at pressures up to 66.1 and different loading rates. At compression rates between 0.14 and 1.96 GPa s -1, experiments reveal that α-quartz is amorphized and partially converted to stishovite between 20.7 GPa and 28.0 GPa. Therefore, coesite is not formed as would be expected from equilibrium conditions. With the increasing compression rate, a slight increase in the transition pressure occurs. The experiments show that dynamic compression causes an instantaneous formation of structures consisting only of SiO 6 octahedra rather than the rearrangement of the SiO 4 tetrahedra to form a coesite. Although shock compression rates are orders of magnitude faster, a similar mechanism could operate in impact events.« less

  5. High-pressure phase transitions of α-quartz under nonhydrostatic dynamic conditions: A reconnaissance study at PETRA III

    DOE PAGES

    Carl, Eva-Regine; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; ...

    2017-03-27

    Hypervelocity collisions of solid bodies occur frequently in the solar system and affect rocks by shock waves and dynamic loading. A range of shock metamorphic effects and high-pressure polymorphs in rock-forming minerals are known from meteorites and terrestrial impact craters. In this paper, we investigate the formation of high-pressure polymorphs of α-quartz under dynamic and nonhydrostatic conditions and compare these disequilibrium states with those predicted by phase diagrams derived from static experiments under equilibrium conditions. We create highly dynamic conditions utilizing a mDAC and study the phase transformations in α-quartz in situ by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Phase transitions ofmore » α-quartz are studied at pressures up to 66.1 and different loading rates. At compression rates between 0.14 and 1.96 GPa s -1, experiments reveal that α-quartz is amorphized and partially converted to stishovite between 20.7 GPa and 28.0 GPa. Therefore, coesite is not formed as would be expected from equilibrium conditions. With the increasing compression rate, a slight increase in the transition pressure occurs. The experiments show that dynamic compression causes an instantaneous formation of structures consisting only of SiO 6 octahedra rather than the rearrangement of the SiO 4 tetrahedra to form a coesite. Although shock compression rates are orders of magnitude faster, a similar mechanism could operate in impact events.« less

  6. Experimental measurements of the Hugoniot of stishovite

    SciT

    Furnish, M.D.; Ito, Eichi

    1995-10-01

    The crust and mantle of the Earth are primarily composed of silicates. The properties of these materials under compression are of interest for deducing deep-earth composition. As well, the properties of these materials under shock compression are of interest for calculating groundshock propagation. The authors have synthesized, characterized, and performed Hugoniot measurements on monolithic polycrystalline SiO{sub 2} samples which were predominantly stishovite (a high-pressure polymorph). Synthesis was accomplished in a multianvil press with pyrophyllite gaskets and carbon heaters. The samples had densities ranging from 3.80 to 4.07, corresponding to stishovite volume fractions of 0.7 to 0.87, a range confirmed bymore » NMR analysis. Electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence characterizations showed minor carbon contamination (< 1%), with no other significant impurities. Samples {approximately} 1 mm thick and 3 mm diameter were tested in reverse and forward-ballistics modes on a two-stage light gas gun, using velocity interferometry diagnostics. Impact velocities ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 km/sec. Hugoniot stresses for four tests ranged from 65 to 225 GPa. At higher stresses significant uncertainties arise due to impact tilt/nonplanarity issues. Results are consistent with earlier predictions of the stishovite Hugoniot based on quartz-centered Hugoniot data, static-compression (diamond-anvil cell) data and hydrostatic multianvil cell data. Release behavior appears to be frozen. These results are remarkable in view of the small size of the samples used. Results are compared with current EOS models.« less

  7. On the Preservation of Intergranular Coesite in UHP Eclogite at Yangkou Bay, Sulu belt of eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, S.; Brown, M.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to coesite that occurs as inclusions in zircon and rock-forming minerals, intergranular coesite is preserved in UHP eclogite at Yangkou in the Sulu belt. The survival of intergranular coesite is intriguing because the eclogite experienced phengite growth and partial melting during exhumation. The coesite eclogite occurs as rootless isoclinal fold noses within quartz-rich schist which contains 10-20 vol% phengite, whereas phengite is absent from coesite eclogite in the fold noses. To evaluate the factors that control preservation of intergranular coesite, four samples representative of different stages along the retrograde P-T path were selected for study. For each sample we determined the number of intergranular coesite grains per cm2 and the OH content of garnet and omphacite. As the number of coesite grains decreases, the bulk rock OH content increases from <200 ppm in phengite-free coesite eclogite to 200-260 ppm in phengite-bearing (<5 vol%) coesite eclogite and up to a maximum of 430-438 ppm in quartz eclogite ( 10 vol% phengite). However, the OH content drops to a minimum of 59 ppm in residual eclogite resulting from melt drainage. This trend implies that the volume of fluid increased sufficiently during exhumation to facilitate the growth of phengite and the transformation to quartz of intergranular coesite outside of the fold noses. The fluid is inferred to have been a supercritical fluid probably residual from prograde dehydration but also derived by dissolution of nominally anhydrous minerals. Post-metamorphic-peak deformation combined with fluid percolation along sheared fold limbs induced phengite growth during initial exhumation and then facilitated partial melting. In contrast, fold hinges in competent layers are unfavourable sites for fluid penetration. At Yangkou, the intergranular coesite is preserved in the fold noses where it was protected from both penetrative deformation and fluid ingress. Therefore, the fold noses maintained a

  8. On the preservation mechanism of intragranular coesite in the Yangkou, Sulu UHP eclogite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, S.; Shi, F.; Cen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Yangkou Bay, in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) belt of eastern China is the only known locality in the world in which UHP eclogite contains intragranular coesite. The question remains then, how is the extremely rare occurrence of intragranular coesite preserved in the Sulu belt, and if we can identify the reasons for its preservation, might it be found in other UHP belts? Preservation of coesite inclusions or intragranular coesite has been interpreted to result from multiple reasons, but lack of fluid availability is a critical factor, and the survival is not only because of their incorporation in a strong host phase but because of the ability of the host to prevent fluid infiltration until fracturing occurs at low temperatures. High-precision field structural geology mapping in the Yangkou area has revealed the complex deformation history including multi-stage folding events. The earliest folding event occurred before the eclogite reached peak metamorphism, and is preserved as rootless F1 isoclines that preserve the earliest evidence for UHP metamorphism, including intragranular coesite. We report the structural and petrological phenomenon that the intragranular coesite is uniquely preserved within the hinge zones of F1 rootless eclogite folds that have a mineral assemblage of Grt+Omp+Rt+Cs. However, the limbs of F1 folds or overprinted F1+F2 folds have a mineral assemblage of Grt+Omp+Rt+Qtz+Phg, and experienced different degrees of retrogression. The peak metamorphic P-T condition for coesite-bearing eclogite is P=4.0-4.5GPa, 745-909°C. however, the peak metamorphic P-T condition for phengite-quartz bearing eclogite is 3.8-4.1GPa, 733-840°C. The hydrogen concentration was investigated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) in these two samples. In the intragranular coesite eclogite, coesite is basically free of water (<10 ppm), very low in garnet (8-50 ppm) and average hydrogen concentration of omphacite is 106-200 ppm; however, with the

  9. Tracking silica in Earth's upper mantle using new sound velocity data for coesite to 5.8 GPa and 1073 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Liebermann, Robert C.; Zou, Yongtao; Li, Ying; Qi, Xintong; Li, Baosheng

    2017-08-01

    The compressional and shear wave velocities for coesite have been measured simultaneously up to 5.8 GPa and 1073 K by ultrasonic interferometry for the first time. The shear wave velocity decreases with pressure along all isotherms. The resulting contrasts between coesite and stishovite reach 34% and 45% for P and S wave velocities, respectively, and 64% and 75% for their impedance at mantle conditions. The large velocity and impedance contrasts across coesite-stishovite transition imply that to generate the velocity and impedance contrasts observed at the X-discontinuity, only a small amount of silica would be required. The velocity jump dependences on silica, d(lnVP)/d(SiO2) = 0.38 (wt %)-1 and d(lnVS)/d(SiO2) = 0.52 (wt %)-1, are utilized to place constraints on the amount of silica in the upper mantle and provide a geophysical approach to track mantle eclogite materials and ancient subducted oceanic slabs.

  10. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations.

    SciT

    Furnish, Michael D.; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica formore » inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite; together with the partial-release data and predictions from density-functional theory modeling, they provide insights into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths.« less

  11. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, Michael; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei

    2017-06-01

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite, providing insight into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions in conjunction with predictions from density-functional theory modeling. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Tracking silica in Earth's upper mantle using new sound velocity data for coesite to 5.8 GPa and 1073 K: Tracking Silica in Earth's Upper Mantle

    SciT

    Chen, Ting; Liebermann, Robert C.; Zou, Yongtao

    The compressional and shear wave velocities for coesite have been measured simultaneously up to 5.8 GPa and 1073 K by ultrasonic interferometry for the first time. The shear wave velocity decreases with pressure along all isotherms. The resulting contrasts between coesite and stishovite reach ~34% and ~45% for P and S wave velocities, respectively, and ~64% and ~75% for their impedance at mantle conditions. The large velocity and impedance contrasts across coesite-stishovite transition imply that to generate the velocity and impedance contrasts observed at the X-discontinuity, only a small amount of silica would be required. The velocity jump dependences onmore » silica, d(lnVP)/d(SiO2) = 0.38 (wt %)-1 and d(lnVS)/d(SiO2) = 0.52 (wt %)-1, are utilized to place constraints on the amount of silica in the upper mantle and provide a geophysical approach to track mantle eclogite materials and ancient subducted oceanic slabs.« less

  13. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  14. BARRINGER AWARD ADDRESS: Shock Metamorphism of Quartz in Nature and Experiment: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffler, D.

    1993-07-01

    Quartz as a widespread rock-forming mineral of the Earth's crust represents the most sensitive indicator of impact-induced shock waves and therefore provides an outstanding tool for the recognition of terrestrial impact formations and for the pressure calibration of shock metamorphosed rocks. This paper attempts to summarize the current knowledge in this field. Shocked quartz has been observed in quite variable spatial relations to impact craters: (1) in the crater basement, (2) in rock and mineral clasts of polymict breccias, and (3) in distal ejecta such as tektites and global air- fall beds (e.g., K/T boundary). Quartz displays a wide variety of shock- induced mechanical deformations and transformations [1,2]. Microscopically observable effects are multiple sets of planar fractures (PF) and planar deformation features (PDF) parallel to low indices crystallographic planes; mosaickism; reduced refractivity and birefringence; partial transformation to stishovite; increased optic axial angle; amorphization (diaplectic glass), partial transformation to coesite; and melting (lechatelierite). Additional effects at the atomic scale are well documented by TEM, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy [3-7]. All types of shock effects observed so far in natural quartz have been reproduced by experimental shock waves in the laboratory and in large scale TNT and nuclear explosions. By means of sophisticated techniques the pressure dependence of shock effects has been calibrated with high precision. Threshold pressures at room temperature (given in GPa) for the onset of certain effects in single crystals and in nonporous quartzofeldpathic rocks are: 7.5 +- 2, 10 +- 2, 20 +- 2 (various PFs and PDFs), 12 +- 1 (stishovite), 25 +- 1 (reduced refractive index and density), ~30 (coesite), 34 +- 1 (total transformation to diaplectic glass), 50 +- 2 (melting and formation of lechatelierite) [8-12]. The type of shock effects, their paragenetic combination, and their formation pressure are

  15. Coesite inclusions in diamonds of Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardukhinov, L. D.; Spetsius, Z. V.; Monkhorov, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study of diamonds with inclusions of high-pressure modification of SiO2 (coesite) by Raman spectroscopy are reported. It is established that the octahedral crystal from the Zapolyarnaya pipe is characterized by the highest residual pressure (2.7 ± 0.07 GPa). An intermediate value of this parameter (2.1 ± 0.07 GPa) was obtained for a crystal of transitional habit from the Maiskaya pipe. The minimal Raman shift was registered for coesite in diamond from the Komsomol'skaya-Magnitnaya pipe and provided a calculated residual pressure of 1.8 ± 0.03 GPa. The residual pressures for crystals from the placer deposits of the Kuoika and Bol'shaya Kuonamka rivers are 2.7 ± 0.07 and 3.1 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively. Octahedral crystals were formed in the mantle at a higher pressure than rhombododecahedral diamonds.

  16. Coesite from Wabar crater, near Al Hadida, Arabia

    Chao, E.C.T.; Fahey, J.J.; Littler, J.

    1961-01-01

    The third natural occurrence of coesite, the high pressure polymorph of silica, is found at the Wabar meteorite crater, Arabia. The Wabar crater is about 300 feet in diameter and about 40 feet deep. It is the smallest of three craters where coesite has been found.

  17. Electron-beam induced amorphization of stishovite: Silicon-coordination change observed using Si K-edge extended electron energy-loss fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, P. A.; Sharp, T. G.; Seifert, F.

    The analysis of the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the Si K-edge for sixfold-coordinated Si in synthetic stishovite and fourfold-coordinated Si in natural α-quartz is reported by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stishovite Si K-edge EXELFS spectra were measured as a time-dependent series to document irradiation-induced amorphization. The amorphization was also investigated through the change in Si K- and O K-edge energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES). For α-quartz, in contrast to stishovite, electron irradiation-induced vitrification, verified by selected area electron diffraction (SAED), produced no detectable changes of the EXELFS. The Si K-edge EXELFS were analysed with the classical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) treatment and compared to ab initio curve-waved multiple-scattering (MS) calculations of EXAFS spectra for stishovite and α-quartz. Highly accurate information on the local atomic environment of the silicon atoms during the irradiation-induced amorphization of stishovite is obtained from the EXELFS structure parameters (Si-O bond distances, coordination numbers and Debye-Waller factors). The mean Si-O bond distance R and mean Si coordination number N changes from R=0.1775 nm and N=6 for stishovite through a disordered intermediate state (R 0.172 nm and N 5) to R 0.167 nm and N 4.5 for a nearly amorphous state similar to α-quartz (R=0.1609 nm and N=4). During the amorphization process, the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) passes through a maximum value of as it changes from for sixfold to for fourfold coordination of Si. This increase in Debye-Waller factor indicates an increase in mean-square relative displacement (MSRD) between the central silicon atom and its oxygen neighbours that is consistent with the presence of an intermediate structural state with fivefold coordination of Si. The distribution of coordination states can be estimated by

  18. Combined Determination of Elastic Properties and Structure of Coesite under Simulated Mantle Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Schilling, F. R.; Lauterjung, J.; Lathe, C.

    2001-12-01

    The high pressure SiO2-polymorph coesite seems to be an important mineral in the subduction process including crustal material (Chopin, 1984; Schreyer, 1995). The quartz to coesite transition is thus of fundamental importance to understand the processes within a subducting crust. Furthermore, the nature of the quartz to coesite transition is discussed controversially, because high pressure XRD-studies suggest an intermediate phase during the transformation process (Zinn et al., 1997). For the combined determination of elastic properties and structure a cubic multi-anvil high pressure apparatus (MAX80) was used. For the maximum sample volume of 20 mm3 the pressure limit is about 7GPa. The pressure is measured by use of NaCl as an internal pressure marker with calibrated PVT-data. The maximum temperature of about 2,000K is generated by an internal graphite heater and controlled by a thermocouple. The synchrotron beam (100x100 microns) is guided by a collimator through the sample between the anvils. For energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction, a Ge-solid state detector analyses the diffracted white beam at a fixed angle. The compressional and shear wave velocities were determined simultaneously by ultrasonic interferometry inside MAX80. Two of the six anvils are equipped with overtone polished lithium niobate transducers at their rear side, outside the volume under pressure, for generation and detection of ultrasonic waves between 10 and 60 MHz. Different buffer - reflector combinations and transducer arrangements were used to optimize the critical interference between both sample echoes. Therefore MAX80 is equipped for asymmetrical and symmetrical interferometric set-ups, i.e. compressional and shear waves are generated from the same or from two anvils, opposite to each other. We used for our transient measurements 3 natural fine-grained quartzites from Turkey and Germany. As a first step the pressure was increased gradually up to 4GPa at ambient temperature. At each

  19. Ionic network analysis of tectosilicates: the example of coesite at variable pressure.

    PubMed

    Reifenberg, Melina; Thomas, Noel W

    2018-04-01

    The method of ionic network analysis [Thomas (2017). Acta Cryst. B73, 74-86] is extended to tectosilicates through the example of coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO 2 . The structural refinements of Černok et al. [Z. Kristallogr. (2014), 229, 761-773] are taken as the starting point for applying the method. Its purpose is to predict the unit-cell parameters and atomic coordinates at (p-T-X) values in-between those of diffraction experiments. The essential development step for tectosilicates is to define a pseudocubic parameterization of the O 4 cages of the SiO 4 tetrahedra. The six parameters a PC , b PC , c PC , α PC , β PC and γ PC allow a full quantification of the tetrahedral structure, i.e. distortion and enclosed volume. Structural predictions for coesite require that two separate quasi-planar networks are defined, one for the silicon ions and the other for the O 4 cage midpoints. A set of parametric curves is used to describe the evolution with pressure of these networks and the pseudocubic parameters. These are derived by fitting to the crystallographic data. Application of the method to monoclinic feldspars and to quartz and cristobalite is discussed. Further, a novel two-parameter quantification of the degree of tetrahedral distortion is described. At pressures in excess of ca 20.45 GPa it is not possible to find a self-consistent solution to the parametric curves for coesite, pointing to the likelihood of a phase transition.

  20. Planetary science. Shock compression of stishovite and melting of silica at planetary interior conditions.

    PubMed

    Millot, M; Dubrovinskaia, N; Černok, A; Blaha, S; Dubrovinsky, L; Braun, D G; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eggert, J H; Jeanloz, R

    2015-01-23

    Deep inside planets, extreme density, pressure, and temperature strongly modify the properties of the constituent materials. In particular, how much heat solids can sustain before melting under pressure is key to determining a planet's internal structure and evolution. We report laser-driven shock experiments on fused silica, α-quartz, and stishovite yielding equation-of-state and electronic conductivity data at unprecedented conditions and showing that the melting temperature of SiO2 rises to 8300 K at a pressure of 500 gigapascals, comparable to the core-mantle boundary conditions for a 5-Earth mass super-Earth. We show that mantle silicates and core metal have comparable melting temperatures above 500 to 700 gigapascals, which could favor long-lived magma oceans for large terrestrial planets with implications for planetary magnetic-field generation in silicate magma layers deep inside such planets. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Shock compression of stishovite and melting of silica at planetary interior conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, M.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Černok, A.; Blaha, S.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Braun, D. G.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Eggert, J. H.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Deep inside planets, extreme density, pressure, and temperature strongly modify the properties of the constituent materials. In particular, how much heat solids can sustain before melting under pressure is key to determining a planet’s internal structure and evolution. We report laser-driven shock experiments on fused silica, α-quartz, and stishovite yielding equation-of-state and electronic conductivity data at unprecedented conditions and showing that the melting temperature of SiO2 rises to 8300 K at a pressure of 500 gigapascals, comparable to the core-mantle boundary conditions for a 5-Earth mass super-Earth. We show that mantle silicates and core metal have comparable melting temperatures above 500 to 700 gigapascals, which could favor long-lived magma oceans for large terrestrial planets with implications for planetary magnetic-field generation in silicate magma layers deep inside such planets.

  2. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  3. Recovery of Stishovite-Structure at Ambient Conditions out of Shock-Generated Amorphous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S. N.; Tschauner, O.; Asimow, P. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    We show that bulk amorphous silica recovered from shock wave experiments on quartz to 56 GPa is not a true glass but rather keeps a large degree of long range structural information that can be recovered by static cold recompression to 13 GPa. At this pressure shock-retrieved silica assumes the structure of crystalline stishovite. This amorphous-crystal transition is characterized by long coherence length, resulting in formation of large crystallites. Therefore, the shock-recovered amorphous material studied here is a slightly disordered six-fold coordinated silica phase but not a glass, which possesses only medium range order [1]. It is therefore most likely that stishovite or a structurally closely related solid phase represent the state this material had assumed during shock, while post-shock heating to 500 -1000 K [2-4] induces the observed slight disorder. This probable memory-effect allows for physically more precise characterization of diaplectic silica `glass' and may be extended to other diaplectic `glasses' [1] O.Tschauner, S.N. Luo, P.D.Asimow, T.J. Ahrens, Am. Min. in print (2006) [2] J. Wackerle, Journal of Applied Physics, 33, 922 - 937 (1962) [3] M.B. Boslough, Journal of Geophysical Research, 93, 6477 - 9484 (1988) [4] S.N. Luo, T.J. Ahrens, P.D. Asimow, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 2421- 2434 (2003) Supported under the NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-FC88-01NV14049 and under NASA PGG Grant NNG04G107G and Contribution # 9144, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.

  4. Picosecond amorphization of SiO2 stishovite under tension.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Masaaki; Ryuo, Emina; Yoshida, Kimiko; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya; Wakai, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    It is extremely difficult to realize two conflicting properties-high hardness and toughness-in one material. Nano-polycrystalline stishovite, recently synthesized from Earth-abundant silica glass, proved to be a super-hard, ultra-tough material, which could provide sustainable supply of high-performance ceramics. Our quantum molecular dynamics simulations show that stishovite amorphizes rapidly on the order of picosecond under tension in front of a crack tip. We find a displacive amorphization mechanism that only involves short-distance collective motions of atoms, thereby facilitating the rapid transformation. The two-step amorphization pathway involves an intermediate state akin to experimentally suggested "high-density glass polymorphs" before eventually transforming to normal glass. The rapid amorphization can catch up with, screen, and self-heal a fast-moving crack. This new concept of fast amorphization toughening likely operates in other pressure-synthesized hard solids.

  5. Picosecond amorphization of SiO2 stishovite under tension

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Masaaki; Ryuo, Emina; Yoshida, Kimiko; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya; Wakai, Fumihiro

    2017-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to realize two conflicting properties—high hardness and toughness—in one material. Nano-polycrystalline stishovite, recently synthesized from Earth-abundant silica glass, proved to be a super-hard, ultra-tough material, which could provide sustainable supply of high-performance ceramics. Our quantum molecular dynamics simulations show that stishovite amorphizes rapidly on the order of picosecond under tension in front of a crack tip. We find a displacive amorphization mechanism that only involves short-distance collective motions of atoms, thereby facilitating the rapid transformation. The two-step amorphization pathway involves an intermediate state akin to experimentally suggested “high-density glass polymorphs” before eventually transforming to normal glass. The rapid amorphization can catch up with, screen, and self-heal a fast-moving crack. This new concept of fast amorphization toughening likely operates in other pressure-synthesized hard solids. PMID:28508056

  6. Multiple pathways in pressure-induced phase transition of coesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Xuebang; Liang, Yunfeng; Liu, Changsong; Miranda, Caetano R.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2017-12-01

    High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a high-pressure octahedral (HPO) phase, or coesite-II and coesite-III. Given that the pressure is believed to be hydrostatic in two recent experiments, the different transformation pathways are striking. Based on molecular dynamic simulations with an ab initio parameterized potential, we reproduced all of the above experiments in three transformation pathways, including the one leading to an HPO phase. This octahedral phase has an oxygen hcp sublattice featuring 2 × 2 zigzag octahedral edge-sharing chains, however with some broken points (i.e., point defects). It transforms into α-PbO2 phase when it is relaxed under further compression. We show that the HPO phase forms through a continuous rearrangement of the oxygen sublattice toward hcp arrangement. The high-pressure amorphous phases can be described by an fcc and hcp sublattice mixture.

  7. Multiple pathways in pressure-induced phase transition of coesite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Xuebang; Liu, Changsong; Miranda, Caetano R.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction method with precise control of hydrostatic conditions, typically with helium or neon as the pressure-transmitting medium, has significantly changed our view on what happens with low-density silica phases under pressure. Coesite is a prototype material for pressure-induced amorphization. However, it was found to transform into a high-pressure octahedral (HPO) phase, or coesite-II and coesite-III. Given that the pressure is believed to be hydrostatic in two recent experiments, the different transformation pathways are striking. Based on molecular dynamic simulations with an ab initio parameterized potential, we reproduced all of the above experiments in three transformation pathways, including the one leading to an HPO phase. This octahedral phase has an oxygen hcp sublattice featuring 2 × 2 zigzag octahedral edge-sharing chains, however with some broken points (i.e., point defects). It transforms into α-PbO2 phase when it is relaxed under further compression. We show that the HPO phase forms through a continuous rearrangement of the oxygen sublattice toward hcp arrangement. The high-pressure amorphous phases can be described by an fcc and hcp sublattice mixture. PMID:29162690

  8. In situ observation of stishovite formation in shock-compressed fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Sally June; Turneaure, Stefan; Duffy, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Silica, SiO2, has widespread applications ranging from optical components to refractory materials and is of geological importance as one of the major oxide components of the Earth's crust and mantle. The response of silica phases to dynamic loading has long been of interest for understanding the structural evolution of this fundamental oxide. Under shock compression both crystalline quartz and fused silica are characterized by the occurrence of a broad `mixed-phase region' (15-40 GPa) and a dense, high-pressure phase with much lower compressibility. Despite decades of study, the nature of this transformation and the identity of the high-pressure phase(s) remain poorly understood. In situ x-ray diffraction experiments on shock-compressed fused silica were conducted at the Dynamic Compression Sector of the Advanced Photon Source. The lattice-level structure was investigated through time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements on samples reaching peak stress ranging from 12 to 47 GPa. Our results demonstrate that SiO2 adopts a dense amorphous structure in the `mixed-phase region' and abruptly transforms to stishovite above 34 GPa. These results provide clear evidence that high-pressure crystalline silicate phases can form from amorphous starting materials on the time-scale of laboratory shock experiments.

  9. Coesite Assemblages in Deep Continental Lithosphere: Additional Evidence for a Protolith from Subduction of Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N.

    2005-12-01

    Inclusions in diamonds (DIs) represent an important source of information about the composition of continental lithospheric mantle. The isolated coesite inclusions in two diamonds (Harris, 1968) and a full set of eclogitic minerals (coesite (Cs), garnet (Ga), omphacite Cpx)) in two Yakutian diamonds (Sobolev et al., 1976), followed by finds of Cs-eclogite xenoliths (Smyth and Hatton, 1977; Ponomarenko et al., 1977) testify to the importance of coesite as a constituent of eclogitic rocks in deep lithospheric environment. Since these earlier times, coesite has been documented in more than 250 natural diamonds from 25 localities worldwide. Some 40 xenoliths of Cs-eclogites were found both in South African and Yakutian kimberlites. However, >50% of DIs of coesite are related to only four (4) diamond localities, including Guaniamo, Venezuela (Sobolev et al., 1998, 2003), Argyle (Jaques et al., 1989; Sobolev et al., 1989), New South Wales, all Australia (Sobolev et al., 1984; Meyer et al., 1997), and North Yakutian alluvials (Sobolev et al., 1999). All described DIs with coesite are from a wide range of assemblages: websterites to kyanite eclogites; grospydites and calcsilicate assemblages, with a large range in Gt [3.7-28.7 wt.% CaO] and Cpx [ 0.9-8.8 wt.% Na2O] compositions. In spite of these occurrences in diamonds, to the present, no coesite has been detected within the assemblage of minerals making up some 400 diamondiferous-eclogite xenoliths; similarly, no diamonds have been found in any Cs-eclogite xenoliths. This apparent paradox may be caused by coesite alteration in the diamondiferous eclogites, whereas coesite eclogites may have formed only outside of the diamond stability field. Indeed, coesite eclogites (without diamonds) may occupy a shallower position within continental lithosphere compared with the normal E-type diamond source. This indicates a broadly basaltic chemistry of the deep eclogitic environment, additional evidence for a protolith from the

  10. The CaCl2 transition in Stishovite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    Rutile-structured SiO2, or stishovite, has been the subject of intense theoretical study for the development and testing of theoretical methods.1 The pressure induced phase transition of stishovite to the CaCl2 structure is one of the few cases of phase transitions predicted from first-principles electronic structure theory before being proven experimentally. Such tests are important, because one does not know to what level to trust theoretical predictions unless there are test predictions that are fulfilled. There were some indications of a phase transition from earlier ionic model calculations,3 but confidence in the predicted pressure was low because the model was not sufficiently accurate for the equation of state. Then, Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) calculations, which make no assumptions abouyt ionicity, were performed for SiO2, and clearly showed an elastic instability at about 45 GPa.2 Non-hydrostatic experiments showed evidence for a transition, but at about 100 GPa.4 Raman experiments showed softening of the B1g Raman mode frequency, which, if extrapolated, would vanish at about 100 GPa.5 Theory predicted an transition, where the elastic anomaly c11-c12=0, at which point the Raman mode would begin to increase in frequency. A hydrostatic single crystal Raman experiment was done to higher pressures, and the transition was found at about 45-50 GPa, and the Raman spectra were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.5 Single crystal hydrostatic x-ray studies have verified the transition, and showed that the transition is weakly first-order, with some hysteresis.7 Progress in theoretical studies of stishovite and the transition will be reviewed. 1 Cohen, R. E. In: Silica: Physical Behavior, Geochemistry, and Materials Applications. P. Heaney, C. T. Prewitt and G. V. Gibbs. Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America. 29: 369-402, 1994. 2 Cohen, R. E., In: High Pressure Research in Mineral Physics: Application to Earth and Planetary

  11. Quenchable water-rich, aluminous post-stishovite: implications for seismic anomalies in the mid-mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhill, R.; Frost, D. J.; Panero, W. R.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Miyajima, N.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Siersch, N.; Kohn, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    At mid-mantle pressures, stishovite undergoes a displacive phase transition to the calcium chloride structure. It has been argued that softening accompanying this phase transition leads to very low seismic velocities and that silica-rich materials in the lower mantle may therefore be effective scatterers of seismic energy. The post-stishovite phase is also a promising candidate for water storage in the lower mantle, as it is both stable at very high temperatures and isostructural with the high pressure hydrous phases delta-AlOOH and Phase H. Pure SiO2 post-stishovite is unquenchable, making ex-situ characterisation impossible. In this study, we exploit the stabilisation of the post-stishovite structure due to alumina incorporation to synthesise and quench large crystals of post-stishovite. Single crystals are characterised by X-ray diffraction, TEM and Raman spectroscopy, and water contents are analysed with elastic recoil detection and FTIR. We show that water contents in our post-stishovite crystals are consistent with an SiO2-AlOOH solid solution, containing 3-7 times more water per atom of aluminium than stishovite. Our results suggest that almost 1 wt % H2O could be incorporated into post-stishovite crystals in lower mantle mafic rocks. We use ab-initio simulations to investigate the effect of pressure on the mechanism of hydroxyl incorporation into aluminous stishovite and post-stishovite. Finally, we discuss the potential for post-stishovite to affect seismic velocities in the lower mantle. In addition to the scattering potential of the phase transition, patchy low velocity layers in the mid-mantle might represent regions where hydrous melts are reacting with post-stishovite. In the lowermost mantle, transformation of post-stishovite to seifertite could result in the formation of a hydrous melt that might explain seismologically observed ultra low velocity zones.

  12. Coesite-Diamond Assemblage in Ultrahigh Pressure Crustal and Mantle rocks: Evidence for Carbon Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    Coesite, a high-pressure polymorph of silica, was first discovered as part of a coesite-eclogite assemblage (coesite, garnet, omphacite) in equilibrium with diamond as diamond inclusion (DI) in Siberian diamond placers (Sobolev et al., 1976, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 230: 1442). In recent years, coesite has become a key mineral coexisting with diamond both in kimberlite (DIs) and in UHP metamorphic rocks of the Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan (diamondiferous gneisses and calcsilicate rocks). In the UHPM rocks of Kokchetav massif, coesite was first detected as inclusions in zircon associated with diamonds (Sobolev et al., 1991, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 321: 184), as a result of the initial studies that had identified diamonds as inclusions in garnets and zircons (Sobolev, Shatsky, 1990, Nature, 343: 742). Garnet and omphacitic clinopyroxene are the principal primary minerals associated with coesite and diamond in UHP mantle and crustal rocks. Their compositions plot distinctly within the eclogitic compositional field and substantiate the existence of coesite presence as DIs in eclogitic (E-type) diamonds, as well as sometimes in xenoliths of diamondiferous eclogites (Shatsky et al., 2008, Lithos, 105:289). One of the major significant features of these eclogitic minerals in both UHPM and kimberlitic mantle occurrences is the K2O contents of the clinopyroxenes, reaching 1.6 wt.%, with Na2O and MnO in Ca-Mg-Fe garnets reaching 0.3 and 6.0 wt.%, respectively. Stable isotope data for C in diamonds and O in garnet, pyroxene and coesite have resulted in establishing a very wide range for these isotopes most typical for crustal conditions - i.e., atypical of mantle values. This is clearly shown for coesite DIs (Schulze et al., 2003, Nature, 428:68), garnets from diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths from Siberian kimberlites (Spetsius et al., 2008, Eur. J. Min., 20:375), garnets and clinopyroxenes from UHP calcsilicate diamondiferous rocks of the Kokchetav massif (Sobolev et al., in

  13. Synthesis of coesite nanocrystals from ethane bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica at low temperature and extreme pressure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhili; Mohanty, Paritosh; Fei, Yingwei; Landskron, Kai

    2010-12-14

    Coesite nanocrystals have been synthesized from periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with (CH(2))(2) bridges heated at 300 °C for 150 min and 12 GPa. The crystals are not sintered, single crystalline, and have diameters of ca. 100-300 nm. Below 300 °C, an amorphous non-porous organosilica glass was obtained. Heating above 300 °C at 12 GPa results in the rapid crystal growth and micron size coesite crystals were formed.

  14. Anomalously low pressure of rutile-CaCl2 phase transition in aluminous hydrogen- bearing stishovite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshtanov, D. L.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Litasov, K. D.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Hellwig, H.; Wang, J.; Sanches-Valle, C.; Perrillat, J.; Chen, B.; Somayazulu, M.; Ohtani, E.; Bass, J.

    2006-12-01

    Stishovite, the tetragonal rutile-structured (P42/mnm) high-pressure phase of silica with Si in six coordination by oxygen, is one of the main constituents of subducting slabs, may also be present as a free phase in the lower mantle, and may be a reaction product at the core-mantle boundary. Pure SiO2 stishovite undergoes a rutile-CaCl2 structural transition at 50 - 60GPa. Theoretical investigations suggested that this transition is associated with a drastic drop in shear modulus that could provide a sharp seismic signature, however such a change in velocity has never been verified experimentally. Thus far a majority of investigations have concentrated on pure SiO2 stishovite, whereas stishovite in natural lithologies (such as MORB) is expected to contain up to 5wt.% Al2O3 and possibly water. Here we report the elastic properties, densities, and Raman spectra of Al- and H-bearing stishovite with a composition close to that expected in Earth's mantle. We show that the Landau-type rutile-CaCl2 phase transition in stishovite is significantly different from the transition pressure for pure SiO2. Our results suggest that the rutile-CaCl2 transition in natural stishovite (with up to 5wt.% Al2O3) is strongly influenced by the presence of minor elements. The phase transition is accompanied by drastic changes in elastic properties, which we have measured on single-crystal samples. This transition should be visible in seismic profiles and may be responsible for seismic reflectors at 1000-1400 km depths.

  15. A modeling of the structure and favorable H-docking sites and defects for the high-pressure silica polymorph stishovite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Cox, D. F.; Ross, N. L.

    Employing first-principles methods, the docking sites for H were determined and H, Al, and vacancy defects were modeled with an infinite periodic array of super unit cells each consisting of 27 contiguous symmetry nonequivalent unit cells of the crystal structure of stishovite. A geometry optimization of the super-cell structure reproduces the observed bulk structure within the experimental error when P1 translational symmetry was assumed and an array of infinite extent was generated. A mapping of the valence electrons for the structure displays mushroom-shaped isosurfaces on the O atom, one on each side of the plane of the OSi3 triangle in the nonbonded region. An H atom, placed in a cell near the center of the super cell, was found to dock upon geometry optimization at a distance of 1.69 Å from the O atom with the OH vector oriented nearly perpendicular to the plane of the triangle such that the OH vector makes a angle of 91° with respect to [001]. However, an optimization of a super cell with an Al atom replacing Si and an H atom placed nearby in a centrally located cell resulted in an OH distance of 1.02 Å with the OH vector oriented perpendicular to [001] as observed in infrared studies. The geometry-optimized position of the H atom was found to be in close agreement with that (0.44, 0.12, 0.0) determined in an earlier study of the theoretical electron density distribution. The docking of the H atom at this site was found to be 330 kJ mol-1 more stable than a docking of the atom just off the shared OO edge of the octahedra as determined for rutile. A geometry optimization of a super cell with a missing Si generated a vacant octahedra that is 20% larger than that of the SiO6 octahedra. The valence electron density distribution displayed by the two-coordinate O atoms that coordinate the vacant octahedral site is very similar to those displayed by the bent SiOSi angles in coesite. The internal distortions induced by the defect were found to diminish rather

  16. Thermal expansion of coesite determined by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulik, Eleonora; Murzin, Vadim; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Katsura, Tomoo

    2018-05-01

    Thermal expansion of synthetic coesite was studied with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction in the temperature range of 100-1000 K. We determined the unit cell parameters of monoclinic coesite (a, b, c, and β) every 50 K in this temperature range. We observed that a and b parameters increase with increasing temperature, while c decreases. The β angle also decreases with temperature and approaches 120°. As a result, the unit cell volume expands by only 0.7% in this temperature range. Our measurements provide thermal expansion coefficients of coesite as a function of temperature: it increases from 3.4 × 10-6 K-1 at 100 K to 9.3 × 10-6 K-1 at 600 K and remains nearly constant above this temperature. The Suzuki model based on the zero-pressure Mie-Grüneisen equation of state was implemented to fit the unit cell volume data. The refined parameters are {V_0} = 546.30(2) Å3, Q = 7.20(12) × 106 J/mol and {θ D} = 1018(43) K, where {θ D} is the Debye temperature and {V_0} is the unit cell volume at 0 K with an assumption that {K^' } is equal to 1.8. The obtained Debye temperature is consistent with that determined in a previous study for heat capacity measurements.

  17. Shock induced polymorphic transition in quartz, carbon, and boron nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Hua; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The model proposed by Ahrens (1988) to explain the mechanism of the polymorphism in silicates is revised, and the revised model is applied to the quartz/stishovite, graphite/diamond, and graphite-boron nitride (g-BN) phase transformations. In this model, a key assumption is that transformation to a high-density amorphous or possibly liquid phase which rapidly crystallized to the high-pressure phase is triggered by the high temperatures in the shear band and upon crossing the metastable extension of a melting curve. Good agreement between the calcualted results and published data is obtained. The present theory predicts the standard entropy for cubic BN to be 0.4-0.5 J/g K.

  18. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    PubMed Central

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle. PMID:25675890

  19. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Water-rich Stishovite and Dense High-Pressure Silica up to 55 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisr, C.; Shim, S. H.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Chizmeshya, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that mineral phases such as δ-AlOOH, (Mg,Si)OOH, (Mg,Si,Al)OOH, (Al,Si)O2 and SiO2 with rutile-type or modified rutile-type crystal structures can store large amounts of water and be stable at high pressure and high temperature relevant to the Earth's lower mantle. The Al-H charge coupled substitution has been proposed to explain the large storage capacity of these phases. However, the substitution cannot explain the large water storage found in pure stishovite (Spektor et al., 2011). Instead, an octahedral version of hydrogarnet-like substitution has been proposed for the incorporation of hydrogen in pure stishovite. We have performed Raman spectroscopy measurements on pure hydrous stishovite with 3.2 wt% water up to 55 GPa. At ambient pressure, we found that the OH stretching mode frequencies range between those of low-water aluminous stishovite and δ-AlOOH, suggesting an intermediate strength of hydrogen bonding between these two phases. In the lattice mode range, we observe modes similar to the IR-active modes of anhydrous stishovite after decompression to 1 bar, suggesting Si defects in the crystal structure that activate the inactive modes. Our data show a series of changes at pressures between 24 and 28 GPa, supporting our observation of a phase transition (likely to the CaCl2 type) in X-Ray diffraction measurements (Nisr et al., 2017, JGR). We found that the OH mode of hydrous stishovite has a positive frequency shift with an increase in pressure. The behavior is the opposite to that found in δ-AlOOH, indicating that the OH incorporation mechanism in hydrous silica is different from that of aluminous low-water stishovite and δ-AlOOH, likely through direct substitution (Si ⇄ 4H+). Because the mantle hydrous phases would have complex compositions, our study suggests that the direct substitution should also be considered together with the Al substitution for the deep mantle storage of water.

  1. Acoustic attenuation due to transformation twins in CaCl2: Analogue behaviour for stishovite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Schranz, Wilfried; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2012-09-01

    CaCl2 undergoes a tetragonal (P42/mnm) to orthorhombic (Pnnm) transition as a function of temperature which is essentially the same as occurs in stishovite at high pressures. It can therefore be used as a convenient analogue material for experimental studies. In order to investigate variations in elastic properties associated with the transition and possible anelastic loss behaviour related to the mobility of ferroelastic twin walls in the orthorhombic phase, the transition in polycrystalline CaCl2 has been examined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) at high frequencies (0.1-1.5 MHz) in the temperature interval 7-626 K, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at low frequencies (0.1-50 Hz) in the temperature interval 378-771 K. RUS data show steep softening of the shear modulus as the transition temperature is approached from above and substantial acoustic dissipation in the stability field of the orthorhombic structure. DMA data show softening of the storage modulus, which continues through to a minimum ˜20 K below the transition point and is followed by stiffening with further lowering of temperature. There is no obvious acoustic dissipation associated with the transition, as measured by tan δ, however. The elastic softening and stiffening matches the pattern expected for a pseudoproper ferroelastic transition as predicted elsewhere. Acoustic loss behaviour at high frequencies fits with the pattern of behaviour expected for a twin wall loss mechanism but with relaxation times in the vicinity of ˜10-6 s. With such short relaxation times, the shear modulus of CaCl2 at frequencies corresponding to seismic frequencies would include relaxations of the twin walls and is therefore likely to be significantly lower than the intrinsic shear modulus. If these characteristics apply also to twin wall mobility in stishovite, the seismic signature of the orthorhombic phase should be an unusually soft shear modulus but with no increase in attenuation.

  2. Fracture-induced amorphization of polycrystalline SiO2 stishovite: a potential platform for toughening in ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wakai, Fumihiro; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Tamenori, Yusuke; Murata, Hidenobu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Manabu; Kulik, Eleonora; Yoshida, Kimiko; Wada, Kouhei; Bednarcik, Jozef; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide has eight stable crystalline phases at conditions of the Earth's rocky parts. Many metastable phases including amorphous phases have been known, which indicates the presence of large kinetic barriers. As a consequence, some crystalline silica phases transform to amorphous phases by bypassing the liquid via two different pathways. Here we show a new pathway, a fracture-induced amorphization of stishovite that is a high-pressure polymorph. The amorphization accompanies a huge volume expansion of ~100% and occurs in a thin layer whose thickness from the fracture surface is several tens of nanometers. Amorphous silica materials that look like strings or worms were observed on the fracture surfaces. The amount of amorphous silica near the fracture surfaces is positively correlated with indentation fracture toughness. This result indicates that the fracture-induced amorphization causes toughening of stishovite polycrystals. The fracture-induced solid-state amorphization may provide a potential platform for toughening in ceramics. PMID:25297473

  3. Fracture-induced amorphization of polycrystalline SiO2 stishovite: a potential platform for toughening in ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wakai, Fumihiro; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Tamenori, Yusuke; Murata, Hidenobu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Manabu; Kulik, Eleonora; Yoshida, Kimiko; Wada, Kouhei; Bednarcik, Jozef; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2014-10-09

    Silicon dioxide has eight stable crystalline phases at conditions of the Earth's rocky parts. Many metastable phases including amorphous phases have been known, which indicates the presence of large kinetic barriers. As a consequence, some crystalline silica phases transform to amorphous phases by bypassing the liquid via two different pathways. Here we show a new pathway, a fracture-induced amorphization of stishovite that is a high-pressure polymorph. The amorphization accompanies a huge volume expansion of ~100% and occurs in a thin layer whose thickness from the fracture surface is several tens of nanometers. Amorphous silica materials that look like strings or worms were observed on the fracture surfaces. The amount of amorphous silica near the fracture surfaces is positively correlated with indentation fracture toughness. This result indicates that the fracture-induced amorphization causes toughening of stishovite polycrystals. The fracture-induced solid-state amorphization may provide a potential platform for toughening in ceramics.

  4. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  5. Large increase in fracture resistance of stishovite with crack extension less than one micrometer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kimiko; Wakai, Fumihiro; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Sekine, Risako; Shinoda, Yutaka; Akatsu, Takashi; Nagoshi, Takashi; Sone, Masato

    2015-01-01

    The development of strong, tough, and damage-tolerant ceramics requires nano/microstructure design to utilize toughening mechanisms operating at different length scales. The toughening mechanisms so far known are effective in micro-scale, then, they require the crack extension of more than a few micrometers to increase the fracture resistance. Here, we developed a micro-mechanical test method using micro-cantilever beam specimens to determine the very early part of resistance-curve of nanocrystalline SiO2 stishovite, which exhibited fracture-induced amorphization. We revealed that this novel toughening mechanism was effective even at length scale of nanometer due to narrow transformation zone width of a few tens of nanometers and large dilatational strain (from 60 to 95%) associated with the transition of crystal to amorphous state. This testing method will be a powerful tool to search for toughening mechanisms that may operate at nanoscale for attaining both reliability and strength of structural materials. PMID:26051871

  6. Vacuum electrolysis of quartz

    DOEpatents

    King, James Claude

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure is directed to a method for processing quartz used in fabricating crystal resonators such that transient frequency change of resonators exposed to pulse irradiation is virtually eliminated. The method involves heating the crystal quartz in a hydrogen-free atmosphere while simultaneously applying an electric field in the Z-axis direction of the crystal. The electric field is maintained during the cool-down phase of the process.

  7. Phase Equilibria Modeling of Coesite Eclogite from the Sulu Belt, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, B.; Brown, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, S.; Piccoli, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of phase equilibria and tectonic processes are essential components to understand controls on P-T paths of UHPM rocks. However, diffusion at higher temperatures (> 700 °C), and issues with determination of Fe3+ in minerals and estimating H2O contents limit our ability to determine prograde, peak P and retrograde P-T data. Also, the lack of an appropriate activity-composition model for melt in basic rocks has limited the application of phase equilibria modeling to understand partial melting associated with exhumation. Here we apply phase equilibria modeling to coesite eclogite from Yangkou to assess the influence of Fe3+ and fluid during metamorphism, monitor reactions and phase relations in eclogite during deep subduction and exhumation and investigate partial melting at HP conditions. The modeling used the THERMOCALC software and the new internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for basic rocks (http://www.metamorph.geo.uni-mainz.de/thermocalc/dataset6/index.html). Here we investigate bimineralic (gt+omp+coe/qz+ru/ilm), phengite-bearing (gt+omp+phen (2 samples, <5 vol% and >5 vol%) +coe/qz+ru/ilm) and kyanite-bearing (gt+omp+phen+ky+coe/qz+ru/ilm) eclogites. Coesite in the matrix is the hallmark of the Yangkou eclogite. For each sample, we use an iterative process to estimate the H2O and O content in the bulk composition, and then calculate a P-T pseudosection. The results suggest that some prograde information (670-770 °C, > 3.0 GPa) is retained in large garnet cores in bimineralic and phengite-bearing eclogite. The peak P-T conditions are a challenge because in the field of gt+omp+coe/qz±phen+H2O at T > 750 °C and P > 3.5 GPa mode and compositional changes are small. However, isopleths of Si in phengite suggest that the peak P could have been > 5-6 GPa. Re-equilibration of garnet and omphacite compositions occurred during exhumation, yielding P-T conditions of 700-790 °C at 3.1-2.0 GPa. Amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 630-710 °C, 1

  8. Physical processes of quartz amorphization due to friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.; Miura, T.; Arakawa, I.; Shimizu, I.

    2011-12-01

    the track after the slip distance of 43 m. The bands at 490 and 606 cm-1 can be assigned to the symmetric stretching of four-membered Si-O ring (D1 band) and planar three-membered Si-O ring (D2 band) in amorphous silica, respectively. The peak at 515 cm-1 corresponds to the strongest coesite A1 mode arising from four-membered Si-O ring structure. On the other hand, the bands at 464 cm-1 broaden to reveal a shoulder adjacent to the main peak in experiments using quartz pins (F = 1 N, σr = 1 MPa, V = 0.01 ~ 2.6 m/s) after a large displacement (>1000m). These results indicate that quartz change intermediate range structure of SiO2 network during friction, and four or three-membered Si-O rings gradually increase in six-membered quartz. The results of FT-IR analyses on friction tracks showed a broad peak at 3000 -3600 cm-1 which indicates the -OH symmetric stretching band of molecular H2O. It shows that hydration of quartz on friction tracks occur due to friction. The results of Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR imply that Si-O-Si bridging of strained rings preferentially react with water to form hydrated amorphous silica layer on friction surfaces, which is likely to occur weakening.

  9. Quartz ball valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, C.; Ingle, W. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A ball valve particularly suited for use in the handling of highly corrosive fluids is described. It is characterized by a valve housing formed of communicating segments of quartz tubing, a pair of communicating sockets disposed in coaxial alignment with selected segments of tubing for establishing a pair of inlet ports communicating with a common outlet port, a ball formed of quartz material supported for displacement between the sockets and configured to be received alternately thereby, and a valve actuator including a rod attached to the ball for selectively displacing the ball relative to each of the sockets for controlling fluid flow through the inlet ports.

  10. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  11. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology and trace-element geochemistry of coesite-bearing zircons, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    McClelland, W.C.; Power, S.E.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wopenka, B.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates for the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism is critical to establishing models for the formation and exhumation of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes in collisional orogens. The presence of pressure-dependent phases, such as coesite, included in metamorphic zircon is generally regarded as evidence that zircon growth occurred at UHP conditions and, ifdated, should provide the necessary timing information. We report U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) ages and trace-element SHRIMP data from coesite-bearing zircon suites formed during UHP metamorphism in the North- East Greenland Caledonides. Kyanite eclogite and quartzofeldspathic host gneiss samples from an island in J??kelbugt (78??00'N, 18??04'W) contained subspherical zircons with well-defined domains in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. The presence of coesite is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy in six zircons from four samples. Additional components of the eclogite-facies inclusion suite include kyanite, omphacite, garnet, and rutile. The trace-element signatures in core domains reflect modification of igneous protolith zircon. Rim signatures show flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns that are characteristic of eclogite-facies zircon. The kyanite eclogites generally lack a Eu anomaly, whereas a negative Eu anomaly persists in all domains of the host gneiss. The 207Pb- corrected 206Pb/238U ages range from 330 to 390 Ma for the host gneiss and 330-370 Ma for the kyanite eclogite. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages for coesite-bearing domains vary from 364 ?? 8 Ma for the host gneiss to 350 ?? 4 Ma for kyanite eclogite. The combined U-Pb and REE data interpreted in conjunction with observed CL domains and inclusion suites suggest that (1) Caledonian metamorphic zircon formed by both new zircon growth and recrystallization, (2) UHP metamorphism occurred near the end of the Caledonian collision, and (3) the 30-50m.y. span of ages

  12. Correlated carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in eclogitic diamonds with coesite inclusions: A SIMS investigation of diamonds from Guaniamo, Argyle and Orapa mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, D. J.; Page, Z.; Harte, B.; Valley, J.; Channer, D.; Jaques, L.

    2006-12-01

    Using ion microprobes and secondary-ion mass spectrometry we have analyzed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of eclogite-suite diamonds and their coesite inclusions, respectively, from three suites of diamonds of Proterozoic age. Extremely high (for the mantle) oxygen isotope values (delta 18O of +10.2 to +16.9 per mil VSMOW) are preserved in coesites included in eclogitic diamonds from Guaniamo, Venezuela (Schulze et al., Nature, 2003), providing compelling evidence for an origin of their eclogite hosts by subduction of sea water altered ocean floor basalts. In situ SIMS analyses of their host diamonds yield carbon isotope values (delta 13C) of -12 to -18 per mil PDB. SIMS analyses of coesite inclusions from Argyle, Australia diamonds previously analyzed by combustion methods for d13C composition (Jaques et al., Proc. 4th Kimb. Conf, 1989), also yield anomalously high d18O values (+6.8 to +16.0 per mil VSMOW), that correlate with the anomalously low carbon isotope values (-10.3 to -14.1 per mil PDB). One coesite-bearing diamond from Orapa, Botswana analyzed in situ by SIMS has a d18O value of the coesite of +8.5 per mil VSMOW and a d13C value of the adjacent diamond host of -9.0 per mil PDB. A second Orapa stone has a SIMS carbon isotope compositional range of d13C = -14 to -16 per mil PDB, but the coesite is too small for ion probe analysis. At each of these localities, carbon isotope values of coesite-bearing diamonds that are lower than typical of mantle carbon are correlated with oxygen isotope compositions of included coesites that are substantially above the common mantle oxygen isotope range. Such results are not in accord with diamond genesis models involving formation of eclogitic diamonds from igneous melts undergoing fractionation in the mantle or by crystallization from primordial inhomogeneities in Earth's mantle. By analogy with the oxygen isotope compositions of altered ocean floor basalts and Alpine (subduction zone) eclogites they are

  13. Ultrabasic-basic change over primary inclusions in lower-mantle diamonds: Mineralogical and experimental evidence for crucial role of stishovite paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Spivak, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Melting relations of the lower-mantle magmatic system MgO - FeO - CaO - SiO2 are characterized by peritectic reaction of bridgmanite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and melt with formation of Fe-rich phases of periclase-wustite solid solutions (MgO•FeO)ss and stishovite SiO2. The reaction proceeds also in melts-solutions of lower-mantle diamond-parental system MgO - FeO - CaO - SiO2 - (Mg-Fe-Ca-Na-carbonate) - C. Xenoliths of lower mantle rocks were never found among the deep mantle derived materials. Estimation of lower-mantle mineralogy as ferropericlase+ bridgmanite+ Ca-perovskite association is inferred from high-pressure subsolidus experiments with ultrabasic pyrolite composition (Akaogi, 2007). The paradoxical in situ paragenesis of stishovite and ferropericlase as primary inclusions in lower-mantle diamonds (Kaminsky, 2012) takes its explanation from the bridgmanite peritectic reaction (effect of "stishovite paradox") (Litvin et al., 2014). Based on the data for inclusions, physico-chemical study on syngenesis of diamonds and primary inclusions has experimentally revealed the ferropericlase-bridgmanite-Ca-perovskite-stishovite-magnesiowustite-(Mg-Fe-Ca-Na-carbonate)-carbon compositions of the lower-mantle diamond-forming system .(Litvin et al., 2016). The generalized diagram of diamong-forming media characterizes the variable compositions of growths melts for diamonds and paragenetic phases and their genetic relationships with lower mantle matter, and it is the reason for genetic classifying primary inclusions. Fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution and continuous paragenetic transition from ultrabasic bridgmanite-ferropericlase to basic stishovite-magnesiowustite assemblages in the of lower-mantle diamond-parental melts-solutions are providing by the physico-chemical mechanism of stishovite paradox. References Akaogi M. (2007). Phase transformations of minerals in the transition zone and upper part of the lower mantle. In Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy (Ohtani E., ed

  14. Quartz crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  15. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  16. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, R.P.

    1956-04-17

    This patent pertains to quartz fiber electroscopes of small size for use by personnel to monitor nuclear radiation. The invention resides tn a novel way of charging the electroscope whereby the charging of the electroscope whereby the charging of the electroscope is carried out without obtaining contact with the fiber system or its support and the electroscope can therefore be constructed without a protective cap to prevent wrongful discharge. The electroscope is charged by placing a voltage between an electrode located in close proximity to the element to be charged and the electroscope me metallic case. ABSTRACTS

  17. ORIGIN OF QUARTZ IN COAL.

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cecil, C. Blaine; Stanton, Ronald W.

    1984-01-01

    Both a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe (EMP) were used in this study to analyze the cathodoluminescence properties of quartz grains in samples of the Upper Freeport coal bed because quartz grains in coal are small (silt sized) and below the resolution capabilities of a standard luminoscope. Quartz grains were identified by the detection of silicon alone with energy dispersive X-ray units attached to both the SEM and the EMP.

  18. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  19. Quartz crystal fabrication facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, R. J.

    1980-05-01

    The report describes the design and operation of a five chamber, interconnected vacuum system, which is capable of cleaning, plating, and sealing precision quartz crystal units in ceramic flatpack enclosures continuously in a high vacuum environment. The production rate design goal was 200 units per eight hour day. A unique nozzle beam gold deposition source was developed to operate for extended periods of time without reloading. The source puts out a narrow beam of gold typically in the order of 2 1/2 deg included cone angle. Maximum deposition rates are in the order of 400 a/min at 5.5 in. 'throw' distance used. Entrance and exit air lock chambers expedite the material throughput, so that the processing chambers are at high vacuum for extended periods of time. A stainless steel conveyor belt, in conjunction with three vacuum manipulators, transport the resonator components to the various work stations. Individual chambers are normally separated from each other by gate valves. The crystal resonators, mounted in flatpack frames but unplated, are loaded into transport trays in a lid-frame-lid sequency for insertion into the system and exit as completed crystal units. The system utilizes molybdenum coated ball bearings at essentially all friction surfaces. The gold sources and plating mask heads are equipped with elevators and gate valves, so that they can be removed from the system for maintenance without exposing the chambers to atmosphere.

  20. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Structural changes induced by lattice-electron interactions: SiO2 stishovite and FeTiO3 ilmenite.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu

    2005-09-01

    The bright source and highly collimated beam of synchrotron radiation offers many advantages for single-crystal structure analysis under non-ambient conditions. The structure changes induced by the lattice-electron interaction under high pressure have been investigated using a diamond anvil pressure cell. The pressure dependence of electron density distributions around atoms is elucidated by a single-crystal diffraction study using deformation electron density analysis and the maximum entropy method. In order to understand the bonding electrons under pressure, diffraction intensity measurements of FeTiO3 ilmenite and gamma-SiO2 stishovite single crystals at high pressures were made using synchrotron radiation. Both diffraction studies describe the electron density distribution including bonding electrons and provide the effective charge of the cations. In both cases the valence electrons are more localized around the cations with increasing pressure. This is consistent with molecular orbital calculations, proving that the bonding electron density becomes smaller with pressure. The thermal displacement parameters of both samples are reduced with increasing pressure.

  2. Physicochemical properties of crystalline silica dusts and their possible implication in various biological responses.

    PubMed

    Fubini, B; Bolis, V; Cavenago, A; Volante, M

    1995-01-01

    The effect of grinding, heating, and etching was investigated on polymorphs of silicon dioxide exhibiting different biological responses. Diatomaceous earths were converted into cristobalite at 1000 degrees C. Dusts obtained by grinding crystalline minerals exhibited different micromorphology and a propensity to originate surface radicals which decrease in the sequence cristobalite --> quartz --> coesite --> stishovite. The production of surface radicals was suppressed by grinding in the presence of water. Thermal treatments selectively quenched the radicals and decreased surface hydrophilicity. Quartz treated with aluminum lactate exhibited higher surface acidity when compared with pure quartz, with a reduction in fibrogenicity. Etching by hydrofluoric acid smoothed the particles with loss of specific surface. Adsorption of water on three cristobalite dusts of different origin (ground mineral, ex-diatomite, heated quartz) indicated a loss in heated quartz (1300 degrees C) that was relatable to the corresponding reduction in fibrogenicity.

  3. Role of Substrate on Quartz Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farver, J. R.; Winslow, D.; Onasch, C.

    2010-12-01

    Quartz cementation in quartz aggregates has been experimentally investigated. The starting material was disaggregated detrital quartz grains from the well-sorted, mature St. Peter Sandstone. The ‘as-is’ grains have patches of iron oxide coatings and some have euhedral overgrowths that contain iron oxide dust rims. In addition a set of experiments was run using grains that were cleaned by soaking in sodium hydrosulfite and sodium bisulfate solutions to remove exposed iron oxide coatings. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (≈30 mg) to provide a source of silica for the quartz cement, AlCl3 powder (≈3 mg) to provide a tracer for Cathodoluminescence (CL) identification of cement formed during the experiment, 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (≈25 mg) to increase the silica solubility and to better mimic oil field brines, and the natural quartz grains (100-130 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in Au capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 250°C to 450°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 8 weeks. After the experiments, the samples were vacuum impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy containing a blue dye. After curing, the sample charge was sawn in half along its long axis and one half was polished (to 1 micron diamond paste) for analysis. The nature and amount of quartz cement in the samples were determined by a combination of CL, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Photomosaics of the samples were created and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement formed during the experiment was easily recognized from the quartz grains (and previous overgrowths) by the difference in luminescence. The results indicate the amorphous silica powder provides a ready source for silica for quartz cementation due to its greater solubility than the quartz. The cementation rates are rapid (>14% cement formed in 2 weeks at 450°C and >7% in 8 weeks at 250°C). Compared to

  4. Continuous Sound Velocity Measurements along the Shock Hugoniot Curve of Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Hongping; Zhang, Gongmu; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2018-05-01

    We report continuous measurements of the sound velocity along the principal Hugoniot curve of α quartz between 0.25 and 1.45 TPa, as determined from lateral release waves intersecting the shock front as a function of time in decaying-shock experiments. The measured sound velocities are lower than predicted by prior models, based on the properties of stishovite at densities below ˜7 g /cm3 , but agree with density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations and an empirical wide-regime equation of state presented here. The Grüneisen parameter calculated from the sound velocity decreases from γ ˜1 .3 at 0.25 TPa to 0.66 at 1.45 TPa. In combination with evidence for increased (configurational) specific heat and decreased bulk modulus, the values of γ suggest a high thermal expansion coefficient at ˜0. 25 - 0 .65 TPa , where SiO2 is thought to be a bonded liquid. From our measurements, dissociation of the molecular bonds persists to ˜0. 65 - 1 .0 TPa , consistent with estimates by other methods. At higher densities, the sound velocity is close to predictions from previous models, and the Grüneisen parameter approaches the ideal gas value.

  5. Pressure-induced silica quartz amorphization studied by iterative stochastic surface walking reaction sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shang, Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2017-02-08

    The crystal to amorphous transformation is a common phenomenon in Nature and has important impacts on material properties. Our current knowledge on such complex solid transformation processes is, however, limited because of their slow kinetics and the lack of long-range ordering in amorphous structures. To reveal the kinetics in the amorphization of solids, this work, by developing iterative reaction sampling based on the stochastic surface walking global optimization method, investigates the well-known crystal to amorphous transformation of silica (SiO 2 ) under external pressures, the mechanism of which has long been debated for its non-equilibrium, pressure-sensitive kinetics and complex product components. Here we report for the first time the global potential energy surface (PES) and the lowest energy pathways for α-quartz amorphization from first principles. We show that the pressurization at 15 GPa, the reaction condition, can lift the quartz phase energetically close to the amorphous zone, which thermodynamically initializes the amorphization. More importantly, the large flexibility of Si cation coordination (including four, five and six coordination) results in many kinetically competing routes to more stable dense forms, including the known MI, stishovite, newly-identified MII and TI phases. All these pathways have high barriers due to the local Si-O bond breaking and are mediated by amorphous structures with five-fold Si. This causes simultaneous crystal-to-crystal and crystal-to-amorphous transitions. The high barrier and the reconstructive nature of the phase transition are the key kinetics origin for silica amorphization under pressures.

  6. Dynamic compression of minerals in the magnesium oxide-iron oxide-silicon dioxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akins, Joseph A.

    The first shock wave experiments performed on silicate materials were reported for quartz in 1962. The intervening forty years have allowed for extensive investigation of SiO2 by dynamic, static and theoretical means. Previous studies have concluded that quartz transforms completely to stishovite at ˜40 GPa and melts at ˜115 GPa along its Hugoniot. Recent discoveries that SiO2 transforms to phases slightly more dense than stishovite have led to a reexamination of the dynamic compression of SiO2 in this thesis. Based on comparing calculated Hugoniots to data for multiple initial SiO2 phases, it is proposed that, in addition to the stishovite and melt transitions, quartz is completely transformed to the CaCl2 structure at ˜70 GPa. Coesite shows evidence of complete transformation to stishovite at ˜50 GPa, and to the CaCl 2 structure at ˜65 GPa. Due to the higher temperature achieved in the quartz samples the slope of the stishovite-CaCl2 phase boundary is constrained to be ˜180 K/GPa. From a similar analysis of Hugoniot data collected for high quality MgSiO 3 natural crystal and synthetic glass in this study, and existing data, it is concluded that along the crystal Hugoniot akimotoite is attained at ˜70 GPa, perovskite structure at ˜110 GPa and melt at ˜170 GPa. It is found that the melt is 2--3% denser than the solid at pressures greater than 100 GPa, after correcting for thermal differences in the two regimes. An important implication is a negative Clapeyron slope, leading to a decreasing melting temperature with increasing pressure, above ˜100 GPa. These observations increase the possibility of the existence of a significant amount of partial melt in the lowermost mantle, e.g., the ultra low velocity zone.

  7. Effect of interaction with coesite silica on the conformation of Cecropin P1 using explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Chang, Hector; Mello, Charlene; Nagarajan, Ramanathan; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2013-01-28

    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out for the antimicrobial peptides (i) Cecropin P1 and C-terminus cysteine modified Cecropin P1 (Cecropin P1 C) in solution, (ii) Cecropin P1 and Cecropin P1 C adsorbed onto coesite -Si - O - and Si - O - H surfaces, and (iii) Cecropin P1 C tethered to coesite -Si - O - surface with either (PEO)(3) or (PEO)(6) linker. Low energy structures for Cecropin P1 and Cecropin P1 C in solution consists of two regions of high α helix probability with a sharp bend, consistent with the available structures of other antimicrobial peptides. The structure of Cecropin P1 C at low ionic strength of 0.02 M exhibits two regions of high α helix probability (residues AKKLEN and EGI) whereas at higher ionic strength of 0.12 M, the molecule was more compact and had three regions of higher α helix probability (residues TAKKLENSA, ISE, and AIQG) with an increase in α helical content from 15.6% to 18.7% as a result of shielding of electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Cecropin P1 C in the vicinity of -Si - O - surface, there is a shift in the location of two peaks in H - O - H density profile to larger distances (2.95 Å and 7.38 Å compared to 2.82 Å and 4.88 Å in the absence of peptide) with attenuated peak intensity. This attenuation is found to be more pronounced for the first peak. H-bond density profile in the vicinity of -Si - O - surface exhibited a single peak in the presence of Cecropin P1 C (at 2.9 Å) which was only slightly different from the profile in the absence of polypeptide (2.82 Å) thus indicating that Cecropin P1 C is not able to break the H-bond formed by the silica surface. The α helix probability for different residues of adsorbed Cecropin P1 C on -Si - O - surface is not significantly different from that of Cecropin P1 C in solution at low ionic strength of 0.02 M whereas there is a decrease in the probability in the second (residues ISE) and third (residues AIQG) α helical regions at

  8. Effect of interaction with coesite silica on the conformation of Cecropin P1 using explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Chang, Hector; Mello, Charlene; Nagarajan, Ramanathan; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out for the antimicrobial peptides (i) Cecropin P1 and C-terminus cysteine modified Cecropin P1 (Cecropin P1 C) in solution, (ii) Cecropin P1 and Cecropin P1 C adsorbed onto coesite -Si - O - and Si - O - H surfaces, and (iii) Cecropin P1 C tethered to coesite -Si - O - surface with either (PEO)3 or (PEO)6 linker. Low energy structures for Cecropin P1 and Cecropin P1 C in solution consists of two regions of high α helix probability with a sharp bend, consistent with the available structures of other antimicrobial peptides. The structure of Cecropin P1 C at low ionic strength of 0.02 M exhibits two regions of high α helix probability (residues AKKLEN and EGI) whereas at higher ionic strength of 0.12 M, the molecule was more compact and had three regions of higher α helix probability (residues TAKKLENSA, ISE, and AIQG) with an increase in α helical content from 15.6% to 18.7% as a result of shielding of electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Cecropin P1 C in the vicinity of -Si - O - surface, there is a shift in the location of two peaks in H - O - H density profile to larger distances (2.95 Å and 7.38 Å compared to 2.82 Å and 4.88 Å in the absence of peptide) with attenuated peak intensity. This attenuation is found to be more pronounced for the first peak. H-bond density profile in the vicinity of -Si - O - surface exhibited a single peak in the presence of Cecropin P1 C (at 2.9 Å) which was only slightly different from the profile in the absence of polypeptide (2.82 Å) thus indicating that Cecropin P1 C is not able to break the H-bond formed by the silica surface. The α helix probability for different residues of adsorbed Cecropin P1 C on -Si - O - surface is not significantly different from that of Cecropin P1 C in solution at low ionic strength of 0.02 M whereas there is a decrease in the probability in the second (residues ISE) and third (residues AIQG) α helical regions at

  9. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  10. Some IR features of SiO4 and OH in coesite, and its amorphization and dehydration at ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Ma, Yunlu; He, Qiang; He, Mingyue

    2017-10-01

    Coesite (Coe) with grain size in the range of 30-80 μm has been synthesized at 5 GPa and 1600 °C for 12 h by using a cubic press. Its unpolarized single-crystal absorption infrared (IR) spectra show 14 IR bands in the range of ∼1200-650 cm-1, five of which have high intensity (at ∼1161, 1109, 1063, 1028 and 994 cm-1) and are preliminarily assigned to the SiO4 asymmetric stretching (ν3). In addition, three sharp but relatively weak bands at ∼838, 814 and 796 cm-1 are tentatively attributed to the SiO4 asymmetric bending (ν4). The IR data also show six OH peaks in the range of 3700-3300 cm-1, with an estimated H2O content of ∼30(4) wt ppm. Following previous studies, we have assigned the peaks at ∼3464 (#7), 3421 (#8), 3406 (#9) and 3377 cm-1 (#10) to the Type-II hydrogarnet substitution, and the peaks at ∼3500 (#6a) and 3534 cm-1 (#6b) to the B-based defects, with the latter aroused by possible B contamination in the synthesizing experiments. Annealing experiments conducted consecutively at ∼200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 °C, with every heating step lasting for 24 h, demonstrate that water diffuses quickly out of Coe at T as low as ∼600 °C. The material annealed at 1200 °C is completely dehydrated and amorphous. A quick response of the water content in Coe to the changes of P, T and composition is thus possible, which may be critical to the preservation of natural Coe in relevant geological processes. It further implies that water in Coe, and possibly in other nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), may behave distinctively different from the water located in the hydrous phases such as amphibole and mica, and potentially makes significant contribution to the subduction zone-related fluids.

  11. Pressure Induced Phase Transformations of Silica Polymorphs and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagin, Tahir; Demiralp, Ersan; Goddard, William A., III

    1998-03-01

    Silica, SiO_2, is one of the most widely studied substance, and it has some complex and unusual properties. We have used a recently developed 2-body interaction force field (E. Demiralp, T. Cagin, W.A. Goddard, III, unpublished.) to study the structural phase transformations in silica under various pressure loading conditions. The specific transformations we studied are α-quartz to stishovite, coesite to stishovite and fused glass to stishovite-like dense, a dominantly six-coordinated glassy phase. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed under the constant loading rates ranging from 0.1 GPa/ps to 2.0 GPa/ps, pressures upto 100 GPa and at temperatures 300, 500, 700 and 900 K. We observe the crystal to crystal transformations to occur reconstructively, whereas it occurs in a smooth and displacive manner from glass to a stishovite-like phase confirming earlier conjectures. (E.M. Stolper and T.J. Ahrens, Geophys. Res. Let.) 14, 1231 (1987). To elucidate the shock loading experiments, we studied the dependence of transition pressure on the loading rate and the temperature. To assess the hysterisis effect we also studied the unloading behavior of each transformation.

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace elements and the Lu-Hf isotope system of coesite-bearing zircon from amphibolite in the SW Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fulai; Gerdes, Axel; Zeng, Lingsen; Xue, Huaimin

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we link mineral inclusion data, trace element analyses, U-Pb age and Hf isotope composition obtained from distinct zircon domains of complex zircon to unravel the origin and multi-stage metamorphic evolution of amphibolites from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane, eastern China. Zircon grains separated from amphibolites from the CCSD-MH drill hole (G12) and Niushan outcrop (G13) were subdivided into two main types based on cathodoluminescence (CL) and Laser Raman spectroscopy: big dusty zircons with inherited cores and UHP metamorphic rims and small clear zircons. Weakly zoned, grey-white luminescent inherited cores preserve mineral inclusions of Cpx + Pl + Ap ± Qtz indicative of a mafic igneous protolith. Dark grey luminescent overgrowth rims contain the coesite eclogite-facies mineral inclusion assemblage Coe + Grt + Omp + Phe + Ap, and formed at T = 732-839 °C and P = 3.0-4.0 GPa. In contrast, white luminescent small clear zircons preserve mineral inclusions formed during retrograde HP quartz eclogite to LP amphibolite-facies metamorphism (T = 612-698 °C and P = 0.70-1.05 GPa). Inherited zircons from both samples yield SHRIMP 206Pb/238U ages of 695-520 Ma with an upper intercept age of 800 ± 31 Ma. The UHP rims yield consistent Triassic ages around 236-225 and 239-225 Ma for G12 and G13 with weighted means of 229 ± 3 and 231 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Small clear zircons from both samples give 206Pb/238U ages around 219-210 Ma with a weighted mean of 214 ± 3 Ma, interpreted as the age of retrograde quartz eclogite-facies metamorphism. Matrix amphibole from both samples indicate Ar-Ar ages of 209 ± 0.7 and 207 ± 0.7 Ma, respectively, probably dating late amphibolite-facies retrogression. The data suggest subduction of Neoproterozoic mafic igneous rocks to UHP conditions in Middle Triassic (∼230 Ma) times and subsequent exhumation to an early HP (∼214 Ma) and a late LP stage (∼208 Ma) over a period of ∼16 and 6 Myr, respectively

  13. A New Multiphase Equation of State for SiO 2

    SciT

    Maerzke, Katie A.; Gammel, J. Tinka

    SiO 2 is found as α-quartz at ambient conditions. Under shock compression, it transforms into a much higher density stishovite-like phase around 20 GPa, then into a liquid phase above 100 GPa. The SESAME library contains older equations of state for α-quartz, polycrystalline quartz, and fused quartz. These equations of state model the material as a single phase; i.e., there is no high pressure phase transition. Somewhat more recently (in 1992), Jon Boettger published equations of state for α-quartz, coesite, and stishovite, along with a phase transition model to mix them. However, we do not have a multiphase EOS thatmore » captures the phase transitions in this material. Others are working on a high-accuracy model for very high pressure SiO 2, since liquid quartz is used as an impedance matching standard above 100 GPa; however, we are focused on the 10-50 GPa range. This intermediate pressure range is most relevant for modeling the decomposition products of silicone polymers such as Sylgard 184 and SX358.« less

  14. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  15. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  16. Quartz cement in sandstones: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Earle F.

    Quartz cement as syntaxial overgrowths is one of the two most abundant cements in sandstones. The main factors that control the amount of quartz cement in sandstones are: framework composition; residence time in the "silica mobility window"; and fluid composition, flow volume and pathways. Thus, the type of sedimentary basin in which a sand was deposited strongly controls the cementation process. Sandstones of rift basins (arkoses) and collision-margin basins (litharenites) generally have only a few percent quartz cement; quartzarenites and other quartzose sandstones of intracratonic, foreland and passive-margin basins have the most quartz cement. Clay and other mineral coatings on detrital quartz grains and entrapment of hydrocarbons in pores retard or prevent cementation by quartz, whereas extremely permeable sands that serve as major fluid conduits tend to sequester the greatest amounts of quartz cement. In rapidly subsiding basins, like the Gulf Coast and North Sea basins, most quartz cement is precipitated by cooling, ascending formation water at burial depths of several kilometers where temperatures range from 60° to 100° C. Cementation proceeds over millions of years, often under changing fluid compositions and temperatures. Sandstones with more than 10% imported quartz cement pose special problems of fluid flux and silica transport. If silica is transported entirely as H 4SiO 4, convective recycling of formation water seems to be essential to explain the volume of cement present in most sandstones. Precipitation from single-cycle, upward-migrating formation water is adequate to provide the volume of cement only if significant volumes of silica are transported in unidentified complexes. Modeling suggests that quartz cementation of sandstones in intracratonic basins is effected by advecting meteoric water, although independent petrographic, isotopic or fluid inclusion data are lacking. Silica for quartz cement comes from both shale and sandstone beds within

  17. Fabrication of a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liqiang; Xing, Jianchun; Wang, Haoxu; Wu, Xuezhong

    2015-04-01

    A novel quartz micromachined gyroscope is proposed in this paper. The novel gyroscope is realized by quartz anisotropic wet etching and 3-dimensional electrodes deposition. In the quartz wet etching process, the quality of Cr/Au mask films affecting the process are studied by experiment. An excellent mask film with 100 Å Cr and 2000 Å Au is achieved by optimization of experimental parameters. Crystal facets after etching seriously affect the following sidewall electrodes deposition process and the structure's mechanical behaviours. Removal of crystal facets is successfully implemented by increasing etching time based on etching rate ratios between facets and crystal planes. In the electrodes deposition process, an aperture mask evaporation method is employed to prepare electrodes on 3-dimensional surfaces of the gyroscope structure. The alignments among the aperture masks are realized by the ABM™ Mask Aligner System. Based on the processes described above, a z-axis quartz gyroscope is fabricated successfully.

  18. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis. PMID:24686729

  19. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  20. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  1. Distinction between amorphous and healed planar deformation features in shocked quartz using composite color scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Maartje F.; Pennock, Gill M.; Herwegh, Marco; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-10-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are one of the most reliable and most widely used forms of evidence for hypervelocity impact. PDFs can be identified in scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images, but not all PDFs show the same CL behavior: there are nonluminescent and red luminescent PDFs. This study aims to explain the origin of the different CL emissions in PDFs. Focused ion beam (FIB) thin foils were prepared of specific sample locations selected in composite color SEM-CL images and were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FIB preparation technique allowed a direct, often one-to-one correlation between the CL images and the defect structure observed in TEM. This correlation shows that composite color SEM-CL imaging allows distinction between amorphous PDFs on one hand and healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins on the other: nonluminescent PDFs are amorphous, while healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins are red luminescent, with a dominant emission peak at 650 nm. We suggest that the red luminescence is the result of preferential beam damage along dislocations, fluid inclusions, and twin boundaries. Furthermore, a high-pressure phase (possibly stishovite) in PDFs can be detected in color SEM-CL images by its blue luminescence.

  2. Additive manufacturing of transparent fused quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Hostetler, John M.; Gilbert, Luke; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates a filament-fed process for additive manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Glasses such as fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications, which include optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. AM has several attractive benefits such as increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research into glass AM has focused primarily on nonoptical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for use in high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser-generated molten region, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Spectroscopy and pyrometry are used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the molten region. The effects of the laser power and scan speed are determined by measuring the morphology of single tracks. Thin walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. This information is used to deposit solid pieces including a cylindrical-convex shape capable of focusing visible light. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the printed fused quartz are measured. These results show that the filament-fed process has the potential to print transmissive optics.

  3. A Fully Integrated Quartz MEMS VHF TCXO.

    PubMed

    Kubena, Randall L; Stratton, Frederic P; Nguyen, Hung D; Kirby, Deborah J; Chang, David T; Joyce, Richard J; Yong, Yook-Kong; Garstecki, Jeffrey F; Cross, Matthew D; Seman, S E

    2018-06-01

    We report on a 32-MHz quartz temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) fully integrated with commercial CMOS electronics and vacuum packaged at wafer level using a low-temperature MEMS-after quartz process. The novel quartz resonator design provides for stress isolation from the CMOS substrate, thereby yielding classical AT-cut f/T profiles and low hysteresis which can be compensated to < ±0.2 parts per million over temperature using on-chip third-order compensation circuitry. The TCXO operates at low power of 2.5 mW and can be thinned to as part of the wafer-level eutectic encapsulation. Full integration with large state-of-the-art CMOS wafers is possible using carrier wafer techniques.

  4. Adsorption of goethite onto quartz and kaolinite

    Goldberg, M.C.; Weiner, Eugene R.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of colloidal goethite onto quartz and kaolinite substrates has been studied as a function of pH and NaCl concentration. Goethite adsorption was measured quantitatively by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that adsorption onto both substrates is due primarily to coulombic forces; however, the pH dependence of adsorption is very different for the two substrates. This is explained by the fact that the surface charge on quartz is entirely pH-dependent, while kaolinite has surface faces which carry a permanent negative charge. Adsorption of goethite on to kaolinite increases markedly with increasing NaCl concentration, while adsorption onto quartz is relatively independent of NaCl concentration. This can be explained by the influence of NaCl concentration upon the development of surface charge on the substrates. A method is described for separating surface-bound goethite from free goethite.

  5. Locking the waveform with a quartz crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Shambhu

    2018-05-01

    High-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet regime can be produced and a stable waveform-locked attosecond pulse can be formed when quartz is excited by a strong short-pulsed laser, providing a robust path towards attosecond photonics.

  6. Aluminum Solubility Mechanisms in Quartz: Implications for Al-in-Quartz Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, E.; Thomas, J. B.; Nachlas, W. O.

    2016-12-01

    Trace element thermobarometers in minerals are becoming increasingly important tools for studying geologic processes in many different geologic environments. The solubility of some trace-level (i.e. <1000 ppmw) components in minerals can be measured and used to estimate the pressure (P) and/or temperature (T) of mineral crystallization. To date, quartz has been useful for trace element thermobarometry (based on its Ti content) due to its common occurrence in many rock types and therefore can provide information on a wide range of petrologic processes. However, this technique relies on an independent constraint on T (or P) to calculate P (or T), which can be difficult to obtain in some rocks. To add to the utility of quartz as a thermobarometer, we have experimentally co-crystallized quartz and aluminosilicates at elevated P-T conditions to determine Al solubilities in quartz, which will allow use of the crossing isopleths method to determine a unique P and T solution from two independent techniques (using Ti and Al) in the same mineral. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that Al concentrations in quartz vary systematically with P and T, and also show that Al is soluble at greater levels than Ti. The success of an Al-in-quartz thermobarometer relies on determining both the variations in Al solubility across P-T space as well as the solubility mechanism for Al substitution into the quartz structure. To determine these parameters, we use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to quantify H+ contents as a charge-balancing ion for Al3+ to replace Si4+, electron microprobe (EPMA) to measure Al concentrations, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine the coordination environment of Al in quartz.

  7. Plastic Deformation of Quartz: Unfinished business?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Starting at Harvard in the mid-1930's, David Griggs built a series of high pressure machines for experimental rock deformation. One persistent aim was to achieve the plastic deformation of quartz. Each time he built a new machine for higher pressure and/or temperature, one of the first materials he tested would be quartz. This search went on through a 500 MPa liquid-medium machine at temperatures up to 300°C, then with a gas-medium machine for temperatures up to 800°C, and finally with a solid-medium machine for higher pressures and temperatures. Quartz proved stubbornly resistant to deformation except at extremely high stresses until, finally and somewhat serendipitously, it was found possible to deform quartz at relatively low stresses in the presence of water under special conditions. The breakthrough came in an experiment in a 1500 MPa solid-medium apparatus in which talc was used as pressure medium. At the temperature of the experiment, the talc dehydrated and so released water. Under these conditions, natural quartz proved to be very weak and to readily undergo plastic deformation, a phenomenon that became known as "hydrolytic weakening". Soon after this discovery, it was also found that certain synthetic single crystals could be easily deformed ab initio. These crystals were from a particular set that had been grown rapidly under hydrothermal conditions and had incorporated water during growth. Attempts in our laboratory to weaken crystals in a gas-medium apparatus at around 300 MPa by cooking dry quartz in the presence of added water were all unsuccessful, although we could deform wet synthetic crystals. There was considerable speculation about a role of high pressure in promoting hydrolytic weakening, but the dilemma was eventually clarified by electron microscope studies by Fitz Gerald and coworkers. These studies showed that crystals that had been subjected to high pressure and temperature in the solid-medium apparatus were extensively microcracked

  8. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  9. Rutilated quartz: combining Ti-in-quartz thermometry and lattice diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Towbin, H.; Ackerson, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Ti content of quartz can be used to evaluate crystallization temperatures in silicic magmas like the S-type Jillamatong granodiorite of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Additionally, the presence of crystallographically-aligned exsolved rutile needles in quartz from this granodiorite suggests that post-crystallization modification of Ti in quartz can be used to assess magmatic cooling rates. In this study we report Ti-in-quartz temperatures that indicate crystallization between 600-700 °C at this location (i.e., 25-60 ppmw Ti, P = 5 kbar, aTiO2= 0.46-0.66). After crystallization, Ti in quartz can be reset via lattice diffusion, a process that can be quantified or evaluated from experimentally-determined values [Cherniak et al., 2007; where DTi = 7x10-8exp (-273±12kJmol-1/RT) m2sec-1)]. The slow diffusivity of Ti through the quartz lattice is one factor that contributes to the general use of quartz thermometry - this is to say that unrealistically long time periods are required in order for a cooling quartz crystal to re-equilibrate with the new thermal regime. This is particularly true of crystal cores (generally on the mm scale), where the diffusive length scale from the core to rim of the crystal could be used to suggest core retention is likely in even the slowest cooling granitic systems. In the Jillamatong pluton - as we predict is possible in a significant body of granitoids - coupling of slow diffusion and decreasing Ti solubility in quartz upon cooling can lead to a situation where a quartz crystal becomes saturated in Ti (i.e., aTiO2=1) and rutile exsolutions develop. The radius ( 0.6 microns) and distribution of these needles, coupled with the diffusive draw down well ( 11 microns) around these exsolutions, can be used to evaluate the cooling history of the pluton, thus providing a comprehensive time-integrated crystallization and cooling history of plutonic rocks. ReferencesCherniak et al., 2007. Chem. Geol. 236, 65-74 Thomas et al., 2010. Contrib. Mineral

  10. Improved thermoelectrically cooled quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeown, W. E.; Corbin, W. E., Jr.; Fox, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Design changes in the thermoelectrically-cooled quartz microbalance, which is used to monitor surface contamination in space simulation chambers, is described in terms of its extended temperature range, increased temperature control, mass sensitivity, and cooling power. The mass sensor uses 20 MHz quartz crystals having a sensitivity of 8.8 x 10 to the minus tenth power g/sq cm - Hz. The crystals are optically polished, metal plated, and overplated with magnesium fluoride to simulate an optical surface. The microbalance temperature circuitry is designed to readout and control surface temperature between 100 C and minus 59 C to plus or minus 0.5 C, and readout only temperature between minus 60 C and minus 199 C using auxiliary liquid nitrogen cooling. Data is included on the measurement of oil contamination of surfaces as a function of temperature in space simulation chambers.

  11. Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Dong, Lei; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based trace-gas sensing. Starting from the QEPAS basic physical principles, the most used QEPAS configurations will be described. This is followed by a detailed theoretical analysis and experimental study regarding the influence of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) geometry on their optoacoustic transducer performance. Furthermore, an overview of the latest developments in QEPAS trace-gas sensor technology employing custom QTFs will be reported. Results obtained by exploiting novel micro-resonator configurations, capable of increasing the QEPAS signal-to-noise ratio by more than two orders of magnitude and the utilization of QTF overtone flexural modes for QEPAS based sensing will be presented. A comparison of the QEPAS performance of different spectrophone configurations is reported based upon signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, a novel QEPAS approach allowing simultaneous dual-gas detection will be described.

  12. Historical review of quartz crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    The history of quartz crystal growth is reviewed from the origin to the industrialization. The developing process of growth techniques is divided into the following three stages: (1) The fundamental work based on the mineralogical genetic view point, which was performed in Italy during the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. (2) The works to attempt the industrial application made in Germany and in England during World War II. (3) The industrialization of quartz growth after World War II. These were initiated in England, in USA and independently in Russia. The highest mass production process was developed in Japan. The historical flow is traced by the interview of several persons based on the original references.

  13. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  14. Immunosensors using a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shigeru; Aizawa, Hidenobu; Tozuka, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Miki; Park, Jong-Won

    2003-11-01

    Better analytical technology has been demanded for accurate and rapid determination of trace amounts of chemical compounds, such as marker proteins for disease or endocrine disrupters like dioxin, which might be contained in blood, food and the environment. The study of immunosensors using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has recently focused on conventional detection methods for the determination of chemical compounds together with the development of reagents and processes. This paper introduces the principle of the detection method of QCM immunosensors developed at AIST and its application to the detection of trace amounts of chemical compounds.

  15. Orientation of doubly rotated quartz plates.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A derivation from classical spherical trigonometry of equations to compute the orientation of doubly-rotated quartz blanks from Bragg X-ray data is discussed. These are usually derived by compact and efficient vector methods, which are reviewed briefly. They are solved by generating a quadratic equation with numerical coefficients. Two methods exist for performing the computation from measurements against two planes: a direct solution by a quadratic equation and a process of convergent iteration. Both have a spurious solution. Measurement against three lattice planes yields a set of three linear equations the solution of which is an unambiguous result.

  16. Control of electroosmosis in coated quartz capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Blair J.; Van Alstine, James; Snyder, Robert S.; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings for controlling the electroosmotic fluid flow that hinders electrophoretic processes is studied using analytical particle microelectrophoresis. The mobilities of 2-micron diameter glass and polystyrene latex spheres (exhibiting both negative and zero effective surface charge) were measured in 2-mm diameter quartz capillaries filled with NaCl solutions within the 3.5-7.8 pH range. It is found that capillary inner surface coatings using 5000 molecular weight (or higher) poly(ethylene glycol): significantly reduced electroosmosis within the selected pH range, were stable for long time periods, and appeared to be more effective than dextran, methylcellulose, or silane coatings.

  17. Universal elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability in α-quartz and quartz homeotypes under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Juncai; Zhu, Hailiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental property of pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in ice and ice-like materials (notably α-quartz), the occurrence of mechanical instability can be related to violation of Born criteria for elasticity. The most outstanding elastic feature of α-quartz before PIA has been experimentally reported to be the linear softening of shear modulus C44, which was proposed to trigger the transition through Born criteria B3. However, by using density-functional theory, we surprisingly found that both C44 and C66 in α-quartz exhibit strong nonlinearity under compression and the Born criteria B3 vanishes dominated by stiffening of C14, instead of by decreasing of C44. Further studies of archetypal quartz homeotypes (GeO2 and AlPO4) repeatedly reproduced the same elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability, suggesting a universal feature of this family of crystals and challenging the long-standing idea that negative pressure derivatives of individual elastic moduli can be interpreted as the precursor effect to an intrinsic structural instability preceding PIA. The implications of this elastic anomaly in relation to the dispersive softening of the lowest acoustic branch and the possible transformation mechanism were also discussed. PMID:26099720

  18. Universal elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability in α-quartz and quartz homeotypes under pressure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juncai; Zhu, Hailiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2015-06-23

    As a fundamental property of pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in ice and ice-like materials (notably α-quartz), the occurrence of mechanical instability can be related to violation of Born criteria for elasticity. The most outstanding elastic feature of α-quartz before PIA has been experimentally reported to be the linear softening of shear modulus C44, which was proposed to trigger the transition through Born criteria B3. However, by using density-functional theory, we surprisingly found that both C44 and C66 in α-quartz exhibit strong nonlinearity under compression and the Born criteria B3 vanishes dominated by stiffening of C14, instead of by decreasing of C44. Further studies of archetypal quartz homeotypes (GeO2 and AlPO4) repeatedly reproduced the same elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability, suggesting a universal feature of this family of crystals and challenging the long-standing idea that negative pressure derivatives of individual elastic moduli can be interpreted as the precursor effect to an intrinsic structural instability preceding PIA. The implications of this elastic anomaly in relation to the dispersive softening of the lowest acoustic branch and the possible transformation mechanism were also discussed.

  19. Quartz Crystal Temperature Sensor for MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Gerald

    1997-10-01

    Quartz crystal temperature sensors (QCTS) were tested for the first time as wireless thermometers in NMR MAS rotors utilizing the NMR RF technique itself for exiting and receiving electro-mechanical quartz resonances. This new tool in MAS NMR has a high sensitivity, linearity, and precision. When compared to the frequently used calibration of the variable temperature in the NMR system by a solid state NMR chemical shift thermometer (CST), such as lead nitrate, QCTS shows a number of advantages. It is an inert thermometer in close contact with solid samples operating parallel to the NMR experiment. QCTS can be manufactured for any frequency to be near a NMR frequency of interest (typically 1 to 2 MHz below or above). Due to the strong response of the crystal, signal detection is possible without changing the tuning of the MAS probe. The NMR signal is not influenced due to the relative sharp crystal resonance, restricted excitation by finite pulses, high probeQvalues, and commonly used audio filters. The quadratic dependence of the temperature increase on spinning speed is the same for the QCTS and for the CST lead nitrate and is discussed in terms of frictional heat in accordance with the literature about lead nitrate and with the results of a simple rotor speed jump experiment with differently radial located lead nitrate in the rotor.

  20. Phase transitions in shocked porous quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, M. C.; Crum, R. S.; Lind, J.; Pagan, D. C.; Homel, M. A.; Hurley, R. C.; Herbold, E. B.

    2017-06-01

    The presence of porosity in granular media provides the means to probe regions of the phase diagram that do not coincide with the principal Hugoniot. In particular, the potential for increased heating is likely to lead to observable changes in phase boundaries. 55% dense quartz and forsterite were prepared by tap filling. These samples were shock compressed using the two stage light gas gun at DCS-APS to examine the impact of the increased porosity on the phase boundary. Here we discuss the observed changes to phase in quartz and forsterite compared to the fully dense materials, the effects of porosity upon compaction and phase transitions, and the implications for constructing the phase diagram. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Work was supported by LLNL's LDRD program under Grant 16-ERD-010. The Dynamic Compression Sector (35) is supported by Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002442. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  3. Mechanical and optical nanodevices in single-crystal quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Miller, Rachel; Venkataraman, Vivek; Lončar, Marko

    2017-12-01

    Single-crystal α-quartz, one of the most widely used piezoelectric materials, has enabled a wide range of timing applications. Owing to the fact that an integrated thin-film based quartz platform is not available, most of these applications rely on macroscopic, bulk crystal-based devices. Here, we show that the Faraday cage angled-etching technique can be used to realize nanoscale electromechanical and photonic devices in quartz. Using this approach, we demonstrate quartz nanomechanical cantilevers and ring resonators featuring Qs of 4900 and 8900, respectively.

  4. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    DOE PAGES

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; ...

    2015-10-27

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal's local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. In conclusion, excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focusmore » beyond a decrease in background.« less

  5. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Yu, Guang; Zhang, Jingbo; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2015-03-27

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  6. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOEpatents

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  7. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  8. The lower-temperature-pressure stability of pyrope in the presence of quartz in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, N.; Jenkins, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    of coesite are being done using a multi-anvil press to extend these results to the lower T range reported for many UHP terranes. Minor extrapolation of the present data to lower T puts the absolute minimum depth for pyrope-quartzites in Dora Maira at 95 km (3.0 GPa) at 800°C; even greater depths are expected for the reaction of pyrope + quartz + H2O to talc-bearing assemblages.

  9. Hydrothermal deformation of granular quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Stephen L.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Chester, Frederick M.; Chester, Judith S.; Hajash, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    Isotropic and triaxial compression experiments were performed on porous aggregates of St Peter quartz sand to explore the influence of temperature (to 225°C). During isotropic stressing, samples loaded at elevated temperature exhibit the same sigmoidal stress-strain curves and non-linear acoustic emission rates as have previously been observed from room temperature studies on sands, sandstones, and soils. However, results from our hydrothermal experiments show that the critical effective pressure (P*) associated with the onset of significant pore collapse and pervasive cataclastic flow is lower at increased temperature. Samples subjected to triaxial loading at elevated temperature show yield behavior resembling that observed from room temperature studies on granular rocks and soils. When considered in terms of distortional and mean stresses, the yield strength data for a given temperature define an elliptical envelope consistent with critical state and CAP models from soil mechanics. For the conditions we tested, triaxial yield data at low effective pressure are essentially temperature-insensitive whereas yield levels at high effective pressure are lowered as a function of elevated temperature. We interpret our yield data in a manner consistent with Arrhenius behavior expected for thermally assisted subcritical crack growth. Taken together, our results indicate that increased stresses and temperatures associated with subsurface burial will significantly alter the yield strength of deforming granular media in systematic and predictable ways.

  10. Rb, Sr, Nd, and Sm concentrations in quartz

    SciT

    Rossman, G.R.; Weis, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of Rb, Sr, Nd and Sm in quartz crystals from Crystal Peak, Colorado; Steward Mine, California; Tomas Gonzaga, Minas Gerais, Brazil; and Coleman Mines, Arkansas, were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from: 1.17 to 177 ppb Rb; 3.26 to 1027 ppm Sr; 0.0159 to 0.48 ppm Sm; 0.127 to 2.81 ppb Nd. In the Brazilian crystal, concentrations of these elements were correlated with the amount of fluid inclusion water measured visually by turbidity and quantitatively with infrared adsorption spectroscopy. The highest Rb content was found for a crystal free of visible inclusions, indicating that smallmore » amounts of Rb can also occur in quartz itself. Rb and Sr contents are much lower in synthetic quartz grown commercially from the Arkansas quartz.« less

  11. APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.

    Ruppert, Leslie F.

    1987-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

  12. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    2008-11-11

    NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite.

  13. Second-harmonic phonon spectroscopy of α -quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winta, Christopher J.; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Wolf, Martin; Paarmann, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate midinfrared second-harmonic generation as a highly sensitive phonon spectroscopy technique that we exemplify using α -quartz (SiO2) as a model system. A midinfrared free-electron laser provides direct access to optical phonon resonances ranging from 350 to 1400 cm-1 . While the extremely wide tunability and high peak fields of a free-electron laser promote nonlinear spectroscopic studies—complemented by simultaneous linear reflectivity measurements—azimuthal scans reveal crystallographic symmetry information of the sample. Additionally, temperature-dependent measurements show how damping rates increase, phonon modes shift spectrally and in certain cases disappear completely when approaching Tc=846 K where quartz undergoes a structural phase transition from trigonal α -quartz to hexagonal β -quartz, demonstrating the technique's potential for studies of phase transitions.

  14. Microbially induced separation of quartz from calcite using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Padukone, S Usha; Natarajan, K A

    2011-11-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their metabolites were successfully utilized to achieve selective separation of quartz and calcite through microbially induced flotation and flocculation. S. cerevisiae was adapted to calcite and quartz minerals. Adsorption studies and electrokinetic investigations were carried out to understand the changes in the surface chemistry of yeast cells and the minerals after mutual interaction. Possible mechanisms in microbially induced flotation and flocculation are outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical detectors based on thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.

    2015-06-01

    Optical detectors developed on base of thermo elastic effect In quartz crystalline (PTEK) attributed to the thermal detectors group. Such detectors occurred very effective for the registration of pulsed light energy or power of harmonically modulated laser radiation flux in a wide spectral (from UV to far IR) and dynamic ranges (from 10-6 to 300 W / cm2 with cooling) with a time constant up to10-6 seconds. When exposed to electromagnetic radiation occurs at the receiver thermal field which causes mechanical stress in the transient crystalline quartz, which in turn leads to a change in the polarization of crystalline quartz and, as a consequence, to an electric potential difference at the electrodes (the front surface with a conductive coating and damper). The capacitive characteristic of the detector, based on a thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz, eliminates the possibility of working with constant flow of radiation, which also affects at the frequency response of the detector, since the potential difference appearance in the piezoelectric plate depends on the direction of the forces relative to the axes X, Y, Z of the crystal. Therefore, a certain choice of orientation of the receiving element is necessary in accordance with the physical properties of crystalline quartz. In this paper, a calculation of the sensitivity and frequency characteristics of optical detectors based on the thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz at the harmonic effects of electromagnetic radiation flux are reported.

  16. Developing quartz wafer mold manufacturing process for patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Masaharu; Ishikawa, Mikio; Itoh, Kimio; Kurihara, Masaaki; Hoga, Morihisa

    2009-04-01

    Recently, patterned media have gained attention as a possible candidate for use in the next generation of hard disk drives (HDD). Feature sizes on media are predicted to be 20-25 nm half pitch (hp) for discrete-track media in 2010. One method of fabricating such a fine pattern is by using a nanoimprint. The imprint mold for the patterned media is created from a 150-millimeter, rounded, quartz wafer. The purpose of the process introduced here was to construct a quartz wafer mold and to fabricate line and space (LS) patterns at 24 nmhp for DTM. Additionally, we attempted to achieve a dense hole (HOLE) pattern at 12.5 nmhp for BPM for use in 2012. The manufacturing process of molds for patterned media is almost the same as that for semiconductors, with the exception of the dry-etching process. A 150-millimeter quartz wafer was etched on a special tray made from carving a 6025 substrate, by using the photo-mask tool. We also optimized the quartz etching conditions. As a result, 24 nmhp LS and HOLE patterns were manufactured on the quartz wafer. In conclusion, the quartz wafer mold manufacturing process was established. It is suggested that the etching condition should be further optimized to achieve a higher resolution of HOLE patterns.

  17. Synthesis and deformation of a Ti doped quartz aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, William O.; Hirth, Greg; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A primary advantage of studying mylonites for thermobarometric reconstructions of tectonic events is that it enables direct comparison of P-T estimates with the mechanics of quartz deformation. Quartz is a common phase in crustal mylonites and is a particularly sensitive recorder of metamorphic and rheologic conditions in shear zones, owing to its responsiveness to dynamic recrystallization, involvement in metamorphic reaction, and propensity for dissolution and precipitation. The signature of its trace element chemistry, particularly Ti, can reflect involvement from each of these processes. The concentration of Ti in mylonites is typically heterogeneous at the thin section scale, providing a rich record of the different factors that influence the incorporation of Ti in quartz. Observations of quartz in deformed mylonite and undeformed protolith from an extensional shear zone in the North American Cordillera (Shuswap Complex, Canada) show that an originally uniform Ti distribution was modified during deformation to form zoned crystals in which the core preserves a higher Ti concentration than the rim. The zoned Ti concentration likely records a continuum of deformation conditions during extension-related exhumation, and this presents a challenge in resolving the effect of deformation on the equilibrium solubility of Ti in quartz in natural settings. By conducting deformation experiments on synthetic quartz aggregates with known Ti concentration at a constant, elevated temperature and pressure under high strain conditions, we investigate the influence of progressive dynamic recrystallization on Ti solubility in quartz. This study applies a novel doping technique that enables the synthesis of a large population of quartz crystals with a precisely controlled Ti concentration and distribution. This produces a sample that most closely replicates the protolith of extensional shear zones that typically develop under retrograde conditions. This strategy can be used to

  18. Treated and untreated rock dust: Quartz content and physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Farcas, Daniel; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Harper, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Rock dusting is used to prevent secondary explosions in coal mines, but inhalation of rock dusts can be hazardous if the crystalline silica (e.g., quartz) content in the respirable fraction is high. The objective of this study is to assess the quartz content and physical characteristics of four selected rock dusts, consisting of limestone or marble in both treated (such as treatment with stearic acid or stearates) and untreated forms. Four selected rock dusts (an untreated and treated limestone and an untreated and treated marble) were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber. Respirable size-selective sampling was conducted along with particle size-segregated sampling using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to determine quartz mass and particle morphology, respectively. Quartz percentage in the respirable dust fraction of untreated and treated forms of the limestone dust was significantly higher than in bulk samples, but since the bulk percentage was low the enrichment factor would not have resulted in any major change to conclusions regarding the contribution of respirable rock dust to the overall airborne quartz concentration. The quartz percentage in the marble dust (untreated and treated) was very low and the respirable fractions showed no enrichment. The spectra from SEM-EDX analysis for all materials were predominantly from calcium carbonate, clay, and gypsum particles. No free quartz particles were observed. The four rock dusts used in this study are representative of those presented for use in rock dusting, but the conclusions may not be applicable to all available materials.

  19. Soil chemistry in lithologically diverse datasets: the quartz dilution effect

    Bern, Carleton R.

    2009-01-01

    National- and continental-scale soil geochemical datasets are likely to move our understanding of broad soil geochemistry patterns forward significantly. Patterns of chemistry and mineralogy delineated from these datasets are strongly influenced by the composition of the soil parent material, which itself is largely a function of lithology and particle size sorting. Such controls present a challenge by obscuring subtler patterns arising from subsequent pedogenic processes. Here the effect of quartz concentration is examined in moist-climate soils from a pilot dataset of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Due to variable and high quartz contents (6.2–81.7 wt.%), and its residual and inert nature in soil, quartz is demonstrated to influence broad patterns in soil chemistry. A dilution effect is observed whereby concentrations of various elements are significantly and strongly negatively correlated with quartz. Quartz content drives artificial positive correlations between concentrations of some elements and obscures negative correlations between others. Unadjusted soil data show the highly mobile base cations Ca, Mg, and Na to be often strongly positively correlated with intermediately mobile Al or Fe, and generally uncorrelated with the relatively immobile high-field-strength elements (HFS) Ti and Nb. Both patterns are contrary to broad expectations for soils being weathered and leached. After transforming bulk soil chemistry to a quartz-free basis, the base cations are generally uncorrelated with Al and Fe, and negative correlations generally emerge with the HFS elements. Quartz-free element data may be a useful tool for elucidating patterns of weathering or parent-material chemistry in large soil datasets.

  20. Coating Characterization with the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdy, Lauren F.

    The quartz crystal microbalance is a sensitive tool that can be used to measure the mass, modulus and phase angle of films of appropriate thicknesses. It is can be applied to systems with very varied properties, from liquid to solid, and under many different conditions. In this thesis its capabilities have been used to study the properties of several different systems of relevance to the coatings, art conservation, and rubber communities, in the process of which new techniques and tools were developed to analyze data and improve QCM data collection and experimental design. Alkyd resins, which have been used in artists' paints since the twentieth century, are the subject of the first studies. Alkyds are oil-modified polyesters. These resins are of interest because of their relatively recent use in art and how little is known of the mechanical properties in the early stages of cure. The QCM was shown to be sensitive to the curing process, changes in temperature, and mass change due to exposure to water. Kinetic studies during the first days of curing showed that the curing process can be divided into three regions. The first is dominated by solvent evaporation. In the second, oxygen absorption dominates and the mechanical properties change rapidly. The final stage extends from when the film is touch dry after about a day to years and is characterized by mass loss and continued increases in the modulus. Studying the curing at different temperatures revealed that the reactions do proceed much more rapidly at higher temperatures and an overall energy of activation was calculated for the curing process. The mechanical properties of alkyd resins containing zinc oxide, a white pigment, were studied with the QCM, nanoindentation and dynamic mechanical analysis. These measurements showed increases in the modulus with the inclusion of zinc oxide, and the QCM data showed that the second region started at earlier times as the pigment concentration was increased. Linseed oil is

  1. Characterization of impurities present on Tihimatine (Hoggar) quartz, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas Boussaa, S.; Kheloufi, A.; Boutarek Zaourar, N.

    2017-11-01

    Many of today's advanced materials depend on quartz as a raw material. Quartz usually contains abundant inclusions, both solid and liquid, and due to the number of these inclusions and their small size, complete separation is most difficult. Typical properties of raw quartz that must be characterized are: Size and Chemical composition of inclusions, their spatial distribution, localization of isomorphic substitutional elements (e.g. Al, Fe). The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating some inclusions (impurities) present in the Tihimatine quartz from El Hoggar region deposits (southern Algeria) using X Ray Fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, optical Microscopy with reflected and transmitted lights, infra-red spectrometer, Raman spectrometer. Despite the high concentration of SiO2 in studied quartz reaching 98%, several harmful inclusions were found and identified as hematite, anatase, muscovite, graphite, it contains: Fe, Ti, Al, K, Ca. Some fluid inclusions were found. We detect the presence of carbon dioxide and water using raman spectroscopy. The repartition of solid impurities is aleatory and not homogeneous with maximum size of 10 μm. Concerning the fluid impurities, their diameter vary between 5 and 20 μm and their repartition is aleatory.

  2. Luminescence quartz dating of lime mortars. A first research approach.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, N; Mauz, B; Michael, C T

    2002-01-01

    Lime mortars mixed with sand are well suited for connecting structural materials, like stones and bricks, due to the mechanical properties this material exhibits. Their extensive use in architectural and decorative works during the last 4000 years motivated the introduction of the 'Luminescence clock' for age determination of mortars. The same principles as for quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments were applied for age estimation of a mortar fragment removed from a Byzantine church monument dated by archaeological means to 1050-1100 years ago (the first half of the 10th century). The OSL from the quartz was monitored under blue light stimulation and UV detection, using a single-aliquot-regenerative-dose protocol. The quartz-OSL dating of the mortar resulted in 870 +/- 230 a. TL polymineral fine grain dating was also performed on a brick fragment which was connected to the mortar, resulting in a TL age of 1095 +/- 190 a.

  3. Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz and Carbon Pellets at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the carbothermal reduction of pellets composed of quartz and carbon at temperatures between 1898 K and 1948 K (1625 °C and 1675 °C) are investigated. The main product from this reaction is silicon carbide (SiC). The reduction of quartz with carbon black, charcoal, coke, coal, and pre-heated coal in the pellet were compared to investigate the different carbon resources used in silicon production. Charcoal and coke have high SiO reactivity, while carbon black and coal (pre-heated coal) have low SiO reactivity. Charcoal and carbon black show better matching between quartz/carbon reactivity and SiO reactivity, and will lose less SiO gas than coke and pre-heated coal. Coal has a high volatile content and is thus not recommended as a raw material for the pellets.

  4. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2009-03-01

    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  5. A Naturally-Calibrated Flow Law for Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, A. D.; Platt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Flow laws for power-law behavior of quartz deforming by crystal-plastic processes with grain size sensitive creep included take the general form: ė = A σn f(H2O) exp(-Q/RT) dmWhere A - prefactor; σ - differential stress; n - stress exponent; f(H2O) - water fugacity; Q - activation energy; R - gas constant; T - temperature (K); d - grain size sensitivity raised to power m. Assuming the dynamically recrystallized grain size for quartz follows the peizometric relationship, substitute dm = (K σ-p)m, where K - piezometric constant; σ - differential stress; p - piezometric exponent. Rearranging the above flow law: ė = A K σ(n-pm) f(H2O) exp(-Q/RT)We use deformation temperatures, paleo-stresses, and strain rates calculated from rocks deformed in the Caledonian Orogeny, NW Scotland, along with existing experimental data, to compare naturally-calibrated values of stress exponent (n-pm) and activation energy (Q) to those determined experimentally. Microstructures preserved in the naturally-strained rocks closely resemble those produced by experimental work, indicating that quartz was deformed by the same mechanism(s). These observations validate the use of predetermined values for A as well as the addition of experimental data to calculate Q. Values for f(H2O) are based on calculated pressure and temperature conditions. Using the abovementioned constraints, we compare results, discuss challenges, and explore implications of naturally- vs. experimentally-derived flow laws for dislocation creep in quartz. Rocks used for this study include quartzite and quartz-rich psammite of the Cambrian-Ordovician shelf sequence and tectonically overlying Moine Supergroup. In both cases, quartz is likely the primary phase that controlled rheological behavior. We use the empirically derived piezometer for the dynamically recrystallized grain size of quartz to calculate the magnitude of differential stress, along with the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer and the c-axis opening angle

  6. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors on quartz fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yuta; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yano, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Tomoaki; Fuyuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Toda, Sadayuki; Koaizawa, Hisashi; Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Kenkichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a thin quartz fiber for the first time. The poly-Si used in the active layer of the TFTs was prepared by excimer laser annealing of an amorphous Si thin film deposited on the fiber. Top-gated TFTs were fabricated on the fiber, and a field effect mobility of 10cm2/Vs was obtained. The proposed TFTs on a thin quartz fiber, named fiber TFTs, have potential application in microelectronic devices using TFTs fabricated on one-dimensional substrates.

  7. Gas loading of graphene-quartz surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, E. F.; Chick, E. M.; Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.

    2013-08-01

    Graphene was transferred to the propagation path of quartz surface acoustic wave devices and the attenuation due to gas loading of air and argon measured at 70 MHz and 210 MHz and compared to devices with no graphene. Under argon loading, there was no significant difference between the graphene and non-graphene device and the values of measured attenuation agree well with those calculated theoretically. Under air loading, at 210 MHz, there was a significant difference between the non-graphene and graphene devices, with the average value of attenuation obtained with the graphene devices being approximately twice that obtained from the bare quartz devices.

  8. Inexpensive but accurate driving circuits for quartz crystal microbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruschi, L.; Delfitto, G.; Mistura, G.

    1999-01-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a common technique which finds a wide variety of applications in many different areas like adsorption, catalysis, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, etc., and more generally as a sensor in the investigation of viscoelastic films. In this article we describe some driving circuits of the quartz which we have realized and tested in our laboratory. These can be assembled with standard components which can be easily found. Their performance, in some cases, is as good as that of the much more expensive frequency modulation technique employed in very precise QCM measurements and which requires high-quality commercial radiofrequency generators and amplifiers.

  9. Application of quartz crystal microbalance technology in tribological investigation

    The last fifteen years have seen considerable growth in the application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to explore the tribological characteristics of materials. This article reviews some of the advances made in characterizing frictional properties of materials using the QCM, especially with di...

  10. Radon gas, useful for medical purposes, safely fixed in quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, P. R.; Stein, L.; Zirin, M. H.

    1966-01-01

    Radon gas is enclosed in quartz or glass ampules by subjecting the gas sealed at a low pressure in the ampules to an ionization process. This process is useful for preparing fixed radon sources for radiological treatment of malignancies, without the danger of releasing radioactive gases.

  11. Meteorological factors in the Quartz Creek forest fire

    H. T. Gisborne

    1927-01-01

    It is not often that a large forest fire occurs conveniently near a weather station specially equipped for measuring forest-fire weather. The 13,000-acre Quartz Creek fire on the Kaniksu National Forest during the summer of 1936 was close enough to the Priest River Experimental Forest of the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station for the roar of the flumes...

  12. Note: a transimpedance amplifier for remotely located quartz tuning forks.

    PubMed

    Kleinbaum, Ethan; Csáthy, Gábor A

    2012-12-01

    The cable capacitance in cryogenic and high vacuum applications of quartz tuning forks imposes severe constraints on the bandwidth and noise performance of the measurement. We present a single stage low noise transimpedance amplifier with a bandwidth exceeding 1 MHz and provide an in-depth analysis of the dependence of the amplifier parameters on the cable capacitance.

  13. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials.

    Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite.

    Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks.

    The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  14. Piezoelectrically forced vibrations of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P. C. Y.; Lin, W. S.

    1998-06-01

    A system of two-dimensional first-order equations for piezoelectric crystal plates with general symmetry and with electroded faces was recently deduced from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. Solutions of these equations for AT-cut plates of quartz were shown to give accurate dispersion curves without corrections, and the resonances predicted agree closely with the experimental data of Koga and Fukuyo [I. Koga and H. Fukuyo, J. Inst. Electr. Commun. Eng. Jpn. 36, 59 (1953)] and that of Nakazawa, Horiuchi, and Ito (M. Nakazawa, K. Horiuchi, and H. Ito, Proceedings of the 1990 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 547-555). In this article, these equations are employed to study the free as well as the forced vibrations of doubly rotated quartz plates. Solutions of straight-crested vibrational modes varying in the x1 and x3 directions of SC-cut quartz plates of infinite extent are obtained and from which dispersion curves are computed. Comparison of those dispersion curves with those from the three-dimensional equations shows that the agreement is very close without any corrections. Resonance frequencies for free vibrations and capacitance ratios for piezoelectrically forced vibrations are computed and examined for various length-to-thickness or width-to-thickness ratios of rectangular SC-cut quartz plates. The capacitance ratio as a function of forcing frequency is computed for a rectangular AT-cut quartz and compared with the experimental data of Seikimoto, Watanabe, and Nakazawa (H. Sekimoto, Y. Watanabe, and M. Nakazawa, Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 532-536) and is in close agreement.

  15. Phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamp

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Kang; Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Qinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A large proportion of the output of quartz infrared heat lamps is emitted as infrared radiation (IR). Retinal damage induced by IR-A and visible light on arc welders has been reported. However, case reports of retinal damage caused by quartz infrared heat lamps are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamps. Patient concerns: We report a female with a 1-month history of progressive blurred vision and dysmorphopsia in her right eye after improper staring at the tubes of a quartz infrared heater. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/32. Optical coherence tomography revealed a defect from the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch's complex layer with a diameter of 360mmat its widest. P1 amplitudes in the two central concentric rings were reduced as assessed by multifocal electroretinography. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with phototoxic maculopathy. Interventions: The patient was advised to cease all exposure to the infrared heater and was treated with peribulbar injections of methylprednisolone, oral Pancreatic Kininogenase, and oral Mecobalamin. Outcomes: Ten months later, her BCVA improved to 20/20. All examination results returned to normal except for a small residual defect in the interdigitation zone and RPE/Bruch's complex layer in her optical coherence tomography. Lessons: Light emitted by quartz infrared heat lamps may cause damage to the retina through photothermal and photochemical means. The public is insufficiently aware of the hazard potential of infrared heat lamps and other IR-A sources on human retina. PMID:28099337

  16. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications

    PubMed Central

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude. PMID:29099765

  17. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  18. Positron Interactions with Oriented Polymers and with Chiral Quartz Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Positron annihilation in various materials has been applied to characterize microstructure for decades. In this work, PALS was used to study material nanostructure, with a focus on the size and density of free volume and hole relaxation properties in polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA); fundamental studies of polarized positron interaction with chiral crystals were also studied. Free volume relaxation in PC and PMMA with different levels of simple shear orientation was studied by PALS. Effects of applied pressure on the free volume recovery were evaluated. Combining the bulk- and pressure-dependent PALS analyses, the removal of applied pressure led to free-volume relaxation in all samples studied. The alignment of the polymer chains and free-volume holes imposes molecular restrictions on the molecular mobility of both PC and PMMA in their glassy states. Results indicated that the relaxation of the free volume holes at temperatures below glass transition is mostly reversible. Longitudinally polarized positron particles were used to reveal asymmetric interactions in chiral quartz crystals. Experimental results showed a significant intensity difference in free positronium annihilation for left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) chiral quartz crystals. Doppler broadening energy spectra (DBES) of z-cut LH or RH quartz disks at different angles were also measured by an "S parameter" to probe the observed difference. It was found that obtained annihilation energy difference of DBES was in agreement with the result of positron annihilation in bulk chiral crystals. PALS was used to compare different orientations and confirm asymmetric interactions in natural versus synthetic quartz LH and RH crystals in z and non-z orientations. Significant lifetime and intensity differences in free positronium annihilation for LH and RH quartz crystals were observed. The trend was found to be same in the related crystallographic orientations of the LH or RH crystals; the

  19. Quartz Solubility and Thermodynamics Above the Upper Critical End Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. D.; Manning, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Silica is among the most abundant solutes in crustal and mantle fluids, especially at conditions nearing the upper critical end point of the SiO2-H2O system (~10 kbar, 1080 °C). However, the solubility of silica is not well determined at higher pressures. In addition, the thermodynamic mixing relations of the supercritical SiO2-H2O system are poorly known. We made new measurements on quartz solubility in H2O at 15 and 20 kbar at 900-1100 °C. At SiO2 mole fraction below 0.1, solubility was determined by weight loss of single crystals equilibrated with H2O. At higher SiO2 concentrations, solubility was determined by bracketing the presence of absence of quartz in charges with known bulk SiO2 concentration. The measured solubilities imply that there is a solubility minimum above 1050 °C between 10 and 20 kbar. Quartz solubility measurements from Manning (1994), Newton and Manning (2003; 2008), Nakamura (1975) and this study were fitted to a modified sub-regular solution model. A term representing the Gibbs free energy (ΔGr) of the reaction 1/2 H2O + 1/2 O2- = OH- (the depolymerization reaction that occurs when silica is dissolved in water) was added to the free energy of mixing parameterization. Thirteen independent parameters describe the T and P variation of the weak sub-regular interaction terms (Ws and Wh) and the strong interaction term (ΔGr). Nine of the parameters are linear in T and P, and the other four are quadratic: Ws and ΔGr vary with P2, and ΔGr also varies with T2 and PT. The average error between the data and the model is 5%. Because the Gibbs free energy change of the depolymerization reaction is included in the fit, the model predicts an average state of aqueous silica polymerization of solutions in equilibrium with quartz at P between 10 and 20 kbar and T above 500 °C. The results also highlight what can be inferred from the steep hydrothermal melting curve of quartz - that while pressure does determine whether the system is subcritical or

  20. An experimental assessment of the quartz-in-epidote barometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, M.; Ashley, K.

    2017-12-01

    We focus on quantifying the suitability of a quartz-in-epidote (qtz-in-ep) solid mineral barometer because theoretical calculations applying an isotropic elastic model suggest that qtz-in-ep inclusion pressures (Pincl) exhibit minimal temperature dependence, with the potential to elucidate the growth conditions of epidote in geologic environments with poor PT constraints (e.g., skarn deposits, retrograde metamorphic rocks). We carried-out heating experiments and compare Raman spectroscopic shifts in the 464 cm-1 band of quartz (and therefore Pincl) with modeled Pincl for three epidotes derived from samples with well constrained PT conditions: 1) FT-1E from Frosnitztal Tal (Pincl = 6.8 kbar), 2) LdC-31C from Lago-di-Cignana (Pincl = 2.6 kbar), and 3) HF-14C from the Upper Schieferhuelle in Western Tauern (Pincl = 0.74 kbar). At elevated temperatures, we encountered difficulties in separating the quartz 464 cm-1 Raman peak and shoulder epidote peaks due to the convergence resulting from the T-sensitivity of the quartz band. Our low pressure HF14C quartz peaks were particularly difficult to fit at elevated temperatures and displayed lower entrapment pressures (Pent) than modelled Pent for most entrapment temperatures (Tent); however, experimental Pent for samples FT-1E and LdC-31C match modelled Pent extremely well. Ambient quartz inclusion pressures are consistent with previously constrained PT conditions: 1) FT-1E: Pent = 21.5 (Tent = 625 ºC), 2) LdC-31C: Pent= 11.7 kbar (Tent = 550 ºC), 3) HF-14C: Pent = 7.4 kbar (Tent= 500 ºC). Reference PT conditions for these samples are as follows: 1) FT-1E: P = 20 - 24 kbar, T = 625 ºC, 2) LdC-31C: P = 32 - 34 kbar, T = 550 ºC, 3) HF-14C: P = 7 - 8 kbar, T = 500 ºC. Qtz-in-ep pressures from sample LdC-31C are consistent with early, low-P vein epidote precipitation that pre-dates high-P metamorphism or low-P retrogression in the Lago-di-Cignana region. Our work successfully demonstrates that a qtz-in-ep barometer can be

  1. 75 FR 30282 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E airplanes. This AD requires you... reference of certain publications listed in this AD. ADDRESSES: Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. is in...

  2. Some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reports some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening. The present results show how the frequency shift in quartz crystals can be influenced by heat processing prior to irradiation and how this procedure can lead to radiation hardening for obtaining precise frequencies and time intervals from quartz oscillators in space.

  3. Experimental study of quartz inclusions in garnet at pressures up to 3.0 GPa: evaluating validity of the quartz-in-garnet inclusion elastic thermobarometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Spear, Frank S.

    2018-05-01

    Garnet crystals with quartz inclusions were hydrothermally crystallized from oxide starting materials in piston-cylinder apparatuses at pressures from 0.5 to 3 GPa and temperatures ranging from 700 to 800 °C to study how entrapment conditions affect remnant pressures of quartz inclusions used for quartz-in-garnet (QuiG) elastic thermobarometry. Systematic changes of the 128, 206 and 464 cm-1 Raman band frequencies of quartz were used to determine pressures of quartz inclusions in garnet using Raman spectroscopy calibrations that describe the P-T dependencies of Raman band shifts for quartz under hydrostatic pressure. Within analytical uncertainties, inclusion pressures calculated for each of the three Raman band frequencies are equivalent, which suggests that non-hydrostatic stress effects caused by elastic anisotropy in quartz are smaller than measurement errors. The experimental quartz inclusions have pressures ranging from - 0.351 to 1.247 GPa that span the range of values observed for quartz inclusions in garnets from natural rocks. Quartz inclusion pressures were used to model P-T conditions at which the inclusions could have been trapped. The accuracy of QuiG thermobarometry was evaluated by considering the differences between pressures measured during experiments and pressures calculated using published equation of state parameters for quartz and garnet. Our experimental results demonstrate that Raman measurements performed at room temperature can be used without corrections to estimate garnet crystallization pressures. Calculated entrapment pressures for quartz inclusions in garnet are less than 10% different from pressures measured during the experiments. Because the method is simple to apply with reasonable accuracy, we expect widespread usage of QuiG thermobarometry to estimate crystallization conditions for garnet-bearing silicic rocks.

  4. Ionic current rectification in organic solutions with quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shudong; Dong, Yitong; Liu, Shujuan; Gu, Jing; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xianhao; Shao, Yuanhua

    2015-09-01

    The study of behaviors of ionic current rectification (ICR) in organic solutions with quartz nanopipettes is reported. ICR can be observed even in organic solutions using quartz pipettes with diameters varied from several to dozens of nanometers, and the direction of ICR is quite different from the ICR observed in aqueous phase. The influences of pore size, electrolyte concentration, and surface charge on the ICR have been investigated carefully. Water in organic solutions affects the direction and extent of ICR significantly. Mechanisms about the formation of an electrical double layer (EDL) on silica in organic solutions with different amount of water have been proposed. An improved method, which can be employed to detect trace water in organic solutions, has been implemented based on Au ultramicroelectrodes with cathodic differential pulse stripping voltammetry.

  5. A quartz crystal microbalance dew point sensor without frequency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Weishuo; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Jinglin

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the design of a dew point sensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) without measuring the frequency. This idea is inspired by the fact that the Colpitts oscillation circuit will stop oscillating when the QCM works in the liquid media. The quartz crystal and the electrode are designed through the finite element simulation and the stop oscillating experiment is conducted to verify the sensibility. Moreover, the measurement result is calibrated to approach the true value. At last a series of dew points at the same temperature is measured with the designed sensor. Results show that the designed dew point sensor is able to detect the dew point with the proper accuracy.

  6. Establishment of gold-quartz standard GQS-1

    Millard, Hugh T.; Marinenko, John; McLane, John E.

    1969-01-01

    A homogeneous gold-quartz standard, GQS-1, was prepared from a heterogeneous gold-bearing quartz by chemical treatment. The concentration of gold in GQS-1 was determined by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis to be 2.61?0.10 parts per million. Analysis of 10 samples of the standard by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis failed to reveal heterogeneity within the standard. The precision of the analytical methods, expressed as standard error, was approximately 0.1 part per million. The analytical data were also used to estimate the average size of gold particles. The chemical treatment apparently reduced the average diameter of the gold particles by at least an order of magnitude and increased the concentration of gold grains by a factor of at least 4,000.

  7. Behavior of Quartz and Carbon Black Pellets at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete

    This paper studies the quartz and carbon black pellets at elevated temperature with varying temperature and gas atmosphere. High-purity quartz and commercial ultra-pure carbon black was mixed (carbon content vet. 15%), and then pelletized into particles of l-3mm in diameter. The stoichiometric analysis of the pellet during heating is studied in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) furnace at different temperature in CO and Ar atmosphere. The microstructure, phase changes and element content of sample before/after heating is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and LECO analyzer. The reaction process can be divided into two stages. Higher temperature and argon atmosphere are the positive parameters for SiC formation.

  8. Adhesion of liposomes: a quartz crystal microbalance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Eike; Herrig, Alexander; Kastl, Katja; Steinem, Claudia; Reiss, Björn; Wegener, Joachim; Pignataro, Bruno; Janshoff, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Three different systems are presented, exploring the adhesion of liposomes mediated by electrostatic and lipid-protein interactions as well as molecular recognition of ligand receptor pairs. Liposomes are frequently used to gain insight into the complicated processes involving adhesion and subsequent events such as fusion and fission mainly triggered by specific proteins. We combined liposome technology with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique as a powerful tool to study the hidden interface between the membrane and functionalized surface. Electrostatic attraction and molecular recognition were employed to bind liposomes to the functionalized quartz crystal. The QCM was used to distinguish between adsorption of vesicles and rupture due to strong adhesive forces. Intact vesicles display viscoelastic behaviour, while planar lipid bilayers as a result of vesicle rupture can be modelled by a thin rigid film. Furthermore, the adhesion of cells was modelled successfully by receptor bearing liposomes. Scanning force microscopy was used to confirm the results obtained by QCM measurements.

  9. Wireless measurement of tire pressure with passive quartz sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Rainer

    1999-05-01

    The air pressure in the tires of a vehicle affects its stability, handling and braking and may contribute to causing an accident. Under-inflated tires increase fuel consumption. Existing measurement systems for the monitoring of the tire pressure use active sensors which need a battery or bulky energy transmission. This work shows a new approach: Quartz crystals as sensors can operate passively, without energy supply, by giving an echo to a stimulus pulse. Strain influences the otherwise extremely stable natural frequency of a quartz crystal which is therefore ideally suited for pressure measurements. As the natural frequency lies in the Megahertz range, stimulation and response can be transmitted by a pair of small antennas. A wireless measurement system has been built with excellent accuracy and resolution and a lightweight sensor which is very reliable and in principle maintenance-free.

  10. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance dew point sensor without frequency measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Weishuo; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Jinglin

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the design of a dew point sensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) without measuring the frequency. This idea is inspired by the fact that the Colpitts oscillation circuit will stop oscillating when the QCM works in the liquid media. The quartz crystal and the electrode are designed through the finite element simulation and the stop oscillating experiment is conducted to verify the sensibility. Moreover, the measurement result is calibrated to approach the true value. At last a series of dew points at the same temperature is measured with the designed sensor. Results show that the designed dew point sensor is able to detect the dew point with the proper accuracy.

  11. Micromachined quartz crystal resonator arrays for bioanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Ping

    This work presents the design, fabrication and investigation of high frequency quartz crystal resonator arrays and their application for analyzing interfacial layers and sensing purposes. An 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator array with a fundamental resonance frequency of ˜66 MHz has been fabricated, tested and used in this work. One dimensional model for the characterization of resonator behavior for single or multiple viscoelastic layers under liquid ambient are developed by continuum mechanics approach as well as using an equivalent electrical admittance analysis approach. The investigation of thin interfacial layer between solid (electrode) and liquid phases are reported in terms of the improved resolution of viscoelasitc characteristics of adsorbed layer arising from the use of high frequency resonators. Analyzed layers include globular proteins layer under phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with molecular weights spanning three orders of magnitude, multilayers of avidin and biotin labeled bovine albumin under PBS and diffuse double layer induced by DC bias under 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution. The second half of the dissertation focuses on biosensing applications of quartz resonator arrays. The selective functionalization of 3,3'-Dithiobis (sulfosuccinimidylpropionate) (DTSSP) by physical masking method was first used for specifically detecting avidin molecules. The selective immobilization of thiol modified single stranded DNA probes via electrochemical methods was used for the specific detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G-gene. The work demonstrates that micromachined quartz crystal resonator arrays could be a powerful analytical tool of investigating interfacial region and can be readily configured as biosenors that can be used for label-free, quantitative assays using extremely small volumes of analytes.

  12. Current rectification with poly-l-lysine-coated quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Senkei; Pourmand, Nader; Webb, Chris D; Davis, Ronald W; Yasuda, Kenji; Karhanek, Miloslav

    2006-11-01

    Ion current rectification with quartz nanopipette electrodes was investigated through the control of the surface charge. The presence and absence of a positively charged poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating resulted in the rectified current with opposite polarity. The results agreed with the theories developed for current-rectifying conical nanopores, suggesting the similar underlying mechanism among asymmetric nanostructure in general. This surface condition dependence can be used as the fundamental principle of multi-purpose real-time in vivo biosensors.

  13. Monolithic Micromachined Quartz Resonator based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-05

    following categories: PaperReceived Ping Kao, Srinivas Tadigadapa. Micromachined quartz resonator based infrared detector array, Sensors and...0. doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/20/12/124007 2012/05/08 19:47:37 6 S Tadigadapa, K Mateti. Piezoelectric MEMS sensors : state-of-the-art and perspectives...Ping Kao, David L. Allara, Srinivas Tadigadapa. Study of Adsorption of Globular Proteins on Hydrophobic Surfaces, IEEE Sensors Journal, (11 2011): 0

  14. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  15. The effect of chrome adhesion layer on quartz resonator aging.

    SciT

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2011-03-01

    This SAND report documents a late start LDRD designed to determine the possible aging effects of a quartz resonator gold adhesion layer. Sandia uses quartz resonators for applications. These applications require a very stable frequency source with excellent aging (low drift) characteristics. These parts are manufactured by one of our qualified vendors outside Sandia Laboratories, Statek Corp. Over the years we, Sandia and the vendor, have seen aging variations that have not been completely explained by the typical mechanisms known in the industry. One theory was that the resonator metallization may be contributing to the resonator aging. This LDRD wouldmore » allow us to test and analyze a group of resonators with known differentiating metallization and via accelerated aging determine if a chrome adhesion layer used to accept the final gold plating may contribute to poor aging. We worked with our main vendor to design and manufacture a set of quartz resonators with a wide range of metallization thickness ratios between the chrome and gold that will allow us determine the cause of this aging and which plating thickness ratios provide the best aging performance while not degrading other key characteristics.« less

  16. Adhesion kinetics of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts to quartz surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kuznar, Zachary A; Elimelech, Menachem

    2004-12-15

    The transport and deposition (adhesion) kinetics of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts onto ultrapure quartz surfaces in a radial stagnation point flow system were investigated. Utilizing an optical microscope and an image-capturing device enabled real time observation of oocyst deposition behavior onto the quartz surface in solutions containing either monovalent (KCl) or divalent (CaCl2) salts. Results showed a significantly lower oocyst deposition rate in the presence of a monovalent salt compared to a divalent salt. With a monovalent salt, oocyst deposition rates and corresponding attachment efficiencies were relatively low, even at high KCl concentrations where Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory predicts the absence of an electrostatic energy barrier. On the other hand, in the presence of a divalent salt, oocyst deposition rates increased continuously as the salt concentration was increased over the entire range of ionic strengths investigated. The unusually low deposition rate in a monovalent salt solution is attributed to "electrosteric" repulsion between the Cryptosporidium oocyst and the quartz surface, most likely due to proteins on the oocyst surface that extend into the solution. It is further proposed that specific binding of calcium ions to the oocyst surface functional groups results in charge neutralization and conformational changes of surface proteins that significantly reduce electrosteric repulsion.

  17. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  18. Investigation of formaldehyde interaction with carbon nanotubes and quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Maria P.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of the potential impact of synthetic carbon nanotubes on the fate and transport of common chemical contaminants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, etc.) in groundwater systems is considered to be an increasingly important aspect of environmental research. This study investigates the interaction of formaldehyde with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and quartz sand under static and dynamic conditions. Due to polarity, formaldehyde, is expected to develop strong adsorptive interactions with carbon nanotubes. Several batch adsorption experiments were conducted in test tubes, under controlled conditions. Various initial formaldehyde solution concentration (2, 5, 8 ppm), contact times, and temperatures (8, 18, 25 °C) were considered. Supernatant liquid samples were collected at regular intervals, and centrifuged. Subsequently, the formaldehyde concentration in the supernatant was quantified indirectly, by derivatization with Nash reagent and subsequent measurement of the resulting complex using spectrophotometry in the visible spectral range. Experimental results suggested that formaldehyde has a low affinity for quartz sand, but an enhanced potential for adsorption onto carbon nanotubes. Formaldehyde adsorption onto both absorbents (quartz sand and MWCNTs) was more pronounced under dynamic than static conditions, probably, because agitation improves the mixing of the absorbent within the solution. Also, it was shown that the adsorption data were adequately described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model, suggesting that the primary adsorption mechanism was chemisorption, where two or more (sequential or parallel) processes (e.g. surface chemisorption, intraparticle diffusion) were taking place. Therefore, MWCNTs could be promising adsorbent materials for groundwater remediation.

  19. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  20. Creep of quartz by dislocation and grain boundary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Wet polycrystalline quartz aggregates deformed at temperatures T of 600°-900°C and strain rates of 10-4-10-6 s-1 at a confining pressure Pc of 1.5 GPa exhibit plasticity at low T, governed by dislocation glide and limited recovery, and grain size-sensitive creep at high T, governed by diffusion and sliding at grain boundaries. Quartz aggregates were HIP-synthesized, subjecting natural milky quartz powder to T=900°C and Pc=1.5 GPa, and grain sizes (2 to 25 mm) were varied by annealing at these conditions for up to 10 days. Infrared absorption spectra exhibit a broad OH band at 3400 cm-1 due to molecular water inclusions with a calculated OH content (~4000 ppm, H/106Si) that is unchanged by deformation. Rate-stepping experiments reveal different stress-strain rate functions at different temperatures and grain sizes, which correspond to differing stress-temperature sensitivities. At 600-700°C and grain sizes of 5-10 mm, flow law parameters compare favorably with those for basal plasticity and dislocation creep of wet quartzites (effective stress exponents n of 3 to 6 and activation enthalpy H* ~150 kJ/mol). Deformed samples show undulatory extinction, limited recrystallization, and c-axis maxima parallel to the shortening direction. Similarly fine-grained samples deformed at 800°-900°C exhibit flow parameters n=1.3-2.0 and H*=135-200 kJ/mol corresponding to grain size-sensitive Newtonian creep. Deformed samples show some undulatory extinction and grain sizes change by recrystallization; however, grain boundary deformation processes are indicated by the low value of n. Our experimental results for grain size-sensitive creep can be compared with models of grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary sliding using measured rates of silicon grain boundary diffusion. While many quartz mylonites show microstructural and textural evidence for dislocation creep, results for grain size-sensitive creep may apply to very fine-grained (<10 mm) quartz mylonites.

  1. Transitional grain-size-sensitive flow of milky quartz aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained (~15 μm) milky quartz aggregates exhibit reversible flow strengths in triaxial compression experiments conducted at T = 800-900oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa when strain rates are sequentially decreased (typically from 10-3.5 to 10-4.5 and 10-5.5 s-1), and then returned to the original rate (10-3.5 s-1), while samples that experience grain growth at 1000oC (to 35 μm) over the same sequence of strain rates exhibit an irreversible increase in strength. Polycrystalline quartz aggregates have been synthesized from natural milky quartz powders (ground to 5 μm) by HIP methods at T = 1000oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa and t = 24 hours, resulting in dense, fine-grained aggregates of uniform water content of ~4000 ppm (H/106Si), as indicated by a broad OH absorption band at 3400 cm-1. In experiments performed at 800o and 900oC, grain sizes of the samples are essentially constant over the duration of each experiment, though grain shapes change significantly, and undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae indicate that much of the sample shortening (to 50%) is accomplished, over the four strain-rate steps, by dislocation creep. Differential stresses measured at T = 800oC decrease from 160 to 30 MPa as strain rate is reduced from 10-4.6 to 10-5.5 s-1, and a stress of 140 MPa is measured when strain rate is returned to 10-4.5 s-1. Samples deformed at 1000o and 1100oC experience normal grain growth, with grain boundary energy-driven grain-coarsening textures superposed by undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae. Differential stresses measured at 1000oC and strain rates of 10-3.6, 10-4.6, and 10-5.5 s-1 are 185, 80, and 80 MPa, respectively, while an increased flow stress of 260 MPa is measured (following ~28 hours of prior high temperature deformation and grain growth) when strain rate is returned to 10-3.6 s-1. While all samples exhibit lattice preferred orientations, the stress exponent n inferred for the fine-grained 800oC sample is 1.5 and the stress exponent of the coarse

  2. Experimental deformation in sandstone, carbonates and quartz aggregate

    SciT

    Cheung, Cecilia See Nga

    2015-05-01

    The first part of my thesis is mainly focused on the effect of grain size distribution on compaction localization in porous sandstone. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, I conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (~25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. My results demonstratemore » that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies. The second part aimed to improve current knowledge on inelastic behavior, failure mode and brittle-ductile transition in another sedimentary rock, porous carbonates. A micritic Tavel (porosity of ~13%) and an allochemical Indiana (~18%) limestones were deformed under compaction in wet and dry conditions. At lower confining pressures, shear localization occurred in brittle faulting regime. Through transitional regime, the deformation switched to cataclastic flow regime at higher confining pressure. Specifically in the cataclastic regime, the (dry and wet) Tavel and dry Indiana failed by distributed cataclastic flow, while in contrast, wet Indiana failed as compaction localization. My results demonstrate that different failure modes and mechanical behaviors under different deformation regimes and water saturation are fundamental prior to any geophysical application in porous carbonates. The third part aimed to focus on investigating compaction on quartz aggregate starting at low (MPa) using X-ray diffraction. We report the diffraction peak evolution of quartz with

  3. Mineralogy, morphology, and textural relationships in coatings on quartz grains in sediments in a quartz-sand aquifer

    Zhang, Shouliang; Kent, Douglas B.; Elbert, David C.; Shi, Zhi; Davis, James A.; Veblen, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport

  4. Australasian microtektites and associated impact ejecta in the South China Sea and the Middle Pleistocene supereruption of Toba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Billy P.; Koeberl, Christian

    2006-02-01

    Australasian microtektites were discovered in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1143A in the central part of the South China Sea. Unmelted ejecta were found associated with the microtektites at this site and with Australasian microtektites in Core SO95-17957-2 and ODP Hole 1144A from the central and northern part of the South China Sea, respectively. A few opaque, irregular, rounded, partly melted particles containing highly fractured mineral inclusions (generally quartz and some K feldspar) and some partially melted mineral grains, in a glassy matrix were also found in the microtektite layer. The unmelted ejecta at all three sites include abundant white, opaque grains consisting of mixtures of quartz, coesite, and stishovite, and abundant rock fragments which also contain coesite and, rarely, stishovite. This is the first time that shock-metamorphosed rock fragments have been found in the Australasian microtektite layer. The rock fragments have major and trace element contents similar to the Australasian microtektites and tektites, except for higher volatile element contents. Assuming that the Australasian tektites and microtektites were formed from the same target material as the rock fragments, the parent material for the Australasian tektites and microtektites appears to have been a fine-grained sedimentary deposit. Hole 1144A has the highest abundance of microtektites (number/cm2) of any known Australasian microtektite-bearing site and may be closer to the source crater than any previously identified Australasian microtektite-bearing site. A source crater in the vicinity of 22° N and 104° E seems to explain geographic variations in abundance of both the microtektites and the unmelted ejecta the best; however, a region extending NW into southern China and SE into the Gulf of Tonkin explains the geographic variation in abundance of microtektites and unmelted ejecta almost as well. The size of the source crater is estimated to be 43 ± 9 km based on estimated

  5. Synchrotron FTIR imaging of OH in quartz mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Hasnan, Hasnor F. B.; Holyoke, Caleb W., III; Law, Richard D.; Liu, Zhenxian; Thomas, Jay B.

    2017-10-01

    Previous measurements of water in deformed quartzites using conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments have shown that water contents of larger grains vary from one grain to another. However, the non-equilibrium variations in water content between neighboring grains and within quartz grains cannot be interrogated further without greater measurement resolution, nor can water contents be measured in finely recrystallized grains without including absorption bands due to fluid inclusions, films, and secondary minerals at grain boundaries.Synchrotron infrared (IR) radiation coupled to a FTIR spectrometer has allowed us to distinguish and measure OH bands due to fluid inclusions, hydrogen point defects, and secondary hydrous mineral inclusions through an aperture of 10 µm for specimens > 40 µm thick. Doubly polished infrared (IR) plates can be prepared with thicknesses down to 4-8 µm, but measurement of small OH bands is currently limited by strong interference fringes for samples < 25 µm thick, precluding measurements of water within individual, finely recrystallized grains. By translating specimens under the 10 µm IR beam by steps of 10 to 50 µm, using a software-controlled x - y stage, spectra have been collected over specimen areas of nearly 4.5 mm2. This technique allowed us to separate and quantify broad OH bands due to fluid inclusions in quartz and OH bands due to micas and map their distributions in quartzites from the Moine Thrust (Scotland) and Main Central Thrust (Himalayas).Mylonitic quartzites deformed under greenschist facies conditions in the footwall to the Moine Thrust (MT) exhibit a large and variable 3400 cm-1 OH absorption band due to molecular water, and maps of water content corresponding to fluid inclusions show that inclusion densities correlate with deformation and recrystallization microstructures. Quartz grains of mylonitic orthogneisses and paragneisses deformed under amphibolite conditions in the hanging

  6. Current Rectification with Poly-l-Lysine-Coated Quartz Nanopipettes

    PubMed Central

    Umehara, Senkei; Pourmand, Nader; Webb, Chris D.; Davis, Ronald W.; Yasuda, Kenji; Karhanek, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Ion current rectification with quartz nanopipette electrodes was investigated through the control of the surface charge. The presence and absence of a positively charged poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating resulted in the rectified current with opposite polarity. The results agreed with the theories developed for current-rectifying conical nanopores, suggesting the similar underlying mechanism among asymmetric nanostructure in general. This surface condition dependence can be used as the fundamental principle of multi-purpose real-time in vivo biosensors. PMID:17090078

  7. Water weakening in experimentally deformed milky quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, H.; Thust, A.; Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Behrens, H.; Tarantola, A.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FI´s decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FI´s form, increasing the number of FI´s drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FI´s is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FI´s. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FI´s, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FI´s during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  8. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Operation and In Situ Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) are commonly used to measure the rate of deposition of molecular species on a surface. The measurement is often used to select materials with a low outgassing rate for applications where the material has a line of sight to a contamination-sensitive surface. A quantitative, in situ calibration of the balance, or balances, using a pure material for which the enthalpy of sublimation is known, is described in this Technical Memorandum. Supporting calculations for surface dwell times of deposited materials and the effusion cell Clausing factor are presented along with examples of multiple QCM measurements of outgassing from a common source.

  9. Fluid inclusions and microstructures in experimentally deformed quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, A.; Tarantola, A.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    The "H2O-weakening" effect that reduces the strength of quartz dramatically (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965) is still not understood. For example, Kronenberg & Tullis (1984) conclude that the weakening effect is pressure dependent while Paterson (1989) infers a glide and recovery control of water. Obviously, the spatial distribution and transport of H2O are important factors (Kronenberg et al. 1986, FitzGerald et al. 1991). We have carried out experiments on milky quartz in a Griggs deformation apparatus. Cylinders (6.5 mm in diameter, 12-13 mm in length) from a milky zone of a natural quartz single crystal have been cored in orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes and (2) 45˚ to and 45˚ to (O+orientation). At 1 GPa confining pressure, 900˚ C and 10-6s-1, the flow strength is 150 MPa for samples with orientation (1). Further experiments are needed to establish the flow strength for orientation (2). FTIR measurements on double-polished thick sections (200-500 μm) in the undeformed quartz material yield an average H2O content of approximately 100 H/106Si. The water is heterogeneously distributed in the sample. Direct measurements on fluid inclusions yield a H2O content of more than 25 000 H/106Si. Thus, the H2O in the undeformed material is predominantly present in fluid inclusions of size from tens to hundred microns. Micro-thermometric measurements at low temperature indicate the presence of different salts in the fluid inclusions. The ice melting temperature, between -6.9 and -7.4˚ C, indicate an average salinity of 10.5 wt% NaCl. After deformation the distribution of H2O is more homogeneous throughout the sample. The majority of the big inclusions have disappeared and very small inclusions of several microns to sub-micron size have formed. FTIR measurements in zones of undulatory extinction and shear bands show an average H2O content of approximately 3000 H/106Si. Moreover, the larger fluid inclusions are characterized by a higher salinity (12 wt%) due

  10. Stress in recrystallized quartz by electron backscatter diffraction mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llana-Fúnez, S.

    2017-07-01

    The long-term state of stress at middle and lower crustal depths can be estimated through the study of the microstructure of exhumed rocks from active and/or ancient shear zones. Constitutive equations for deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed rocks relate differential stress to the size of recrystallized grains. Cross et al. (2017) take advantage of electron backscatter diffraction mapping to systematically separate new recrystallized grains from host grains on the basis of the measurable lattice distorsion within the grains. They produce the first calibrated piezometer for quartz with this technique, reproducing within error a previous calibration based on optical microscopy.

  11. Synchrotron FTIR imaging of OH in quartz mylonites

    SciT

    Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Hasnan, Hasnor F. B.; Holyoke III, Caleb W.

    Previous measurements of water in deformed quartzites using conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments have shown that water contents of larger grains vary from one grain to another. However, the non-equilibrium variations in water content between neighboring grains and within quartz grains cannot be interrogated further without greater measurement resolution, nor can water contents be measured in finely recrystallized grains without including absorption bands due to fluid inclusions, films, and secondary minerals at grain boundaries.Synchrotron infrared (IR) radiation coupled to a FTIR spectrometer has allowed us to distinguish and measure OH bands due to fluid inclusions, hydrogen point defects,more » and secondary hydrous mineral inclusions through an aperture of 10 µm for specimens > 40 µm thick. Doubly polished infrared (IR) plates can be prepared with thicknesses down to 4–8 µm, but measurement of small OH bands is currently limited by strong interference fringes for samples < 25 µm thick, precluding measurements of water within individual, finely recrystallized grains. By translating specimens under the 10 µm IR beam by steps of 10 to 50 µm, using a software-controlled x- y stage, spectra have been collected over specimen areas of nearly 4.5 mm 2. This technique allowed us to separate and quantify broad OH bands due to fluid inclusions in quartz and OH bands due to micas and map their distributions in quartzites from the Moine Thrust (Scotland) and Main Central Thrust (Himalayas).Mylonitic quartzites deformed under greenschist facies conditions in the footwall to the Moine Thrust (MT) exhibit a large and variable 3400 cm -1 OH absorption band due to molecular water, and maps of water content corresponding to fluid inclusions show that inclusion densities correlate with deformation and recrystallization microstructures. Quartz grains of mylonitic orthogneisses and paragneisses deformed under amphibolite conditions in the

  12. Scratching experiments on quartz crystals: Orientation effects in chipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, C. R.; Benmessaouda, D.

    1994-06-01

    The deformation and microfracture properties of quartz crystals were studied by scratching experiments. The critical load at which microfractures are initiated was found to be orientation dependent, whereas the average width of ductile grooves and chips remained relatively insensitive to crystal orientation. In contrast, a marked anisotropy in the shape of chips was observed. This anisotropy has been interpreted in terms of microfractures propagating preferentially along slip planes. Simple geometrical conditions for the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation of active slip planes are proposed.

  13. Quartz exposure, retention, and early silicosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Dufresne, A; Cantin, A; Possmayer, F; Sébastien, P; Fabi, D; Bilodeau, G; Martel, M; Bisson, D; Pietrowski, B

    1989-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the chronology of events in cellular and biochemical changes thought to be important in the development of silicosis, (2) to relate these to changes in lung function and radiograph, and (3) to evaluate the relation of quartz exposure and retention to individual response leading to early silicosis. Thirty-six sheep were exposed by repeated intratracheal infusion at 10-day intervals to 100 mg Minusil-5 in 100 ml saline (Si group), and 10 sheep were exposed at the same intervals to 100 ml saline (control). All sheep were investigated at 3-month intervals by chest radiograph, lung function, and lung lavage. At month 9, chest radiograph score of parenchymal opacities was significantly increased at 2.8 +/- 0.6 versus 0.4 +/- 0.4 in the Si group (p less than .05), establishing early radiologic silicosis. Lung function was significantly altered with reduction in lung compliance, vital capacity, and diffusion capacity (p less than .05). Lung lavage cellularity revealed significant increase in total cells (X 2.5), macrophages (X3), and neutrophils (X3). Albumin in BAL remained at the control level. Fibronectin production was significantly increased, as was the fibroblast growth activity, without significant change in procollagen 3 at this early stage of disease. Total phospholipids were significantly elevated in the Si-exposed sheep, and the profile demonstrated an increase in all the phospholipid components. Spontaneous release of hydrogen peroxide by alveolar cells was not increased, but in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) higher levels of peroxide were found in the quartz-exposed sheep (p less than .05). The cellular and biochemical alterations of lung lavage preceded other changes. At month 12, there were good correlations (r greater than .49, p less than .001) between parameters evaluating related phenomena but poor correlations between measurements evaluating different aspects of the disorder. To

  14. Origin of the incommensurate phase of quartz: I. Inelastic neutron scattering study of the high temperature β phase of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolino, G.; Berge, B.; Vallade, M.; Moussa, F.

    1992-07-01

    The origin of the incommensurate phase of quartz is attributed to a gradient interaction between the optical soft mode of the α-β transition of quartz and a transverse acoustic mode. To test this model high resolution inelastic neutron scattering studies of the lattice dynamics of quartz have been performed. For the first time, a resolved zone center soft mode has been observed in the β phase of quartz at 1 THz at 1 250 K, confirming the displacive character of this transition. Along [xi 0 0] a strong interaction has been observed between this soft mode and the acoustic branch with u_{xy} shear strain. The softening of the two mixed branches produced by this interaction has been followed by decreasing temperature. Near the transition a dip appears in the lower frequency branch, which goes continuously to 0 near xi=0.035 at the incommensurate phase transition. Due to a large damping, the soft branch is overdamped near the transition leading to a quasielastic peak. Along [ xi xi 0] where the soft mode is coupled with the longitudinal acoustic mode, no dip is observed in the lower frequency mode. These results are in good agreement with the predictions of the gradient interaction model discussed in the following paper. L'existence de la phase incommensurable du quartz est attribuée à une interaction entre le gradient du mode mou optique de la transition α β et un mode acoustique transverse. Pour vérifier ce modèle, des mesures de diffusion inélastique des neutrons, de haute résolution, ont été faites. Un mode mou résolu en centre de zone a, pour la première fois, été observé vers 1 THz à 1 250 K, dans la phase β du quartz, confirmant le caractère displacif de cette transition. Le long de [ xi 0 0] , une forte interaction est observée entre ce mode mou et la branche acoustique ayant une déformation de cisaillement u_{xy}. L'amollissement des deux branches mixtes, résultant de cette interaction, a été suivi en fonction de la température. Pr

  15. Lineation-parallel c-axis Fabric of Quartz Formed Under Water-rich Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, P.

    2014-12-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz is of great significance because it records much valuable information pertinent to the deformation of quartz-rich rocks in the continental crust. The lineation-parallel c-axis CPO (i.e., c-axis forming a maximum parallel to the lineation) in naturally deformed quartz is generally considered to form under high temperature (> ~550 ºC) conditions. However, most laboratory deformation experiments on quartzite failed to produce such a CPO at high temperatures up to 1200 ºC. Here we reported a new occurrence of the lineation-parallel c-axis CPO of quartz from kyanite-quartz veins in eclogite. Optical microstructural observations, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were integrated to illuminate the nature of quartz CPOs. Quartz exhibits mostly straight to slightly curved grain boundaries, modest intracrystalline plasticity, and significant shape preferred orientation (SPO) and CPOs, indicating dislocation creep dominated the deformation of quartz. Kyanite grains in the veins are mostly strain-free, suggestive of their higher strength than quartz. The pronounced SPO and CPOs in kyanite were interpreted to originate from anisotropic crystal growth and/or mechanical rotation during vein-parallel shearing. FTIR results show quartz contains a trivial amount of structurally bound water (several tens of H/106 Si), while kyanite has a water content of 384-729 H/106 Si; however, petrographic observations suggest quartz from the veins were practically deformed under water-rich conditions. We argue that the observed lineation-parallel c-axis fabric in quartz was inherited from preexisting CPOs as a result of anisotropic grain growth under stress facilitated by water, but rather than due to a dominant c-slip. The preservation of the quartz CPOs probably benefited from the preexisting quartz CPOs which renders most quartz grains unsuitably oriented for an easy a-slip at

  16. Quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy for breath analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Jan C.; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Focant, Jeff-F.; Peremans, Andre; Lassen, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    An innovative and novel quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for highly sensitive and selective breath gas analysis is introduced. The QEPAS sensor consists of two acoustically coupled micro- resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF). The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. Due to the very low fabrication costs the QEPAS sensor presents a clear breakthrough in the field of photoacoustic spectroscopy by introducing novel disposable gas chambers in order to avoid cleaning after each test. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of methane and methanol in the 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm wavelength region is conducted. Demonstrating a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s for methane and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF. Spectra of both individual molecules as well as mixtures of molecules were measured and analyzed. The molecules are representative of exhaled breath gasses that are bio-markers for medical diagnostics.

  17. Outbreak of silicosis in Spanish quartz conglomerate workers

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alonso, Aránzazu; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Millares-Lorenzo, José Luis; Figueroa-Murillo, Estrella; García-Vadillo, Cristina; Romero-Morillo, José

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of an outbreak of occupational silicosis and the associated working conditions. Methods: Cases were defined as men working in the stone cutting, shaping, and finishing industry in the province of Cádiz, diagnosed with silicosis between July 2009 and May 2012, and were identified and diagnosed by the department of pulmonology of the University Hospital of Puerto Real (Cádiz). A census of workplaces using quartz conglomerates was carried out to determine total numbers of potentially exposed workers. A patient telephone survey on occupational exposures and a review of medical records for all participants were conducted. Results: Silicosis was diagnosed in 46 men with a median age of 33 years and a median of 11 years working in the manufacturing of countertops. Of these cases, 91.3% were diagnosed with simple chronic silicosis, with an abnormal high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. One patient died during the study period. Employer non-compliance in prevention and control measures was frequently reported, as were environmental and individual protection failures. Conclusions: The use of new construction materials such as quartz conglomerates has increased silicosis incidence due to intensive occupational exposures, in the context of high demand fuelled by the housing boom. This widespread exposure poses a risk if appropriate preventive measures are not undertaken. PMID:24804337

  18. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Thoss, V; Ribeiro Guevara, S; Urgast, D; Raab, A; Mastrolitti, S; Feldmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being (157)Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g(-1), as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na2O2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enthalpy Landscape Dictates the Irradiation-Induced Disordering of Quartz

    SciT

    Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian

    Here, under irradiation, minerals tend to experience an accumulation of structural defects, ultimately leading to a disordered atomic network. Despite the critical importance of understanding and predicting irradiation-induced damage, the physical origin of the initiation and saturation of defects remains poorly understood. Here, based on molecular dynamics simulations of α-quartz, we show that the topography of the enthalpy landscape governs irradiation-induced disordering. Specifically, we show that such disordering differs from that observed upon vitrification in that, prior to saturation, irradiated quartz accesses forbidden regions of the enthalpy landscape, i.e., those that are inaccessible by simply heating and cooling. Furthermore, wemore » demonstrate that damage saturates when the system accesses a local region of the enthalpy landscape corresponding to the configuration of an allowable liquid. At this stage, a sudden decrease in the heights of the energy barriers enhances relaxation, thereby preventing any further accumulation of defects and resulting in a defect-saturated disordered state.« less

  20. Enthalpy Landscape Dictates the Irradiation-Induced Disordering of Quartz

    DOE PAGES

    Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; ...

    2017-07-28

    Here, under irradiation, minerals tend to experience an accumulation of structural defects, ultimately leading to a disordered atomic network. Despite the critical importance of understanding and predicting irradiation-induced damage, the physical origin of the initiation and saturation of defects remains poorly understood. Here, based on molecular dynamics simulations of α-quartz, we show that the topography of the enthalpy landscape governs irradiation-induced disordering. Specifically, we show that such disordering differs from that observed upon vitrification in that, prior to saturation, irradiated quartz accesses forbidden regions of the enthalpy landscape, i.e., those that are inaccessible by simply heating and cooling. Furthermore, wemore » demonstrate that damage saturates when the system accesses a local region of the enthalpy landscape corresponding to the configuration of an allowable liquid. At this stage, a sudden decrease in the heights of the energy barriers enhances relaxation, thereby preventing any further accumulation of defects and resulting in a defect-saturated disordered state.« less

  1. Investigation of quartz diagenesis in mudstones of the Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, A.; Reece, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present preliminary core analysis of the diagenetic variability existing within a siliceous mudstone facies of the Permian Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations in the Midland Basin, Texas. Within this mudstone facies, the carbonate content varies from absent in several Wolfcamp Formation samples to >40 wt. % in the Spraberry Formation. A normalized ratio of quartz to clay content with carbonate removed reveals a systematic decrease in quartz content with increasing clay content. This relationship is typical of rocks with variable amounts of detrital quartz content. However, in this siliceous mudstone facies, the abundance of detrital quartz silt grains does not vary widely. Additionally, for the same clay content, the Wolfcamp Formation shows a higher concentration of quartz than the Spraberry Formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the presence of microcrystalline quartz cement that likely accounts for the increased quartz content in the Wolfcamp Formation. This research tests the hypothesis that the increased quartz cement in the Wolfcamp Formation may occur at the expense of the carbonate cement present in the overlying Spraberry Formation. Furthermore, the deviation in quartz content for the same clay concentration only occurs once the ratio of quartz to clay content increases beyond 1.2. This ratio may represent a threshold of detrital quartz in the clay matrix required to have enough porosity and nucleation surface area for authigenic quartz growth. The presence of matrix cement may impact the mechanical properties to favor fracturing and cataclasis over more ductile deformation. This would enhance development of secondary porosity, while also increasing permeability through the connection of primary pores. Acquiring a fundamental understanding of diagenesis in the Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations will aid in better prediction of mechanical behavior during drilling and optimized resource recovery.

  2. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-06

    Transverse shear wave of a quartz crystal with an applied thin film�..�.31 Figure 2.4 Butterworth van - Dyke model for a quartz crystal near...resonance��..�.32 Figure 2.5 Butterworth van - Dyke model for a loaded quartz crystal at resonance...�.34 Figure 2.6 Butterworth van - Dyke model for a...surface chemistry . A thorough understanding of the reaction pathways of CWAs will aid in the development of CWA sensors, environmentally friendly

  3. Quartz: heat capacities from 340 to 1000 K and revised values for the thermodynamic properties.

    Hemingway, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    New heat-capacity data for quartz have been measured over the T interval 340-1000 K by differential scanning calorimetry. The data were combined with recent heat-content and heat-capacity data to provide a significantly revised set of thermodynamic properties for alpha -quartz and to resolve the problem of disparate heat-content and heat-capacity data for alpha - and beta -quartz.-J.A.Z.

  4. Shocked Quartz Aggregates of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary at Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Shock-metamorphosed quartz (i.e., shocked quartz) at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (K/T) at Colorado [1,2] reveals the following mineralogical data by X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution electron micrograph with energy- dispersive spectrometry. 1. Shocked quartz is not normal (perfect crystalline) quartz mineral but various quartz aggregates that show relatively low X-ray intensity (i.e., imperfect crystalline) and shock lamellae with crystalline quartz and amorphous glass [3]. 2. Analytical electron micrographs indicate that crystalline quartz silica with spotty dislocation features is included in dendritic amorphous glasses of potassium (K) feldspar composition. Various compositions of glassy materials are found in shocked quartz aggregates as matrix or alternate shock lamellae, which is important to estimate the target rock of impact. The composition of glassy matrix is dendritic K-feldspar in the K/T boundary at Clear Creak North (CCN), Colorado, whereas that in the Barringer Crater is quartz-rich composition from the target rock of sandstone (or some mixture with iron meteorite), and that in artificial impact rock [3] is dendritic silica composition. It is found in this study that shocked quartz aggregates from the CCN K/T boundary samples are supplied from quartz and K-feldspar-bearing target rock at impact event (Table 1). Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the compositions, texture, and origin of shocked quartz aggregates. References: [1] Alvarez L. W. et al. (1980) Science, 208, 1095-1107. [2] Izett G. (1989) GSA Spec. Pap. 249, 1-194. [3] Miura Y. (1991) Shock Waves, 1, 35-41, Springer-Verlag.

  5. TitaniQ in reverse: backing out the equilibrium solubility of titanium in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    There is close agreement among three of the four experimental studies that have 'calibrated' the P-T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility. New experiments were conducted to identify potential experimental disequilibrium, and determine which Ti-in-quartz solubility calibration is most accurate. Quartz and rutile were synthesized from SiO2- and TiO2saturated aqueous fluids in a forward-type experiment at 925°C and 10 kbar in a piston-cylinder apparatus. A range of crystal sizes was examined to determine if growth rate affected Ti incorporation in quartz. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images and electron microprobe measurements show that intercrystalline and intracrystalline variations in Ti concentrations are remarkably small regardless of crystal size. The average Ti-in-quartz concentration from the forward-type experiment is 392±1 ppm Ti, which is within 95% confidence interval of data from the 10 kbar isobar of Wark and Watson (2006) and Thomas et al. (2010). Quartz from the forward-type experiment was used as starting material for reversal-type experiments. The high-Ti quartz starting material was recrystallized at 925°C and 20 kbar to reduce the solubility of Ti in recrystallized quartz to the equilibrium solubility concentration of the reversed P-T condition. The 'dry' and 'wet' reversal experiments produced polycrystalline quartzites. Rutile occurs as inclusions in quartz, and as individual crystals dispersed along quartz/quartz grain boundaries. Quartz that recrystallized during the reversal-type experiment has substantially lower Ti concentrations than the quartz starting material because Ti solubility at 20 kbar is significantly lower than at 10 kbar. Dark cathodoluminescent quartz with low Ti concentrations shows that extensive quartz recrystallization occurred at the reversal P-T condition. The average Ti concentration in quartz from reversal experiments is 94±2 ppm Ti, which is within the 95% confidence interval of a linear fit to the 20 kbar data of

  6. Experimental pressure solution creep of quartz by indenter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, J.; Guiguet, R.; Renard, F.; Jenatton, L.

    2006-12-01

    The principle of the experiment is to measure the displacement-rate of indenter that dissolve mineral under stress in order to establish creep laws. A stainless steel cylindrical indenter (200 microns diameter) mounted under a free-moving piston is put in contact with a crystal of quartz in presence of its saturated solution. A dead weigh put on the piston sets the stress. The device is maintained within pressure vessel during several weeks or months at constant temperature and fluid pressure. The depths of the dissolution holes are measured at the end of the experiments. Various types of experimental protocols have been used with difference (i) about quartz (synthetic or natural), (ii) about the nature of the solution (Na0H N, H20, dry), (iii) about the way the contact solid/solution/solid is filled (iv) about the relation between stress and optical quartz axis. Results are shown as displacement-rate versus stress relations for the 4 configurations, with always the same temperature (350°C), solution (NaOH N) and fluid pressure (200 MPa) and with several weeks or months of duration. When using dry contact or water no significant hole may be seen. Short durations (days) never allowed measurable hole to develop. The results show a large scattering of displacement-rates for same stress values, even for the same protocol. From observations under microscope two explanations are possible either a strong effect of the roughening of the dissolution interface that evolve with time and that seems to play a crucial role in the displacement-rate versus stress relation or some effects of temporary undersaturating during the experiment due to experimental perturbations. The results also show a large overlapping between the displacement-rates obtained with the 4 protocols. Plotting all the results on the same log-log diagram shows a displacement-rate versus stress relation that fit a power law with a stress exponent of 1.75. Due to the relatively high stress values this is not

  7. Oscillator circuit for use with high loss quartz resonator sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Otto

    1995-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications, especially for use with quartz resonator sensors. The oscillator is designed to operate over a wide dynamic range of resonator resistance due to damping of the resonator in mediums such as liquids. An oscillator design is presented that allows both frequency and loss (R.sub.m) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  8. Quartz crystal resonator g sensitivity measurement methods and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, M. M.

    1990-09-01

    A technique for accurate measurements of quartz crystal resonator vibration sensitivity is described. The technique utilizes a crystal oscillator circuit in which a prescribed length of coaxial cable is used to connect the resonator to the oscillator sustaining stage. A method is provided for determination and removal of measurement errors normally introduced as a result of cable vibration. In addition to oscillator-type measurements, it is also possible to perform similar vibration sensitivity measurements using a synthesized signal generator with the resonator installed in a passive phase bridge. Test results are reported for 40 and 50 MHz, fifth overtone AT-cut, and third overtone SC-cut crystals. Acceleration sensitivity (gamma vector) values for the SC-cut resonators were typically four times smaller (5 x 10 to the -10th/g) than for the AT-cut units. However, smaller unit-to-unit gamma vector magnitude variation was exhibited by the AT-cut resonators.

  9. Quartz crystal microbalance and photoacoustic measurements in dental photocuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcenilda A.; Bastos, Ivan N.; Cella, Norberto

    2016-09-01

    Photocured dental resins are used extensively in restorative procedures in dentistry. Inadequate curing reduces the lifetime of the dental restoration, and consequently it is essential to precisely measure the polymerisation kinetics. In this study, two techniques, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS), were used to monitor the real-time cure and to obtain the optical absorption spectra of resins, respectively. From the PAS measurements, the precise peaks of absorption were identified, and were used as the appropriate wavelength of the photocuring light in the QCM monitoring. The combined use of these techniques allows reliable determination of the duration of the phases of physical and chemical changes that occur during photocuring. Two commercial dental resins were tested, and the results confirmed the advantages of using PAS and QCM to study polymerisation kinetics.

  10. Respiratory monitoring by porphyrin modified quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    PubMed

    Selyanchyn, Roman; Korposh, Serhiy; Wakamatsu, Shunichi; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl)-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (MnTSPP) used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR) and respiratory pattern (RP). The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  11. Quartz and feldspar glasses produced by natural and experimental shock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Hornemann, U.

    1972-01-01

    Refractive index, density, and infrared absorption studies of naturally and experimentally shocked-produced glasses formed from quartz, plagioclase, and alkali-feldspar confirm the existence of two main groups of amorphous forms of the framework silicates: solid-state and liquid-state glasses. These were apparently formed as metastable release products of high-pressure-phases above and below the glass transition temperatures. Solid-state glasses exhibit a series of structural states with increasing disorder caused by increasing shock pressures and temperatures. They gradually merge into the structural state of fused minerals similar to that of synthetic glasses quenched from a melt. Shock-fused alkali feldspars can, however, be distinguished from their laboratory-fused counterparts by infrared absorption and by higher density.

  12. A one-kilogram quartz resonator as a mass standard.

    PubMed

    Vig, John; Howe, David

    2013-02-01

    The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined by a single artifact, the International Prototype Kilogram. This artifact, the primary mass standard, suffers from long-term instabilities that are neither well understood nor easily monitored. A secondary mass standard consisting of a 1-kg quartz resonator in ultrahigh vacuum is proposed. The frequency stability of such a resonator is likely to be far higher than the mass stability of the primary mass standard. Moreover, the resonator would provide a link to the SI time-interval unit. When compared with a laboratory-grade atomic frequency standard or GPS time, the frequency of the resonator could be monitored, on a continuous basis, with 10(-15) precision in only a few days of averaging. It could also be coordinated, worldwide, with other resonator mass standards without the need to transport the standards.

  13. Production of mineral aggregates in quartz tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Pall Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Knak Jensen, Svend; Merrison, Jonathan Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction Tumbling experiments with quartz sand with the purpose of tracing the effect of broken bonds in mineral surfaces resulted in an unexpected production of aggregates. These aggregates are a few microns in diameter, spherical and resembling tiny white "snowballs." Particle comminution by aeolian and other natural weathering processes are known in soil science and is often seen as an increase of fine particles towards the top of soil profiles (Nørnberg, P. 1987, 1988, 2002, J.S. Wright 2007). When mineral grains collide in aeolian processes they break up along weakness zones in the crystal lattice. This mechanism causes broken bonds between atoms in the crystal lattice and results in reactive groups in the mineral surface. This mechanism provides the background for experiments to investigate the oxidation processes of magnetite on the planet Mars. The primary magnetic iron oxide phase on Mars is to day known to be magnetite and the colour of the dust on Mars is most likely due to hematite. To investigate if the oxidation process could take place without going over dissolution and precipitation in water, experiments with tumbling of quartz grains in sealed glass containers along with magnetite were started. The idea was that activated bonds at the surface of quartz could oxidize magnetite and convert it to hematite over time. This proved to be the case (Merrison, J.P. et al. 2010). However, in these experiments we observed the formation of the white aggregates which has been the subject of the study that we present here. Results of tumbling experiments Commercially available quarts (Merck) was sieved to obtain the fraction between 125 and 1000 µm. This fraction was tumbled in glass containers for months and resulted in production of a significant amount of fine grained material (Merrison, J.P et al. 2010). A part of this fine fraction consists of the "snowball"-like aggregates which is a fragile element with relatively high specific surface. The physical

  14. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Selyanchyn, Roman; Korposh, Serhiy; Wakamatsu, Shunichi; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl)-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (MnTSPP) used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR) and respiratory pattern (RP). The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode. PMID:22346621

  15. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of magnesium dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, K. D.; Thomas, S.; Williams, G.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used in conjunction with electrochemical measurements to study dissolution of pure magnesium (Mg) sensors in dilute NaCl electrolytes. Open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation experiments were conducted in 0.01 M NaCl, having pH values 3 (buffered) and 6 (unbuffered). In the pH 3 solution, the Mg sensor showed a net mass-loss during the electrochemical tests, whereas, in the unbuffered pH 6 solution Mg showed a net mass-gain, corresponding to the growth of an Mg(OH)2 film on its surface. The loss in the electrochemical efficiency of Mg dissolution due to such direct parasitic Mg(OH)2 growth has been estimated to be around 17-34%. This loss relates to the low capacities and voltage fluctuations reported during discharge of primary Mg batteries.

  16. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongning; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Liu, Zhaojun; Wang, Qiang; Qin, Zengguang

    2016-02-06

    A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA) of 5.8 × 10(-8) W·cm(-1)·Hz(-1/2) was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  17. Data analysis for lidar and quartz crystal microbalance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Deepak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of the analysis of data taken on the stratospheric aerosol, using lidar, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems. The main objective of the work reported has been to use the data, taken with the NASA-LaRC instruments to study the stratospheric effects of volcanic eruptions during the period between the launch of the SAGE and SAM II satellite systems and October 1980. Four significant volcanic eruptions, for which data are available, occurred during this period--Soufriere, Sierra Negra, Mt. St. Helens, and Ulawun. Data on these have been analyzed to determine the changes in stratospheric mass loading produced by the eruptions, and to study the dispersion of the newly injected material.

  18. A Practical Model of Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Actual Applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhe; Bai, Qingsong; Hu, Jianguo; Hou, Dong

    2017-08-03

    A practical model of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented, which considers both the Gaussian distribution characteristic of mass sensitivity and the influence of electrodes on the mass sensitivity. The equivalent mass sensitivity of 5 MHz and 10 MHz AT-cut QCMs with different sized electrodes were calculated according to this practical model. The equivalent mass sensitivity of this practical model is different from the Sauerbrey's mass sensitivity, and the error between them increases sharply as the electrode radius decreases. A series of experiments which plate rigid gold film onto QCMs were carried out and the experimental results proved this practical model is more valid and correct rather than the classical Sauerbrey equation. The practical model based on the equivalent mass sensitivity is convenient and accurate in actual measurements.

  19. Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico III: Quartz dissolution rates

    Schulz, M.S.; White, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    The paucity of weathering rates for quartz in the natural environment stems both from the slow rate at which quartz dissolves and the difficulty in differentiating solute Si contributed by quartz from that derived from other silicate minerals. This study, a first effort in quantifying natural rates of quartz dissolution, takes advantage of extremely rapid tropical weathering, simple regolith mineralogy, and detailed information on hydrologic and chemical transport. Quartz abundances and grain sizes are relatively constant with depth in a thick saprolite. Limited quartz dissolution is indicated by solution rounding of primary angularity and by the formation of etch pits. A low correlation of surface area (0.14 and 0.42 m2 g-1) with grain size indicates that internal microfractures and pitting are the principal contributors to total surface area. Pore water silica concentration increases linearly with depth. On a molar basis, between one and three quarters of pore water silica is derived from quartz with the remainder contributed from biotite weathering. Average solute Si remains thermodynamically undersaturated with respect to recently revised estimates of quartz solubility (17-81 ??M). Etch pitting is more abundant on grains in the upper saprolite and is associated with pore waters lower in dissolved silica. Rate constants describing quartz dissolution increase with decreasing depth (from 10-14.5-10-15.1 mol m-2 s-1), which correlate with both greater thermodynamic undersaturation and increasing etch pit densities. Unlike for many aluminosilicates, the calculated natural weathering rates of quartz fall slightly below the rate constants previously reported for experimental studies (10-12.4-10-14.2 mol m-2 s-1). This agreement reflects the structural simplicity of quartz, dilute solutes, and near-hydrologic saturation.

  20. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one or a variable combination of: organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights. The former include CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and possibly C4H10 as well as CO, CO2, H2O, N2 and H2. High molecular weight components are dominantly n-alkanes and isoprenoid hydrocarbons. The n-alkanes range from at least n-C10 to n-C33. Concentrations of n-alkanes larger than n-C17 decrease regularly with increasing carbon number. An homologous series of isoprenoid hydrocarbons ranging from at least C14 to C20 is present in unusually high concentrations. Pristane (C19) is most abundant, and C17 isoprenoid is least abundant. The molecular composition and distribution of hydrocarbons suggest biological precursors for these components. Consideration of data provided by freezing, crushing and heating experiments suggests that the pressures at the time these in part supercritical fluids were trapped probably exceeded 30-40 atm, and the minimum trapping temperature was about 120-160??C. Both primary and secondary inclusions apparently containing only organic materials were trapped by the growth of the host quartz from aqueous solution. The data obtained neither prove nor preclude Precambrian, Paleozoic or younger sources for the organic materials. ?? 1971.

  1. Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz with Carbon from Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete

    2017-04-01

    Carbothermal reaction between quartz and two different carbons originating from natural gas were investigated in this paper. One of two carbons is the commercial carbon black produced from natural gas in a medium thermal production process. The other carbon is obtained from natural gas cracking at 1273 K (1000 °C) deposited directly on the quartz pellet. At the 1923 K (1650 °C) and CO atmosphere, the impact of carbon content, pellet structure, gas transfer, and heating rate are investigated in a thermo-gravimetric furnace. The reaction process can be divided into two steps: an initial SiC-producing step followed by a SiO-producing step. Higher carbon content and increased gas transfer improves the reaction rate of SiC-producing step, while the thicker carbon coating in carbon-deposited pellet hinders reaction rate. Better gas transfer of sample holder improves reaction rate but causes more SiO loss. Heating rate has almost no influence on reaction. Mass balance analysis shows that mole ratios between SiO2, free carbon, and SiC in the SiC-producing step and SiO-producing step in CO and Ar fit the reaction SiO2(s) + 3 C(s) = SiC(s) + 2 CO(g). SiC-particle and SiC-coating formation process in mixed pellet and carbon-deposited pellet are proposed. SiC whiskers formed in the voids of these two types of pellets.

  2. Scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback.

    PubMed

    Dede, M; Urkmen, K; Girişen, O; Atabak, M; Oral, A; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D

    2008-02-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains with high spatial and magnetic field resolution of approximately 50 nm and 7 mG/Hz(1/2) at room temperature. In the SHPM technique, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) feedback is used to keep the Hall sensor in close proximity of the sample surface. However, STM tracking SHPM requires conductive samples; therefore the insulating substrates have to be coated with a thin layer of gold. This constraint can be eliminated with the AFM feedback using sophisticated Hall probes that are integrated with AFM cantilevers. However it is very difficult to micro fabricate these sensors. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The Hall sensor chip is simply glued at the end of a 32.768 kHz or 100 kHz Quartz crystal, which is used as force sensor. An LT-SHPM system is used to scan the samples. The sensor assembly is dithered at the resonance frequency using a digital Phase Locked Loop circuit and frequency shifts are used for AFM tracking. SHPM electronics is modified to detect AFM topography and the frequency shift, along with the magnetic field image. Magnetic domains and topography of an Iron Garnet thin film crystal, NdFeB demagnetised magnet and hard disk samples are presented at room temperature. The performance is found to be comparable with the SHPM using STM feedback.

  3. Growth of thin films of dicyanovinylanisole on quartz and teflon-coated quartz by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    1994-01-01

    Organic compounds offer the possibility of molecular engineering in order to optimize the nonlinearity and minimize damage due to the high-power lasers used in nonlinear optical devices. Recently dicyanovinylanisole (DIVA), ((2-methoxyphenyl) methylenepropanedinitrile) has been shown to have a second order nonlinearity 40 times that of alpha-quartz. Debe et. al. have shown that a high degree of orientational order exists for thin films of phthalocyanine grown by physical vapor transport in microgravity. The microgravity environment eliminates convective flow and was critical to the formation of highly ordered dense continuous films in these samples. This work seeks to discover the parameters necessary for the production of thin continuous films of high optical quality in Earth gravity. These parameters must be known before the experiment can be planned for growing DIVA in a microgravity environment. The microgravity grown films are expected to be denser and of better optical quality than the unit gravity films as was observed in the phthalocyanine films.

  4. 75 FR 12468 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E airplanes. This proposed AD would... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. is in...

  5. Microbially induced separation of quartz from hematite using sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Prakasan, M R Sabari; Natarajan, K A

    2010-07-01

    Cells and metabolic products of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were successfully used to separate quartz from hematite through environmentally benign microbially induced flotation. Bacterial metabolic products such as extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were isolated from both unadapted and mineral-adapted bacterial metabolite and their basic characteristics were studied in order to get insight into the changes brought about on bioreagents during adaptation. Interaction between bacterial cells and metabolites with minerals like hematite and quartz brought about significant surface-chemical changes on both the minerals. Quartz was rendered more hydrophobic, while hematite became more hydrophilic after biotreatment. The predominance of bacterial polysaccharides on interacted hematite and of proteins on quartz was responsible for the above surface-chemical changes, as attested through adsorption studies. Surface-chemical changes were also observed on bacterial cells after adaptation to the above minerals. Selective separation of quartz from hematite was achieved through interaction with quartz-adapted bacterial cells and metabolite. Mineral-specific proteins secreted by quartz-adapted cells were responsible for conferment of hydrophobicity on quartz resulting in enhanced separation from hematite through flotation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace elements in hydrothermal quartz: Relationships to cathodoluminescent textures and insights into vein formation

    Rusk, B.G.; Lowers, H.A.; Reed, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution electron microprobe maps show the distribution of Ti, Al, Ca, K, and Fe among quartz growth zones revealed by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) from 12 hydrothermal ore deposits formed between ???100 and e1750 ??C. The maps clearly show the relationships between trace elements and CL intensity in quartz. Among all samples, no single trace element consistently correlates with variations in CL intensity. However in vein quartz from five porphyry-Cu (Mo-Au) deposits, CL intensity always correlates positively with Ti concentrations, suggesting that Ti is a CL activator in quartz formed at >400 ??C. Ti concentrations in most rutile-bearing vein quartz from porphyry copper deposits indicate reasonable formation temperatures of 2000 ppm, but in high-temperature quartz, Al concentrations are consistently in the range of several hundred ppm. Aluminum concentrations in quartz refl ect the Al solubility in hydrothermal fluids, which is strongly dependent on pH. Aluminum concentrations in quartz therefore reflect fluctuations in pH that may drive metal-sulfide precipitation in hydrothermal systems. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  7. Correct interpretation of diffraction properties of quartz crystals for X-ray optics applications

    SciT

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho

    Quartz has hundreds of strong Bragg reflections that may offer a great number of choices for making fixed-angle X-ray analyzers and polarizers at virtually any hard X-ray energies with selectable resolution. However, quartz crystals, unlike silicon and germanium, are chiral and may thus appear in two different forms of handedness that are mirror images. Furthermore, because of the threefold rotational symmetry along thecaxis, the {h 1h 2h 3L} and {h 2h 1h 3L} Bragg reflections may have quite different Darwin bandwidth, reflectivity and angular acceptance, although they have the same Bragg angle. The design of X-ray optics from quartz crystalsmore » therefore requires unambiguous determination of the orientation, handedness and polarity of the crystals. The Laue method and single-axis diffraction technique can provide such information, but the variety of conventions used in the literature to describe quartz structures has caused widespread confusion. The current studies give detailed guidelines for design and fabrication of quartz X-ray optics, with special emphasis on the correct interpretation of Laue patterns in terms of the crystallography and diffraction properties of quartz. Meanwhile, the quartz crystals examined were confirmed by X-ray topography to have acceptably low densities of dislocations and other defects, which is the foundation for developing high-resolution quartz-based X-ray optics.« less

  8. Advantages of using newly developed quartz contact lens with slit illumination from operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Toshiro; Hatano, Noriko; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the characteristics and advantages of using a newly designed quartz contact lens with slit illumination from an operating microscope for intraocular surgery. The new contact lens is made of quartz. The lens is convex-concave and is used in combination with slit illumination from an operating microscope. The optical properties of quartz make this lens less reflective with greater transmittance. The combination of a quartz contact lens with slit illumination provided a brighter and wider field of view than conventional lenses. This system enabled us to perform bimanual vitrectomy and scleral buckling surgery without indirect ophthalmoscope. Small intraocular structures in the posterior pole or in the periphery were detected more easily. In conclusion, the newly designed quartz lens with slit beam illumination from an operating microscope provided a bright, clear and wide surgical field, and allowed intraocular surgery to be performed more easily.

  9. A search for shocked quartz grains in the Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoesel, Annelies; Hoek, Wim Z.; Pennock, Gillian M.; Kaiser, Knut; Plümper, Oliver; Jankowski, Michal; Hamers, Maartje F.; Schlaak, Norbert; Küster, Mathias; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Drury, Martyn R.

    2015-03-01

    The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that multiple airbursts or extraterrestrial impacts occurring at the end of the Allerød interstadial resulted in the Younger Dryas cold period. So far, no reproducible, diagnostic evidence has, however, been reported. Quartz grains containing planar deformation features (known as shocked quartz grains), are considered a reliable indicator for the occurrence of an extraterrestrial impact when found in a geological setting. Although alleged shocked quartz grains have been reported at a possible Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary layer in Venezuela, the identification of shocked quartz in this layer is ambiguous. To test whether shocked quartz is indeed present in the proposed impact layer, we investigated the quartz fraction of multiple Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary layers from Europe and North America, where proposed impact markers have been reported. Grains were analyzed using a combination of light and electron microscopy techniques. All samples contained a variable amount of quartz grains with (sub)planar microstructures, often tectonic deformation lamellae. A total of one quartz grain containing planar deformation features was found in our samples. This shocked quartz grain comes from the Usselo palaeosol at Geldrop Aalsterhut, the Netherlands. Scanning electron microscopy cathodoluminescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy imaging, however, show that the planar deformation features in this grain are healed and thus likely to be older than the Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary. We suggest that this grain was possibly eroded from an older crater or distal ejecta layer and later redeposited in the European sandbelt. The single shocked quartz grain at this moment thus cannot be used to support the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

  10. Quartz crystal resonator g sensitivity measurement methods and recent results.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, M M

    1990-01-01

    A technique for accurate measurements of quartz crystal resonator vibration sensitivity is described. The technique utilizes a crystal oscillator circuit in which a prescribed length of coaxial cable is used to connect the resonator to the oscillator sustaining stage. A method is provided for determination and removal of measurement errors normally introduced as a result of cable vibration. In addition to oscillator-type measurements, it is also possible to perform similar vibration sensitivity measurements using a synthesized signal generator with the resonator installed in a passive phase bridge. Test results are reported for 40 and 50 MHz, fifth overtone AT-cut, and third overtone SC-cut crystals. Acceleration sensitivity (gamma vector) values for the SC-cut resonators were typically four times smaller (5x10(-10) per g) than for the AT-cut units. However, smaller unit-to-unit gamma vector magnitude variation was exhibited by the AT-cut resonators. Oscillator sustaining stage vibration sensitivity was characterized by an equivalent open-loop phase modulation of 10(-6) rad/g.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of methane hydrate in quartz powder.

    PubMed

    Voronov, Vitaly P; Gorodetskii, Evgeny E; Safonov, Sergey S

    2007-10-04

    Using the experimental method of precision adiabatic calorimetry, the thermodynamic (equilibrium) properties of methane hydrate in quartz sand with a grain size of 90-100 microm have been studied in the temperature range of 260-290 K and at pressures up to 10 MPa. The equilibrium curves for the water-methane hydrate-gas and ice-methane hydrate-gas transitions, hydration number, latent heat of hydrate decomposition along the equilibrium three-phase curves, and the specific heat capacity of the hydrate have been obtained. It has been experimentally shown that the equilibrium three-phase curves of the methane hydrate in porous media are shifted to the lower temperature and high pressure with respect to the equilibrium curves of the bulk hydrate. In these experiments, we have found that the specific heat capacity of the hydrate, within the accuracy of our measurements, coincides with the heat capacity of ice. The latent heat of the hydrate dissociation for the ice-hydrate-gas transition is equal to 143 +/- 10 J/g, whereas, for the transition from hydrate to water and gas, the latent heat is 415 +/- 15 J/g. The hydration number has been evaluated in the different hydrate conditions and has been found to be equal to n = 6.16 +/- 0.06. In addition, the influence of the water saturation of the porous media and its distribution over the porous space on the measured parameters has been experimentally studied.

  12. Brittle to Semibrittle Transition in Quartz Sandstone: Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Taka; Hirth, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Triaxial compression experiments were conducted on a quartz sandstone at effective pressures up to 175 MPa and temperatures up to 900°C. Our experiments show a transition from brittle faulting to semibrittle faulting with an increase in both pressure and temperature. The yield behavior of samples deformed in the semibrittle regime follows a compactant elliptical cap at low strain, but evolves to a dilatant Mohr-Coulomb relationship with continued compaction. Optical microscopy indicates that semibrittle deformation involves cataclastic flow through shear-enhanced compaction and grain crushing; however, transmission electron microscopy shows evidence for dislocation glide in limited portions of samples. To constrain the relative contribution of brittle and crystal plastic mechanisms, we estimate the partitioning of the inelastic work into the dissipation energy for microcracking, intergranular frictional slip, and dislocation glide. We conclude that semibrittle deformation is accommodated primarily by cataclastic mechanisms, with only a limited contribution from crystal plasticity. Mechanical data, acoustic emission records, and analysis of surface energy all indicate the activation of subcritical cracking at elevated temperature. Hence, we infer that the enhancement of subcritical cracking is responsible for the transition to semibrittle flow through promoting distributed grain-scale fractures and millimeter-scale shear bands. Subcritical cracking promotes the nucleation of microfractures at lower stresses, and the resulting decrease in flow stress retards the propagation of transgranular microfractures. Our study illuminates the important role of temperature on the micromechanics of the transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow in the Earth.

  13. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Sensors.

    PubMed

    Emir Diltemiz, Sibel; Keçili, Rüstem; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2017-02-24

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (bio)sensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.). On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (bio)sensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Electronic Interfacing Systems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alassi, Abdulrahman; Benammar, Mohieddine; Brett, Dan

    2017-12-05

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors are actively being implemented in various fields due to their compatibility with different operating conditions in gaseous/liquid mediums for a wide range of measurements. This trend has been matched by the parallel advancement in tailored electronic interfacing systems for QCM sensors. That is, selecting the appropriate electronic circuit is vital for accurate sensor measurements. Many techniques were developed over time to cover the expanding measurement requirements (e.g., accommodating highly-damping environments). This paper presents a comprehensive review of the various existing QCM electronic interfacing systems. Namely, impedance-based analysis, oscillators (conventional and lock-in based techniques), exponential decay methods and the emerging phase-mass based characterization. The aforementioned methods are discussed in detail and qualitatively compared in terms of their performance for various applications. In addition, some theoretical improvements and recommendations are introduced for adequate systems implementation. Finally, specific design considerations of high-temperature microbalance systems (e.g., GaPO₄ crystals (GCM) and Langasite crystals (LCM)) are introduced, while assessing their overall system performance, stability and quality compared to conventional low-temperature applications.

  15. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-09-07

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.

  16. Isothermal decay studies of intermediate energy levels in quartz.

    PubMed

    Veronese, I; Giussani, A; Göksu, H Y; Martini, M

    2004-05-01

    The recent interest in the thermoluminescence of quartz extracted from unfired building materials, such as mortar and concrete for dose reconstruction applications, led to the requirement of an accurate determination of the lifetime of the intermediate glow peaks in this mineral. The prediction of the lifetimes of these peaks is helpful in establishing the likely time range within which retrospective measurements can be carried out. These peaks, corresponding to intermediate energy levels, occur in the glow curve in the temperature range 150-250 degrees C (heating rate 2 degrees C/s). Lifetimes of 720+/-70 days and 580+/-70 years (at a temperature of 15 degrees C) were derived for the two main peaks placed in the glow curve at approximately 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C, respectively, using the isothermal decay technique. These results as well as the estimated values of the trap parameters (thermal activation energy and frequency factor) have been compared with the data already available in the literature.

  17. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Emir Diltemiz, Sibel; Keçili, Rüstem; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (bio)sensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.). On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (bio)sensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology. PMID:28245588

  18. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Electronic Interfacing Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Benammar, Mohieddine; Brett, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors are actively being implemented in various fields due to their compatibility with different operating conditions in gaseous/liquid mediums for a wide range of measurements. This trend has been matched by the parallel advancement in tailored electronic interfacing systems for QCM sensors. That is, selecting the appropriate electronic circuit is vital for accurate sensor measurements. Many techniques were developed over time to cover the expanding measurement requirements (e.g., accommodating highly-damping environments). This paper presents a comprehensive review of the various existing QCM electronic interfacing systems. Namely, impedance-based analysis, oscillators (conventional and lock-in based techniques), exponential decay methods and the emerging phase-mass based characterization. The aforementioned methods are discussed in detail and qualitatively compared in terms of their performance for various applications. In addition, some theoretical improvements and recommendations are introduced for adequate systems implementation. Finally, specific design considerations of high-temperature microbalance systems (e.g., GaPO4 crystals (GCM) and Langasite crystals (LCM)) are introduced, while assessing their overall system performance, stability and quality compared to conventional low-temperature applications. PMID:29206212

  19. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.

    PubMed

    Kosaki, Yasuhiro; Takano, Kosuke; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-01-01

    Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film. The detailed response mechanism could not be verified yet. However, from the results obtained when using a different plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether, it is considered that this effect is caused by the release of water molecules. Consequently, the newly fabricated sensor detects ammonium ions by discharge of water. It shows high selectivity over potassium and sodium ions. We conclude that the newly fabricated sensor can be applied for detecting ammonium ions in aquarium water, since it allows measuring low ammonium ion concentrations. This sensor will be usable for water quality monitoring and controlling.

  20. Acoustic Tests of Lorentz Symmetry Using Quartz Oscillators

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Anthony; Haslinger, Philipp; Mizrachi, Eli; ...

    2016-02-24

    Here we propose and demonstrate a test of Lorentz symmetry based on new, compact, and reliable quartz oscillator technology. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the matter and photon sector of the standard model extension generate anisotropies in particles’ inertial masses and the elastic constants of solids, giving rise to measurable anisotropies in the resonance frequencies of acoustic modes in solids. A first realization of such a “phonon-sector” test of Lorentz symmetry using room-temperature stress-compensated-cut crystals yields 120 h of data at a frequency resolution of 2.4 × 10 -15 and a limit ofmore » $$\\bar{c}$$ $$n\\atop{Q}$$ = (- 1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -14 GeV on the most weakly constrained neutron-sector c coefficient of the standard model extension. Future experiments with cryogenic oscillators promise significant improvements in accuracy, opening up the potential for improved limits on Lorentz violation in the neutron, proton, electron, and photon sector.« less

  1. TitaniQ recrystallized: experimental confirmation of the original Ti-in-quartz calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Watson, E. Bruce; Spear, Frank S.; Wark, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have reported the P- T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility, and there is close agreement among three of the four experimental calibrations. New experiments were conducted in the present study to identify potential experimental disequilibrium, and to determine which Ti-in-quartz solubility calibration is most accurate. Crystals of quartz, rutile and zircon were grown from SiO2-, TiO2-, and ZrSiO4-saturated aqueous fluids in an initial synthesis experiment at 925 °C and 10 kbar in a piston-cylinder apparatus. A range of quartz crystal sizes was produced in this experiment; both large and small examples were analyzed by electron microprobe to determine whether Ti concentrations are correlated with crystal size. Cathodoluminescence images and EPMA measurements show that intercrystalline and intracrystalline variations in Ti concentrations are remarkably small regardless of crystal size. The average Ti-in-quartz concentration from the synthesis experiment is 392 ± 1 ppmw Ti, which is within 95 % confidence interval of data from the 10 kbar isobar of Wark and Watson (Contrib Mineral Petrol 152:743-754, 2006) and Thomas et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:743-759, 2010). As a cross-check on the Ti-in-quartz calibration, we also measured the concentration of Zr in rutile from the synthesis experiment. The average Zr-in-rutile concentration is 4337 ± 32 ppmw Zr, which is also within the 95 % confidence interval of the Zr-in-rutile solubility calibration of Ferry and Watson (Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:429-437, 2007). The P- T dependencies of Ti solubility in quartz and Zr solubility in rutile were applied as a thermobarometer to the experimental sample. The average Ti-in-quartz isopleth calculated from the calibration of Thomas et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:743-759, 2010) and the average Zr-in-rutile isopleth calculated from the calibration of Tomkins et al. (J Metamorph Geol 25:703-713, 2007) cross at 9.5 kbar and 920 °C, which is in excellent

  2. Radiation-Induced Changes in Quartz, A Mineral Analog of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Silva, Chinthaka M; Rosseel, Thomas M; Kirkegaard, Marie C

    2018-03-19

    Quartz single-crystal samples consisting of α-quartz crystal structure were neutron irradiated to fluences of 5 × 10 18 , 4 × 10 19 , and 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at two temperatures (52 and 95 °C). The changes in the α-quartz phase as a function of these two conditions (temperature and fluence) were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the results acquired using these complementary techniques are presented in a single place for the first time. XRD studies showed that the lattice parameters of α-quartz increased with increasing neutron flux. The lattice growth was larger for the samples that were neutron irradiated at 52 °C than at 95 °C. Moreover, an amorphous content was determined in the quartz samples neutron irradiated at 4 × 10 19 n/cm 2 , with the greater amount being in the 52 °C irradiated sample. Complete amorphization of quartz was observed at a fluence of 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) using XRD and confirmed by TEM characterization and Raman spectroscopic studies. The cause for α-quartz lattice expansion and sample amorphization was also explored using XRD and Raman spectroscopic studies.

  3. Stability limits and transformation pathways of α-quartz under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. Y.; Shu, J.-F.; Yang, W. G.; Park, C.; Chen, M. W.; Fujita, T.; Mao, H.-K.; Sheng, H. W.

    2017-03-01

    Ubiquitous on Earth, α-quartz plays an important role in modern science and technology. However, despite extensive research in the past, the mechanism of the polymorphic transitions of α-quartz at high pressures remains poorly understood. Here, combining in situ single-crystal x-ray diffraction experiment and advanced ab initio modeling, we report two stability limits and competing transition pathways of α-quartz under high pressure. Under near-equilibrium compression conditions at room temperature, α-quartz transits to a new P 2 /c silica phase via a structural intermediate. If the thermally activated transition is kinetically suppressed, the ultimate stability of α-quartz is controlled by its phonon instability and α-quartz collapses into a different crystalline phase. Our studies reveal that pressure-induced solid-state transformation of α-quartz undergoes a succession of structural stability limits, due to thermodynamic and mechanical catastrophes, and exhibits a hierarchy of transition pathways contingent upon kinetic conditions.

  4. Radiation-Induced Changes in Quartz, A Mineral Analog of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Aggregates

    SciT

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Kirkegaard, Marie C.

    Quartz single-crystal samples consisting of α-quartz crystal structure were neutron irradiated to fluences of 5 × 10 18, 4 × 10 19, and 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at two temperatures (52 and 95 °C). The changes in the α-quartz phase as a function of these two conditions (temperature and fluence) were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the results acquired using these complementary techniques are presented in a single place for the first time. XRD studies showed that the lattice parameters of α-quartz increased with increasingmore » neutron flux. The lattice growth was larger for the samples that were neutron irradiated at 52 °C than at 95 °C. Moreover, an amorphous content was determined in the quartz samples neutron irradiated at 4 × 10 19 n/cm 2, with the greater amount being in the 52 °C irradiated sample. Complete amorphization of quartz was observed at a fluence of 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) using XRD and confirmed by TEM characterization and Raman spectroscopic studies. In conclusion, the cause for α-quartz lattice expansion and sample amorphization was also explored using XRD and Raman spectroscopic studies.« less

  5. Adhesion of Escherichia coli onto quartz, hematite and corundum: extended DLVO theory and flotation behavior.

    PubMed

    Farahat, Mohsen; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Doi, Katsumi

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of Escherichia coli onto quartz, hematite and corundum was experimentally investigated. A strain of E. coli was used that had the genes for expressing protein for silica precipitation. The maximum cell adhesion was observed at pH <4.3 for quartz and at pH 4.5-8.5 for corundum. For hematite, cell adhesion remained low at all pH values. The microbe-mineral adhesion was assessed by the extended DLVO theory approach. The essential parameters for calculation of microbe-mineral interaction energy (Hamaker constants and acid-base components) were experimentally determined. The extended DLVO approach could be used to explain the results of the adhesion experiments. The effect of E. coli on the floatability of three oxide minerals was determined and the results showed that E. coli can act as a selective collector for quartz at acidic pH values, with 90% of the quartz floated at 1.5 x 10(9)cells/ml. However, only 9% hematite and 30% corundum could be floated under similar conditions. By using E. coli and no reagents, it was possible to separate quartz from a hematite-quartz mixture with Newton's efficiency of 0.70. Removal of quartz from the corundum mixture was achieved by E. coli with Newton's efficiency of 0.62.

  6. Exposures to quartz, diesel, dust, and welding fumes during heavy and highway construction.

    PubMed

    Woskie, Susan R; Kalil, Andrew; Bello, Dhimiter; Virji, M Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Personal samples for exposure to dust, diesel exhaust, quartz, and welding fume were collected on heavy and highway construction workers. The respirable, thoracic, and inhalable fractions of dust and quartz exposures were estimated from 260 personal impactor samples. Respirable quartz exposures exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) in 7-31% of cases for the trades sampled. More than 50% of the samples in the installation of drop ceilings and wall tiles and concrete finish operations exceeded the NIOSH REL for quartz. Thoracic exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 4.5 and 2.8, respectively. Inhalable exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 25.6 and 9.3, respectively. These findings are important due to the identification of quartz as a carcinogen by the National Toxicology Program and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Fourteen percent of the personal samples for EC (n = 261), collected as a marker for diesel exhaust, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for diesel exhaust. Seventeen of the 22 (77%) samples taken during a partially enclosed welding operation reached or exceeded the ACGIH TLV of 5 mg/m3 for welding fume.

  7. Application of hydrometallurgy techniques in quartz processing and purification: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Lei, Shaomin; Pei, Zhenyu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhangjie; Xie, Feixiang

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on separation and purification of metallic minerals by hydrometallurgy techniques, applications of the chemical techniques in separation and purification of non-metallic minerals are rarely reported. This paper reviews disparate areas of study into processing and purification of quartz (typical non-metallic ore) in an attempt to summarize current work, as well as to suggest potential for future consolidation in the field. The review encompasses chemical techniques of the quartz processing including situations, progresses, leaching mechanism, scopes of application, advantages and drawbacks of micro-bioleaching, high temperature leaching, high temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching. Traditional leaching techniques including micro-bioleaching and high temperature leaching are unequal to demand of modern glass industry for quality of quartz concentrate because the quartz products has to be further processed. High temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching provide new ways to produce high-grade quartz sand with only one process and lower acid consumption. Furthermore, the catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching realizes effective purification of quartz with extremely low acid consumption (no using HF or any fluoride). It is proposed that, by integrating the different chemical processes of quartz processing and expounding leaching mechanisms and scopes of application, the research field as a monopolized industry would benefit.

  8. Radiation-Induced Changes in Quartz, A Mineral Analog of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Aggregates

    DOE PAGES

    Silva, Chinthaka M.; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Kirkegaard, Marie C.

    2018-03-07

    Quartz single-crystal samples consisting of α-quartz crystal structure were neutron irradiated to fluences of 5 × 10 18, 4 × 10 19, and 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at two temperatures (52 and 95 °C). The changes in the α-quartz phase as a function of these two conditions (temperature and fluence) were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the results acquired using these complementary techniques are presented in a single place for the first time. XRD studies showed that the lattice parameters of α-quartz increased with increasingmore » neutron flux. The lattice growth was larger for the samples that were neutron irradiated at 52 °C than at 95 °C. Moreover, an amorphous content was determined in the quartz samples neutron irradiated at 4 × 10 19 n/cm 2, with the greater amount being in the 52 °C irradiated sample. Complete amorphization of quartz was observed at a fluence of 2 × 10 20 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) using XRD and confirmed by TEM characterization and Raman spectroscopic studies. In conclusion, the cause for α-quartz lattice expansion and sample amorphization was also explored using XRD and Raman spectroscopic studies.« less

  9. X-ray Raman scattering for structural investigation of silica/silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, H.; Kanzaki, M.; Hiraoka, N.; Cai, Y. Q.

    2009-03-01

    We have performed X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) measurements on the oxygen K and silicon L absorption edges of four silica minerals: α-quartz, α-cristobalite, coesite, and stishovite. We have also calculated the partial electron densities of states (DOSs) and compared these with the XRS spectra. This study demonstrates that the short-range structure around the atom of interest strongly influences the XRS spectral features. Importantly, the oxygen K-edge XRS spectra are found to reflect the p-orbital DOS while the silicon L-edge spectra reflect the s- and d-orbital DOSs, even when a product of a momentum transfer and a mean radius of a electron orbit (1 s for oxygen and 2 p for silicon), Qr, is close to or larger than unity. Building on this, calculations of the partial DOSs for other silica phases are presented, including ultra-high-pressure phases, which provide a good reference for further XRS study of silica and silicate minerals. XRS measurements should be performed on not only either of oxygen or silicon but also on many kinds of constituent elements to reveal the structural change of glasses/melts of silicates under extreme conditions.

  10. Shock metamorphism and impact melting in small impact craters on Earth: Evidence from Kamil crater, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Agnese; Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Cordier, Carole

    2014-12-01

    Kamil is a 45 m diameter impact crater identified in 2008 in southern Egypt. It was generated by the hypervelocity impact of the Gebel Kamil iron meteorite on a sedimentary target, namely layered sandstones with subhorizontal bedding. We have carried out a petrographic study of samples from the crater wall and ejecta deposits collected during our first geophysical campaign (February 2010) in order to investigate shock effects recorded in these rocks. Ejecta samples reveal a wide range of shock features common in quartz-rich target rocks. They have been divided into two categories, as a function of their abundance at thin section scale: (1) pervasive shock features (the most abundant), including fracturing, planar deformation features, and impact melt lapilli and bombs, and (2) localized shock features (the least abundant) including high-pressure phases and localized impact melting in the form of intergranular melt, melt veins, and melt films in shatter cones. In particular, Kamil crater is the smallest impact crater where shatter cones, coesite, stishovite, diamond, and melt veins have been reported. Based on experimental calibrations reported in the literature, pervasive shock features suggest that the maximum shock pressure was between 30 and 60 GPa. Using the planar impact approximation, we calculate a vertical component of the impact velocity of at least 3.5 km s-1. The wide range of shock features and their freshness make Kamil a natural laboratory for studying impact cratering and shock deformation processes in small impact structures.

  11. IR calibrations for water determination in olivine, r-GeO2, and SiO2 polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Koch-Müller, Monika; Reichart, Patrick; Rhede, Dieter; Thomas, Rainer; Wirth, Richard; Matsyuk, Stanislav

    2009-10-01

    Mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated for natural and synthetic olivine, SiO2 polymorphs, and GeO2 with specific isolated OH point defects using quantitative data from independent techniques such as proton-proton scattering, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Moreover, we present a routine to detect OH traces in anisotropic minerals using Raman spectroscopy combined with the “Comparator Technique”. In case of olivine and the SiO2 system, it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ for one structure is independent of the type of OH point defect and therewith the peak position (quartz ɛ = 89,000 ± 15,000 text{l} text{mol}_{{text{H}_2}text{O}}^{-1} text{cm}^{-2}), but it varies as a function of structure (coesite ɛ = 214,000 ± 14,000 text{l} text{mol}_{{text{H}_2}text{O}}^{-1} text{cm}^{-2}; stishovite ɛ = 485,000 ± 109,000 text{l} text{mol}_{{text{H}_2}text{O}}^{-1} text{cm}^{-2}). Evaluation of data from this study confirms that not using mineral-specific IR calibrations for the OH quantification in nominally anhydrous minerals leads to inaccurate estimations of OH concentrations, which constitute the basis for modeling the Earth’s deep water cycle.

  12. The stability of lawsonite and zoisite at high pressures: Experiments in CASH to 92 kbar and implications for the presence of hydrous phases in subducted lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Max W.; Poli, Stefano

    1994-06-01

    The breakdown reactions of lawsonite in SiO2 + H2O- and in Al2O3 + H2O-saturated synthetic CASH systems were examined between 17 and 92 kbar in both forward and reversed experiments. Lawsonite is stable to 565 C at 20 kbar, 760 C at 40 kbar, and 980 C at 65 kbar. In this pressure range lawsonite breaks down to zoisite + kyanite + quartz/ coesite + H2O. An invariant point occurs at 1000 C, 67 kbar. At higher pressures lawsonite breaks down to the assemblage grossular + kyanite + coesite + H20. The steep positive dP/dT slope of this higher pressure breakdown reaction becomes steeply negative when coesite transforms to stishovite. At 92 kbar, the highest pressure investigated, lawsonite is stable to 1040 C. The invariant point marks also the pressure stability limit of zoisite since zoisite reacts to lawsonite + grossular + kyanite + coesite (at temperatures below 1000 C), to grossular + kyanite + coesite + H2O (1000-1040 C) and to grossular + kyanite + melt + H20 (above 1040C). These three reactions have a flat Clapeyron slope, and they locate the maximum pressure stability of zoisite between 65 and 68 kbar (between 800 and 1200 C). Eutectic melting in the SiO2 + H2O-saturated CASH system occurs for the assemblage zoisite + kyanite + coesite + H2O at temperatures approximately 100 C (at 40 kbar) to 40 C (at 65 kbar) higher than the lawsonite breakdown reaction. In the Al2O3+H2O-saturated system the reaction lawsonite + diaspore/corundum = zoisite + kyanite + H2O limits the stability of lawsonite. The diaspore = corundum + H2O equilibrium is found to be located about 50 C lower than predicted by previous studies. The equilibrium boundaries of the reactions between 17 and 38 kbar from both SiO2+H2O- and Al2O3 + H2O-saturated chemical systems were used to improve the thermochemical data on lawsonite. Two sets of thermodynamic properties internally consistent with the databases of both Berman and Holland and Powell, and also consistent with most previous experimental

  13. Titanium concentration in quartz as a record of multiple deformation mechanisms in an extensional shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, William O.; Whitney, Donna L.; Teyssier, Christian; Bagley, Brian; Mulch, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Results of high precision analysis of Ti concentration ([Ti]) in quartz representing different recrystallization microstructures in a suite of progressively deformed quartzite mylonites show the effect of recrystallization on distribution of Ti in quartz. Petrographic observations and ion microprobe analysis reveals three texturally and geochemically distinct quartz microstructures in mylonites: (1) cores of recrystallized quartz ribbons preserve the highest [Ti] and are interpreted to have recrystallized via grain boundary migration recrystallization, (2) recrystallized rims and grain margins preserve a lower and more variable [Ti] and are interpreted to reflect the combined influence of subgrain rotation and bulging recrystallization, and (3) neocrystallized quartz precipitated in dilatancy sites has low (˜1 ppm) [Ti], reflecting the Ti content of the syndeformational fluid. Muscovite in nonmylonitic quartzite (at the base of the sampling traverse) is compositionally zoned, whereas muscovite in mylonitic quartzite shows a progressive decreasing in zoning in higher strain samples. Three-dimensional phase distribution mapping using X-ray computed tomography analysis of rock hand samples reveals that Ti-bearing accessory phases are less abundant and more dispersed in higher strained mylonites compared to nonmylonitic quartzite. This study demonstrates the influence of dynamic recrystallization on Ti substitution in quartz and evaluates the Ti buffering capacity of aqueous fluids (meteoric versus metamorphic/magmatic) as well as the distribution and reactivity of Ti-bearing accessory phases in a deforming quartzite. Results of this study suggest that Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry of deformed quartz is a sensitive technique for resolving the multistage history of quartz deformation and recrystallization in crustal shear zones.

  14. Quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake granodiorite, north-central Maine

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Shank, Stephen G.

    1983-01-01

    Quartz-molybdenite veins up to 15 cm in width occur in fine to medium-grained porphyritic biotite-hornblende granodiorite at Priestly Lake north-central Maine. An area of about 150 m x 150 m contains quartz-molybdenite veins; a larger area is characterized by barren quartz veins. Quartz-molybdenite veins are concentrated within the most felsic variants of the intrusion as suggested by lower mafic mineral contents. The pluton has a narrow range in SiO2 (67-70 wt.%), major oxides, and in trace-element compositions. Molybdenite occurs as coarse grained clusters in pockets within the quartz veins, and fills fractures in the quartz veins and host rocks. Disseminated molybdenite in the granodiorite is relatively rare and occurs only in the area characterized by a high density of quartz veins (up to 50 veins per square meter). Alteration envelopes along the quartz veins are very thin or absent, although in some areas the granodiorite appears to be selectively and pervasively altered. Sericite, chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite, and quartz are concentrated near the quartz-molybdenite veins. Many of the field and geochemical characteristics of the Priestly Lake pluton are unlike those of major molybdenum-producing areas (Climax, Henderson, Urad). For example, the area of alteration seems to be of limited extent, the host rock is not intensely altered hydrothermally at the surface, the density of fractures is rather low in the mineralized area, and the amount of disseminated molybdenite appears to be small. However, the Priestly Lake pluton may be a small fraction of a concealed batholith as suggested by geophysical data. It is conceivable that the type of mineralization at the surface might be the expression of more extensive molybdenite mineralization at depth. The quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake pluton are significant because they indicate that potential molybdenum sources for producing mineralized granites were available at depth. Future studies should be

  15. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) monitor of contamination for LES-8/9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    A Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was used to monitor condensable contamination during the launching of two Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Satellites--LES-8 and LES-9. The QCM was installed on the dispenser truss and measured contamination by means of a frequency shift of a quartz crystal oscillator. By using a special crystal cut and a second reference quartz crystal, the sensor had extreme sensitivity and remarkable temperature independence. A 1-Hz frequency shift, which corresponds to 3.5 x 10 to the -9th power g/sq cm was resolved by the flight instrumentation.

  16. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-08-01

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with

  17. Transport of Escherichia coli in 25 m quartz sand columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutterodt, G.; Foppen, J. W. A.; Maksoud, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2011-01-01

    To help improve the prediction of bacteria travel distances in aquifers laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the distant dependent sticking efficiencies of two low attaching Escherichia coli strains (UCFL-94 and UCFL-131). The experimental set up consisted of a 25 m long helical column with a diameter of 3.2 cm packed with 99.1% pure-quartz sand saturated with a solution of magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride. Bacteria mass breakthrough at sampling distances ranging from 6 to 25.65 m were observed to quantify bacteria attachment over total transport distances ( αL) and sticking efficiencies at large intra-column segments ( αi) (> 5 m). Fractions of cells retained ( Fi) in a column segment as a function of αi were fitted with a power-law distribution from which the minimum sticking efficiency defined as the sticking efficiency of 0.001% bacteria fraction of the total input mass retained that results in a 5 log removal were extrapolated. Low values of αL in the order 10 - 4 and 10 - 3 were obtained for UCFL-94 and UCFL-131 respectively, while αi-values ranged between 10 - 6 to 10 - 3 for UCFL-94 and 10 - 5 to 10 - 4 for UCFL-131. In addition, both αL and αi reduced with increasing transport distance, and high coefficients of determination (0.99) were obtained for power-law distributions of αi for the two strains. Minimum sticking efficiencies extrapolated were 10 - 7 and 10 - 8 for UCFL-94 and UCFL-131, respectively. Fractions of cells exiting the column were 0.19 and 0.87 for UCFL-94 and UCL-131, respectively. We concluded that environmentally realistic sticking efficiency values in the order of 10 - 4 and 10 - 3 and much lower sticking efficiencies in the order 10 - 5 are measurable in the laboratory, Also power-law distributions in sticking efficiencies commonly observed for limited intra-column distances (< 2 m) are applicable at large transport distances(> 6 m) in columns packed with quartz grains. High fractions of bacteria populations

  18. Fluid inclusion studies on the mineralized quartz-rich hydrothermal breccias and quartz veins of the Kay Tanda epithermal gold deposit, Lobo, Batangas, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, S. M. P.; Takahashi, R.; Imai, A.; Blamey, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Kay Tanda epithermal deposit in Lobo, Batangas, Philippines is mainly hosted in quartz-rich hydrothermal breccia and quartz veins. These contain varying gold grades with some reaching bonanza gold grades as high as 200 ppm Au. They also contain varying amounts of base metal sulfides such as sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite whose abundances increase with depth. Petrographic analysis of the samples revealed different quartz textures such as colloform textures in quartz veins at shallow levels and feathery, flamboyant and mosaic textures in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias at deeper levels. These textures are indicative of boiling conditions. To elucidate the fluid conditions, fluid source, composition and processes during the formation of the deposit, fluid inclusion microthermometry, quantitative fluid inclusion gas analysis and laser Raman spectroscopy were conducted. Doubly polished thin wafers prepared from the quartz veins and quartz crystals in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias. Microthermometric analysis of primary fluid inclusions included measurements of the freezing temperature Tf, the temperature of ice melting Tm, and the homogenization temperature of the fluid phase by disappearance of vapor Th. Liquid-to-vapor (L-V) ratios are variable, thus, liquid-rich liquid-vapor inclusions and vapor-rich liquid-vapor inclusions coexist in some samples. The sizes of the primary fluid inclusions may reach 100 micrometers. The homogenization temperatures range 200 °C to 380 °C, with the mode around 250 °C to 280 °C. Salinities range from 2 to 7 wt% NaCl equivalent, with the mode around 4 to 5 wt% NaCl equivalent. Trends of the distribution of fluid inclusion populations based on their homogenization temperature and salinity suggest boiling which is consistent with the variable liquid to vapor ratios, i.e. coexistence of liquid-rich inclusions and vapor-rich inclusions.

  19. Microcontact imprinted quartz crystal microbalance nanosensor for protein C recognition.

    PubMed

    Bakhshpour, Monireh; Özgür, Erdoğan; Bereli, Nilay; Denizli, Adil

    2017-03-01

    Detection of protein C (PC) in human serum was performed by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based on molecular imprinting technique (MIP). The high-resolution and mass-sensitive QCM based sensor was integrated with high sensitivity and selectivity of the MIP technique. The PC microcontact imprinted (PC-μCIP) nanofilm was prepared on the glass surface. Then, the PC-μCIP/QCM sensor was prepared with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and N-methacryloyl l-histidine methylester (MAH) as the functional monomer with copper(II) ions. The polymerization was performed under UV light (100W and 365nm) for 20-25min under nitrogen atmosphere. The characterization studies of QCM sensor were done by observation using atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, ellipsometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Detection of PC was investigated in a concentration range of 0.1-30μg/mL. Selectivity of PC-μCIP and PC non-imprinted/QCM (PC-non-μCIP) sensors for PC determination was investigated by using proteins namely hemoglobin (Hb), human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen solutions. QCM sensor was also used for detection of PC molecules in aqueous solutions and human plasma. The detection limit was determined as 0.01μg/mL for PC analysis. The PC-μCIP/QCM sensor was used for five consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. According to the results, the PC-μCIP/QCM sensor had obtained high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of PC molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for rapid detection of aerosolized microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farka, Zdenĕk.; Kovár, David; Skládal, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) represent the current menace of the asymmetric war. The early detection of BWAs, especially in the form of bioaerosol, is a challenging task for governments all around the world. Label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor and electrochemical immunosensor were developed and tested for rapid detection of BWA surrogate (E. coli) in the form of bioaerosol. Two immobilization strategies for the attachment of antibody were tested; the gold sensor surface was activated by cysteamine and then antibody was covalently linked either using glutaraldehyde, or the reduced antibodies were attached via Sulfo-SMCC. A portable bioaerosol chamber was constructed and used for safe manipulation with aerosolized microorganisms. The dissemination was done using a piezoelectric humidifier, distribution of bioaerosol inside the chamber was ensured using three 12-cm fans. The whole system was controlled remotely using LAN network. The disseminated microbial cells were collected and preconcentrated using the wetted-wall cyclone SASS 2300, the analysis was done using the on-line linked immunosensors. The QCM immunosensor had limit of detection 1×104 CFU·L-1 of air with analysis time 16 min, the whole experiment including dissemination and sensor surface regeneration took 40 min. In case of blank (disseminated sterile buffer), no signal change was observed. The electrochemical immunosensor was able to detect 150 CFU·L-1 of air in 20 min; also in this case, no interferences were observed. Reference measurements were done using particle counter Met One 3400 and by cultivation method on agar plates. The sensors have proved to be applicable for rapid screening of microorganisms in air.

  1. The stability of annite+quartz: reversed experimental data for the reaction 2 annite+3 quartz=2 sanidine+3 fayalite +2 H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachs, E.; Benisek, Artur

    1995-10-01

    Reversals for the reaction 2 annite+3 quartz=2 sanidine+3 fayalite+2 H2O have been experimentally determined in cold-seal pressure vessels at pressures of 2, 3, 4 and 5 kbar, limiting annite +quartz stability towards higher temperatures. The equilibrium passes through the temperature intervals 500 540° C (2 kbar), 550 570° C (3 kbar), 570 590° C (4 kbar) and 590 610° C (5 kbar). Starting materials for most experiments were mixtures of synthetic annite +fayalite+sanidine+quartz and in some runs annite+quartz alone. Microprobe analyses of the reacted mixtures showed that the annites deviate slightly from their ideal Si/Al ratio (Si per formula unit ranges between 2.85 and 2.92, AlVI between 0.06 and 0.15). As determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, the Fe3+ content of annite in the assemblage annite+fayalite +sanidine+quartz is around 5 7%. The experimental data were used to extract the thermodynamic standard state enthalpy and entropy of annite as follows: H 0 f, Ann =-5125.896±8.319 [kJ/mol] and S 0 Ann=432.62±8.89 [J/mol/K] (consistent with the Holland and Powell 1990 data set), and H 0 f,Ann =-5130.971±7.939 [kJ/mol] and S 0 Ann=424.02±8.39 [J/mol/K] (consistent with the TWEEQ data base, Berman 1991). The preceeding values are close to the standard state properties derived from hydrogen sensor data of the redox reaction annite=sanidine+magnetite+ H 2 (Dachs 1994). The experimental half-reversal of Eugster and Wones (1962) on the annite +quartz breakdown reaction could not be reproduced experimentally (formation of annite from sanidine+fayalite+quartz at 540° C/1.035 kbar/magnetite-iron buffer) and probable reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. The extracted thermodynamic standard state properties of annite were used to calculate annite and annite+quartz stabilities for pressures between 2 and 5 kbar.

  2. Compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork and spatially resolved trace gas detection

    SciT

    Ma, Yufei, E-mail: mayufei@hit.edu.cn; Post-doctoral Mobile Station of Power Engineering and Engineering Thermophysics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001; He, Ying

    An ultra compact all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor using quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a low resonance frequency of 30.72 kHz was demonstrated. Such a sensor architecture has the advantages of easier optical alignment, lower insertion loss, lower cost, and more compact compared with a conventional QEPAS sensor using discrete optical components for laser delivery and coupling to the QTF. A fiber beam splitter and three QTFs were employed to perform multi-point detection and demonstrated the potential of spatially resolved measurements.

  3. A discussion of 'Anomalous quartz from the Roter Kamm impact crater, Namibia - Evidence for post-impact hydrothermal activity?'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedder, Edwin

    1990-11-01

    This paper presents arguments against the statement made by Koeberl et al. (1989) to the effect that various differences between the quartz of the three quartz pebbles from the Roter Kamm impact crater (Namibia) and the quartz of the pegmatites present in the basement rocks of this crater can be best interpreted as evidence that the pebbles were formed (or 'recrystallized') by a post-impact hydrothermal system. Arguments are presented that suggest that the three quartz pebbles are, most likely, fragments of a preimpact vein quartz of hydrothermal origin.

  4. Direct deposition of silver nanoplates on quartz surface by sequence pre-treatment hydroxylation and silanisation.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Norhayati; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Ali Umar, Akrajas; Shapter, Joseph George

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles deposited on quartz substrates are widely used as SERS substrates. The nanoparticles can be deposited directly from colloidal solution by dipping technique. However, the adhesion of the particles on the quartz surface is very poor. Normally the substrate is pre-treated with hydroxylation or silanisation process. In this paper, we have demonstrated that the application of the sequence pre-treatment hydroxylation and silanisation have improved the density of silver nanoplates desposited on the quartz surface. •Sequence hydroxylation and silanisation pre-treatment assists the deposition of the nanoplate on the surface.•Various immersion times of the quartz surface into the colloidal nanoplates determined size distributions and density surface of the nanoplates on the surface.

  5. TT-Cut Torsional Quartz Crystal Resonators of Free-Free Bar-Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Mitsuhiro

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes a TT-cut torsional quartz crystal resonator of free-free bar type. An object of this paper is to clarify the frequency temperature behavior, series resistance and a quality factor for TT-cut torsional quartz crystal resonators of free-free bar-type. The analysis results are then compared with the measured data. The principal results indicate that the calculated values of frequency temperature behavior for resonators of free-free bar-type agree comparatively well with the measured ones. Similar to the torsional resonators of tuning fork-type, a torsional quartz crystal resonator of free-free bar-type is also found to have an absolute value of the second order temperature coefficient β smaller than half a value of that for a flexural mode quartz crystal resonator.

  6. Quartz Knapping Strategies in the Howiesons Poort at Sibudu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    de la Peña, Paloma; Wadley, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The variability associated with Sibudu's Howiesons Poort Industry highlights the unpredictable trajectory of technology in the Middle Stone Age. We reach this conclusion through a study of the technology on quartz from one of the Howiesons Poort layers (Grey Sand) from Sibudu rock shelter. Quartz bifacial technology has previously been described at the site, but this new in-depth study of the quartz technology reveals other strategies. First is the recurring employment of bipolar knapping, formerly considered as a defining feature of the Later Stone Age. Secondly, we highlight a laminar technology with emphasis on small quartz bladelets. Bipolar cores are most common, followed by prismatic cores. The knapping strategies in Grey Sand seem to involve systematic recycling and the deliberate production of microliths. PMID:25014352

  7. Distinguishing shocked from tectonically deformed quartz by the use of the SEM and chemical etching

    Gratz, A.J.; Fisler, D.K.; Bohor, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple sets of crystallographically-oriented planar deformation features (PDFs) are generated by high-strain-rate shock waves at pressures of > 12 GPa in naturally shocked quartz samples. On surfaces, PDFs appear as narrow (50-500 nm) lamellae filled with amorphosed quartz (diaplectic glass) which can be etched with hydrofluoric acid or with hydrothermal alkaline solutions. In contrast, slow-strain-rate tectonic deformation pressure produces wider, semi-linear and widely spaced arrays of dislocation loops that are not glass filled. Etching samples with HF before examination in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for unambiguous visual distinction between glass-filled PDFs and glass-free tectonic deformation arrays in quartz. This etching also reveals the internal 'pillaring' often characteristic of shock-induced PDFs. This technique is useful for easily distinguishing between shock and tectonic deformation in quartz, but does not replace optical techniques for characterizing the shock features.

  8. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  9. Comparative Petrographic Maturity of River and Beach Sand, and Origin of Quartz Arenites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Rob A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a deterministic computer model that incorporates: (1) initial framework composition; (2) abrasion factors for quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments; and (3) a fragmentation ratio for rock fragments to simulate the recycling of coastal sands by rivers and beaches. (TW)

  10. Retrospective dosimetry: dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building.

    PubMed

    Jain, M; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Murray, A S; Jungner, H

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of dose received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using heated materials such as household ceramics and bricks. However, unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more commonly found in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials contain natural dosemeters such as quartz, which usually is less sensitive than its heated counterpart. The potential of quartz extracted from mortar in a wall of a low-level radioactive-waste storage facility containing distributed sources of 60Co and 137Cs has been investigated. Dose-depth proliles based on small aliquots and single grains from the quartz extracted from the mortar samples are reported here. These are compared with results from heated quartz and polymineral fine grains extracted from an adjacent brick, and the integrated dose recorded by environmental TLDs.

  11. Installation and evaluation of weigh-in-motion utilizing quartz-piezo sensor technology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-28

    The objective of the research study was: to install a quartz-piezo based WIM system, and to : determine sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability under actual traffic conditions in : Connecticuts environment. If the systems prove dependable a...

  12. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  13. Asymmetric adsorption by quartz - A model for the prebiotic origin of optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. M.; Kavasmaneck, P. R.; Martin, F. S.; Flores, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    One mechanism previously proposed for the abiotic accumulation of molecules of one chirality in nature is asymmetric adsorption on the chiral surfaces of optically active quartz crystals. Earlier literature in this field is reviewed, with the conclusion that previous investigations of this phenomenon, using optical rotation criteria, have afforded ambiguous results. We now have studied the adsorption of radioactive D- and L-alanine on powdered d- and l-quartz, using change in radioactivity level as a criterion for both gross and differential adsorption, d-Quartz preferentially adsorbed D-alanine from anhydrous dimethyl-formamide solution, and l-quartz L-alanine. The differential adsorption varied between 1.0 and 1.8%. The implications of these observations are discussed from the viewpoint of early chemical evolution and the origin of optically active organic compounds in nature.

  14. Label-free, real-time interaction and adsorption analysis 2: quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Fee, Conan J

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a second biosensor technique is described: the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The quartz crystal microbalance is a physical technique that detects changes in the resonance frequency of an electrically driven quartz crystal with changes in mass. Unlike surface plasmon resonance (SPR), QCM is affected by both the water that may be associated with the adsorbed layer and by conformational changes in the adsorbed species, while SPR is insensitive to both effects. Thus QCM can both corroborate the findings of an SPR experiment and provide some complementary information. Also, the QCM surface is highly versatile and can range from plain quartz, through gold and other metal surfaces (e.g., titanium or stainless steel) to polymeric materials. Thus, the QCM technique has wide utility in tracking interactions with a variety of materials.

  15. Optimization of gas-filled quartz capillary discharge waveguide for high-energy laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhiyong; Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Wentao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhijun; Fang, Ming; Feng, Ke; Wu, Ying; Ke, Lintong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-04-01

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide made of quartz is presented for high-energy laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The experimental parameters (discharge current and gas pressure) were optimized to mitigate ablation by a quantitative analysis of the ablation plasma density inside the hydrogen-filled quartz capillary. The ablation plasma density was obtained by combining a spectroscopic measurement method with a calibrated gas transducer. In order to obtain a controllable plasma density and mitigate the ablation as much as possible, the range of suitable parameters was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the ablation in the quartz capillary could be mitigated by increasing the gas pressure to ˜7.5-14.7 Torr and decreasing the discharge current to ˜70-100 A. These optimized parameters are promising for future high-energy LWFA experiments based on the quartz capillary discharge waveguide.

  16. Shocked quartz in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary clays: Evidence for a global distribution

    Bohor, B.F.; Modreski, P.J.; Foord, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Shocked quartz grains displaying planar features were isolated from Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary days at five sites in Europe, a core from the north-central Pacific Ocean, and a site in New Zealand. At all of these sites, the planar features in the shocked quartz can be indexed to rational crystallographic planes of the quartz lattice. The grains display streaking indicative of shock in x-ray diffraction photographs and also show reduced refractive indices. These characteristic features of shocked quartz at several sites worldwide confirm that an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary distributed ejecta products in an earth-girdling dust cloud, as postulated by the Alvarez impact hypothesis.

  17. SIMS Investigations on Growth and Sector Zoning in Natural Hydrothermal Quartz: Isotopic and Trace Element Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, E.; Vennemann, T. W.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Meisser, N.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust and is found in virtually every geological context. Despite its ubiquity and the detailed studies on the conditions of quartz crystallization, some questions concerning its growth and sector zoning with regard to trace element incorporation and oxygen isotope fractionations and the implications thereof for interpretations on the conditions of formation remain (e.g., Jourdan et al., 2009). This study presents new in-situ measurements of trace element and oxygen isotope ratios on natural hydrothermal quartz from an extensional gold-bearing quartz vein in the western Swiss Alps. The temperature of formation of the veins is estimated by quartz-hematite oxygen isotope thermometry to be about 360°C. A detailed SEM-CL study of this sample shows cyclic lamellar growth, alternating with phases of dissolution that are directly followed by macro-mosaic growth of the quartz, before returning to a cyclic lamellar growth again. Trace element concentrations (measured for Na, K, Li, Al, and Ti) notably showed Al/Si variations of three orders of magnitude and coupled Al and Li variations, likely substituting for Si in different growth zones with lower values in macro-mosaic zones precipitating after the period of dissolution. The oxygen isotope composition of the crystal, in contrast, is homogeneous through all growth zones (δ18O values between 15.6‰ and 16.2‰) indicating that the fluid must have been buffered by the host-rock and/or the source of the fluid remained the same despite the period of quartz dissolution. Furthermore, the temperature during crystallization of the quartz crystal has likely also remained similar. The fact that no variations are measured in oxygen isotope compositions but some variations in trace element contents may suggest that changes in pressure were important during the formation of this quartz crystal. Give the pressure effects on the solubility of quartz (Fournier and Potter, 1982), both

  18. FTIR measurements of OH in deformed quartz and feldspars of the South Tibetan Detachment, Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, L.; Law, R. D.; Jessup, M. J.; Searle, M. P.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz and feldspar grains of mylonites from the low-angle Lhotse Detachment (of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Rongbuk Valley north of Mount Everest) have been measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Previous microstructural studies have shown that these rocks deformed by dislocation creep at high temperature conditions in the middle crust (lower - middle amphibolite facies), and oxygen isotope studies suggest significant influx of meteoric water. OH absorption bands at 3400 cm-1 of quartz mylonites from the footwall of the Lhotse Detachment Fault are large, with the character of the molecular water band due to fluid inclusions in milky quartz. Mean water contents depend on structural position relative to the core of the Lhotse Detachment, from 1000 ppm (OH/106 Si) at 420 m below the fault to 11,350 (+/-1095) ppm near its center. The gradient in OH content shown by quartz grains implies influx of meteoric water along the Lhotse Detachment from the Tibetan Plateau ground surface to middle crustal depths, and significant fluid penetration into the extruding Himalayan slab by intergranular, permeable fluid flow processes. Feldspars of individual samples have comparable water contents to those of quartz and some are wetter. Large water contents of quartz and feldspar may have contributed to continued deformation and strain localization on the South Tibetan Detachment System. Dislocation creep in quartz is facilitated by water in laboratory experiments, and the water contents of the Lhotse fault rocks are similar to (and even larger than) water contents of quartz experimentally deformed during water weakening. Water contents of feldspars are comparable to those of plagioclase aggregates deformed experimentally by dislocation and diffusion creep under wet conditions.

  19. ANSYS simulation of the capacitance coupling of quartz tuning fork gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Cui, Fang; Sun, Yu-nan

    2013-12-01

    Coupling error is one of the main error sources of the quartz tuning fork gyroscope. The mechanism of capacitance coupling error is analyzed in this article. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate the structure of the quartz tuning fork by ANSYS software. The voltage output induced by the capacitance coupling is simulated with the harmonic analysis and characteristics of electrical and mechanical parameters influenced by the capacitance coupling between drive electrodes and sense electrodes are discussed with the transient analysis.

  20. Evaluating the influence of stress on the dislocation creep flow law for quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokle, L.; Hirth, G.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the abundance of quartz in the continental crust, quartz rheology is fundamental to our understanding of many geodynamic processes. Microstructures in many naturally deformed quartzites deformed at ductile conditions, indicate that dislocation creep is a common deformation mechanism in quartz at crustal conditions. The dislocation creep flow laws for quartz were constructed based on deformation experiments on aggregates at temperatures from 900 to 1100°C and strain rates of 10-5-10-6 s-1. Hirth et al. (2001) point out that these flow laws underestimate sample strengths for experiments conducted below 900°C; yet samples deformed as low as 700°C exhibit dislocation creep microstructures. To address this discrepancy, we compared 14 different studies on experimentally deformed wet quartzite aggregates ranging in temperature from 700 to 1100°C. Our analysis shows that two clear trends develop, one with a power-law stress exponent of n = 4 and the other, at a higher stress, with a stress exponent of n = 3. This change suggests a transition in the rate-limiting process; further, the conditions where the transition in stress exponent occurs correlate well with changes in quartz c-axis fabrics in general shear experiments. At low stresses, quartz fabrics are defined by a Y-max, indicating prism slip, while at higher stresses quartz fabrics are defined by basal slip. Our interpretation is that the c-axis fabrics represent the easy slip system in quartz and hypothesize that basal slip is rate-limiting at low stresses while prism is rate-limiting at high stresses. A change in the stress exponent has significant consequences for our understanding of high stress tectonic environments, such as the brittle-ductile transition and sediment rheology in a subducting slab.

  1. Saturation spectroscopy of calcium atomic vapor in hot quartz cells with cold windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilshanskaya, E. V.; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Murashkin, D. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-01-01

    Saturation spectroscopy of calcium atomic vapor was performed in hot quartz cells with cold windows. The Doppler-free absorption resonances with spectral width near 50 MHz were observed. For these experiments and future applications long-lived quartz cells with buffer gas were designed and made. A cooling laser for calcium magneto-optical trap will be frequency locked to the saturation resonances in the long-lived cells.

  2. Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huadan; Dong, Lei; Wu, Hongpeng; Yin, Xukun; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-01-01

    During the past 15 years since the first report of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), QEPAS has become one of the leading optical techniques for trace chemical gas sensing. This paper is a review of the current state-of-the art of QEPAS. QEPAS based spectrophones with different acoustic micro-resonators (AmR) configurations employing both standard quartz tuning forks (QTFs) and custom-made QTFs are summarized and discussed in detail.

  3. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum Δcore-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  4. Ultrasensitive quartz crystal microbalance sensors for detection of M13-Phages in liquids.

    PubMed

    Uttenthaler, E; Schräml, M; Mandel, J; Drost, S

    2001-12-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors are widely used for determining liquid properties or probing interfacial processes. For some applications the sensitivity of the QCM sensors typically used (5-20 MHz) is limited compared with other biosensor methods. In this study ultrasensitive QCM sensors with resonant frequencies from 39 to 110 MHz for measurements in the liquid phase are presented. The fundamental sensor effect of a QCM is the decrease of the resonant frequency of an oscillating quartz crystal due to the binding of mass on a coated surface during the measurement. The sensitivity of QCM sensors increases strongly with an increasing resonant frequency and, therefore, with a decreasing thickness of the sensitive area. The new kind of ultrasensitive QCM sensors used in this study is based on chemically milled shear mode quartz crystals which are etched only in the center of the blank, forming a thin quartz membrane with a thick, mechanically stable outer ring. An immunoassay using a virus specific monoclonal antibody and a M13-Phage showed an increase in the signal to noise ratio by a factor of more than 6 for 56 MHz quartz crystals compared with standard 19 MHz quartz crystals, the detection limit was improved by a factor of 200. Probing of acoustic properties of glycerol/water mixtures resulted in an increase in sensitivity, which is in very good agreement with theory. Chemically milled QCM sensors strongly improve the sensitivity in biosensing and probing of acoustic properties and, therefore, offer interesting new application fields for QCM sensors.

  5. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    PubMed Central

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems. PMID:28120860

  6. Radiation sensitivity of quartz crystal oscillators experiment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, J. S.; Venables, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Factors determining the radiation sensitivity of quartz crystal oscillators were studied on NASA's LDEF. Quartz materials were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and classified as to their sensitivity to radiation damage by establishing the rate of damage caused by the electron beam in the microscope. Two types of materials, i.e., swept premium Q quartz and natural quartz were chosen because clear differences were observed in their response to the electron beam in the TEM studies. Quartz resonators were then fabricated from them, tested for frequency stability over a greater than 6 mo. period and flown on the LDEF satellite. After retrieval (more than 7 yrs in space) the stability of the resonators was again determined. All of the space exposed resonators fabricated with swept premium Q material exhibited a frequency shift above that of the control resonators: none of the resonators fabricated from the natural quartz materials exhibited such a shift. The significant differences observed between the two types of materials in both the ground-based TEM studies and the space radiation induced frequency changes suggest that there may be a correlation between the two observations.

  7. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

    PubMed

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N

    2017-01-25

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ 18 O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ 18 O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ 18 O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆ core-rim  = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ 18 O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ 18 O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  8. Relationship of Technological Properties with Dynamic Recrystallization of Quartz on the Example of Objects of the Karelian-Kola Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skamnitskaya, Lubov; Rakov, Leonid; Bubnova, Tatyana; Shchiptsov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Despite the significant reserves of quartz raw materials, there is a deficit of high purity quartz. It is due to the strict technical requirements imposed by standards for this type of raw materials and technological properties of quartz, which are determined by the features of the crystal structure. The crystalline structure is of particular importance for the technological properties of quartz, since such important characteristics as the limit of raw material enrichment, dissolution rate in acid, melting point of quartz, etc., are determined. The formation of the crystal structure of quartz under natural conditions is associated with the successive dynamic recrystallization of the mineral. The degree of dynamic recrystallization of quartz reflects the distribution of dispersed impurities. If it is weakly manifested, the dispersed impurities are not displaced from one zone to another, and all quartz microblocks contain approximately the same concentration. In this case, more or less uniform dissolution of various regions of quartz is observed, and the pattern of distribution of submicroscopic inhomogeneities is monotonic. If intensive dynamic recrystallization of quartz takes place, then it causes a significant redistribution of the scattered impurities. Then the treatment in HF leads to the appearance of a contrast pattern of the distribution of submicroscopic inhomogeneities. The details of the crystal structure of quartz in this work were investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method using the ER-420 “Bruker” spectrometer. In the selected samples of quartz, the concentrations of isomorphic impurities Al and Ti were measured, and the degree of crystallinity D of the mineral was estimated from the EPR spectra of each of them. Thus, the technological properties of quartz are determined by various geological processes. The results of the studies show that when evaluating the prospects of quartz raw materials, it is necessary to take into

  9. Stress distribution during cold compression of a quartz aggregate using synchrotron X-ray diffraction: Observed yielding, damage, and grain crushing: STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF QUARTZ AGGREGATE

    SciT

    Cheung, C. S. N.; Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.

    We report new experimental results that quantify the stress distribution within a quartz aggregate during pore collapse and grain crushing. The samples were probed with synchrotron X-ray diffraction as they were compressed in a multianvil deformation apparatus at room temperature from low pressure (tens of megapascal) to pressures of a few gigapascal. In such a material, stress is likely to concentrate at grain-to-grain contacts and vanish where grains are bounded by open porosity. Therefore, internal stress is likely to vary significantly from point to point in such an aggregate, and hence, it is important to understand both the heterogeneity andmore » anisotropy of such variation with respect to the externally applied stress. In our quartz aggregate (grain size of ~4 μm), the measured diffraction peaks broaden asymmetrically at low pressure (tens of megapascal), suggesting that open pores are still a dominant characteristic of grain boundaries. In contrast, a reference sample of novaculite (a highly dense quartz polycrystal, grain size of ~6–9 μm) showed virtually no peak broadening with increasing pressure. In the quartz aggregate, we observed significant deviation in the pressure-volume curves in the range of P = 400–600 MPa. We suggest that this marks the onset of grain crushing (generally denoted as P* in the rock mechanic literature), which is commonly reported to occur in sandstones at pressures of this order, in general agreement with a Hertzian analysis of fracturing at grain contacts.« less

  10. Activity of slip in amphibolite facies, fine-grained recrystallized quartz aggregates: high differential stress during high-T creep of quartz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, G.; Menegon, L. M.; Archanjo, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Quartz axis fabrics are a valuable tool to investigate strain partitioning/distribution in both naturally- and experimentally deformed quartz. Previous works have shown that slip dominates at high temperatures (> 600º C) and water-rich, commonly sub-magmatic conditions, typically associated with large grain sizes and grain boundary migration microstructures. In the Pernambuco shear zone, sheared quartz veins from a protomylonitic granitoid formed during the main amphibolite facies event constrained at mid-crustal conditions (550-600ºC, 5 kbar). The veins contain heterogeneously-deformed primary quartz grains, which typically form both flattened and elongated ribbons as well as more equant porphyroclasts surrounded by aggregates of fine-grained (ca. 20 µm) recrystallized aggregates. Recrystallized quartz with the same fine grain size may also occur in intracrystalline bands within the porphyroclasts. Chessboard extinction is widely observed in the porphyroclasts, and subgrain boundaries are either parallel or normal to the (0001) direction, suggesting slip on both basal and prismatic planes during recrystallization. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of porphyroclasts (≥ 100 µm) show maxima of (0001) axes subparallel to Z and X, suggesting coeval glide along both basal and prism planes during shearing. In the recrystallized aggregates, fabric strength tends to become weaker, but still records glide along and directions. These preliminary results suggest that naturally deformed quartz veins record coeval activity of and slip during dynamic recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. The microstructure suggests that the CPO of the fine-grained aggregates is host-controlled and results from dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization. To our knowledge, activity of slip in fine-grained recrystallized aggregates has never been reported before. Thus, these preliminary results call into question the general view that slip is expected to be

  11. Fabric analysis of quartzites with negative magnetic susceptibility - Does AMS provide information of SPO or CPO of quartz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renjith, A. R.; Mamtani, Manish A.; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-01-01

    We ask the question whether petrofabric data from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of deformed quartzites gives information about shape preferred orientation (SPO) or crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz. Since quartz is diamagnetic and has a negative magnetic susceptibility, 11 samples of nearly pure quartzites with a negative magnetic susceptibility were chosen for this study. After performing AMS analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was done in thin sections prepared parallel to the K1K3 plane of the AMS ellipsoid. Results show that in all the samples quartz SPO is sub-parallel to the orientation of the magnetic foliation. However, in most samples no clear correspondance is observed between quartz CPO and K1 (magnetic lineation) direction. This is contrary to the parallelism observed between K1 direction and orientation of quartz c-axis in the case of undeformed single quartz crystal. Pole figures of quartz indicate that quartz c-axis tends to be parallel to K1 direction only in the case where intracrystalline deformation of quartz is accommodated by prism slip. It is therefore established that AMS investigation of quartz from deformed rocks gives information of SPO. Thus, it is concluded that petrofabric information of quartzite obtained from AMS is a manifestation of its shape anisotropy and not crystallographic preferred orientation.

  12. Consideration of Kaolinite Interference Correction for Quartz Measurements in Coal Mine Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P.; Kashon, Michael; Key-Schwartz, Rosa J.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Kaolinite interferes with the infrared analysis of quartz. Improper correction can cause over- or underestimation of silica concentration. The standard sampling method for quartz in coal mine dust is size selective, and, since infrared spectrometry is sensitive to particle size, it is intuitively better to use the same size fractions for quantification of quartz and kaolinite. Standard infrared spectrometric methods for quartz measurement in coal mine dust correct interference from the kaolinite, but they do not specify a particle size for the material used for correction. This study compares calibration curves using as-received and respirable size fractions of nine different examples of kaolinite in the different correction methods from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) 7603 and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) P-7. Four kaolinites showed significant differences between calibration curves with as-received and respirable size fractions for NMAM 7603 and seven for MSHA P-7. The quartz mass measured in 48 samples spiked with respirable fraction silica and kaolinite ranged between 0.28 and 23% (NMAM 7603) and 0.18 and 26% (MSHA P-7) of the expected applied mass when the kaolinite interference was corrected with respirable size fraction kaolinite. This is termed “deviation,” not bias, because the applied mass is also subject to unknown variance. Generally, the deviations in the spiked samples are larger when corrected with the as-received size fraction of kaolinite than with the respirable size fraction. Results indicate that if a kaolinite correction with reference material of respirable size fraction is applied in current standard methods for quartz measurement in coal mine dust, the quartz result would be somewhat closer to the true exposure, although the actual mass difference would be small. Most kinds of kaolinite can be used for laboratory calibration, but preferably, the size

  13. Consideration of kaolinite interference correction for quartz measurements in coal mine dust.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Kashon, Michael; Key-Schwartz, Rosa J; Harper, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Kaolinite interferes with the infrared analysis of quartz. Improper correction can cause over- or underestimation of silica concentration. The standard sampling method for quartz in coal mine dust is size selective, and, since infrared spectrometry is sensitive to particle size, it is intuitively better to use the same size fractions for quantification of quartz and kaolinite. Standard infrared spectrometric methods for quartz measurement in coal mine dust correct interference from the kaolinite, but they do not specify a particle size for the material used for correction. This study compares calibration curves using as-received and respirable size fractions of nine different examples of kaolinite in the different correction methods from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) 7603 and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) P-7. Four kaolinites showed significant differences between calibration curves with as-received and respirable size fractions for NMAM 7603 and seven for MSHA P-7. The quartz mass measured in 48 samples spiked with respirable fraction silica and kaolinite ranged between 0.28 and 23% (NMAM 7603) and 0.18 and 26% (MSHA P-7) of the expected applied mass when the kaolinite interference was corrected with respirable size fraction kaolinite. This is termed "deviation," not bias, because the applied mass is also subject to unknown variance. Generally, the deviations in the spiked samples are larger when corrected with the as-received size fraction of kaolinite than with the respirable size fraction. Results indicate that if a kaolinite correction with reference material of respirable size fraction is applied in current standard methods for quartz measurement in coal mine dust, the quartz result would be somewhat closer to the true exposure, although the actual mass difference would be small. Most kinds of kaolinite can be used for laboratory calibration, but preferably, the size fraction

  14. Oxygen isotope exchange with quartz during pyrolysis of silver sulfate and silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Andrew J; Kunasek, Shelley A; Sofen, Eric D; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel; Johnson, Ben W; Amos, Helen M; Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana; Jackson, Terri L; Thiemens, Mark H; Alexander, Becky

    2012-09-30

    Triple oxygen isotopes of sulfate and nitrate are useful metrics for the chemistry of their formation. Existing measurement methods, however, do not account for oxygen atom exchange with quartz during the thermal decomposition of sulfate. We present evidence for oxygen atom exchange, a simple modification to prevent exchange, and a correction for previous measurements. Silver sulfates and silver nitrates with excess (17)O were thermally decomposed in quartz and gold (for sulfate) and quartz and silver (for nitrate) sample containers to O(2) and byproducts in a modified Temperature Conversion/Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA). Helium carries O(2) through purification for isotope-ratio analysis of the three isotopes of oxygen in a Finnigan MAT253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The Δ(17)O results show clear oxygen atom exchange from non-zero (17)O-excess reference materials to zero (17)O-excess quartz cup sample containers. Quartz sample containers lower the Δ(17)O values of designer sulfate reference materials and USGS35 nitrate by 15% relative to gold or silver sample containers for quantities of 2-10 µmol O(2). Previous Δ(17)O measurements of sulfate that rely on pyrolysis in a quartz cup have been affected by oxygen exchange. These previous results can be corrected using a simple linear equation (Δ(17)O(gold) = Δ(17)O(quartz) * 1.14 + 0.06). Future pyrolysis of silver sulfate should be conducted in gold capsules or corrected to data obtained from gold capsules to avoid obtaining oxygen isotope exchange-affected data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Quartz phenocrysts preserve volcanic stresses at Long Valley and Yellowstone calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. S.; Leonhardi, T. C.; Manga, M.; Tamura, N.; Stan, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic processes and eruptions are the consequence of stresses active in volcanic environments. Few techniques are presently available to quantify those stresses because they operate in subsurface and/or hazardous environments, and thus new techniques are needed to advance our understanding of key processes. Here, we provide a dataset of volcanic stresses that were imparted to quartz crystals that traveled through, and were hosted within, pyroclastic and effusive eruptions from Long Valley and Yellowstone calderas. We measured crystal lattice deformation with submicron spatial resolution using the synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction beamline (12.3.2) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Quartz from all units produces diffraction patterns with residual strains locked in the crystal lattice. We used Hooke's Law and the stiffness constants of quartz to calculate the stresses that caused the preserved residual strains. At Long Valley caldera, quartz preserves stresses of 187±80 MPa within pumice clasts in the F1 fall unit of the Bishop Tuff, and preserves stresses of 120±45 MPa from the Bishop Tuff welded ignimbrite. At Yellowstone caldera quartz preserves stresses of 115±30 and 140±60 MPa within pumices from the basal fall units of the Mesa Falls Tuff and the Tuff of Bluff Point, respectively. Quartz from near-vent and flow-front samples from Summit Lake lava flow preserves stresses up to 130 MPa, and show no variation with distance travelled. We believe that subsurface processes cause the measured residual stresses, but it remains unclear if they are relicts of fragmentation or from the magma chamber. The residual stresses from both Long Valley and Yellowstone samples roughly correlate to lithostatic pressures estimated for the respective pre-eruption magma storage depths. It is possible that residual stress in quartz provides a new geobarometer for crystallization pressure. Moving forward, we will continue to perform analyses and

  16. Shocked quartz and more: Impact signatures in K-T boundary clays and claystones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz grains displaying multiple sets of planar features are described from numerous Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clays and claystones at both marine and nonmarine depositional sites around the world. All these sites also show anomalously high amounts of iridium and enrichments of other siderophile elements in cosmic ratios within these boundary units. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical features are used in support of an impact hypothesis for the end-Cretaceous event. Recently, it was suggested that some combination of explosive and nonexplosive volcanism associated with the formation of the Deccan traps in India could be responsible for the mineralogy and geochemistry seen in the K-T boundary units. Besides the obvious contradition of simultaneous explosive and nonexplosive volcanism from one locality during an instant of geologic time, there remains the difficulty of spreading both iridium (and trace elements in cosmic proportions) and quartz grains around the world by volcanic (atmospheric) transport. In addition, the ability of volcanism to produce the type of shock metamorphism seen in minerals at the K-T boundary was not demonstrated. Multiple sets of shock lamellae in quartz are considered characteristic of shock metamorphism in rocks at the sites of known impact craters and are the type of deformation seen in quartz from K-T boundary clays and claystones. Single sets of poorly defined lamellae described from rare quartz grains in certain volcanic deposits are characteristic of tectonic deformation and do not correspond to the shock lamellae in quartz from K-T sediments and impact structures. So-called shock mosaicism in quartz and feldspar grains described from volcanic deposits can result from many processes other than shock metamorphism, and therefore is not considered to be an effect characteristic solely of shock. The mineralogy of shock-metamorphosed grains at the K-T boundary also argues against a volcanic origin.

  17. Anisotropy of synthetic quartz electrical conductivity at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duojun; Li, Heping; Yi, Li; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Yoshino, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    AC measurements of the electrical conductivity of synthetic quartz along various orientations were made between 0.1 and 1 MHz, at ˜855˜1601 K and at 1.0 GPa. In addition, the electrical conductivity of quartz along the c axis has been studied at 1.0-3.0 GPa. The impedance arcs representing bulk conductivity occur in the frequency range of 103-106 Hz, and the electrical responses of the interface between the sample and the electrode occur in the 0.1˜103 Hz range. The pressure has a weak effect on the electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity experiences no abrupt change near the α - β phase transition point. The electrical conductivity of quartz is highly anisotropic; the electrical conductivity along the c axis is strongest and several orders of magnitude larger than in other directions. The activation enthalpies along various orientations are determined to be 0.6 and 1.2 eV orders of magnitude, respectively. The interpretation of the former is based on the contribution of alkali ions, while the latter effect is attributed to additional unassociated aluminum ions. Comparison of determined anisotropic conductivity of quartz determined with those from field geophysical models shows that the quartz may potentially provide explanations for the behavior of electrical conductivity of anisotropy in the crust that are inferred from the transverse magnetic mode.

  18. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body.

    PubMed

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  19. Numerical study of heating and evaporation processes of quartz particles in RF inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Yu M.; Miao, Long

    2017-05-01

    Numerical simulations of heat and evaporation processes of quartz particles in Ar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) are investigated. The quartz particles are supplied by the carrier gas into the ICP within gas-cooling. It is shown that with the increase of amplitude of discharge current above critical value there is a toroidal vortex in the ICP torch at the first coil. The conditions for the formation of vortex and the parameters of the vortex tube have been evaluated and determined. The influence of vortex, discharge current, coil numbers and feed rate of carrier gas on the evaporation efficiency of quartz particles have been demonstrated. It was found that the optimal discharge current is close to the critical value when the quartz particles with initial sizes up to 130 μm can be fully vaporized in the ICP torch with thermal power of 10kW. The heat and evaporation processes of quartz particles in the ICP torch have significant importance for the study of one-step plasma chemical reaction method directly producing silicon from silicide (SiO2) in the argon-hydrogen plasma.

  20. Dew point fast measurement in organic vapor mixtures using quartz resonant sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jing; Liu, Jia; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fast dew point sensor has been developed for organic vapor mixtures by using the quartz crystal with sensitive circuits. The sensor consists of the quartz crystal and a cooler device. Proactive approach is taken to produce condensation on the surface of the quartz crystal, and it will lead to a change in electrical features of the quartz crystal. The cessation of oscillation was measured because this phenomenon is caused by dew condensation. Such a phenomenon can be used to detect the dew point. This method exploits the high sensitivity of the quartz crystal but without frequency measurement and also retains the stability of the resonant circuit. It is strongly anti-interfered. Its performance was evaluated with acetone-methanol mixtures under different pressures. The results were compared with the dew points predicted from the universal quasi-chemical equation to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. Though the maximum deviations of the sensor are less than 1.1 °C, it still has a fast response time with a recovery time of less than 10 s, providing an excellent dehumidifying performance.

  1. [Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy trace gas detection system based on the Fabry-Perot demodulation].

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng; Zhu, Yong; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Li; Xu, Zu-Wen

    2013-05-01

    An all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system, based on the F-P demodulation, for trace gas detection in the open environment was proposed. In quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), an optical fiber Fabry-Perot method was used to replace the conventional electronic demodulation method. The photoacoustic signal was obtained by demodulating the variation of the Fabry-Perot cavity between the quartz tuning fork side and the fiber face. An experimental system was setup. The experiment for detection of water vapour in the open environment was carried on. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 2.80 x 10(-7) cm(-1) x W x Hz(-1/2) was achieved. The result demonstrated that the sensitivity of the all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system is about 2.6 times higher than that of the conventional QEPAS system. The all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system is immune to electromagnetic interference, safe in flammable and explosive gas detection, suitable for high temperature and high humidity environments and realizable for long distance, multi-point and network sensing.

  2. ESEEM of industrial quartz powders: insights into crystal chemistry of Al defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Bartali, Laura; Innocenti, Massimo; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    A set of raw industrial materials, that is, pure quartz and quartz-rich mixtures, were investigated through electron paramagnetic resonance and electron spin echo-envelope modulation spectroscopies, with the aim of evaluating the effective role played by defect centres and of assessing whether they can be used to monitor changes in the physical properties of quartz powders with reference to their health effects. The obtained results point to two interactions of the Al defect centres with H+, hosted in sites within the channels parallel and perpendicular to the c axis of quartz, respectively. These two Al/H+ (hAl) centres exhibit a weak chemical bond, and their relative amounts appear to be modified/controlled by the thermo-mechanical processes underwent by powders. Indeed, a mechanically promoted inter-conversion between the two kinds of site is suggested. As a consequence, the hAl centres are effective in monitoring even modest activations of powders, through thermal or mechanical processes, and they are also supposed to play a specific, relevant role in quartz reactivity during the considered industrial processes.

  3. Modeling the interface of platinum and α-quartz(001): Implications for sintering

    DOE PAGES

    Plessow, Philipp N.; Sánchez-Carrera, Roel S.; Li, Lin; ...

    2016-05-04

    We present a first-principles study which aims to understand the metal–support interaction of platinum nanoparticles on α-quartz(001) and, more generally, silica. The thermodynamic stability of the α-quartz(001) surface and its interface with Pt(111) are investigated as a function of temperature and partial pressure of H 2O and O 2. Potential defects in the α-quartz(001) surface as well as the adsorption energies of the Pt atom are also studied. This allows us to draw conclusions concerning nanoparticle shape and the resistance toward particle migration based on the interface free energies. We find that, as for the clean α-quartz(001) surface, a dry,more » reconstructed interface is expected at temperatures that are high but within experimentally relevant ranges. On an ideal, dry, reconstructed surface, particle migration is predicted to be a fast sintering mechanism. On real surfaces, defects may locally prevent reconstruction and act as anchoring points. Finally, the energetics of the adsorption of platinum atoms on α-quartz(001) do not support surface-mediated single-atom migration as a viable path for sintering on the investigated surfaces.« less

  4. Improving Resonance Characteristics of Gas Sensors by Chemical Etching of Quartz Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicheva, Z.; Georgieva, V.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Angelov, Ts; Vergov, L.; Lazarov, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the influence of the etching process of AT-cut quartz plates on the resonance parameters and the QCM sensors. Quartz wafers (100 μm thick, with a diameter of 8 mm), divided into five groups, have been etched in [NH4]2 F2: H2O = 1:1 solution at temperatures in the range from 70°C to 90°C. The influence of etching temperature on the surface morphology of quartz wafers has been estimated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A correlation between the etching temperature and the dynamic characteristics is obtained. The optimal etching conditions for removing the surface damages caused by the mechanical treatment of the quartz wafers and for obtaining a clean surface were determined. The typical parameters of fabricated resonators on the quartz plates etched in the temperature range from 70°C to 90°C are as follows: Frequency, Fs 16 MHz ± 100 kHz Motional resistance, Rs less 10 Ω Motional inductance, Lq higher than 3 mH Motional capacitance, Cq less 30 fF Static capacitance, Co around 5 pF Quality factor, Q from 46 000 to 70 000 Sorption properties of QCM - MoO3 are evaluated at NH3 concentrations in the interval from 100 ppm to 500 ppm.

  5. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  6. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr2+ act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth. PMID:26710210

  7. High-Precision Hysteresis Sensing of the Quartz Crystal Inductance-to-Frequency Converter

    PubMed Central

    Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the automated measurement of the hysteresis of the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal is proposed. The new idea behind this method is a converter with two programmable analog switches enabling the automated measurement of the converter hysteresis, as well as the temperature compensation of the quartz crystal and any other circuit element. Also used is the programmable timing control device that allows the selection of different oscillating frequencies. In the proposed programmable method two different inductances connected in series to the quartz crystal are switched in a short time sequence, compensating the crystal’s natural temperature characteristics (in the temperature range between 0 and 50 °C). The procedure allows for the measurement of the converter hysteresis at various values of capacitance connected in parallel with the quartz crystal for the converter sensitivity setting at selected inductance. It, furthermore, enables the measurement of hysteresis at various values of inductance at selected parallel capacitance (sensitivity) connected to the quartz crystal. The article shows that the proposed hysteresis measurement of the converter, which converts the inductance in the range between 95 and 100 μH to a frequency in the range between 1 and 200 kHz, has only 7 × 10−13 frequency instability (during the temperature change between 0 and 50 °C) with a maximum 1 × 10−11 hysteresis frequency difference. PMID:27367688

  8. The role of macrophage mediators in respirable quartz-elicited inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, D.; Albrecht, C.; Knaapen, A. M.; van Schooten, F. J.; Schins, R. P. F.

    2009-02-01

    The instigation and persistence of an inflammatory response is widely considered to be critically important in quartz-induced lung cancer and fibrosis. Macrophages have been long recognised as a crucial player in pulmonary inflammation, but evidence for the role of type II epithelial cells is accumulating. Investigations were performed in the rat lung type II cell line RLE and the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 using Western blotting, NF-κB immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR of the pro-inflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2, as well as the cellular stress gene HO-1. The direct effect of quartz on pro-inflammatory signalling cascades and gene expression in RLE cells was compared to the effect of conditioned media derived from quartz-treated NR8383 cells. Conditioned media activated the NF-κB signalling pathway and induced a far stronger upregulation of iNOS mRNA than quartz itself. Quartz elicited a stronger, progressive induction of COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA. Our results suggest a differentially mediated inflammatory response, in which reactive particles themselves induce oxidative stress and activation of COX-2, while mediators released from particle-activated macrophages trigger NF-κB activation and iNOS expression in type II cells.

  9. Dew point fast measurement in organic vapor mixtures using quartz resonant sensor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Liu, Jia; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fast dew point sensor has been developed for organic vapor mixtures by using the quartz crystal with sensitive circuits. The sensor consists of the quartz crystal and a cooler device. Proactive approach is taken to produce condensation on the surface of the quartz crystal, and it will lead to a change in electrical features of the quartz crystal. The cessation of oscillation was measured because this phenomenon is caused by dew condensation. Such a phenomenon can be used to detect the dew point. This method exploits the high sensitivity of the quartz crystal but without frequency measurement and also retains the stability of the resonant circuit. It is strongly anti-interfered. Its performance was evaluated with acetone-methanol mixtures under different pressures. The results were compared with the dew points predicted from the universal quasi-chemical equation to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. Though the maximum deviations of the sensor are less than 1.1 °C, it still has a fast response time with a recovery time of less than 10 s, providing an excellent dehumidifying performance.

  10. Maskless and low-destructive nanofabrication on quartz by friction-induced selective etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A low-destructive friction-induced nanofabrication method is proposed to produce three-dimensional nanostructures on a quartz surface. Without any template, nanofabrication can be achieved by low-destructive scanning on a target area and post-etching in a KOH solution. Various nanostructures, such as slopes, hierarchical stages and chessboard-like patterns, can be fabricated on the quartz surface. Although the rise of etching temperature can improve fabrication efficiency, fabrication depth is dependent only upon contact pressure and scanning cycles. With the increase of contact pressure during scanning, selective etching thickness of the scanned area increases from 0 to 2.9 nm before the yield of the quartz surface and then tends to stabilise after the appearance of a wear. Refabrication on existing nanostructures can be realised to produce deeper structures on the quartz surface. Based on Arrhenius fitting of the etching rate and transmission electron microscopy characterization of the nanostructure, fabrication mechanism could be attributed to the selective etching of the friction-induced amorphous layer on the quartz surface. As a maskless and low-destructive technique, the proposed friction-induced method will open up new possibilities for further nanofabrication. PMID:23531381

  11. Quartz dissolution. I - Negative crystal experiments and a rate law. II - Theory of rough and smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The range of the measured quartz dissolution rates, as a function of temperature and pOH, extent of saturation, and ionic strength, is extended to cover a wider range of solution chemistries, using the negative crystal methodology of Gratz et al. (1990) to measure the dissolution rate. A simple rate law describing the quartz dissolution kinetics above the point of zero charge of quartz is derived for ionic strengths above 0.003 m. Measurements were performed on some defective crystals, and the mathematics of step motion was developed for quartz dissolution and was compared with rough-face behavior using two different models.

  12. Optimisation of the enzyme-based determination of hydrogen peroxide using the quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Martin, S P; Lynch, J M; Reddy, S M

    2002-09-01

    The benzidines, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (DMOB) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) were enzymatically oxidised to detect hydrogen peroxide, using the quartz crystal. The oxidised product mainly remains in suspension, resulting in a limited quartz sensor signal. We have used two non-ionic surfactants, Tween 80 and Triton X-100 to interact with the oxidised amphiphilic products to increase their solubility and surface activity, and their ability to adsorb to the crystal surface. Tween 80 exhibits optimised response effects for DAB, DMOB and TMB at 0.012, 0.005, and 0.002% (v/v), respectively, whereas Triton X-100 is optimum at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.006% (v/v), respectively. As a result, we have improved the quartz crystal sensor sensitivity to peroxide. The use of Triton X-100 gave an improved response time.

  13. Enhanced red photoluminescence of quartz by silicon nanocrystals thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, A.; Pourgolestani, M.; Taheri, M.; Mansour, N.

    2018-03-01

    The room-temperature photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) thin film on a quartz substrate were investigated, which presents the red emission enhancement of quartz. We show that the photoluminescence intensity of quartz, in the wavelength range of 640-700 nm, can be enhanced as much as 15-fold in the presence of the SiNCs thin film. Our results reveal that the defect states at the SiNCs/SiO2 interface can be excited more efficiently by indirect excitation via the SiNCs, leading to the prominent red photoluminescence enhancement under the photo-excitation in the range of 440-470 nm. This work suggests a simple pathway to improve silicon-based light emitting devices for photonic applications.

  14. Neutron peak velocity measurements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using novel quartz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Gary; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Root, Jaben; Sayre, Daniel; Schlossberg, David; Waltz, Cory

    2017-10-01

    In mid-2017 the NIF implemented quartz based neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors which have a faster and narrower impulse response function (IRF) relative to traditional scintillator detectors. In this presentation we report on comparisons between fusion neutron first moments as measured by quartz and scintillator based detectors using DT layered implosions at the NIF. We report on the change in precision presaged by the quartz converter and quantify the change in both in shot, line-of-site velocity variability. as well as, shot-to-shot variation. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734511-DRAFT.

  15. Petrogenesis of low-δ18O quartz porphyry dykes, Koegel Fontein complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chris; Mulder, Kwenidyn; Sarkar, Saheli; Whitehead, Benjamin; Roopnarain, Sherissa

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the origin of low-δ18O quartz porphyry dykes associated with the 144-133 Ma Koegel Fontein Igneous Complex, which was intruded during the initial phase of breakup of Africa and South America. The 25-km diameter Rietpoort Granite is the largest and youngest phase of activity, and is roofed by a 10-km diameter pendant of gneiss. Quartz porphyry (QP) dykes, up to 15 m in width, strike NW-SE across the complex. The QP dykes that intruded outside the granite have similar quartz phenocryst δ18O values (average 8.0‰, ± 0.7, n = 33) to the granite (average 8.3 ± 1.0, n = 7). The QP dykes that intruded the roof pendant have quartz phenocrysts with more variable δ18O values (average 1.6‰, ± 2.1, n = 55). In some cases quartz phenocrysts have δ18O values as low as - 2.5‰. The variation in δ18O value within the quartz crystal population of individual dykes is small relative to the overall range, and core and rim material from individual quartz phenocrysts in three samples are identical within error. There is no evidence that quartz phenocryst δ18O values have been affected by fluid-rock interaction. Based on a Δquartz-magma value of 0.6‰, magma δ18O values must have been as low as - 3.1‰. Samples collected along the length of the two main QP dykes that traverse the roof pendant have quartz phenocryst δ18O values that range from + 1.1 to + 4.6‰, and - 2.3 to + 5.6‰, respectively. These δ18O values correlate negatively ( r = - 0.96) with initial 87Sr/86Sr, which can be explained by the event that lowered δ18O values of the source being older than the dykes. We suggest that the QP dykes were fed by magma produced by partial melting of gneiss, which had been variably altered at high temperature by 18O-depleted meteoric water during global glaciation at 550 Ma. The early melts had variable δ18O value but as melt pockets interconnected during melting, the δ18O values approached that of average gneiss. Variable quartz phenocryst

  16. Synthesis of boron nitride coatings on quartz fibers: Thickness control and mechanism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Shubin

    2011-10-01

    Boron nitride (BN) coatings were successfully synthesized on quartz fibers by dip-coating in boric acid and urea solutions at 700 °C. The SEM micrographs indicated that the quartz fibers were fully covered by coatings with smooth surface. The XRD, FT-IR, XPS spectra and HR-TEM results showed that the composition of the coatings which combined closely with the quartz fibers was polycrystalline h-BN. By changing the dip circles, the coating thickness was well controlled. The thicknesses of samples dipped less than six circles increased linearly with dipping-circles; and the increment of coating thickness would slow down when the fibers were dipped 10 circles. After being dipped for 10 circles, the thickness was about 300 nm. The coating thickness was also established by calculation and the calculated results were consistent with the results measured by micrograph.

  17. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich lower greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjøll, H. J.; Viola, G.; Menegon, L.; Sørensen, B. E.

    2015-06-01

    We studied by Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy a coarse-grained (ca. 0.5-6 mm) quartz vein embedded in a phyllonitic matrix to gain insights into the recrystallization mechanisms and the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under lower greenschist facies conditions, broadly coincident with the brittle-viscous transition. The vein deformed during faulting along a phyllonitic thrust of Caledonian age within the Porsa Imbricate Stack in the Paleoproterozoic Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The phyllonite hosting the vein formed at the expense of a metabasaltic protolith through feldspar breakdown to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body. Viscous deformation in the vein was initially accommodated by quartz basal slip. Under the prevailing deformation conditions, however, dislocation glide- and possibly creep-accommodated deformation of quartz was inefficient, and this resulted in localized strain hardening. In response to the (1) hardening, (2) progressive and cyclic increase of the fluid pressure, and (3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the weakly foliated host phyllonite, vein quartz crystals began to deform by brittle processes along specific, suitably oriented lattice planes, creating microgouges along microfractures. Nucleated new grains rapidly sealed these fractures as fluids penetrated the actively deforming system. The grains grew initially by solution precipitation and later by grain boundary migration. We suggest that the different initial orientation of the vein crystals led to strain accommodation by different mechanisms in the individual crystals, generating remarkably different microstructures. Crystals suitably oriented for basal slip, for example, accommodated strain mainly viscously and experienced only minor fracturing. Instead, crystals

  18. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  19. Replacement of filters for respirable quartz measurement in coal mine dust by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Farcas, Daniel; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Soo, Jhy-Charm; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare and characterize nylon, polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane filters that might be used to replace the vinyl/acrylic co-polymer (DM-450) filter currently used in the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) P-7 method (Quartz Analytical Method) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods 7603 method (QUARTZ in coal mine dust, by IR re-deposition). This effort is necessary because the DM-450 filters are no longer commercially available. There is an impending shortage of DM-450 filters. For example, the MSHA Pittsburgh laboratory alone analyzes annually approximately 15,000 samples according to the MSHA P-7 method that requires DM-450 filters. Membrane filters suitable for on-filter analysis should have high infrared (IR) transmittance in the spectral region 600-1000 cm(-1). Nylon (47 mm, 0.45 µm pore size), PP (47 mm, 0.45 µm pore size), and PVC (47 mm, 5 µm pore size) filters meet this specification. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were determined from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements of blank filters. The average measured quartz mass and coefficient of variation were determined from test filters spiked with respirable α-quartz following MSHA P-7 and NIOSH 7603 methods. Quartz was also quantified in samples of respirable coal dust on each test filter type using the MSHA and NIOSH analysis methods. The results indicate that PP and PVC filters may replace the DM-450 filters for quartz measurement in coal dust by FTIR. PVC filters of 5 µm pore size seemed to be suitable replacement although their ability to retain small particulates should be checked by further experiment.

  20. Adsorption of bis(2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl) dodecylamine on quartz surface and its implication on flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wengang; Liu, Wenbao; Dai, Shujuan; Wang, Benying

    2018-06-01

    In order to clarify the effect of polar group modification on flotation performance of amine collector, flotation properties of quartz and hematite using bis(2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl) dodecylamine (N23) as a collector were investigated. And the adsorption mechanism of N23 on quartz surface was established by zeta potential measurements, SEM/EDS measurements, and molecular structure analysis. Single mineral flotation results indicated that N23 showed stronger collecting ability on quartz and hematite than DDA-CH3COOH. However, starch could depress the flotation of hematite. Flotation recovery of 98.10% for quartz could be achieved, when N23 concentration was 43.33 mg/L and starch concentration was 16.67 mg/L at natural slurry pH. Separation of artificially mixed minerals of hematite and quartz was achieved effectively using N23 as the collector. The optimized separation result with 66.29% iron grade and 90.06% iron recovery in concentrate was obtained when slurry pH was 7.34 with 43.33 mg/L N23 and 23.33 mg/L starch. The interaction energies of N23 with mineral surface also showed well consistency with flotation results. SEM/EDS analyses and zeta potential measurements revealed that N23 could absorb on quartz surface in the forms of strong electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction. Compared with DDA, N23 had a higher HLB value and better water-solubility, which resulted in better dispersion in water and stronger adsorption on mineral surface.

  1. Distribution of biogenic silica and quartz in recent deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, Margaret; Cwienk, Douglas; Heath, G. Ross; Biscaye, Pierre E.; Kolla, V.; Thiede, Jørn; Dauphin, J. Paul

    1986-03-01

    All available quartz and biogenic silica concentrations from deep-sea surface sediments were intercalibrated, plotted, and contoured on a calcium-carbonate-free basis. The maps show highest concentrations of biogenic silica (opal) along the west African coast, along equatorial divergences in all oceans, and at the Polar Front in the southern Indian Ocean. These are all areas where upwelling is strong and there is high biological productivity. Quartz in pelagic sediments deposited far from land is generally eolian in origin. Its distribution reflects dominant wind systems in the Pacific, but in much of the Atlantic and Indian oceans the distribution pattern is strongly modified by turbidite deposition and bottom current processes.

  2. Genomic instability in quartz dust exposed rat lungs: Is inflammation responsible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, C.; Knaapen, A. M.; Cakmak Demircigil, G.; Coskun, Erdem; van Schooten, F. J.; Borm, P. J. A.; Schins, R. P. F.

    2009-02-01

    Exposure to quartz dusts has been associated with lung cancer and fibrosis. Although the responsible mechanisms are not completely understood, progressive inflammation with associated induction of persistent oxidative stress has been discussed as a key event for these diseases. Previously we have evaluated the kinetics of pulmonary inflammation in the rat model following a single intratracheal instillation of 2mg DQ12 quartz, either in its native form or upon its surface modification with polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide or aluminium lactate. This model has been applied now to evaluate the role of inflammation in the kinetics of induction of DNA damage and response at 3, 7, 28, and 90 days after treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and differentials as well as BAL fluid myeloperoxidase activity were used as markers of inflammation. Whole lung homogenate was investigated to determine the induction of the oxidative and pre-mutagenic DNA lesion 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) by HPLC/ECD, while mRNA and protein expression of oxidative stress and DNA damage response genes including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) were evaluated using Western blotting and real time PCR. Isolated lung epithelial cells from the treated rats were used for DNA strand breakage analysis using the alkaline comet assay as well as for micronucleus scoring in May-Gruenwald-Giemsa stained cytospin preparations. In the rats that were treated with quartz, no increased 8-OHdG levels were observed, despite the presence of a marked and persistent inflammation. However, DNA strand breakage in the lung epithelial cells of the quartz treated rats was significantly enhanced at 3 days, but not at 28 days. Moreover, significantly enhanced micronucleus frequencies were observed for all four time points investigated. In the animals that were treated with the PVNO modified quartz, micronuclei scores did not differ from controls, while in those treated with

  3. Direct micromachining of quartz glass plates using pulsed laser plasma soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makimura, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Hisao; Kenmotsu, Youichi; Murakami, Kouichi; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated direct micromachining of quartz glass, using pulsed laser plasma soft x-rays (LPSXs) having a potential capability of nanomachining because the diffraction limit is ˜10nm. The LPSX's were generated by irradiation of a Ta target with 532nm laser light from a conventional Q switched Nd :YAG laser at 700mJ/pulse. In order to achieve a sufficient power density of LPSX's beyond the ablation threshold, we developed an ellipsoidal mirror to obtain efficient focusing of LPSXs at around 10nm. It was found that quartz glass plates are smoothly ablated at 45nm/shot using the focused and pulsed LPSX's.

  4. Ion-beam-induced nanodots formation from Au/Si thin films on quartz surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, D. P.; Siva, V.; Singh, A.; Joshi, S. R.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report the synthesis of Si nanodots on quartz surface using ion irradiation. When a bi-layer of ultrathin Au and Si on quartz surface is irradiated by 500 keV Xe-ion beam, the bi-layer spontaneously transforms into nanodots at a fluence of 5 × 1014 ions cm-2. The spatial density and diameter of the nanodots are reduced with increase in applied ion fluence. The nanostructures exhibit photoluminescence in the visible range at room temperature where the intensity and wavelength depends upon ion fluence. The observed evolution seems to be correlated to ion beam mixing induced silicide formation at Au-Si interface.

  5. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  6. Electron microscopic and optical studies of prism faces of synthetic quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzek, B. C.; Vagh, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Application of electron and optical microscopic techniques to the study of growth spirals on quartz crystal faces is described. Attention is centered on the centers of the spirals and on screw ledges; overhanging kinks are revealed on one side of the spiral centers. The possibility that these special features may have developed after growth of the crystals went to completion is explored. The conjecture is raised that such structures might result from adsorption of growth-inhibiting impurities at the center of the growth spiral on the quartz habit faces.

  7. Oxygen isotopic ratios in quartz as an indicator of provenance of dust

    SciT

    Jackson, M L

    1977-01-01

    Quartz was isolated in the long range aerosol size range (fine silt, 1-10 ..mu..m in diameter) from atmospheric aerosols, wind-erosive soils, soil silts, shales, and Pacific pelagic sediments of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, to trace their provenance or origin, as part of a study of dust mineral sequestering of /sup 137/Cs and other products of nuclear fission. The oxygen isotopic ratio (/sup 18/O//sup 16/O) was determined by mass spectrometry. The provenance has been established for this fine silt fraction which reflects the relative proportion of two classes of quartz source: (a) weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks (high temperaturemore » origin and low /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratio) and (b) of quartz crystallized in cherts and overgrowths (low temperature origin and high /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratio). This quartz mixing ratio is a basic model or paradigm. Analyses of present day atmospheric aerosols and eolian-derived soils, Pacific pelagic sediments, and now-raised Phanerozoic marine sediments show that the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have separate large-scale reservoirs of the fine grain sizes that contribute to aerosol dusts. These can be identified by distinctive values of /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios of the quartz therein. The difference in quartz delta/sup 18/O value in parts per thousand per ml (/sup 0///sub 00/ of about 12 +- 2 /sup 0///sub 00/ in Southern Hemisphere mixed detrital sediments and about 19 +- 2 /sup 0///sub 00/ in those of the Northern Hemisphere (for constant size, the 1-10 ..mu..m size fraction) results from the presence of a considerably larger proportion of quartz having low-temperature origin and higher delta/sup 18/O values (chert, silica overgrowths, etc.) in the Northern Hemisphere reservoirs. The early paleoclimatic and paleogeochemical differences remain the control of the North-South Hemisphere difference in delta/sup 18/O values in long-range aerosol sized quartz.« less

  8. Measuring the properties of shock released Quartz and Parylene-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawreliak, James; Karasik, Max; Oh, Jaechul; Aglitskiy, Yefim

    2016-10-01

    The high pressure and temperature properties of Quartz and hydrocarbons are important to high energy density (HED) research and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. The bulk of HED material research studies the single shock Hugoniot. Here, we present experimental results from the NIKE laser where quartz and parylene-N are shock compressed to high pressure and temperature and the release state is measured through x-ray imaging. The shock state is characterized by shock front velocity measurements using VISAR and the release state is characterized by using side-on streaked x-ray radiography.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of siderite-hematite-quartz flotation with sodium oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixia; Hao, Haiqing; Yuan, Zhitao; Liu, Jiongtian

    2017-10-01

    Models of sodium oleate adsorption on siderite, hematite and quartz were investigated by molecular dynamic simulation, respectively. Surface energy was calculated to confirm the cleavage plan of hematite and quartz. Both natural cleavage plane of siderite and calculated plane were used to investigate the flotation of the three minerals. Based on the molecular simulation in solution with water as medium, adsorption quantity and interaction capability of oleate ions on the three minerals indicated that siderite could be collected efficiently by sodium oleate at neutral pH. Results of flotation experiments were further demonstrated by analysis of relative concentration of carbon atoms and oxygen atoms.

  10. Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.

  11. Application of Ti-in-quartz solubility as a thermobarometer in rutile-free rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Application of Ti-in-quartz solubility as a thermobarometer (TitaniQ; Thomas et al. 2010) may profoundly influence interpretations of crustal rocks. Complex Ti zoning patterns observed in cathodoluminescence (CL) images of crystals can be associated with changes in P-T conditions that prevailed during quartz crystallization. In rocks lacking rutile application of TitaniQ is challenging because Ti activity (aTiO2) during quartz crystallization must be constrained. Many felsic rocks contain minerals in which Ti is an essential stoichiometric constituent (e.g. ilmenite) that will buffer aTiO2 at a fixed value. To use Ti-in-quartz solubility in rocks lacking rutile (or sphene) the P-T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility must be combined with an independent constraint on either P or T to estimate quartz crystallization conditions. Values for aTiO2 in melts can be calculated using (1) melt compositions and the rutile-saturation model of Hayden et al. (2007), (2) melt compositions and the MELTS algorithms to yield rutile affinity (i.e. degree of saturation) and liquidus T (TL; Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Asimov and Ghiorso, 1998), and (3) mineral reaction equilibria, such as 2FeTiO3=TiO2+Fe2TiO4, measured mineral compositions, tabulated thermodynamic data, and an input temperature constrained by phase equilibria (or MELTS). The rutile-saturation model was calibrated at 10 kbar only, and intended for applications in which alternatives for calculating aTiO2 are unavailable. This should not be used for quantitative interpretations concerning rocks formed at other pressures because it is likely that Ti solubility in a melt is strongly pressure dependent. Consequently, the 10 kbar rutile-saturation model will underestimate the Ti required for rutile saturation at lower pressures, thereby yielding impossible aTiO2 values that exceed unity. We used a range of published rhyolite melt and Fe-Ti oxide compositions as inputs for aTiO2 calculations using MELTS and mineral reaction

  12. Synchrotron generated X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) from Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina; Finch, Adrian; Robinson, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Quartz is the preferred mineral for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, due to its well constrained behaviour as a radiation dosimeter. However, despite the plethora of successful quartz OSL applications, no solution has been found to the problem that some quartz luminesce more brightly than others, which has limited the application of OSL in certain settings. This has been addressed through examination of the luminescence emission using a variety of excitation techniques and emission spectroscopy. X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) is luminescence excited by x-rays produced by a synchrotron. XEOL analyses were conducted upon a suite of quartz samples at Diamond, Great Britain, which had previously been analysed with Ionoluminescence (IL), at Sussex University. The samples were selected to include quartz of both poor and excellent OSL sensitivities. Therefore, two Scottish glacial outwash samples prepared at St Andrews, and a calibration quartz sample, prepared at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark were analysed for these properties respectively. The XEOL emission spectra comprised three major emissions at 3.32, 3.81 and 4.05 eV, and one weaker emission at 1.94 eV in all samples. The calibration quartz sample had the most intense emission by an order of magnitude. Throughout increased exposure to x-rays, the intensity of the UV emission reduced, and an increase in the red (1.94 eV) emission was recorded. The derived XEOL spectra complement the IL spectra obtained previously. The IL spectra were dominated by only two broad emissions at 3.2-3.1 eV and 1.8-1.7 eV. However, throughout the IL experiments a dose dependent effect was also observed, whereby the UV emission was depleted to the benefit of the red with increasing exposure. Furthermore the gradient of the power law relationship between the UV and red emission change with dose is similar for both the IL and XEOL data: at -1.15 and -1.05 respectively for calibration quartz, when plotted

  13. Geospatializing The Klang Gate Quartz Ridge in Malaysia: A Technological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Mohamad, Zakaria; Zaki Ibrahim, Mohd; Azad Rosle, Qalam; Hattanajmie Abd Wahab, Mohd; Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Mohd Akib, Wan Abdul Aziz Wan

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of inventories on geological heritage, or geoheritage resources is a step forward for a comprehensive geoheritage management leading to a better conservation at national and global levels. Compiling and updating inventory of geoheritage is a tedious process and even so in a tropical environment. Malaysia has a tremendous list of geodiversity and generating its national database is a multi-institutional effort and worthwhile investment. However, producing accurate and reliable characteristics of such landform and spectacular geological features remained elusive. The advanced and modern mapping techniques have revolutionized the mapping, monitoring and modelling of the earth surface processes and landforms. Yet the methods for quantification of geodiversity physical features are not fully utilized in Malaysia for a better understanding its processes and activity. This study provides a better insight into the use of advanced active remote sensing technology for characterizing the forested Quartz Ridge in Malaysia. We have developed the novel method and tested in the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge, Selangor. The granitic country rock made up by quartz mineral is known as the longest quartz ridge in Malaysia and characterized by rugged topography, steep slopes, densely vegetated terrain and also rich-biodiversity area. This study presents an integrated field methodological framework and processing scheme by taking into account the climatic, topographic, geologic, and anthropogenic challenges in an equatorial region. Advanced terrestrial laser scanning system was used to accurately capture, map and model the ridge carried out within a relatively stringent time period. The high frequency Global Navigation Satellite System and modern Total Station coupled with the optical satellite and radar imageries and also advanced spatial analysis were fully utilized in the field campaign and data assessment performed during the recent monsoon season. As a result, the mapping

  14. Photolithography and Selective Etching of an Array of Quartz Tuning Fork Resonators with Improved Impact Resistance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2001-08-01

    Quartz tuning fork blanks with improved impact-resistant characteristics for use in Qualcomm mobile station modem (MSM)-3000 central processing unit (CPU) chips for code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems were designed using finite element method (FEM) analysis and suitable processing conditions were determined for the reproducible precision etching of a Z-cut quartz wafer into an array of tuning forks. Negative photoresist photolithography for the additive process was used in preference to positive photoresist photolithography for the subtractive process to etch the array of quartz tuning forks. The tuning fork pattern was transferred via a conventional photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 Å chromium/gold mask was coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the back surface of the wafer. With the protective metallization area of the tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through the quartz wafer was performed at 80°C in a ± 1.5°C controlled bath containing a concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove the unwanted areas of the quartz wafer. The quality of the quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of the quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. Selective etching of a 100 μm quartz wafer could be achieved within 90 min at 80°C. A selective etching procedure with reproducible precision has thus been established and enables the photolithographic mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators.

  15. A Z-Axis Quartz Cross-Fork Micromachined Gyroscope Based on Shear Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liqiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Haoxu; Su, Jianbin; Dong, Peitao

    2010-01-01

    Here we propose a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope. The sensor has a simple cross-fork structure in the x-y plane of quartz crystal. Shear stress rather than normal stress is utilized to sense Coriolis’ force generated by the input angular rate signal. Compared to traditional quartz gyroscopes, which have two separate sense electrodes on each sidewall, there is only one electrode on each sidewall of the sense beam. As a result, the fabrication of the electrodes is simplified and the structure can be easily miniaturized. In order to increase sensitivity, a pair of proof masses is attached to the ends of the drive beam, and the sense beam has a tapered design. The structure is etched from a z-cut quartz wafer and the electrodes are realized by direct evaporation using the aperture mask method. The drive mode frequency of the prototype is 13.38 kHz, and the quality factor is approximately 1,000 in air. Therefore, the gyroscope can work properly without a vacuum package. The measurement ability of the shear stress detection design scheme is validated by the Coriolis’ force test. The performance of the sensor is characterized on a precision rate table using a specially designed readout circuit. The experimentally obtained scale factor is 1.45 mV/°/s and the nonlinearity is 3.6% in range of ±200 °/s. PMID:22294887

  16. Quartz grains reveal sedimentary palaeoenvironment and past storm events: A case study from eastern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Stivrins, Normunds; Grudzinska, Ieva

    2018-01-01

    Sediment record collected from the coastal lake serves as a powerful tool for reconstructing changes in palaeoenvironment and understanding the potential signals of past storminess. In this study, we use several proxies from sediment of the Holocene Thermal Maximum at coastal Lake Lilaste, Latvia. We focus on surface texture of quartz grains from the mineral inorganic fraction as indicators of depositional environments. We then use this as a proxy for potential storm transport and combine with information on granulometry, diatom stratigraphy and chronology to answer the question whether flux of quartz grains in the lake originated from the sea or from the land. Analyses in a binocular and scanning electron microscope reveal that most of the investigated quartz grains originate from dwelling in the seawater and wave action in the nearshore zone. Grains representing very energetic subaqueous environment similar to storm events are also present. Terrestrial record is of minor significance and visible through occurrence of aeolian quartz grains. During drier and colder conditions, an influx of sand with aeolian imprint was delivered to the lake between 8500 and 7800 cal yr BP. Marine and terrestrial conditions alternated between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP. Storm-induced grains were likely deposited three times: at 7300 cal yr BP, 6600-6400 cal yr BP, and 6200-6000 cal yr BP. Overall stable marine environmental conditions prevailed between 6000 and 4000 cal yr BP except of the last portion of terrestrial-induced sediment at 4100 cal yr BP.

  17. Frictional strengths of talc-serpentine and talc-quartz mixtures

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Talc is a constituent of faults in a variety of settings, and it may be an effective weakening agent depending on its abundance and distribution within a fault. We conducted frictional strength experiments under hydrothermal conditions to determine the effect of talc on the strengths of synthetic gouges of lizardite and antigorite serpentinites and of quartz. Small amounts of talc weaken serpentinite gouges substantially more than predicted by simple weight averaging. In comparison, mixtures of quartz and talc show a linear trend of strength reduction at talc concentrations 15 wt % and enhanced weakening at higher concentrations. All of the strength data are fit by a modified version of the Reuss mixing law that allows for the dominance of one mineral over the other. The difference in the behavior of serpentinite-talc and quartz-talc mixtures at low talc concentrations is a reflection of their different textures. Lizardite, antigorite, and talc all have platy habits, and displacement within gouges composed of these minerals is localized to narrow shears along which the platy grains have rotated into alignment with the shear surfaces. The shears in the mixed phyllosilicate gouges maximize the proportion of the weaker mineral within them. When mixed with a strong, rounded mineral such as quartz, some minimum concentration of talc is needed to form connected pathways that enhance strength reductions. The typical development of talc by the reaction of Si-rich fluids with serpentinite or dolomite would tend to localize its occurrence in a natural fault and result in enhanced weakening.

  18. Analysis and Validation of Contactless Time-Gated Interrogation Technique for Quartz Resonator Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Baù, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Ferrari, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    A technique for contactless electromagnetic interrogation of AT-cut quartz piezoelectric resonator sensors is proposed based on a primary coil electromagnetically air-coupled to a secondary coil connected to the electrodes of the resonator. The interrogation technique periodically switches between interleaved excitation and detection phases. During the excitation phase, the resonator is set into vibration by a driving voltage applied to the primary coil, whereas in the detection phase, the excitation signal is turned off and the transient decaying response of the resonator is sensed without contact by measuring the voltage induced back across the primary coil. This approach ensures that the readout frequency of the sensor signal is to a first order approximation independent of the interrogation distance between the primary and secondary coils. A detailed theoretical analysis of the interrogation principle based on a lumped-element equivalent circuit is presented. The analysis has been experimentally validated on a 4.432 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal resonator, demonstrating the accurate readout of the series resonant frequency and quality factor over an interrogation distance of up to 2 cm. As an application, the technique has been applied to the measurement of liquid microdroplets deposited on a 4.8 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. More generally, the proposed technique can be exploited for the measurement of any physical or chemical quantities affecting the resonant response of quartz resonator sensors. PMID:28574459

  19. Analysis and Validation of Contactless Time-Gated Interrogation Technique for Quartz Resonator Sensors.

    PubMed

    Baù, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Ferrari, Vittorio

    2017-06-02

    A technique for contactless electromagnetic interrogation of AT-cut quartz piezoelectric resonator sensors is proposed based on a primary coil electromagnetically air-coupled to a secondary coil connected to the electrodes of the resonator. The interrogation technique periodically switches between interleaved excitation and detection phases. During the excitation phase, the resonator is set into vibration by a driving voltage applied to the primary coil, whereas in the detection phase, the excitation signal is turned off and the transient decaying response of the resonator is sensed without contact by measuring the voltage induced back across the primary coil. This approach ensures that the readout frequency of the sensor signal is to a first order approximation independent of the interrogation distance between the primary and secondary coils. A detailed theoretical analysis of the interrogation principle based on a lumped-element equivalent circuit is presented. The analysis has been experimentally validated on a 4.432 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal resonator, demonstrating the accurate readout of the series resonant frequency and quality factor over an interrogation distance of up to 2 cm. As an application, the technique has been applied to the measurement of liquid microdroplets deposited on a 4.8 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. More generally, the proposed technique can be exploited for the measurement of any physical or chemical quantities affecting the resonant response of quartz resonator sensors.

  20. Amorphization of quartz by friction: Implication to silica-gel lubrication of fault surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yu; Muto, Jun; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ichiko; Miura, Takashi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    To understand physico-chemical processes at real contacts (asperities) on fault surfaces, we conducted pin-on-disk friction experiments at room temperature, using single crystalline quartz disks and quartz pins. Velocity weakening from friction coefficient μ ˜ 0.6 to 0.4 was observed under apparent normal stresses of 8-19 (18 > 19), when the slip rate was increased from 0.003 to 2.6 m/s. Frictional surfaces revealed ductile deformation of wear materials. The Raman spectra of frictional tracks showed blue shifts and broadening of quartz main bands, and appearance of new peaks at 490-520 and 610 cm-1. All these features are indicative of pressure- and strain-induced amorphization of quartz. The mapping analyses of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy at room dry conditions suggest selective hydration of wear materials. It is possible that the strained Si-O-Si bridges in amorphous silica preferentially react with water to form silica-gel. In natural fault systems, amorphous materials would be produced at real fault contacts and accumulate over the fault surfaces with displacements. Subsequent hydration would lead to significant reduction of fault strength during slip.

  1. Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-01

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  2. Nitrate-cancrinite precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions.

    PubMed

    Bickmore, B R; Nagy, K L; Young, J S; Drexler, J W

    2001-11-15

    Caustic NaNO3 solutions containing dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand at 89 degrees C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste and primary subsurface minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began to precipitate onto the quartz after 2-10 days, cementing the grains together. Estimates of the equilibrium constant for the precipitation reaction differ for solutions with 0.1 or 1.0 m OH- (log Keq = 30.4 +/- 0.8 and 36.2 +/- 0.6, respectively). The difference in solubility may be attributable to more perfect crystallinity (i.e., fewer stacking faults) in the higher-pH cancrinite structure. This is supported by electron micrographs of crystal morphology and measured rates of Na volatilization under an electron beam. Precipitate crystallinity may affect radionuclide mobility, because stacking faults in the cancrinite structure can diminish its zeolitic cation exchange properties. The precipitation rate near the onset of nucleation depends on the total Al and Si concentrations in solution. The evolution of experimental Si concentrations was modeled by considering the dependence of quartz dissolution rate on AI(OH)4- activity, cancrinite precipitation, and the reduction of reactive surface area of quartz due to coverage by cancrinite.

  3. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  4. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciT

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineralmore » phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.« less

  5. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  6. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, V.E.; Martin, S.J.

    1993-04-13

    A method is described, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  7. Method for simultaneous measurement of mass loading and fluid property changes using a quartz crystal microbalance

    DOEpatents

    Granstaff, Victoria E.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method, using a quartz crystal microbalance, to obtain simultaneous measurement of solid mass accumulation and changes in liquid density-viscosity product. The simultaneous real-time measurements of electrical parameters yields that changes in surface mass can be differentiated from changes in solution properties. Two methods to obtain the admittance/frequency data are employed.

  8. The R package 'RLumModel': Simulating charge transfer in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Schmidt, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Kinetic models of quartz luminescence have gained an important role for predicting experimental results and for understanding charge transfers in (natural) quartz as well as for other dosimetric materials, e.g., Al2O3:C. We present the R package 'RLumModel', offering an easy-to-use tool for simulating quartz luminescence signals (TL, OSL, LM-OSL and RF) based on five integrated and published parameter sets as well as the possibility to use own parameters. Simulation commands can be created (a) using the Risø Sequence Editor, (b) a built-in SAR sequence generator or (c) self-explanatory keywords for customised sequences. Results can be analysed seamlessly using the R package 'Luminescence' along with a visualisation of concentrations of electrons and holes in every trap/centre as well as in the valence and conduction band during all stages of the simulation. Modelling luminescence signals can help understanding charge transfer processes occurring in nature or during measurements in the laboratory. This will lead to a better understanding of several processes concerning geoscientific questions, because quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust.

  9. Low Temperature Quartz Crystal Oscillator Fast Warm-Up Saw Oscillator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    TASK_Q Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueARA&WKLI k Laboratoire de Physique et Metrologie des!2 Oscillateurs - 50 Bsnon-F 2 3 32 av. o l...propri6t6s non lin6aires des ondes Alastiques de sur- face : applications aux oscillateurs et aux capteurs A quartz", Thse Besanqon, 1979. (6) D. Hauden, G

  10. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere... 20%, Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with...

  11. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the... concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which each miner in the active... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that mechanized mining...

  12. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the... concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which each miner in the active... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that mechanized mining...

  13. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which a Part 90 miner...%. Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that Part 90...

  14. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere... 20%, Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with...

  15. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the... concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which each miner in the active... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that mechanized mining...

  16. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere... 20%, Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with...

  17. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which a Part 90 miner...%. Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that Part 90...

  18. 30 CFR 70.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Respirable dust standard when quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the... concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which each miner in the active... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that mechanized mining...

  19. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere... 20%, Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with...

  20. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which a Part 90 miner...%. Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that Part 90...

  1. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which a Part 90 miner...%. Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that Part 90...

  2. 30 CFR 71.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings contains more than 5 percent quartz, the operator shall continuously maintain the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere... 20%, Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with...

  3. 30 CFR 90.101 - Respirable dust standard when quartz is present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quartz is present. When the respirable dust in the mine atmosphere of the active workings to which a Part... average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere during each shift to which a Part 90 miner...%. Therefore, the average concentration of respirable dust in the mine atmosphere associated with that Part 90...

  4. Guided growth of horizontal GaN nanowires on quartz and their transfer to other substrates.

    PubMed

    Goren-Ruck, Lior; Tsivion, David; Schvartzman, Mark; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2014-03-25

    The guided growth of horizontal nanowires has so far been demonstrated on a limited number of substrates. In most cases, the nanowires are covalently bonded to the substrate where they grow and cannot be transferred to other substrates. Here we demonstrate the guided growth of well-aligned horizontal GaN nanowires on quartz and their subsequent transfer to silicon wafers by selective etching of the quartz while maintaining their alignment. The guided growth was observed on different planes of quartz with varying degrees of alignment. We characterized the crystallographic orientations of the nanowires and proposed a new mechanism of "dynamic graphoepitaxy" for their guided growth on quartz. The transfer of the guided nanowires enabled the fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors from aligned nanowire arrays on oxidized silicon wafers and the production of crossbar arrays. The guided growth of transferrable nanowires opens up the possibility of massively parallel integration of nanowires into functional systems on virtually any desired substrate.

  5. Sorption Mechanisms of Antibiotic Cephapirin onto Quartz and Feldspar by Raman Spectroscopy

    SciT

    Peterson, Jonathan; Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua

    2009-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the sorption mechanisms of cephapirin (CHP), a veterinary antibiotic, onto quartz (SiO2) and feldspar (KAlSi3O8) at different pH values. Depending on the charge and surface properties of the mineral, different reaction mechanisms including electrostatic attraction, monodentate and bidentate complexation were found to be responsible for CHP sorption. The zwitterion (CHPo) adsorbs to a quartz(+) surface by electrostatic attraction of the carboxylate anion group ( COO-) at a low pH, but adsorbs to a quartz(-) surface through electrostatic attraction of the pyridinium cation and possibly COO- bridge complexes at relatively higher pH conditions. CHP- bondsmore » to a quartz(-) surface by bidentate complexation between one oxygen of COO- and oxygen from the carbonyl (C=O) of the acetoxymethyl group. On a feldspar surface of mixed charge, CHPo forms monodentate complexes between C=O as well as COO- bridging complexes or electrostatically attached to localized edge (hydr)oxy-Al surfaces. CHP- adsorbs to feldspar(-) through monodentate C=O complexation, and similar mechanisms may operate for the sorption of other cephalosporins. This research demonstrates, for the first time, that Raman spectroscopic techniques can be effective for evaluating the sorption processes and mechanisms of cephalosporin antibiotics even at relatively low sorbed concentrations (97-120 μmol/kg).« less

  6. On the defensive action of glutamate against the cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity of quartz dust.

    PubMed Central

    Morosova, K I; Aronova, G V; Katsnelson, B A; Velichkovski, B T; Genkin, A M; Elnichnykh, L N; Privalova, L I

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxic action of quartz (DQ12) particles on cultures of rat peritoneal macrophages, as estimated by the inhibition of the TTC-reductase activity, is considerably reduced by preincubation with glutamic acid and by adding sodium glutamate (15 mg/ml) to the drinking water of the rats donating the macrophages. This increase in macrophage resistance under the influence of glutamate is the most probable cause of the delay in the development of silicotic fibrosis shown in several experiments on rats intratracheally injected with quartz and then treated by prolonged administration of glutamate. This effect is probably connected with the influence of glutamate on the stability of the macrophage membranes, which can in its turn be explained by different mechanisms, including the influence on the synthesis and phosphorylation of adenosine nucleotides. Such an influence was shown in rats receiving glutamate by the change of the ATP/ADP ratio in macrophages, but not in erythrocytes. The resistance of rat erythrocytes to the haemolytic action of quartz is also not influenced by the action of glutamate neither in vitro nor in vivo. Such differences in the influences of glutamate on two types of cells, equally susceptible to quartz cytotoxicity but considerably differing in the character of energy metabolism, is an indirect proof of the role of the latter in the realisation of the anticytotoxic, and thereby antifibrogenic, effect of glutamate. PMID:6124270

  7. The Rock Elm meteorite impact structure, Wisconsin: Geology and shock-metamorphic effects in quartz

    French, B.M.; Cordua, W.S.; Plescia, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Rock Elm structure in southwest Wisconsin is an anomalous circular area of highly deformed rocks, ???6.5 km in diameter, located in a region of virtually horizontal undeformed sedimentary rocks. Shock-produced planar microstructures (PMs) have been identified in quartz grains in several lithologies associated with the structure: sandstones, quartzite pebbles, and breccia. Two distinct types of PMs are present: P1 features, which appear identical to planar fractures (PFs or cleavage), and P2 features, which are interpreted as possible incipient planar deformation features (PDFs). The latter are uniquely produced by the shock waves associated with meteorite impact events. Both types of PMs are oriented parallel to specific crystallographic planes in the quartz, most commonly to c(0001), ??112??2, and r/z101??1. The association of unusual, structurally deformed strata with distinct shock-produced microdeformation features in their quartz-bearing rocks establishes Rock Elm as a meteorite impact structure and supports the view that the presence of multiple parallel cleavages in quartz may be used independently as a criterion for meteorite impact. Preliminary paleontological studies indicate a minimum age of Middle Ordovician for the Rock Elm structure. A similar age estimate (450-400 Ma) is obtained independently by combining the results of studies of the general morphology of complex impact structures with estimated rates of sedimentation for the region. Such methods may be applicable to dating other old and deeply eroded impact structures formed in sedimentary target rocks.

  8. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment II: Measuring Viscosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Various water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol based experiments are used to demonstrate how the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is used for measuring the viscosity of a system. The technique is very advantageous, as it is inexpensive and provides digital output.

  9. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25°C

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25° and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 μmole/Kg compared to 50 μmole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH.The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid anions which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  10. A parametric comparative study of electrocoagulation and coagulation using ultrafine quartz suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Mehtap Gülsün; Hoşten, Cetin; Demirci, Sahinde

    2009-11-15

    This paper attempts to compare electrocoagulation using aluminum anodes and stainless steel cathodes with conventional coagulation by aluminum sulfate dosing on aqueous suspensions of ultrafine quartz. Several key parameters affecting the efficiency of electrocoagulation and coagulation were investigated with laboratory scale experiments in search of optimal parameter values. Optimal values of the parameters were determined on the basis of the efficiency of turbidity removal from ultrafine quartz suspensions. The parameters investigated in the study were suspension pH, electrical potential, current density, electrocoagulation time, and aluminum dosage. A comparison between electrocoagulation and coagulation was made on the basis of total dissolved aluminum, revealing that electrocoagulation and coagulation were equally effective at the same aluminum dosage for the removal of quartz particles from suspensions. Coagulation, however, was more effective in a wider pH range (pH 6-9) than electrocoagulation which yielded optimum effectiveness in a relatively narrower pH range around 9, where, in both methods, these pH values corresponded to near-zero zeta potentials of quartz particles. Furthermore, experimental results confirmed that electrocoagulation could display some pH buffering capacity. The kinetics of electrocoagulation was very fast (<10 min) in approaching a residual turbidity, which could be modeled with a second-order rate equation.

  11. A Novel Strategy to Eliminate the Influence of Water Adsorption on Quartz Surfaces on Piezoelectric Dynamometers

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei; Ren, Zongjin

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric dynamometers are out of use in high humidity. Experimental results showed that piezoelectric coefficients measured by the force-induced charges method initially fluctuated in a small range and then was unstable, and they could not be measured at high relative humidity (RH). The traditional shielding method-insulation paste was not quiet convenient, and it even added the weight of piezoelectric dynamometers. In this paper, a novel strategy that eliminates the influence of water adsorption with quartz surfaces on piezoelectric dynamometers was proposed. First, a water-quartz model was developed to analyze the origin of the RH effect. In the model, water vapor, which was adsorbed by the quartz sheet side surface, was considered. Second, equivalent sheet resistor of the side surface was researched, while the relationship of the three R’s (Roughness, RH, and Resistor) was respectively discussed based on the adsorption mechanism. Finally, fluorination technology was skillfully adapted to each surface of quartz sheets to shield the water vapor. The experiment verified the fluorination strategy and made piezoelectric dynamometers work in high humidity up to 90%RH successfully. The results showed that the presented model above was reasonable. In addition, these observations also drew some useful insights to change the structure of piezoelectric dynamometers and improve the properties. PMID:27399719

  12. Determination of the sonic properties of a Nigerian quartz for ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Nwadike, Uchechukwu I; Agwu, Kenneth K; Eze, Charles U; Kani, Duke; Agu, Gregory; Enwereuzo, Emmanuel; Obika, Mike; Umoh, Effiong; Ufomba, Emmanuel

    2018-03-15

    There is abundant quartz deposit in Nigeria which has been used for export and building purposes. However, its electrical and piezoelectric properties have not been studied. Thus, whether it can be used as raw material for the indigenous electric industries is unknown to date. This study aims to characterize the piezoelectric properties of smoky quartz for ultrasonic transducer and determine its sonic properties. In the research approach, the raw quartz was cut into six crystals of rectangular shape using a universal cutter. The crystals were purified with a 100 ml hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid solution under a temperature of 250°C in a furnace. The sizes, weights, and capacitance of crystals were determined using the standard measuring instruments. The resonance method was used for the determination of the frequency of minimum and maximum impedance of the crystals. The piezoelectric constants of the crystals were derived using the standard formula for determination of piezoelectric constants. The results show that the sonic properties represented by the piezoelectric charge constant (d31) and the piezoelectric voltage constant (g31) values are 2.52 (±1.075) ×10-8c/m2 and 1030.6114 ± 250.89v/m2 respectively. The present study has characterized Nigerian quartz for its piezoelectric properties and found that it was suitable for use in the construction of ultrasonic transducers.

  13. Phase-referenced nonlinear spectroscopy of the α-quartz/water interface

    SciT

    Ohno, Paul E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Wang, Hong-fei

    2016-12-13

    Probing the polarization of water molecules at charged interfaces by second harmonic generation spectroscopy has been heretofore limited to isotropic materials. Here we report non-resonant nonlinear optical measurements at the interface of anisotropic z-cut α-quartz and water under conditions of dynamically changing ionic strength and bulk solution pH. We find that the product of the third-order susceptibility and the interfacial potential, χ (3) × Φ(0), is given by (χ1 (3)–iχ2 (3)) × Φ(0), and that the interference between this product and the second-order susceptibility of bulk quartz depends on the rotation angle of α-quartz around the z axis. Our experimentsmore » show that this newly identified term, iχ (3) × Φ(0), which is out of phase from the surface terms, is of bulk origin. Lastly, the possibility of internally phase referencing the interfacial response for the interfacial orientation analysis of species or materials in contact with α-quartz is discussed along with the implications for conditions of resonance enhancement.« less

  14. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The solubility of quartz in water in the temperature interval from 25° to 300° C

    Morey, G.W.; Fournier, R.O.; Rowe, J.J.

    1962-01-01

    the very slow rate at which dissolved silica polymerizes to species appropriate to act as nuclei for quartz growth. At the termination of the runs rotated at 75 rev/min, spikelike projections were present on many of the quartz grains. These are interpreted as indicating that abrasion was not the dominant cause for the great supersaturations which were obtained.  

  16. Density Variations in Quartz As a Key for Deciphering Impact-Related Ultrasonic Sounding (Rajlich's Hypothesis)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestan, J.; Alvarez Polanco, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy with a frequency greater than ≈ 20 kHz (upper human hearing limit). It is used in many scientific as well as industrial fields. Most modern applications of ultrasound utilize sources which are either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive (Benwell et Bly 1987). A meteorite impact has been considered to be an ultrasound source during last years (Rajlich 2011). Rajlich (2014) is coming with a hypothesis that white planes made of microcavities in Bohemian quartz have their origin in an impact-related ultrasonic sounding. The Bohemian Massif has been considered to be one of the largest impact craters in whole of the world (Papagiannis et El-Baz 1988, Papagiannis 1989, Rajlich 2014). Rajlich's hypothesis implies a liquid behavior of quartz during the impact event. We state that then there have to exist planes of slightly higher density than their surroundings together with planes of microcavities. They should intersect each other without mutual influencing (as in a case of planes made of microcavities). Because physics of ultrasound during an impact event is a brand new and unknown field, we try to choose a simple way of its cognition. It is possible to take the sine wave and set 3 requirements. (1) There exist some surroundings of points of peak amplitudes. (2) These surroundings are of higher density (compression) or lower density (rarefaction) than the mean density of quartz. (3) The difference between the higher/lower and surrounding density is measurable. There was done an experimental study of Bohemian quartz using QCT bone densitometry at the Radiology Munich. Quartz with a size of ≈ 5 x 8 cm absorbed too much RTG radiation (kV 140, mAs 330), which made a picture of internal structure impossible. We propose another techniques and appeal to other scientists to face this challenge. If Bohemian quartz has a harmonically distributed density, we consider it to be a support for Rajlich's hypothesis. AcknowledgementsWe would like

  17. Timescales of ductility in an extensional shear zone recorded as diffusion profiles in deformed quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, William; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna

    2015-04-01

    We document rutile needles that were in the process of exsolving from quartz during ductile shearing, and we apply the Arrhenius parameters for Ti diffusion in quartz to extract the timescales over which diffusion transpired. By constraining temperature conditions of deformation using multiple independent thermometers in the same rocks (Ti-in-quartz, Zr-in-rutile, quartz fabrics and microstructures), we estimate the longevity of a ductile shear zone that accommodated extensional collapse in the North American Cordillera. Eocene exhumation of the Pioneer core complex, Idaho, USA, was accommodated by the brittle-ductile Wildhorse detachment system that localized in a zone of sheared metasediments and juxtaposes lower crustal migmatite gneisses with upper crustal Paleozoic sedimentary units. Deformation in the Wildhorse detachment was partly accommodated within a continuous sequence (~200 m) of quartzite mylonites, wherein quartz grains are densely rutilated with microscopic rutile needles that are pervasively oriented into the lineation direction. We apply high-resolution spectroscopic CL analysis to map the Ti concentration field in quartz surrounding rutile needles, revealing depletion halos that indicate exsolution as Ti unmixes from quartz. Linear transects through depletion halos show that concentration profiles exhibit a characteristic diffusion geometry. We apply an error-function diffusion model to fit the measured profiles to extract the temperature or time recorded in the profile. Assuming modest temperature estimates from our combined thermometry analysis, results of diffusion modeling suggest that the quartzite shear zone was deforming over an integrated 0.8 - 3.1 Myr. If samples are permitted to have deformed in discrete intervals, our results suggest deformation of individual samples for timescales as short as 100 kyr. By comparing samples from different levels of the shear zone, we find that deformation was sustained in higher levels of the shear zone

  18. 'Micro-hole' optical dating of quartz from HOTRAX-05 Arctic Ocean cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, G. W.; Polyak, L. V.

    2011-12-01

    For Quaternary Arctic Ocean cores, numeric dating methods are needed spanning and exceeding the age range of the widely used radiocarbon (C-14) method. Previously, luminescence sediment dating of 4-11 μm diameter quartz and feldspar grains from core tops has often produced large burial-age overestimates (e.g., by >7 kyr) due to failure to resolve mixed-age histories. However, application of micro-focused-laser ('micro-hole') photon-stimulated-luminescence (PSL) applied to quartz grains of 11-90 μm diameters from the tops (upper 2 cm) of high-sedimentation- rate HOTRAX-05 multi-cores at the Alaska margin provides expected near zero ages (0-200 a), thus overcoming the earlier problem of large PSL age over-estimation. This micro-hole PSL dating approach has also been applied to >11 μm quartz grains from multi-cores at two sites on the central Lomonosov Ridge. For a core top within a perched basin, a burial-age estimate of ~2 ka for 11-62 μm quartz was obtained, in accord with published C-14 age estimates from foraminifera, demonstrating the efficacy of the micro-hole approach to this ridge area. At a nearby 'erosive' ridge-top site, the micro-hole PSL approach paradoxically produces two different burial-age estimates from the same core-top horizon. The >90 μm quartz grains yield a burial age of ~25 ka, in accord with a C-14 age estimate of ~26 ka from >250 μm foraminifers from the same horizon. However, the 11-90 μm quartz produces a burial-age estimate of ~9 ka, indicating a differently preserved burial history for the medium silt grains than for the sand grains within a single horizon. This unexpected result provides a unique insight into past, complicated, depositional processes on this ridge top over a time range spanning the LGM. These results from the micro-hole PSL approach thus indicate a clear potential for dating times of detrital quartz deposition at other ridge tops in the Arctic Ocean, and for providing perhaps new insights into local preservation

  19. Quartz sand as "blank" compound in rehabilitation experience of industrial barren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbacheva, T. T.; Ivanova, L. A.; Kikuchi, R.; Gerardo, R.

    2010-05-01

    During 2008 the field test was performed near the smelter complex Monchegorsk (67°51'N, 32°48'E) to estimate suitability of innovate method for site remediation in severe conditions such as in industrial barren. The method is based on cultivation of perennial grasses using hydroponics with thermally inflated vermiculite from local deposit (Kovdor) followed by rolled lawn placement on very contaminated sites near Monchegorsk. Growing in very contaminated ground resulted in 50% rolled lawn surface loss during first year but with biodiversity maintenance. Field experiment was carried out in three variants (1- mineral ground - flat site; 2- mineral ground- slope sites; 3- organogenic ground - flat site in depression in five replicates. More comprehensive results were received for mineral ground due to better natural washing compared to organogenic ground. In all variants we observed secondary roots formation. It seems obvious that plant roots choose the best zones of soils to grow, and that they avoided toxic zones. Observations continued during 2009 to follow freezing influence and nutrient loss rate. We observed grass survival of about 20-30% during second year of field test but grass roots proliferated very slowly in contaminated ground. Affinity to the ground is one of most important estimate of rolled lawn efficiency for grass cover creation. One of possible measure to improve rolled lawn affinity is to establish additional permeable barrier for grass roots isolation from toxic ground. Simultaneously with rolled lawn placement litterbag experiment was carried out with quartz sand as filling. Quartz was chosen as blank compound and as possible material for permeable barrier creation. Original quartz have some initial nutritional status: pH 6.87, available forms of K 1.9 mg g-1, Ca 9.5 mg g-1, Mg 2.8 mg g-1, P 0.4 mg g-1. There was both increasing and decreasing of quartz nutritional status during 2008-2009 period. Besides quartz is recognized to be some barrier

  20. High exposure to respirable dust and quartz in a labour-intensive coal mine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Mwaiselage, Julius; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Moen, Bente E

    2006-03-01

    Labour-intensive mines are numerous in several developing countries, but dust exposure in such mines has not been adequately characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the determinants of respirable dust and quartz exposure among underground coal mine workers in Tanzania. Personal respirable dust samples (n = 134) were collected from 90 underground workers in June-August 2003 and July-August 2004. The development team had higher exposure to respirable dust and quartz (geometric means 1.80 and 0.073 mg m(-3), respectively) than the mining team (0.47 and 0.013 mg m(-3)), the underground transport team (0.14 and 0.006 mg m(-3)) and the underground maintenance team (0.58 and 0.016 mg m(-3)). The percentages of samples above the threshold limit values (TLVs) of 0.9 mg m(-3) for respirable bituminous coal dust and 0.05 mg m(-3) for respirable quartz, respectively, were higher in the development team (55 and 47%) than in the mining team (20 and 9%). No sample for the underground transport team exceeded the TLV. Drilling in the development was the work task associated with the highest exposure to respirable dust and quartz (17.37 and 0.611 mg m(-3), respectively). Exposure models were constructed using multiple regression model analysis, with log-transformed data on either respirable dust or quartz as the dependent variable and tasks performed as the independent variables. The models for the development section showed that blasting and pneumatic drilling times were major determinants of respirable dust and quartz, explaining 45.2 and 40.7% of the variance, respectively. In the mining team, only blasting significantly determined respirable dust. Immediate actions for improvements are suggested to include implementing effective dust control together with improved training and education programmes for the workers. Dust and quartz in this underground mine should be controlled by giving priority to workers performing drilling and blasting in the

  1. Significance of Dauphiné twins in crystallographic fabrics of quartz tectonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eske Sørensen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Dauphine twins are commonly found in quartz tectonites, however their role in deformation processes are not completely understood. This study represents a new attempt to understand the interaction between slip systems and Dauphine twins in deforming quartz-rich rocks at different temperatures. There is no doubt that Dauphine twins are mobilized under stress as this has been shown by experiments for single crystals and in polycrystalline aggregates where distinct crystallographic fabrics develop in previously randomly oriented aggregates related to minimization of elastic energy (Tullis 1972). However in quartz tectonites the Dauphine twin process is a part of interplay between plastic deformation and recovery processes which depends on PT, strain-rate and fluid composition and availability. In quartz tectonites with Y-girdle C-axis (GBM-regime) fabrics Dauphiné twins are abundant, relating different parts of r- and z rhomb "comet" distributions. This is interpreted as completion between prism slip and Dauphiné twinning. Slip rotates grains such that CRSS is low on the prism planes, but then Dauphiné twin boundaries sweeps through the grain back to the orientation giving lower stored elastic energy. The faster recovery at higher temperatures gives subgrain walls slowing down twin movement across the mm-sized grain of the GBM regime. At lower temperatures in the SGR-regime grain-size is reduced and different rotations of the grains are happening due to the domination of rhomb and basal slip. Because recrystallization is effective relative to grain-size the grains are commonly free of internal strain and subgrain walls, allowing the favorably oriented Dauphiné twin member to sweep across the whole grain overwhelming the unfavorably oriented Dauphiné twin member. As a consequence high strain reduces the number of Dauphiné twins and quartz rhomb fabrics appear trigonal, missing the "comet" shape of the GBM regime rhomb fabrics. Since Dauphiné twinning is

  2. In situ measurement of gas composition changes in radio frequency plasmas using a quartz sensor

    SciT

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Nonaka, Hidehiko

    2009-09-15

    A simple method using a quartz sensor (Q-sensor) was developed to observe gas composition changes in radio frequency (rf) plasmas. The output depends on the gases' absolute pressure, molecular weight, and viscosity. The pressure-normalized quartz sensor output depends only on the molecular weight and viscosity of the gas. Consequently, gas composition changes can be detected in the plasmas if a sensor can be used in the plasmas. Influences imparted by the plasmas on the sensor, such as those by reactive particles (e.g., radicals and ions), excited species, electrons, temperature, and electric potentials during measurements were investigated to test the applicabilitymore » of this quartz sensor measurement to plasma. The Q-sensor measurement results for rf plasmas with argon, hydrogen, and their mixtures are reproducible, demonstrating that the Q-sensor measurement is applicable for plasmas. In this work, pressure- and temperature-normalized Q-sensor output (NQO) were used to obtain the gas composition information of plasma. Temperature-normalization of the Q-sensor output enabled quartz sensor measurements near plasma electrodes, where the quartz sensor temperature increases. The changes in NQO agreed with results obtained by gas analysis using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results confirmed that the change in NQO is mainly attributable to changes in the densities and kinds of gas molecules in the plasma gas phase, not by other extrinsic influences of plasma. For argon, hydrogen, and argon-hydrogen plasmas, these changes correspond to reduction in nitrogen, production of carbon monoxide, and dissociation of hydrogen molecules, respectively. These changes in NQO qualitatively and somewhat quantitatively agreed with results obtained using gas analysis, indicting that the measurement has a potential application to obtain the gas composition in plasmas without disturbing industrial plasma processes.« less

  3. Investigation of quartz grain surface textures by atomic force microscopy for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Konopinski, D I; Hudziak, S; Morgan, R M; Bull, P A; Kenyon, A J

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents a study of quartz sand grain surface textures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface. Until now scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has provided the primary technique used in the forensic surface texture analysis of quartz sand grains as a means of establishing the provenance of the grains for forensic reconstructions. The ability to independently corroborate the grain type classifications is desirable and provides additional weight to the findings of SEM analysis of the textures of quartz grains identified in forensic soil/sediment samples. AFM offers a quantitative means of analysis that complements SEM examination, and is a non-destructive technique that requires no sample preparation prior to scanning. It therefore has great potential to be used for forensic analysis where sample preservation is highly valuable. By taking quantitative topography scans, it is possible to produce 3D representations of microscopic surface textures and diagnostic features for examination. Furthermore, various empirical measures can be obtained from analysing the topography scans, including arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square surface roughness, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple gaussian fits to height distributions. These empirical measures, combined with qualitative examination of the surfaces can help to discriminate between grain types and provide independent analysis that can corroborate the morphological grain typing based on the surface textures assigned using SEM. Furthermore, the findings from this study also demonstrate that quartz sand grain surfaces exhibit a statistically self-similar fractal nature that remains unchanged across scales. This indicates the potential for a further quantitative measure that could be utilised in the discrimination of quartz grains based on their provenance for forensic investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thrust-controlled, gold quartz-vein mineralisation at the Tom's Gully mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Metasedimentary and minor metavolcanic rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Inlier rest unconformably on Late Archaean granitic basement. Three basin-wide, regional deformation events at ca.1885 1870 Ma are recognised: I) W- to NW-verging thrusts and recumbent folds (D2), II) upright, open to tight, doubly-plunging, NNE- to NNW-trending folds (D3), and III) open, upright, E-trending folds (D4). In the centre of the Pine Creek Inlier, post-tectonic granites (1835 1820 Ma) are spatially, temporally and probably genetically associated with mesothermal gold-quartz vein deposits. The Tom's Gully deposit consists of a shallowly S-dipping quartz reef in graphitic shale and siltstone within the thermal aureole of the post-tectonic (1831 ± 6 Ma) Mt Bundey pluton. Gold mineralisation comprises two(?) SSW-plunging sulphidic ore-shoots which are intimately associated with brecciation and recrystallisation of early barren quartz. Where early quartz is absent from the thrust, gold mineralisation is not developed, indicating that this secondary brittle fracturing was essential to sulphide and gold deposition. The ore-shoots plunge parallel to the trend of D3 fold axes. The reef is hosted by a D2 thrust fault with transport to the NW. D3 folds in the hangingwall and footwall decrease in amplitude toward the reef indicating that, during continued E-W compression, the thrust acted as a décollement zone. Field relationships and microstructural studies suggest that quartz and sulphide were deposited in a reactivated thrust during wrench shear along several NNE-trending faults associated with emplacement of the Mt Bundey pluton.

  5. Silicon self-diffusion in single-crystal natural quartz and feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2003-09-01

    Silicon diffusion was measured in natural quartz and anorthitic feldspar under dry, low-pressure (0.1 MPa) conditions using a 30Si tracer. Sources of diffusant consisted of 30Si-enriched silica powder for experiments on quartz and microcrystalline 30Si-doped synthetic feldspar of composition comparable to the feldspar specimens. Distributions of 30Si were measured with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis, using the reaction 30Si (p,γ) 31P. The following Arrhenius relations were obtained for anneals at 1 atm in air. For quartz: transport normal to c: Dqtz,⊥c=7.97×10 -6 exp (-447±31 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1; transport parallel to c: Dqtz,∥c=6.40×10 -6 exp (-443±22 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1. For anorthitic feldspar (An 93): DAn=3.79×10 -7 exp (-465±50 kJ mol -1/ RT) m 2 s -1. The few successful experiments on diffusion in plagioclase of more albitic compositions (An 67 and An 23) reveal Si diffusivities a few orders of magnitude faster than that in the anorthite. The results for these feldspars bracket the determination of CaAl-NaSi interdiffusion under dry conditions by Grove et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48 (1984) 2113-2121], suggesting that the rate-limiting process is indeed Si diffusion. Si diffusion in quartz under more reducing conditions (NNO) is slightly slower (by about half an order of magnitude) than diffusion in samples annealed in air. This is consistent with observations made in studies of synthetic quartz [Béjina and Jaoul, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 50 (1988) 240-250].

  6. Study of Pellets and Lumps as Raw Materials in Silicon Production from Quartz and Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Martello, E.; Tranell, G.; Gaal, S.; Raaness, O. S.; Tang, K.; Arnberg, L.

    2011-10-01

    The use of high-purity carbon and quartz raw materials reduces the need for comprehensive refining steps after the silicon has been produced carbothermically in the electric reduction furnace. The current work aims at comparing the reaction mechanisms and kinetics occurring in the inner part of the reduction furnace when pellets or lumpy charge is used, as well as the effect of the raw material mix. Laboratory-scale carbothermic reduction experiments have been carried out in an induction furnace. High-purity silicon carbide and two different high-purity hydrothermal quartzes were charged as raw materials at different molar ratios. The charge was in the form of lumps (size, 2-5 mm) or as powder (size, 10-20 μm), mixed and agglomerated as pellets (size, 1-3 mm) and reacted at 2273 K (2000 °C). The thermal properties of the quartzes were measured also by heating a small piece of quartz in CO atmosphere. The investigated quartzes have different reactivity in reducing atmosphere. The carbothermal reduction experiments show differences in the reacted charge between pellets and lumps as charge material. Solid-gas reactions take place from the inside of the pellets porosity, whereas reactions in lumps occur topochemically. Silicon in pellets is produced mainly in the rim zone. Larger volumes of silicon have been found when using lumpy charge. More SiO is produced when using pellets than for lumpy SiO2 for the same molar ratio and heating conditions. The two SiC polytypes used in the carbothermal reduction experiments as carbon reductants presented different reactivity.

  7. Measurement of Size-dependent Dynamic Shape Factors of Quartz Particles in Two Flow Regimes

    SciT

    Alexander, Jennifer M.; Bell, David M.; Imre, D.

    2016-08-02

    Understanding and modeling the behavior of quartz dust particles, commonly found in the atmosphere, requires knowledge of many relevant particles properties, including particle shape. This study uses a single particle mass spectrometer, a differential mobility analyzer, and an aerosol particle mass analyzer to measure quartz aerosol particles mobility, aerodynamic, and volume equivalent diameters, mass, composition, effective density, and dynamic shape factor as a function of particle size, in both the free molecular and transition flow regimes. The results clearly demonstrate that dynamic shape factors can vary significantly as a function of particle size. For the quartz samples studied here, themore » dynamic shape factors increase with size, indicating that larger particles are significantly more aspherical than smaller particles. In addition, dynamic shape factors measured in the free-molecular (χv) and transition (χt) flow regimes can be significantly different, and these differences vary with the size of the quartz particles. For quartz, χv of small (d < 200 nm) particles is 1.25, while χv of larger particles (d ~ 440 nm) is 1.6, with a continuously increasing trend with particle size. In contrast χt, of small particles starts at 1.1 increasing slowly to 1.34 for 550 nm diameter particles. The multidimensional particle characterization approach used here goes beyond determination of average properties for each size, to provide additional information about how the particle dynamic shape factor may vary even for particles with the same mass and volume equivalent diameter.« less

  8. Phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamp: A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Kang; Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Qinghuai

    2017-01-01

    A large proportion of the output of quartz infrared heat lamps is emitted as infrared radiation (IR). Retinal damage induced by IR-A and visible light on arc welders has been reported. However, case reports of retinal damage caused by quartz infrared heat lamps are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamps. We report a female with a 1-month history of progressive blurred vision and dysmorphopsia in her right eye after improper staring at the tubes of a quartz infrared heater. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/32. Optical coherence tomography revealed a defect from the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch's complex layer with a diameter of 360mmat its widest. P1 amplitudes in the two central concentric rings were reduced as assessed by multifocal electroretinography. The patient was diagnosed with phototoxic maculopathy. The patient was advised to cease all exposure to the infrared heater and was treated with peribulbar injections of methylprednisolone, oral Pancreatic Kininogenase, and oral Mecobalamin. Ten months later, her BCVA improved to 20/20. All examination results returned to normal except for a small residual defect in the interdigitation zone and RPE/Bruch's complex layer in her optical coherence tomography. Light emitted by quartz infrared heat lamps may cause damage to the retina through photothermal and photochemical means. The public is insufficiently aware of the hazard potential of infrared heat lamps and other IR-A sources on human retina.

  9. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s–1000 s km3) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ∼760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500–3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies. PMID:22666359

  10. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    SciT

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain themore » timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.« less

  11. Abrupt appearance of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    SciT

    Izett, G.A.; Pillmore, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Unique quartz grains as large as 0.5 mm and having up to 6 sets of closely spaced microfractures (CSM) occur at the palynological K-T boundary at 9 scattered sites from Trinidad, Colorado, south 50 km to Raton, New Mexico. Similar quartz grains at the K-T boundary in Montana and Europe were ascribed a shock-metamorphic origin by B. Bohor and colleagues in 1984-85. In the Raton Basin, quartz grains with CSM are concentrated at the top and base of a 2.5-cm-tick kaolinite bed in a nonmarine sequence of somber-colored sandstone, siltstone, shale, and coal. No quartz grains with CSM have yetmore » been found below the K-T bed in the Raton Basin, but a few have been found about 25 cm below the K-T bed at Brownie Butte, Montana. Most quartz grains having CSM are single optical units, but some are compound grains showing sutured boundaries (metaquartzite). Nearly all quartz grains with CSM have refractive indices and birefringence normal for quartz which suggests they formed at not more than 100 kb (low shock); however, a few have n/sub 0/ lowered to 1.538, but have normal birefringence. About half of 100 measured CSM in quartz make an angle of 15-25 degrees with the base (0001). The K-T kaolinite bed in the Raton Basin contains anomalously large amounts of Ir and is possibly coeval with marine, Ir-bearing K-T claystone beds in Europe described in 1980 by W. Alvarez and his associated who suggested they formed when a large bolide struck the Earth causing mass extinction of certain animals and plants. The shocked quartz and metaquartzite at the K-T boundary is compelling evidence that a bolide struck an onland-area of quartz-rich crustal rocks--not in an ocean.« less

  12. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjøll, H. J.; Viola, G.; Menegon, L.; Sørensen, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by EBSD and optical microscopy to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low-grade conditions, broadly coincident with the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is from a high strain zone at the front of the Porsa Imbricate Stack in the Paleoproterozoic Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed under lower greenschist facies conditions during deformation along a large out-of-sequence phyllonitic thrust of Caledonian age. The host phyllonite formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation was initially accommodated by basal ⟨a⟩ slip of quartz during the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage. Under the prevailing boundary conditions, however, dislocation glide-accommodated deformation of quartz resulted inefficient and led to dislocation tangling and strain hardening of the vein. In response to hardening, to the progressive increase of fluid pressure and the increasing competence contrast between the vein and the weak foliated host phyllonite, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific, optimally oriented lattice planes, creating microgouges along microfractures. These were, however, rapidly sealed by nucleation of new grains as transiently over pressured fluids penetrated the deforming system. The new nucleated grains grew initially by solution-precipitation and later by grain boundary migration. Due to the random initial orientation of the vein crystals, strain was accommodated differently in the individual crystals, leading to the development of remarkably different microstructures. Crystals

  13. A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other

  14. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li being the most abundant of the three. In most samples, Al is more abundant than the combined total of the monovalent cations; however, in the MVT sample, molar Al/Li ratios are ~0.8. Antimony is present in concentrations up to ~120 ppm in epithermal quartz (~200–300 °C), but is not detectable in MVT, Carlin, or porphyry-Cu quartz. Concentrations of Sb do not correlate consistently with those of other trace elements or with CL textures. Titanium is only abundant enough to be mapped in quartz from porphyry-type ore deposits that precipitate at temperatures above ~400 °C. In such quartz, Ti concentration correlates positively with CL intensity, suggesting a causative relationship. In contrast, in quartz from other deposit types, there is no consistent correlation between concentrations of any trace element and CL intensity fluctuations.

  15. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, R.M.; Tuthill, C.D.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-04-23

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals. 2 figures.

  16. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, Richard M.; Tuthill, Clinton D.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

  17. Mid-Infrared Trace Gas Sensor Technology Based on Intracavity Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wojtas, Jacek; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Tittel, Frank K

    2017-03-04

    The application of compact inexpensive trace gas sensor technology to a mid-infrared nitric oxide (NO) detectoion using intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (I-QEPAS) is reported. A minimum detection limit of 4.8 ppbv within a 30 ms integration time was demonstrated by using a room-temperature, continuous-wave, distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 5.263 µm (1900.08 cm -1 ) and a new compact design of a high-finesse bow-tie optical cavity with an integrated resonant quartz tuning fork (QTF). The optimum configuration of the bow-tie cavity was simulated using custom software. Measurements were performed with a wavelength modulation scheme (WM) using a 2f detection procedure.

  18. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Deep Fluid Sampling in Fractured Quartz, Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, R. J.; Reed, M. H.; Grist, H. R.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    In July of 2011 a fluid inclusion tool (FIT) was deployed in well RN-17b of the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland, with the goal of sampling fluids in situ at the deepest feed point in the well. The tool consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing eight stainless steel mesh canisters, each loaded with 10mm-scale blocks of thermally fractured quartz. Except for one control canister, in each canister the fractured quartz blocks were surrounded by a different grain size of SiO¬2 glass that ranged in size from 10μm-scale glass wool to cm-scale glass shards. The FIT was left in the well on a wireline at a depth of 2768m and retrieved after three weeks. The fluid at 2768m depth is known from November 2010 well logs to have a temperature of about 330°C and pressure of 170 bars, a pressure ~40 bar too high for boiling at that temperature. After retrieval, quartz in all of the canisters contained liquid-dominated fluid inclusions, but their quantity and size differed by canister. Groups of inclusions occur in healed fractures and both healed and open fracture surfaces are visible within single quartz blocks. Measurements on a heating and cooling stage yield approximant inclusion homogenization temperatures of 332°C and freezing points of -2.0°C. These measurements and a pressure of 170 bars yield trapping temperatures of 335°C and a NaCl weight percent of 3.4, both of which match known values, thus verifying that the device trapped fluids as intended. In upcoming studies, these fluids will be analyzed using bulk methods and LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. The glass added to the quartz blocks in the canisters allowed the Reykjanes fluids to precipitate enough quartz to heal fractures and trap fluids despite the fluid undersaturation in quartz. Almost all of the glass that was added to the canisters, 27 to 66 grams in each (except glass wool), was consumed in the experiment. Remaining glass was in the non-mesh bottom caps of the canisters where fluid

  19. ANIE: A mathematical algorithm for automated indexing of planar deformation features in quartz grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthew S.; Ferriãre, Ludovic; Losiak, Anna; Koeberl, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz, one of the most commonly used diagnostic indicators of shock metamorphism, are planes of amorphous material that follow crystallographic orientations, and can thus be distinguished from non-shock-induced fractures in quartz. The process of indexing data for PDFs from universal-stage measurements has traditionally been performed using a manual graphical method, a time-consuming process in which errors can easily be introduced. A mathematical method and computer algorithm, which we call the Automated Numerical Index Executor (ANIE) program for indexing PDFs, was produced, and is presented here. The ANIE program is more accurate and faster than the manual graphical determination of Miller-Bravais indices, as it allows control of the exact error used in the calculation and removal of human error from the process.

  20. Relationship between Mass Loading and Frequency Temperature Characteristics of AT-Cut Quartz Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xun; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Goka, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuaki

    2003-07-01

    Past experiments indicated that the mass loading (R) results in a shift of the apparent orientation angle of the quartz plate and this shift is proportional to the thickness of the metal film and the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients (α) of the electrode and the substrate. In this study, first we make a new model that includes the anisotropy of quartz based on the model of EerNisse [Proc. 29th Annu. Freq. Control Symp., 1975, p. 1] to obtain the thermally induced strain bias. Then, we deduce a simple relationship for the thickness shear vibrations from Lee and Tang’s [IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. & Freq. Control 34 (1987) 659] theory of small-magnitude vibration superposing on the bias strain field. A new method which can enable a strict analysis of the phenomenon is thus developed. The simulation of several kinds of metal films is performed. The results agree well with the above-mentioned experimental results.

  1. Mechanical Mounting and Adhesive Junction for Large Quartz Optics Operatng at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, M.; Mosciarello, P.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is a global space astrometry mission, with the goal to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy. Gaia contains two optical telescopes: in front of their Focal Plane Assembly -FPA- two narrow quartz prisms are mounted for spectrophotometer science: the Blue and Red Photometer Prisms -BPP and RPP-. They are framed in a SiC structure by means of brackets and adhesive junctions between metal parts and quartz optical elements. SELEX GALILEO developed this project as subcontractor of Astrium France. The assembly has to withstand thermoelastic loads due to CTE mismatch at an operative temperature of 120 K. The mechanical mountings design to reduce the stresses due to thermal loads on the adhesive joint is described and the results of the bonding qualification process as well as the flight hardware bonding results are reported.

  2. Highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance based biosensor using Au dendrite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Naoto; Terasawa, Hideaki; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Ito, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    A Au dendrite structure was obtained by only electroplating under a suitable potential. A blanch like nanostructure was formed along the crystal orientation. In this study, we attempted to fabricate a Au dendrite structure on the electrode of a quartz crystal by electroplating to increase the specific surface area. We estimated the effective surface area by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and monitored the frequency shift induced by antigen-antibody interaction by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The dendrite structure with the largest surface area was formed under -0.95 V for 5 min. In the measurement of the antigen-antibody interaction, the frequency shifts of 40, 80, and 110 Hz were obtained with the dendrite structured QCM chips formed at the above potential for 1, 1.5, and 2.0 min, respectively. The sensitivity was improved compared with that QCM chip having a flat surface electrode.

  3. Charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide thin film on quartz at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Toan; Viet Dao, Dzung; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Wang, Li; Qamar, Afzaal; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Tanner, Philip; Rybachuk, Maksym

    2015-06-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the charge transport and activation energy of amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) thin films grown on quartz by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The electrical conductivity as characterized by the Arrhenius rule was found to vary distinctly under two activation energy thresholds of 150 and 205 meV, corresponding to temperature ranges of 300 to 450 K and 450 to 580 K, respectively. The a-SiC/quartz system displayed a high temperature coefficient of resistance ranging from -4,000 to -16,000 ppm/K, demonstrating a strong feasibility of using this material for highly sensitive thermal sensing applications.

  4. Study on vacuum packaging reliability of micromachined quartz tuning fork gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Maoyan; Zhang, Lifang

    2017-09-01

    Packaging technology of the micromachined quartz tuning fork gyroscopes by vacuum welding has been experimentally studied. The performance of quartz tuning fork is influenced by the encapsulation shell, encapsulation method and fixation of forks. Alloy solder thick film is widely used in the package to avoid the damage of the chip structure by the heat resistance and hot temperature, and this can improve the device performance and welding reliability. The results show that the bases and the lids plated with gold and nickel can significantly improve the airtightness and reliability of the vacuum package. Vacuum packaging is an effective method to reduce the vibration damping, improve the quality factor and further enhance the performance. The threshold can be improved nearly by 10 times.

  5. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  6. Mid-Infrared Trace Gas Sensor Technology Based on Intracavity Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wojtas, Jacek; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Tittel, Frank K.

    2017-01-01

    The application of compact inexpensive trace gas sensor technology to a mid-infrared nitric oxide (NO) detectoion using intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (I-QEPAS) is reported. A minimum detection limit of 4.8 ppbv within a 30 ms integration time was demonstrated by using a room-temperature, continuous-wave, distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 5.263 µm (1900.08 cm−1) and a new compact design of a high-finesse bow-tie optical cavity with an integrated resonant quartz tuning fork (QTF). The optimum configuration of the bow-tie cavity was simulated using custom software. Measurements were performed with a wavelength modulation scheme (WM) using a 2f detection procedure. PMID:28273836

  7. Frequency shift, damping, and tunneling current coupling with quartz tuning forks in noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nony, Laurent; Bocquet, Franck; Para, Franck; Loppacher, Christian

    2016-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach to the coupling between frequency-shift (Δ f ) , damping, and tunneling current (It) in combined noncontact atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy using quartz tuning forks (QTF)-based probes is reported. When brought into oscillating tunneling conditions, the tip located at the QTF prong's end radiates an electromagnetic field which couples to the QTF prong motion via its piezoelectric tensor and loads its electrodes by induction. Our approach explains how those It-related effects ultimately modify the Δ f and the damping measurements. This paradigm to the origin of the coupling between It and the nc-AFM regular signals relies on both the intrinsic piezoelectric nature of the quartz constituting the QTF and its electrodes design.

  8. Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, M.; Kim, H. Y.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2018-05-01

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

  9. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    PubMed

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Superfluidity of 4He in dense aerogel studied using quartz tuning fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Okamoto, R.; Nakajima, A.; Abe, S.

    2018-03-01

    Superfluid 4He in aerogel is of interest because it has a normal component coupling to gel strand due to viscosity and a superfluid component with zero viscosity. Superfluid helium in aerogel has two sound modes, a slow critical mode and a fast one. In this study, quartz tuning fork was used in order to study acoustic properties of liquid 4He in aerogel with 90% porosity. Two pieces of aerogel were glued on both prongs of quartz tuning fork that had a resonance frequency of 33 kHz. The tuning fork was immersed in liquid 4He from 2 to 20 bar. The resonance frequency increased in the superfluid phase due to decrease in loaded mass. Temperature variation of resonance frequency was explained by that of superfluid density. Superfluid transition in aerogel was 2 mK lower than that without gel. Additional dissipation was observed in the temperature range between 1 K and transition temperature.

  11. Hypolithic Microbial Community of Quartz Pavement in the High-Altitude Tundra of Central Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fiona K. Y.; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Aitchison, J. C.; Cowan, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The hypolithic microbial community associated with quartz pavement at a high-altitude tundra location in central Tibet is described. A small-scale ecological survey indicated that 36% of quartz rocks were colonized. Community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed no significant difference in community structure among a number of colonized rocks. Real-time quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis of environmental phylotypes obtained from clone libraries were used to elucidate community structure across all domains. The hypolithon was dominated by cyanobacterial phylotypes (73%) with relatively low frequencies of other bacterial phylotypes, largely represented by the chloroflexi, actinobacteria, and bacteriodetes. Unidentified crenarchaeal phylotypes accounted for 4% of recoverable phylotypes, while algae, fungi, and mosses were indicated by a small fraction of recoverable phylotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9653-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20336290

  12. Three sets of crystallographic sub-planar structures in quartz formed by tectonic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derez, Tine; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    In quartz, multiple sets of fine planar deformation microstructures that have specific crystallographic orientations parallel to planes with low Miller-Bravais indices are commonly considered as shock-induced planar deformation features (PDFs) diagnostic of shock metamorphism. Using polarized light microscopy, we demonstrate that up to three sets of tectonically induced sub-planar fine extinction bands (FEBs), sub-parallel to the basal, γ, ω, and π crystallographic planes, are common in vein quartz in low-grade tectonometamorphic settings. We conclude that the observation of multiple (2-3) sets of fine scale, closely spaced, crystallographically controlled, sub-planar microstructures is not sufficient to unambiguously distinguish PDFs from tectonic FEBs.

  13. Evolution of quartz microstructure and c-axis crystallographic preferred orientation within ductilely deformed granitoids (Arolla unit, Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegon, Luca; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Heilbronner, Renee; Pittarello, Lidia

    2008-11-01

    We have studied quartz microstructures and the c-axis crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in four granitoid samples representative of increasing ductile shear deformation, from a weakly deformed granitoid (stage 1) to a mylonitic granitoid (stage 4). The quartz c-axis CPO measured in the mylonitic granitoid has been compared with the one observed in a fully recrystallized quartz mylonite from the same area. All the samples belong to the Austroalpine Arolla unit (Western Alps) and were deformed at greenschist facies conditions. The quartz c-axis CPO was analyzed using a U-stage and the optical orientation imaging technique. The magmatic plagioclase, forming more than 50% of the volume of the granitoid, is extensively replaced by a mica-rich aggregate even in weakly deformed samples of stage 1. These aggregates flow to form an interconnected weak matrix with increasing deformation, wrapping relatively less strained quartz grains that undergo dominantly coaxial strain. Recrystallization of quartz ranges from less than 1% in the weakly deformed granitoid to up to 85% in the mylonitic granitoid, with average grain strain of 41% and 64%, respectively. With increasing strain and recrystallization, quartz grains in the granitoids show a sequence of transient microstructures and CPOs. Crystal plastic deformation is initially accomplished by dislocation glide with limited recovery, and at 50% grain strain it results in a CPO consistent with dominantly basal < a> slip. At 60% grain strain, recrystallization is preferentially localized along shear bands, which appear to develop along former intragranular cracks, and the recrystallized grains develop a strong c-axis CPO with maxima orthogonal to the shear band boundaries and independent of the host grain orientation. Within the granitoid mylonite, at an average quartz grain strain of 64%, recrystallization is extensive and the c-axis CPO of new grains displays maxima overlapping the host c-axis orientation and

  14. Density functional study of the adsorption of aspirin on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, A.; Nadimi, E.; Plänitz, P.; Radehaus, C.

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adsorption geometry of aspirin molecule on a hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface has been investigated using DFT calculations. The optimized adsorption geometry indicates that both, adsorbed molecule and substrate are strongly deformed. Strong hydrogen bonding between aspirin and surface hydroxyls, leads to the breaking of the original hydroxyl-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds (Hydrogenbridges) on the surface. In this case new hydrogen bonds on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface appear which significantly differ from those at the clean surface. The 1.11 eV adsorption energy reveals that the interaction of aspirin with α-quartz is an exothermic chemical interaction.

  15. Variability in quartz exposure in the construction industry: implications for assessing exposure-response relations.

    PubMed

    Tjoe Nij, Evelyn; Höhr, Doris; Borm, Paul; Burstyn, Igor; Spierings, Judith; Steffens, Friso; Lumens, Mieke; Spee, Ton; Heederik, Dick

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine implications of inter- and intraindividual variation in exposure to respirable (quartz) dust and of heterogeneity in dust characteristics for epidemiologic research in construction workers. Full-shift personal measurements (n = 67) from 34 construction workers were collected. The between-worker and day-to-day variances of quartz and respirable dust exposure were estimated using mixed models. Heterogeneity in dust characteristics was evaluated by electron microscopic analysis and electron spin resonance. A grouping strategy based on job title resulted in a 2- and 3.5-fold reduction in expected attenuation of a hypothetical exposure-response relation for respirable dust and quartz exposure, respectively, compared to an individual based approach. Material worked on explained most of the between-worker variance in respirable dust and quartz exposure. However, for risk assessment in epidemiology, grouping workers based on the materials they work on is not practical. Microscopic characterization of dust samples showed large quantities of aluminum silicates and large quantities of smaller particles, resulting in a D(50) between 1 and 2 microm. For risk analysis, job title can be used to create exposure groups, although error is introduced by the heterogeneity of dust produced by different construction workers activities and by the nonuniformity of exposure groups. A grouping scheme based on materials worked on would be superior, for both exposure and risk assessment, but is not practical when assessing past exposure. In dust from construction sites, factors are present that are capable of influencing the toxicological potency.

  16. High-energy-resolution diced spherical quartz analyzers for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Said, Ayman H.; Gog, Thomas; Wieczorek, Michael; ...

    2018-02-15

    A novel diced spherical quartz analyzer for use in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is introduced, achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 10.53 meV at the IrL 3absorption edge (11.215 keV). In this work the fabrication process and the characterization of the analyzer are presented, and an example of a RIXS spectrum of magnetic excitations in a Sr 3Ir 2O 7sample is shown.

  17. Some new results on the frequency characteristics on quartz crystals irradiated by ionizing and particle radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency behavior of AT-cut quartz crystals irradiated by X -, gamma rays and fast neutrons. Initial instability in frequency for gamma and neutron irradiated crystals was found. All the different radiations first give a negative frequency shift at lower doses which are followed by positive frequency shift for increased doses. Results are explained in terms of the fundamental crystal structure. Applications of the frequency results for radiation hardening are proposed.

  18. Observation of Quartz Cathode-Luminescence in a Low Pressure Plasma Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Intense, steady-state cathode-luminescence has been observed from exposure of quartz powder to a low pressure rf-excited argon plasma discharge. The emission spectra (400 to 850 nm) associated with the powder luminescence were documented as a function of bias voltage using a spectrometer. The emission was broad-band, essentially washing out the line spectra features of the argon plasma discharge.

  19. Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageshima, Masami; Jensenius, Henriette; Dienwiebel, Martin; Nakayama, Yoshikazu; Tokumoto, Hiroshi; Jarvis, Suzanne P.; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H.

    2002-03-01

    A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane on a graphite surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due to the high aspect ratio of the CNT probe, the long-range background force was barely detectable in the solvation region.

  20. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    SciT

    Bajric, Sendin

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  1. Spatial variation in deposition rate coefficients of an adhesion-deficient bacterial strain in quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Tong, Meiping; Camesano, Terri A; Johnson, William P

    2005-05-15

    The transport of bacterial strain DA001 was examined in packed quartz sand under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Under all conditions, the retained bacterial concentrations decreased with distance from the column inlet at a rate that was faster than loglinear, indicating that the deposition rate coefficient decreased with increasing transport distance. The hyperexponential retained profile contrasted againstthe nonmonotonic retained profiles that had been previously observed for this same bacterial strain in glass bead porous media, demonstrating that the form of deviation from log-linear behavior is highly sensitive to system conditions. The deposition rate constants in quartz sand were orders of magnitude below those expected from filtration theory, even in the absence of electrostatic energy barriers. The degree of hyperexponential deviation of the retained profiles from loglinear behavior did not decrease with increasing ionic strength in quartz sand. These observations demonstrate thatthe observed low adhesion and deviation from log-linear behavior was not driven by electrostatic repulsion. Measurements of the interaction forces between DA001 cells and the silicon nitride tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) showed that the bacterium possesses surface polymers with an average equilibrium length of 59.8 nm. AFM adhesion force measurements revealed low adhesion affinities between silicon nitride and DA001 polymers with approximately 95% of adhesion forces having magnitudes < 0.8 nN. Steric repulsion due to surface polymers was apparently responsible for the low adhesion to silicon nitride, indicating that steric interactions from extracellular polymers controlled DA001 adhesion deficiency and deviation from log-linear behavior on quartz sand.

  2. Development and fabrication of an autoclave molded PES/Quartz sandwich radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Leonard E.; Levin, Stephen D.

    1993-04-01

    A cohesively bonded, thermoplastic composite sandwich radome for a leading edge supersonic aircraft has been built using autoclave processing with PES/Quartz prepreg and a PES coated honeycomb core. Processes were developed for solvent removal, thermoplastic laminate consolidation, surface etching to improve adhesion, honeycomb coating and forming, and ultrasound testing of bond integrity. Environmental testing was also conducted to verify the structural integrity of the radome for its intended application.

  3. Developments in Ultra-Stable Quartz Oscillators for Deep Space Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    langatate , and III-V compounds such as gallium orthophosphate) exhibit superior electromechanical coupling in a single material phase around room...higher figures of merit than quartz. Indeed, langatate , despite the infancy of its development, has already demonstrated a quality factor that is...Langasite, Langanite, and Langatate Bulk-Wave Y-cut Resonators,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, UFFC-47, 355-360.

  4. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  5. Experimental investigation of cephapirin adsorption to quartz filter sands and dune sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jonathan W.; O'Meara, Theresa A.; Seymour, Michael D.

    2008-08-01

    Batch experiments were performed to investigate cephapirin (a widely used veterinary antibiotic) adsorption on various size sands of low total organic carbon content (0.08-0.36 wt%). In the aqueous concentration range investigated (11-112 μmol/L cephapirin), adsorption to nearly pure quartz filter sands (0.50-3.35 mm diameter) is low. Isotherms are S-shaped and most display a region of minimum adsorption, where decreased adsorption occurs with increasing solution concentration, followed by increased adsorption at higher concentrations. Cephapirin adsorption to quartz-rich, feldspar-bearing dune sands (0.06-0.35 mm diameter), and the smallest quartz filter sand investigated (0.43-0.50 mm), can be described by linear sorption isotherms over the range of concentrations investigated. Distribution coefficients ( K d) range from 0.94 to 3.45 L/kg. No systematic relationship exists between grain size and amount of adsorption for any of the sands investigated. Cephapirin adsorption is positively correlated to the feldspar ratio (K-feldspar/(albite + Ca-plagioclase). Feldspar-ratio normalization of distribution coefficients was more effective than organic carbon normalization at reducing variability of K d values in the dune sands investigated.

  6. Label-free detection of protein-ligand interactions by the quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In recent years the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been accepted as a powerful technique to monitor adsorption processes at interfaces in different chemical and biological research areas. In the last decade, the investigation of adsorption of biomolecules on functionalized surfaces turned out to be one of the paramount applications of the QCM comprising the interaction of nucleic acids, specific molecular recognition of protein-receptor couples, and antigen-antibody reactions realized in immunosensors. The advantage of the QCM technique is that it allows for a label free detection of molecules. This is a result of the fact that the frequency response of the quartz resonator is proportional to the increase in thickness of the adsorbed layer. However, in recent years it became more and more evident that quartz resonators used in fluids are more than mere mass or thickness sensors. The sensor response is also influenced by viscoelastic properties of the adhered biomaterial, surface charges of adsorbed molecules and surface roughness. These phenomena have been used to get new insights in the adhesion process of living cells and to understand their response to pharmacological substances by determining morphological changes of the cells. In this chapter we describe a protocol to explore the kinetics and thermodynamics of specific interactions of different proteins such as lectins and annexins with their ligands using receptor bearing solid supported lipid bilayers.

  7. Quartz grainsize evolution during dynamic recrystallization across a natural shear zone boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Haoran; Platt, John P.

    2018-04-01

    Although it is widely accepted that grainsize reduction by dynamic recrystallization can lead to strain localization, the details of the grainsize evolution during dynamic recrystallization remain unclear. We investigated the bulge size and grainsizes of quartz at approximately the initiation and the completion stages of bulging recrystallization across the upper boundary of a 500 m thick mylonite zone above the Vincent fault in the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Within uncertainty, the average bulge size of quartz, 4.7 ± 1.5 μm, is the same as the recrystallized grainsize, 4.5 ± 1.5 μm, at the incipient stage of dynamic recrystallization, and also the same within uncertainties as the recrystallized grainsize when dynamic recrystallization is largely complete, 4.7 ± 1.3 μm. These observations indicate that the recrystallized grainsize is controlled by the nucleation process and does not change afterwards. It is also consistent with the experimental finding that the quartz recrystallized grainsize paleopiezometer is independent of temperature.

  8. Machining of glass and quartz using nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, David; Kaszemeikat, Tristan; Mueller, Norbert; Lemke, Andreas; Eichler, Hans Joachim

    2012-03-01

    New laser processing strategies in micro processing of glass, quartz and other optically transparent materials are being developed with increasing effort. Utilizing diode-pumped solid-state laser generating nanosecond pulsed green (532 nm) laser light in conjunction with either scanners or special trepanning systems can provide for reliable glass machining at excellent efficiency. Micro ablation can be induced either from the front or rear side of the glass sample. Ablation rates of over 100 μm per pulse can be achieved in rear side processing. In comparison, picosecond laser processing of glass and quartz (at a wavelength of 1064 or 532 nm) yield smaller feed rates at however much better surface and bore wall quality. This is of great importance for small sized features, e.g. through-hole diameters smaller 50 μm in thin glass. Critical for applications with minimum micro cracks and maximum performance is an appropriate distribution of laser pulses over the work piece along with optimum laser parameters. Laser machining tasks are long aspect micro drilling, slanted through holes, internal contour cuts, micro pockets and more complex geometries in e.g. soda-lime glass, B33, B270, D236T, AF45 and BK7 glass, quartz, and Zerodur.

  9. Transport of selected bacterial pathogens in agricultural soil and quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Schinner, Tim; Letzner, Adrian; Liedtke, Stefan; Castro, Felipe D; Eydelnant, Irwin A; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The protection of groundwater supplies from microbial contamination necessitates a solid understanding of the key factors controlling the migration and retention of pathogenic organisms through the subsurface environment. The transport behavior of five waterborne pathogens was examined using laboratory-scale columns packed with clean quartz at two solution ionic strengths (10 mM and 30 mM). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica were selected as representative Gram-negative pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis was selected as a representative Gram-positive organism, and two cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae) were also studied. The five organisms exhibit differing attachment efficiencies to the quartz sand. The surface (zeta) potential of the microorganisms was characterized over a broad range of pH values (2-8) at two ionic strengths (10 mM and 30 mM). These measurements are used to evaluate the observed attachment behavior within the context of the DLVO theory of colloidal stability. To better understand the possible link between bacterial transport in model quartz sand systems and natural soil matrices, additional experiments were conducted with two of the selected organisms using columns packed with loamy sand obtained from an agricultural field. This investigation highlights the need for further characterization of waterborne pathogen surface properties and transport behavior over a broader range of environmentally relevant conditions. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison between different techniques applied to quartz CPO determination in granitoid mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Eugenio; Punturo, Rosalda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Kern, Hartmut; Wenk, Hans-Rudolph; Pezzino, Antonino; Goswami, Shalini; Mamtani, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Since the second half of the last century, several techniques have been adopted to resolve the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals constituting crustal and mantle rocks. To this aim, many efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of such analytical devices as well as to progressively reduce the time needed to perform microstructural analysis. It is worth noting that many of these microstructural studies deal with quartz CPO because of the wide occurrence of this mineral phase in crustal rocks as well as its quite simple chemical composition. In the present work, four different techniques were applied to define CPOs of dynamically recrystallized quartz domains from naturally deformed rocks collected from a ductile crustal scale shear zone in order to compare their advantages and limitation. The selected Alpine shear zone is located in the Aspromonte Massif (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy) representing granitoid lithotypes. The adopted methods span from "classical" universal stage (US), to image analysis technique (CIP), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and time of flight neutron diffraction (TOF). When compared, bulk texture pole figures obtained by means of these different techniques show a good correlation. Advances in analytical techniques used for microstructural investigations are outlined by discussing results of quartz CPO that are presented in this study.

  11. SAXS investigations of the morphology of swift heavy ion tracks in α-quartz.

    PubMed

    Afra, B; Rodriguez, M D; Trautmann, C; Pakarinen, O H; Djurabekova, F; Nordlund, K; Bierschenk, T; Giulian, R; Ridgway, M C; Rizza, G; Kirby, N; Toulemonde, M; Kluth, P

    2013-01-30

    The morphology of swift heavy ion tracks in crystalline α-quartz was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and transmission electron microscopy. Tracks were generated by irradiation with heavy ions with energies between 27 MeV and 2.2 GeV. The analysis of the SAXS data indicates a density change of the tracks of ~2 ± 1% compared to the surrounding quartz matrix for all irradiation conditions. The track radii only show a weak dependence on the electronic energy loss at values above 17 keV nm(-1), in contrast to values previously reported from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements and expectations from the inelastic thermal spike model. The MD simulations are in good agreement at low energy losses, yet predict larger radii than SAXS at high ion energies. The observed discrepancies are discussed with respect to the formation of a defective halo around an amorphous track core, the existence of high stresses and/or the possible presence of a boiling phase in quartz predicted by the inelastic thermal spike model.

  12. Carbon dioxide/brine wettability of porous sandstone versus solid quartz: An experimental and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Alnili, Firas; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed; Roshan, Hamid; Rahman, Taufiq; Verall, Michael; Lebedev, Maxim; Sarmadivaleh, Mohammad; Iglauer, Stefan; Barifcani, Ahmed

    2018-08-15

    Wettability plays an important role in underground geological storage of carbon dioxide because the fluid flow and distribution mechanism within porous media is controlled by this phenomenon. CO 2 pressure, temperature, brine composition, and mineral type have significant effects on wettability. Despite past research on this subject, the factors that control the wettability variation for CO 2 /water/minerals, particularly the effects of pores in the porous substrate on the contact angle at different pressures, temperatures, and salinities, as well as the physical processes involved are not fully understood. We measured the contact angle of deionised water and brine/CO 2 /porous sandstone samples at different pressures, temperatures, and salinities. Then, we compared the results with those of pure quartz. Finally, we developed a physical model to explain the observed phenomena. The measured contact angle of sandstone was systematically greater than that of pure quartz because of the pores present in sandstone. Moreover, the effect of pressure and temperature on the contact angle of sandstone was similar to that of pure quartz. The results showed that the contact angle increases with increase in temperature and pressure and decreases with increase in salinity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MS2 inactivation by TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2017-04-01

    Virus inactivation by nanoparticles (NPs) is hypothesized to affect virus fate and transport in the subsurface. This study examines the interactions of viruses with titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase NPs, which is a good disinfectant with unique physiochemical properties, using three different virus concentrations. The bacteriophage MS2 was used as a model virus. A series of batch experiments of MS2 inactivation by TiO2 NPs were conducted at room temperature (25 °C), in the presence of quartz sand, with and without ambient light. The virus inactivation experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a pseudo-first order expression with a time dependent rate coefficient. Quartz sand was shown to affect MS2 inactivation by TiO2 NPs both in the presence and absence of ambient light, because, under the experimental conditions of this study, the quartz sand offers a protection to the attached MS2 against inactivation. Moreover, in most cases similar inactivation rates were observed in reactor and control tubes (absence of TiO2 NPs) suggesting that low TiO2 concentration (10 mg/L) affects only slightly MS2 inactivation with and without ambient light.

  14. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor for Stem Cell Selection and Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Salvatore; Zambrano, Gerardo; Mauro, Marco; Battaglia, Raffaele; Ferrini, Gianluca; Nastri, Flavia; Pavone, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective immunosensor for the detection and isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been developed. The recognition mechanism relies on anti-CD34 antibodies, DPSC-specific monoclonal antibodies that are anchored on the surface of the quartz crystals. Due to its high specificity, real time detection, and low cost, the proposed technology has a promising potential in the field of cell biology, for the simultaneous detection and sorting of stem cells from heterogeneous cell samples. The QCM surface was properly tailored through a biotinylated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The biotin–avidin interaction was used to immobilize the biotinylated anti-CD34 antibody on the gold-coated quartz crystal. After antibody immobilization, a cellular pellet, with a mixed cell population, was analyzed; the results indicated that the developed QCM immunosensor is highly specific, being able to detect and sort only CD34+ cells. Our study suggests that the proposed technology can detect and efficiently sort any kind of cell from samples with high complexity, being simple, selective, and providing for more convenient and time-saving operations. PMID:29182568

  15. Differential regulation of phenanthrene biodegradation process by kaolinite and quartz and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Ruan, Bo; Zhang, Yating; Lai, Xiaolin; Yu, Langfeng; Li, Yongtao; Dang, Zhi

    2018-05-05

    Natural and cost-effective materials such as minerals can serve as supportive matrices to enhance biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we evaluated and compared the regulatory role of two common soil minerals, i.e. kaolinite and quartz in phenanthrene (a model PAH) degradation by a PAH degrader Sphingomonas sp. GY2B and investigated the underlying mechanism. Overall kaolinite was more effective than quartz in promoting phenanthrene degradation and bacterial growth. And it was revealed that a more intimate association was established between GY2B and kaolinite. Si and O atoms on mineral surface were demonstrated to be involved in GY2B-mineral interaction. There was an higher polysaccharide/lipid content in the EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) secreted by GY2B on kaolinite than on quartz. Altogether, these results showed that differential bacterial growth, enzymatic activity, EPS composition as well as the interface interaction may explain the effects minerals have on PAH biodegradation. It was implicated that different interface interaction between different minerals and bacteria can affect microbial behavior, which ultimately results in different biodegradation efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of antibiotic resistance in agricultural Escherichia coli isolates with attachment to quartz.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Soupir, Michelle L; Zwonitzer, Martha; Huss, Bridgette; Jarboe, Laura R

    2011-10-01

    Surface water can be contaminated by bacteria from various sources, including manure from agricultural facilities. Attachment of these bacteria to soil and organic particles contributes to their transport through the environment, though the mechanism of attachment is unknown. As bacterial attachment to human tissues is known to be correlated with antibiotic resistance, we have investigated here the relationship between bacterial attachment to environmental particles and antibiotic resistance in agricultural isolates. We evaluated 203 Escherichia coli isolates collected from swine facilities for attachment to quartz, resistance to 13 antibiotics, and the presence of genes encoding 13 attachment factors. The genes encoding type I, EcpA, P pili, and Ag43 were detected, though none was significantly related to attachment. Quartz attachment was positively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to amoxicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline/sulfamethazine/tylosin/chlortetracycline and negatively and significantly (P < 0.0038) related to combined resistance to nalidixic acid/kanamycin/neomycin. These results provide clear evidence for a link between antibiotic resistance and attachment to quartz in agricultural isolates. We propose that this may be due to encoding by the responsible genes on a mobile genetic element. Further exploration of the relationship between antibiotic resistance and attachment to environmental particles will improve the understanding and modeling of environmental transport processes, with the goal of preventing human exposure to antibiotic-resistant or virulent microorganisms.

  17. Microstructural evolution and rheology of quartz in a mid-crustal shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahl, Jeffrey M.; Skemer, Philip

    2016-06-01

    We present microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) data on quartz deformed in the middle crust to explore the interaction and feedback between dynamic recrystallization, deformation processes, and CPO evolution. The sample investigated here is a moderately deformed quartz-rich mylonite from the Blue Ridge in Virginia. We have created high-resolution crystallographic orientation maps using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of 51 isolated quartz porphyroclasts with recrystallized grain fractions ranging from 10 to 100%. Recrystallized grains are internally undeformed and display crystallographic orientations dispersed around the orientation of the associated parent porphyroclast. We document a systematic decrease in fabric intensity with recrystallization, suggesting that progressive deformation of the recrystallized domains involves processes that can weaken a pre-existing CPO. Relationships between recrystallization fraction and shear strain suggest that complete microstructural re-equilibration requires strains in excess of γ = 5. Variation in the degree of recrystallization implies that strain was accumulated heterogeneously, and that a steady-state microstructure and rheology were not achieved.

  18. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Schulz, Stephen; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) surface fabricated upon a quartz substrate using nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated to enhance light emission from fluorescent molecules in close proximity to the PC surface. Quartz was selected for its low autofluorescence characteristics compared to polymer-based PCs, improving the detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PC Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF). Nanoimprint lithography enables economical fabrication of the subwavelength PCEF surface structure over entire 1x3 in2 quartz slides. The demonstrated PCEF surface supports a transverse magnetic (TM) resonant mode at a wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm and an incident angle of θ = 11°, which amplifies the electric field magnitude experienced by surface-bound fluorophores. Meanwhile, another TM mode at a wavelength of λ = 690 nm and incident angle of θ = 0° efficiently directs the fluorescent emission toward the detection optics. An enhancement factor as high as 7500 × was achieved for the detection of LD-700 dye spin-coated upon the PC, compared to detecting the same material on an unpatterned glass surface. The detection of spotted Alexa-647 labeled polypeptide on the PC exhibits a 330 × SNR improvement. Using dose-response characterization of deposited fluorophore-tagged protein spots, the PCEF surface demonstrated a 140 × lower limit of detection compared to a conventional glass substrate. PMID:21164826

  19. Measurements of the Shock Release Of Quartz and Paralyene-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawreliak, James; Karasik, Max; Oh, Jaechul; Aglitskiy, Yefim

    2017-06-01

    The shock and release properties of Quartz and hydrocarbons are important to high energy density (HED) research and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. The bulk of HED material research studies single shock or multiple shock conditions. The challenge with measuring release properties is unlike shocks which have a single interface from which to measure the properties, the release establishes gradients in the sample. The streaked x-ray imaging capability of the NIKE laser allow the interface between quartz and CH to be measured during the release, giving measurements of the interface velocity and CH density. Here, we present experimental results from the NIKE laser where quartz and parylene-N are shock compressed to high pressure and temperature and the release state is measured through x-ray imaging. The shock state is characterized by shock front velocity measurements using VISAR and the release state is characterized by using side-on streaked x-ray radiography Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  20. 170-MHz electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance biosensor: capability and limitation of higher frequency measurement.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Hironao; Naga, Hironao; Fukunishi, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi

    2009-10-01

    We develop a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor with a fundamental resonance frequency of 170 MHz. A naked AT-cut quartz plate of 9.7 microm thick is set in a sensor cell. Its shear vibration is excited by the line wire, and the vibration signals are detected by the other line wire, achieving the noncontacting measurement of the resonance frequency. The mass sensitivity of the 170 MHz QCM biosensor is 15 pg/(cm2 Hz), which is better than that of a conventional 5 MHz QCM by 3 orders of magnitude. Its high sensitivity is confirmed by detecting human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) via Staphylococcus protein A immobilized nonspecifically on both surfaces of the quartz plate. The detection limit is 0.5 pM. Limitation of the high-frequency QCM measurement is then theoretically discussed with a continuum mechanics model for a plate with point masses connected by elastic springs. The result indicates that a QCM measurement will break down at frequencies one-order-of-magnitude higher than the local resonance frequency at specific binding cites.

  1. Comparing a new laser strainmeter array with an adjacent, parallel running quartz tube strainmeter array.

    PubMed

    Kobe, Martin; Jahr, Thomas; Pöschel, Wolfgang; Kukowski, Nina

    2016-03-01

    In summer 2011, two new laser strainmeters about 26.6 m long were installed in N-S and E-W directions parallel to an existing quartz tube strainmeter system at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa, Thuringia/Germany. This kind of installation is unique in the world and allows the direct comparison of measurements of horizontal length changes with different types of strainmeters for the first time. For the comparison of both data sets, we used the tidal analysis over three years, the strain signals resulting from drilling a shallow 100 m deep borehole on the ground of the observatory and long-period signals. The tidal strain amplitude factors of the laser strainmeters are found to be much closer to theoretical values (85%-105% N-S and 56%-92% E-W) than those of the quartz tube strainmeters. A first data analysis shows that the new laser strainmeters are more sensitive in the short-periodic range with an improved signal-to-noise ratio and distinctly more stable during long-term drifts of environmental parameters such as air pressure or groundwater level. We compared the signal amplitudes of both strainmeter systems at variable signal periods and found frequency-dependent amplitude differences. Confirmed by the tidal parameters, we have now a stable and high resolution laser strainmeter system that serves as calibration reference for quartz tube strainmeters.

  2. ESR signals in quartz for the studies of earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, S.; Shimada, A., , Dr; Takada, M.

    2017-12-01

    Various ESR (electron spin resonance) signals are observed in quartz. As they are formed by natural radiation, the signals are useful in dating of geological events, such as volcanic eruption, faulting and sedimentation. It was also found that those paramagnetic defects can be fingerprints of sediments, to be used for studies in sediment provenance. The signal of the E1' center, unpaired electron at an oxygen vacancy, was first used for such studies. A method was proposed to estimate the number of the precursors (oxygen vacancies) from the E1' center intensity. The number of oxygen vacancies in quartz was found to have positive correlation with the crystallization age. Using this feature, studies were quite successful in aeolian dust. It was shown that the sources of aeolian dust deposited in northern part of Japanese Islands were different between in MIS1 and MIS 2. In combination with crystallinity index, the contributions of the dust components from three origins were quantitatively obtained. After these, the provenance studies on river sediments have started where the impurity centers in quartz were employed, which are the Al center, the Ti centers, and the Ge centers. Sediments of Kizu River, Mie to Nara prefectures in Central Japan are most extensively studied. Firstly, it was shown that each of possible sources of granitic quartz around the reaches has respective characteristics in the number of oxygen vacancies and the signal intensities of impurity centers. Secondary, by the artificial mixing experiments, the impurity signal intensities have the values consistent with the mixing ratio of the two samples of quartz with different intensities. At river junctions, the mixing ratios were calculated from the ESR signals. At some locations, the mixing ratio values obtained from one signal were consistent with the ones from another signal while at some locations they were not. The latter inconsistent results would indicate that the river sediments are

  3. Quartz microstructures in the Younger Dryas boundary layer ~12.9 ka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoesel, A.; Hoek, W. Z.; Pennock, G. M.; Drury, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    In 2007, Firestone et al. proposed that an extraterrestrial impact occurred at the end of the Allerød interstadial, destabilizing the North American ice sheet and initiating the colder Younger Dryas (YD) stadial. Up to now, the evidence for this proposed impact has been heavily debated (Pinter et al., 2011) and no one has been able to provide convincing evidence in favour of the hypothesis. Two years later, Mahaney et al. (2009) claimed that they had frequently found planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz from a possible YD boundary layer in Venezuela. However, the data presented consisted of an SEM image of the surface of a quartz grain only, and in following work Mahaney et al. (2010) stated that they had found no irrefutable evidence of PDFs. Instead, they showed grains with oriented cracks along their edges, which they claimed to be related to the 'mass impact and extreme heat' from incoming ejecta material. However, oriented cracks are not accepted evidence for an impact (French, Koeberl, 2010). We investigate the quartz fraction of samples from the European Usselo horizon, an Allerød-YD age soil, as well as one sample from the North American Black Mat, which marks the onset of the YD. Possible shocked quartz grains were isolated using density separation, mounted in epoxy and polished. No evidence for oriented cracks along grain edges, like those reported by Mahaney et al. (2010), has been found so far. Transmitted light microscopy showed that a number of grains contained tectonic deformation lamellae. One grain from the Usselo horizon contains at least two sets of closely spaced, straight, and narrow lamellae, similar to PDFs. In SEM-CL imaging however, only some of these lamellae showed up as non-luminescent, while most had the same intensity as the host grain. This is not typical for PDFs (Hamers, Drury 2011). It is possible that these lamellae represent planar fractures, which also form by low pressure shock processes. It must be noted that even if

  4. Spatial distribution of quartz recrystallization microstructures across the Aar massif (Swiss Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M.; Herwegh, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Aar massif, main foliation and major deformation structures were developed during NW-SE compression associated with the Alpine orogeny (Steck 1968). To be precise, shearing at the brittle to ductile transition may have initiated at different stages between 22-20 Ma and 14-12 Ma, followed by purely brittle deformation at around 10 Ma (Rolland et al. 2009). In light of the onset of dynamic recrystallization in quartz, Bambauer et al. (2009) defined a quartz recrystallization isograd in the northern part of the Aar massif. To the south, the grain size of recrystallized grains increases due to an increase of metamorphic temperatures from N to S. The aim of the current project is to carry out quantitative analysis on changes of the dynamic and static recrystallization behavior of quartz. Across the Aar massif, two general types of microstructures have to be discriminated: (i) weakly to moderately deformed host rocks and (ii) intensely deformed mylonites to ultramylonites out of high strain shear zones. In (i), volume fraction and size of recrystallized quartz grains increase towards the S showing grain size changes from around 5 µm up to ca. 200 µm. Southern microstructures are characterized by complete recrystallization. In terms of recrystallization processes, a transition from bulging recrystallization in the N to subgrain rotation recrystallization in the S occurs. Such a change in dynamic recrystallization processes combined with a grain size increase points towards reduced differential stresses with increasing temperature. This temperature gradient is also corroborated by a switch in the active glide systems in quartz from basal to rhomb dominated glide. In contrast to the granitic host rocks, the mylonites and ultramylonites (ii) show smaller recrystallized grain sizes due to enhanced strain rates. However, they also reveal a general increase of recrystallized grain sizes from N to S. In the S, microstructures from (i) and (ii) show equidimensional

  5. Second Interim Report on the Installation and Evaluation of Weigh-In-Motion Utilizing Quartz-Piezo Sensor Technology

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability of quartz-piezoelectric weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors under actual traffic conditions in Connecticut's environment. This second interim report provides a s...

  6. Performance and Results for Quartz Detector for the SuperHMS Spectrometer at Hall C Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griego, Benjamin F., Jr.

    A quartz detector has been constructed to be part of the trigger system for the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS). The SHMS will play a pivotal role in carrying out the 12 -- GeV physics program at Hal -- C Jefferson Lab. The quartz hodoscope consists of twenty one fused silica bars. Each bar is 125 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, 2.5 cm thick, and is viewed by a UV -- sensitive PMT on each end. The quartz hodoscope's task is to provide a clean detection of charged particles, a high level of background suppression, and an accurate tracking efficiency determination. Initial test results of the quartz detectors which include light yield and position resolution will be presented.

  7. Extension of the Hugoniot and analytical release model of α-quartz to 0.2–3 TPa

    DOE PAGES

    Desjarlais, M. P.; Knudson, M. D.; Cochrane, K. R.

    2017-07-21

    In recent years, α-quartz has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in shock wave experiments in the multi-Mbar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa = 0.1 TPa). This is due to the fact that above ~90–100 GPa along the principal Hugoniot α-quartz becomes reflective, and thus, shock velocities can be measured to high precision using velocity interferometry. The Hugoniot and release of α-quartz have been studied extensively, enabling the development of an analytical release model for use in impedance matching. However, this analytical release model has only been validated over a range of 300–1200 GPa (0.3–1.2 TPa). Furthermore,more » we extend this analytical model to 200–3000 GPa (0.2–3 TPa) through additional α-quartz Hugoniot and release measurements, as well as first-principles molecular dynamics calculations.« less

  8. Investigating Alpine fissure rutilated quartz to constrain timing and conditions of post-metamorphic hydrothermal fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulaker, D. Z.; Schmitt, A. K.; Zack, T.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rutilated quartz, aka Venus' hair, is finely-acicular rutile intergrown with host quartz generated by fluid-mediated co-crystallization. It is commonly found in hydrothermal veins, including the renown cleft mineral locations of the Swiss Alps. Previous studies of Alpine cleft mineralizations used rare hydrothermal monazite [1] and titanite [2] to constrain vein formation to ~13.5-15.2 Ma, postdating peak metamorphism by ~2-4 Ma. Temperature (T) estimates of 150-450°C are based on fluid inclusions and bulk quartz-mineral oxygen isotope exchange equilibria, and formation pressures (P) are 0.5-2.5 kbar (for a geothermal gradient of 30°C/km) [2]. The potential of rutilated quartz as a thermochronometer, however, has not been harnessed previously. Here, we present the first results of age and P-T determinations for rutilated quartz from six locations in the Swiss Alps (San Gottardo; Feldbach, Binntal; Pi Aul, Vals; Faido, Leventina; Elm, Steinbach; Binntal). Samples were cut and mounted in epoxy discs to expose rutile (0.03 to 1 mm in diameter) and its host quartz which was also imaged in cathodoluminescence (CL). CL images for half of the samples' host quartz exhibited strong sector zoning, while others reveal only weak CL zonation. Isotopic and trace element analyses were carried out by SIMS using a CAMECA ims1270 for U-Pb, O-isotopes, and Ti-in-quartz, and a LA-ICP-MS system (213 nm New Wave laser coupled to an Agilent 7500a) for Zr-in-rutile. U-Pb rutile ages average 15.5×2.0 Ma (2σ). T estimates are 352-575°C (rutile-quartz oxygen isotopes in touching domains), 470-530°C (Zr-in-rutile assuming P = 0.5 and equilibrium with host-rock zircon), and 251-391°C (Ti-in-quartz at assumed P = 0.5 kbar and aTiO2 = 1). CL zones are isotopically unzoned. Rutile-quartz oxygen isotopes are pressure insensitive, whereas Zr-in-rutile and Ti-in-quartz are minimum temperatures. These results demonstrate that rutilated quartz can constrain timing and conditions of post

  9. Optically continuous silcrete quartz cements of the St. Peter Sandstone: High precision oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacque L.; Fu, Bin; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2007-08-01

    A detailed oxygen isotope study of detrital quartz and authigenic quartz overgrowths from shallowly buried (<1 km) quartz arenites of the St. Peter Sandstone (in SW Wisconsin) constrains temperature and fluid sources during diagenesis. Quartz overgrowths are syntaxial (optically continuous) and show complex luminescent zonation by cathodoluminescence. Detrital quartz grains were separated from 53 rocks and analyzed for oxygen isotope ratio by laser fluorination, resulting in an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 0.2‰ (1SD, n = 109). Twelve thin sections were analyzed by CAMECA-1280 ion microprobe (6-10 μm spot size, analytical precision better than ±0.2‰, 1SD). Detrital quartz grains have an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 1.4‰ (1SD, n = 91) identical to the data obtained by laser fluorination. The ion microprobe data reveal true variability that is otherwise lost by homogenization of powdered samples necessary for laser fluorination. Laser fluorination uses samples that are one million times larger than the ion microprobe. Whole rock (WR) samples from the 53 rocks were analyzed by laser fluorination, giving δ 18O between 9.8‰ and 16.7‰ ( n = 110). Quartz overgrowths in thin sections from 10 rocks were analyzed by ion microprobe and average δ 18O = 29.3 ± 1.0‰ (1SD, n = 161). Given the similarity, on average, of δ 18O for all detrital quartz grains and for all quartz overgrowths, samples with higher δ 18O(WR) values can be shown to have more cement. The quartz cement in the 53 rocks, calculated by mass balance, varies from <1 to 21 vol.% cement, with one outlier at 33 vol.% cement. Eolian samples have an average of 11% cement compared to marine samples, which average 4% cement. Two models for quartz cementation have been investigated: high temperature (50-110 °C) formation from ore-forming brines related to Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) mineralization and formation as silcretes at low temperature (10-30 °C). The homogeneity of δ 18O for quartz overgrowths

  10. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  11. Evaluation of Diffuse Reflection Infrared Spectrometry for End-of-Shift Measurement of α-quartz in Coal Dust Samples

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur L.; Murphy, Nathaniel C.; Bayman, Sean J.; Briggs, Zachary P.; Kilpatrick, Andrew D.; Quinn, Courtney A.; Wadas, Mackenzie R.; Cauda, Emanuele G.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of toxic substances is a major threat to the health of miners, and dust containing respirable crystalline silica (α-quartz) is of particular concern, due to the recent rise in cases of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis and silicosis in some U.S. mining regions. Currently, there is no field-portable instrument that can measure airborne α-quartz and give miners timely feedback on their exposure. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is therefore conducting studies to investigate technologies capable of end-of-shift or real-time measurement of airborne quartz. The present study focuses on the potential application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry conducted in the diffuse reflection (DR) mode as a technique for measuring α-quartz in respirable mine dust. A DR accessory was used to analyze lab-generated respirable samples of Min-U-Sil 5 (which contains more than 90% α-quartz) and coal dust, at mass loadings in the ranges of 100–600 μg and 600–5300 μg, respectively. The dust samples were deposited onto three different types of filters, borosilicate fiberglass, nylon, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The reflectance, R, was calculated by the ratio of a blank filter and a filter with deposited mine dust. Results suggest that for coal and pure quartz dusts deposited on 37 mm PVC filters, measurements of −log R correlate linearly with known amounts of quartz on filters, with R2 values of approximately 0.99 and 0.94, respectively, for samples loaded up to ~4000 μg. Additional tests were conducted to measure quartz in coal dusts deposited onto the borosilicate fiberglass and nylon filter media used in the NIOSH-developed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). The nylon filter was shown to be amenable to DR analysis, but quantification of quartz is more accurate when the filter is “free,” as opposed to being mounted in the PDM filter holder. The borosilicate fiberglass filters were shown to produce excessive

  12. Evaluation of Diffuse Reflection Infrared Spectrometry for End-of-Shift Measurement of α-quartz in Coal Dust Samples.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Murphy, Nathaniel C; Bayman, Sean J; Briggs, Zachary P; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Quinn, Courtney A; Wadas, Mackenzie R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Griffiths, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of toxic substances is a major threat to the health of miners, and dust containing respirable crystalline silica (α-quartz) is of particular concern, due to the recent rise in cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis in some U.S. mining regions. Currently, there is no field-portable instrument that can measure airborne α-quartz and give miners timely feedback on their exposure. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is therefore conducting studies to investigate technologies capable of end-of-shift or real-time measurement of airborne quartz. The present study focuses on the potential application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry conducted in the diffuse reflection (DR) mode as a technique for measuring α-quartz in respirable mine dust. A DR accessory was used to analyze lab-generated respirable samples of Min-U-Sil 5 (which contains more than 90% α-quartz) and coal dust, at mass loadings in the ranges of 100-600 μg and 600-5300 μg, respectively. The dust samples were deposited onto three different types of filters, borosilicate fiberglass, nylon, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The reflectance, R, was calculated by the ratio of a blank filter and a filter with deposited mine dust. Results suggest that for coal and pure quartz dusts deposited on 37 mm PVC filters, measurements of -log R correlate linearly with known amounts of quartz on filters, with R(2) values of approximately 0.99 and 0.94, respectively, for samples loaded up to ∼4000 μg. Additional tests were conducted to measure quartz in coal dusts deposited onto the borosilicate fiberglass and nylon filter media used in the NIOSH-developed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). The nylon filter was shown to be amenable to DR analysis, but quantification of quartz is more accurate when the filter is "free," as opposed to being mounted in the PDM filter holder. The borosilicate fiberglass filters were shown to produce excessive

  13. Surface Textural Analysis of Quartz Grains from Modern Point Bar Deposits in Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yong; Liu, Cong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Nie, Qi; Wen, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    The surfaces of quartz grains contain characteristic textures formed during the process of transport, due to their stable physical and chemical properties. The surface textures include the information about source area, transporting force, sedimentary environment and evolution history of sediment. Surface textures of quartz grains from modern point bar deposits in the lower reaches of the Yellow River are observed and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that there are 22 kinds of surface textures. The overall surface morphology of quartz grains shows short transporting time and distance and weak abrasive action of the river water. The combined surface textures caused by mechanical action indicate that quartz grains are transporting in a high-energy hydrodynamic condition and suffer a strong mechanical impact and abrasion. The common solution pits prove that the chemical property of transportation medium is very active and quartz grains receive an obvious chemical action. The combination of these surface textures can be an identification mark of fluvial environment, and that is: quartz grains are main subangular outline, whose roundness is higher with the farther motion distance; Surface fluctuation degree of quartz grains is relatively high, and gives priority to high and medium relief; V-shaped percussion marks are very abundant caused by mechanical action; The conchoidal of different sizes and steps are common-developed with paragenesis relationship; Solution pits are common-developed as well. The study makes up for the blank of surface textures analysis of quartz grains from modern fluvial deposits in China. It provides new ideas and evidence for studies of the sedimentary process and environmental significance, although the deep meanings of these micro textures remain to be further researched.

  14. High-temperature quartz cement and the role of stylolites in a deep gas reservoir, Spiro Sandstone, Arkoma Basin, USA

    Worden, Richard H.; Morad, Sadoon; Spötl, C.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Riciputi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Spiro Sandstone, a natural gas play in the central Arkoma Basin and the frontal Ouachita Mountains preserves excellent porosity in chloritic channel-fill sandstones despite thermal maturity levels corresponding to incipient metamorphism. Some wells, however, show variable proportions of a late-stage, non-syntaxial quartz cement, which post-dated thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbons to pyrobitumen plus methane. Temperatures well in excess of 150°C and possibly exceeding 200°C are also suggested by (i) fluid inclusions in associated minerals; (ii) the fact that quartz post-dated high-temperature chlorite polytype IIb; (iii) vitrinite reflectance values of the Spiro that range laterally from 1.9 to ≥ 4%; and (iii) the occurrence of late dickite in these rocks. Oxygen isotope values of quartz cement range from 17.5 to 22.4‰ VSMOW (total range of individual in situ ion microprobe measurements) which are similar to those of quartz cement formed along high-amplitude stylolites (18.4–24.9‰). We favour a model whereby quartz precipitation was controlled primarily by the availability of silica via deep-burial stylolitization within the Spiro Sandstone. Burial-history modelling showed that the basin went from a geopressured to a normally pressured regime within about 10–15 Myr after it reached maximum burial depth. While geopressure and the presence of chlorite coats stabilized the grain framework and inhibited nucleation of secondary quartz, respectively, stylolites formed during the subsequent high-temperature, normal-pressured regime and gave rise to high-temperature quartz precipitation. Authigenic quartz growing along stylolites underscores their role as a significant deep-burial silica source in this sandstone.

  15. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Nanosize relief: from phase masks to antireflection coatings on quartz and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verevkin, Yu K.; Klimov, A. Yu; Gribkov, B. A.; Petryakov, V. N.; Koposova, E. V.; Olaizola, Santiago M.

    2008-11-01

    By using the interference of pulsed radiation and a complete lithographic cycle, phase masks on quartz and antireflection structures on quartz and silicon are produced. The transmission of radiation through a corrugated vacuum—solid interface is calculated by solving rigorously an integral equation with the help of a computer program for parameters close to experimental parameters. The results of measurements are in good agreement with calculations. The methods developed in the paper can be used for manufacturing optical and semiconductor devices.

  16. Comparison of quartz standards for X-ray diffraction analysis: HSE A9950 (Sikron F600) and NIST SRM 1878.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Jim

    2005-06-01

    A further comparison of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) standard quartz, A9950 (Sikron F600), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1878, standard respirable alpha-quartz, has been carried out for the four principal diffraction peaks. In the earlier comparison by Jeyaratnam and Nagar (1993, Ann Occup Hyg; 37: 167-79), the standards were both treated in ways which might change the particle size distribution and therefore the proportion of crystalline quartz. The two standards have now been compared in the most direct way possible with the minimum of sample treatment. There are no significant differences in the diffraction peak positions for the two standards. Nor do the peak area intensities differ significantly. The peak height intensities are consistently and significantly higher for Sikron F600 than for NIST SRM 1878. The particle size broadening of the diffraction peaks is evidently greater for NIST 1878, whose mass median diameter is quoted as 1.6 microm against 2.6 microm for Sikron F600. Taking the certified reference value for SRM 1878 as 95.5 +/- 1.1% crystalline quartz, the HSE standard A9950 (Sikron F600) contains 96.3 +/- 1.4% crystalline quartz based on a comparison of peak area intensities. On the same basis but using peak height intensities, the nominal crystalline quartz content of A9950 (Sikron F600) is 101.2 +/- 1.8%. Results obtained by comparison of quartz standards may not be generally applicable because of the effect of sample treatment on particle size and crystalline quartz content.

  17. Using quartz sand to enhance the removal efficiency of M. aeruginosa by inorganic coagulant and achieve satisfactory settling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xu, Hangzhou; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-10-19

    In this study, low-cost and non-polluting quartz sand was respectively mixed with AlCl 3 , FeCl 3 and PAFC to synergistically remove Microcystis aeruginosa. Results showed that quartz sand could markedly increase the algae removal efficiency and decrease the coagulant doses. The increase of removal efficiency with AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 was only due to the enhancement of floc density by the quartz sand. However, the removal efficiency with PAFC was increased not only by the enhanced floc density, but also by the enlarged floc size. Flocs from 50 mg/L sand addition were larger than that with other sand doses, which was on account of the appropriate enhancement of collision efficiency at this dose. After coagulation, the extracellular organic matter (EOM) and microcystins (MCs) in system with quartz sand was remarkably reduced. That's because quartz sand can enhance the coagulation so as to improve capping the EOM and MCs in flocs during coagulation process. Owing to 200 mg/L quartz sand could damage the cell's membrane during coagulation proces, algal cells in the system lysed two days earlier than with 50 mg/L sand during flocs storage. In addition, cells with PAFC incurred relatively moderate cellular oxidative damage and could remain intact for longer time.

  18. Studies of LA-ICP-MS on quartz glasses at different wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Becker, J S; Tenzler, D

    2001-07-01

    The capability of LA-ICP-MS for determination of trace impurities in transparent quartz glasses was investigated. Due to low or completely lacking absorption of laser radiation, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) proves difficult on transparent solids, and in particular the quantification of measurement results is problematic in these circumstances. Quartz glass reference materials of various compositions were studied by using a Nd:YAG laser system with focused laser radiation of wavelengths of 1064 nm, 532 nm and 266 nm, and an ICP-QMS (Elan 6000, Perkin Elmer). The influence of ICP and laser ablation conditions in the analysis of quartz glasses of different compositions was investigated, with the laser power density in the region of interaction between laser radiation and solid surface determining the ablation process. The trace element concentration was determined via calibration curves recorded with the aid of quartz glass reference materials. Under optimized measuring conditions the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves are in the range of 0.9-1. The relative sensitivity factors of the trace elements determined in the quartz glass matrix are 0.1-10 for most of the trace elements studied by LA-ICP-MS. The detection limits of the trace elements in quartz glass are in the low ng/g to pg/g range.

  19. The effect of SiO 2-doped boron nitride multiple coatings on mechanical properties of quartz fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Shubin

    2012-01-01

    SiO2-doped boron nitride multiple coatings (SiO2/BN multiple coatings) were prepared on quartz fibers surface at 700 °C. Single fiber tensile test was employed to evaluate fiber tensile strength; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed to evaluate morphology and structure of the fibers. Fiber tensile test results indicated that the strength of quartz fibers with SiO2/BN multiple coatings was about twice of the fibers with BN coatings and original fibers which were heated at 700 °C for 10 h. The SiO2/BN multiple coatings would provide compressive stress on quartz fibers, which would help to seal the defects on fiber surface. Furthermore, TEM images showed that the nano-SiO2 powders crystallized in advance of quartz fibers, which would suppress crystallization of quartz fibers and reduce damage from crystallization. Thus, nano-SiO2 powders would help to keep mechanical properties of quartz fibers.

  20. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T. D.; Nogueira, L.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Häggi, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Grohmann, C. H.; Chiessi, C. M.; Zabel, M.; Mulitza, S.; Mazoca, C. E. M.; Cunha, D. F.

    2018-06-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example, Tapajós and Xingu Rivers show more sensitive quartz than Solimões and Madeira Rivers, even though the latter have a significantly larger catchment area and longer sediment transport distance. Interestingly, high sensitivity quartz is observed in rivers draining relatively stable Central Brazil and Guiana shield areas (denudation rate ξ = 0.04 mmyr-1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ = 0.24 mmyr-1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin. Furthermore, luminescence sensitivity measured in sand or silt arises from the same mineral components (quartz and feldspar) and clearly discriminates between Andean and shield sediments, avoiding the grain size bias in provenance analysis. These results have implications for using luminescence sensitivity as a proxy for Andean and shield contributions in the stratigraphic record, providing a new tool to reconstruct past drainage configurations within the Amazon basin.

  1. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David

    2011-07-01

    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  2. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Viola, Giulio; Menegon, Luca; Sørensen, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein with a random CPO, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by optical microscopy, SEM imaging and EBSD to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low greenschist facies conditions at the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is located in a high strain zone at the front of an imbricate stack of Caledonian age along the northwesternmost edge of the Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed within the Nussirjavrri Fault Zone (NFZ), an out-of-sequence thrust with a phyllonitic core characterized by a ramp-flat-ramp geometry, NNW plunging stretching lineations and top-to-the SSE thrusting kinematics. Deformation conditions are typical of the frictional-viscous transition. The phyllonitic core formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation, related to the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage, was accommodated within the vein initially by basal slip of suitably oriented quartz crystals, which produced e.g. undulose extinction, extinction bands and bulging grain boundaries. In the case of misoriented quartz crystals, however, glide-accommodated dislocation creep resulted soon inefficient and led to localized dislocation tangling and strain hardening. In response to 1) hardening, 2) progressive increase of fluid pressure within the actively deforming vein and 3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the surrounding weak, foliated phyllonitic fault core, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific lattice planes oriented optimally with respect to the imposed stress field. Microfaulting generated small volumes of gouge along

  3. Evaluation of ASR potential of quartz-rich rocks by alkaline etching of polished rock sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šachlová, Šárka; Kuchařová, Aneta; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Damaging effect of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on concrete structures has been observed in various countries all over the World. Civil engineers and real state owners are demanding reliable methods in the assessment of ASR potential of aggregates before they are used in constructions. Time feasible methods are expected, as well as methods which enable prediction of long-term behaviour of aggregates in concrete. The most frequently employed accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT) quantifies ASR potential of aggregates according to the expansion values of mortar bars measured after fourteen days testing period. Current study aimed to develop a new methodical approach facilitating identification and quantification of ASR potential of aggregates. Polished rock sections of quartz and amorphous SiO2 (coming from orthoquartzite, quartz meta-greywacke, pegmatite, phyllite, chert, and flint) were subjected to experimental leaching in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. After 14 days of alkaline etching, the rock sections were analyzed employing scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive spectrometer. Representative areas were documented in back scattered electron (BSE) images and measured using fully-automatic petrographic image analysis (PIA). Several features connected to alkaline etching were observed on the surface of polished rock sections: deep alkaline etching, partial leach-out of quartz and amorphous particles, alkaline etching connected to quartz grain boundaries, and alkaline etching without any connection to grain boundaries. All features mentioned above had significant influence on grey-scale spectrum of BSE images. A specific part of the grey-scale spectrum (i.e. grey-shade 0-70) was characteristic of areas affected by alkaline etching (ASR area). By measuring such areas we quantified the extent of alkaline etching in studied samples. Very good correlation was found between the ASR area and ASR potential of investigated rocks measured according to the

  4. Thickness-shear mode quartz crystal resonators in viscoelastic fluid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnau, A.; Jiménez, Y.; Sogorb, T.

    2000-10-01

    An extended Butterworth-Van Dyke (EBVD) model to characterize a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal resonator in a semi-infinite viscoelastic medium is derived by means of analysis of the lumped elements model described by Cernosek et al. [R. W. Cernosek, S. J. Martin, A. R. Hillman, and H. L. Bandey, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45, 1399 (1998)]. The EBVD model parameters are related to the viscoelastic properties of the medium. A capacitance added to the motional branch of the EBVD model has to be included when the elastic properties of the fluid are considered. From this model, an explicit expression for the frequency shift of a quartz crystal sensor in viscoelastic media is obtained. By combining the expressions for shifts in the motional series resonant frequency and in the motional resistance, a simple equation that relates only one unknown (the loss factor of the fluid) to those measurable quantities, and two simple explicit expressions for determining the viscoelastic properties of semi-infinite fluid media have been derived. The proposed expression for the parameter Δf/ΔR is compared with the corresponding ratio obtained with data computed from the complete admittance model. Relative errors below 4.5%, 3%, and 1.2% (for the ratios of the load surface mechanical impedance to the quartz shear characteristic impedance of 0.3, 0.25, and 0.1, respectively), are obtained in the range of the cases analyzed. Experimental data from the literature are used to validate the model.

  5. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan

    2017-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Study on Production of Silicon Nanoparticles from Quartz Sand for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunmetha, S.; Vinoth, M.; Srither, S. R.; Karthik, A.; Sridharpanday, M.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Nano silicon (nano Si) particles were directly prepared from natural mineral quartz sand and thereafter used to fabricate the hybrid silicon solar cells. Here, in this preparation technique, two process stages were involved. In the first stage, the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation processes were applied on quartz sand to fetch silica nanoparticles. In the second stage, magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reduction reactions were applied on nano silica particles to prepare nano Si particles. The effect of two distinct reduction methodologies on nano Si particle preparation was compared. The magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reductions in the silica to silicon conversion process were studied with the help of x-ray diffraction (XRD) with intent to study the phase changes during the reduction reaction as well as its crystalline nature in the pure silicon phase. The particles consist of a combination of fine particles with spherical morphology. In addition to this, the optical study indicated an increase in visible light absorption and also increases the performance of the solar cell. The obtained nano Si particles were used as an active layer to fabricate the hybrid solar cells (HSCs). The obtained results confirmed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the magnesiothermically modified nano Si cells (1.06%) is much higher as compared to the nano Si cells that underwent magnesiothermic reduction (1.02%). Thus, this confirms the increased PCE of the investigated nano Si solar cell up to 1.06%. It also revealed that nano Si behaved as an electron acceptor and transport material. The present study provided valuable insights and direction for the preparation of nano Si particles from quartz sand, including the influence of process methods. The prepared nano Si particles can be utilized for HSCs and an array of portable electronic devices.

  7. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Arnau, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutions more than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor is becoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such as biosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specific interfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule or cell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymer characterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriate evaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved and to be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCM system is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to the specific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions strongly affects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequate sensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have been implemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application is important and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and for avoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles: network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. The electronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail, with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used in applications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensor response is necessary. PMID:27879713

  8. Qrtzgeotherm: An ActiveX component for the quartz solubility geothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2008-12-01

    An ActiveX component, QrtzGeotherm, to calculate temperature and vapor fraction in a geothermal reservoir using quartz solubility geothermometry was written in Visual Basic 6.0. Four quartz solubility equations along the liquid-vapor saturation curve: (i) a quadratic equation of 1/ T and pressure, (ii) a linear equation relating log SiO 2 to the inverse of absolute temperature ( T), (iii) a polynomial of T including logarithmic terms and (iv) temperature as a polynomial of SiO 2 including logarithmic terms are programmed. The QrtzGeotherm has input parameters: (i) HRes—the reservoir enthalpy (kJ/kg), (ii) SiO2TD—silica concentration in total discharge (ppm), (iii) GeoEq—number of quartz solubility equation and (iv) TempGuess—a guess value of the reservoir temperature (°C). The reservoir enthalpy Hres is assumed to be the same as the total discharge enthalpy HR. The output parameters are (i) TempRes—reservoir temperature (°C) and (ii) VapRes—reservoir vapor fraction. The first step is to calculate the total discharge concentration of silica SiO2TD from the concentration of silica SiO2Col of separated water, sampled after N-separations of vapor and water. To use QrtzGeotherm in MS-Excel, three functions SiO2TD, GeoResTemp and GeoResVap for an N-stage separation of geothermal reservoir fluid are written in Visual Basic for Application (VBA). Similarly, a demonstration program, QrtzGeothrm, is written in Visual Basic 6.0.

  9. The effect of calcium on aqueous uranium(VI) speciation and adsorption to ferrihydrite and quartz

    Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Zachara, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of uranium(VI) geochemistry have focused on the potentially important role of the aqueous species, CaUO2 (CO3)32- and Ca2 UO2(CO3)30(aq), on inhibition of microbial reduction and uranium(VI) aqueous speciation in contaminated groundwater. However, to our knowledge, there have been no direct studies of the effects of these species on U(VI) adsorption by mineral phases. The sorption of U(VI) on quartz and ferrihydrite was investigated in NaNO3 solutions equilibrated with either ambient air (430 ppm CO2) or 2% CO2 in the presence of 0, 1.8, or 8.9 mM Ca2+. Under conditions where the Ca2UO2(CO3)30 (aq) species predominates U(VI) aqueous speciation, the presence of Ca in solution lowered U(VI) adsorption on quartz from 77% in the absence of Ca to 42% and 10% at Ca concentrations of 1.8 and 8.9 mM, respectively. U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite decreased from 83% in the absence of Ca to 57% in the presence of 1.8 mM Ca. Surface complexation model predictions that included the formation constant for aqueous Ca2UO2(CO3)30(aq) accurately simulated the effect of Ca2+ on U(VI) sorption onto quartz and ferrihydrite within the thermodynamic uncertainty of the stability constant value. This study confirms that Ca2+ can have a significant impact on the aqueous speciation of U(VI), and consequently, on the sorption and mobility of U(VI) in aquifers. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Prevalence of silicosis among employees in feldspat and quartz mills and associated factors with silicosis].

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ayşe; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Tür, Mahmut; Güven, Rana

    2012-01-01

    Problems in legal definition and diagnosis of occupational diseases in Turkey makes the diagnosis of these diseases and informing the parties important. For this purpose, this study was planned to elicit the frequency of silicosis in quartz mill workers in Cine which is one of the largest quartz and feldspat areas, and to detect the working conditions, to inform the workers to improve the working conditions. The aim was to evaluate 592 workers in 10 quartz mill and mines around Cine in 2004. A structured questionnaire including personal information and work-related questions was applied. Standards chest X-rays taken in the last six months were evaluated according to International Labour Organization (ILO) 1980 standards. Dust concentration and respirable dust concentration in the work place were measured in enterprises. The mean age of the workers was 31.8 ± 8.26 years and 71.7% was smoker. Duration of working was ≤ 5 years in 80.5% and ≥ 10 years in only 4.2%. According to the results of dust measurements, threshold value was found to be exceeded in chopping, packaging and bagging parts of three workplaces. Frequency of silicosis was calculated to be 23.7%. Frequency of pneumoconiosis was found to be high like previous studies carried out in similar workplaces in this study. Although it was impossible to put forward the cumulative effect of dust exposure because of frequent altering in workplace, the high frequency of working in similar workplaces among the cases supported the significant risk of silicosis in these enterprises. The workplaces were observed after the workers and persons responsible from occupational health and safety.

  11. Note: Wide band amplifier for quartz tuning fork sensors with digitally controlled stray capacitance compensation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping; Hao, Lifeng; Ding, Ning; Jiao, Weicheng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Rongguo

    2015-11-01

    We presented a preamplifier design for quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensors in which the stray capacitance is digitally compensated. In this design, the manually controlled variable capacitor is replaced by a pair of varicap diodes, whose capacitance could be accurately tuned by a bias voltage. A tuning circuit including a single side low power operational amplifier, a digital-to-analog converter, and a microprocessor is also described, and the tuning process can be conveniently carried out on a personal computer. For the design, the noise level was investigated experimentally.

  12. Cosmic ray production rates of Be-10 and Al-26 in quartz from glacially polished rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C. P.; Winterer, E. L.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of Be-10 and Al-26 in quartz crystals extracted from glacially polished granitic surfaces from the Sierra Nevada range are studied. These surfaces are identified with the glacial advance during the Tioga period about 11,000 yr ago. The measurements yield the most accurate estimates to date for the absolute production rates of three nuclides in SiO2 due to cosmic ray nucleons and muons for geomagnetic latitudes 43.8-44.6 N and altitudes 2.1-3.6 km.

  13. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  14. Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope

    SciT

    Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent

    2014-10-13

    A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  15. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  16. Purely wavelength- and amplitude-modulated quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Bidaux, Yves; Bismuto, Alfredo; Scott, Marshall; Jiang, James; Muller, Antoine; Faist, Jerome; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-14

    We report here on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor employing a quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure capable of operating in a pure amplitude or wavelength modulation configuration. The QCL structure is composed of three electrically independent sections: Gain, Phase (PS) and Master Oscillator (MO). Selective current pumping of these three sections allows obtaining laser wavelength tuning without changes in the optical power, and power modulation without emission wavelength shifts. A pure QEPAS amplitude modulation condition is obtained by modulating the PS current, while pure wavelength modulation is achieved by modulating simultaneously the MO and PS QCL sections and slowly scanning the DC current level injected in the PS section.

  17. Acoustic interference suppression of quartz crystal microbalance sensor arrays utilizing phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Yu; Huang, Li-Chung; Wang, Wei-Shan; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Tsung-Tsong; Sun, Jia-Hong; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2013-04-01

    Acoustic interference suppression of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor arrays utilizing phononic crystals is investigated in this paper. A square-lattice phononic crystal structure is designed to have a complete band gap covering the QCM's resonance frequency. The monolithic sensor array consisting of two QCMs separated by phononic crystals is fabricated by micromachining processes. As a result, 12 rows of phononic crystals with band gap boost insertion loss between the two QCMs by 20 dB and also reduce spurious modes. Accordingly, the phononic crystal is verified to be capable of suppressing the acoustic interference between adjacent QCMs in a sensor array.

  18. Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Desorption of Molecular Contaminants Deposited on Quartz Crystal Microbalances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albyn, Keith; Burns, Dewitt

    2006-01-01

    Recent quartz crystal microbalance measurements made in the Marshall Space Flight Center, Photo-Deposition Facility, for several materials, recorded a significant loss of deposited contaminants when the deposition surface of the microbalance was illuminated by a deuterium lamp. These measurements differ from observations made by other investigators in which the rate of deposition increased significantly when the deposition surface was illuminated with vacuum ultraviolet radiation. These observations suggest that the accelerated deposition of molecular contaminants on optically sensitive surfaces is dependant upon the contaminant being deposited and must be addressed during the materials selection process by common material screening techniques.

  19. Evaluation of a Quartz Bourdon Pressure Gage of Wind Tunnel Mach Number Control System Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, W. G.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using the National Transonic Facility's high accuracy Mach number measurement system as part of a closed loop Mach number control system. The theoretical and experimental procedures described are applicable to the engineering design of pressure control systems. The results show that the dynamic response characteristics of the NTF Mach number gage (a Ruska DDR-6000 quartz absolute pressure gage) coupled to a typical length of pressure tubing were only marginally acceptable within a limited range of the facility's total pressure envelope and could not be used in the Mach number control system.

  20. Pressure derivatives of elastic moduli of fused quartz to 10 kb

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.; Wilson, W.H.

    1967-01-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal and shear moduli were made on fused quartz to 10 kb at 24??5??C. The anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus K at low pressure, ???K ???P 0, at higher pressures. The pressure derivative of the rigidity modulus ???G ???P remains constant and negative for the pressure range covered. A 15-kb hydrostatic pressure vessel is described for use with ultrasonic pulse instrumentation for precise measurements of elastic moduli and density changes with pressure. The placing of the transducer outside the pressure medium, and the use of C-ring pressure seals result in ease of operation and simplicity of design. ?? 1967.

  1. Evidence of a Love wave bandgap in a quartz substrate coated with a phononic thin layer

    SciT

    Liu, Ting-Wei; Wu, Tsung-Tsong, E-mail: wutt@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Yu-Ching

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Love wave propagation in a micro-fabricated phononic crystal (PC) structure consisting of a 2D, periodically etched silica film deposited on a quartz substrate. The dispersion characteristics of Love waves in such a phononic structure were analyzed with various geometric parameters by using complex band structure calculations. For the experiment, we adopted reactive-ion etching with electron-beam lithography to fabricate a submicrometer phononic structure. The measured results exhibited consistency with the numerical prediction. The results of this study may serve as a basis for developing PC-based Love wave devices.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  3. Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb

    SciT

    Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2011-11-15

    We report on the fabrication of high-Q, fused-quartz microresonators and the parametric generation of a frequency comb with 36-GHz line spacing using them. We have characterized the intrinsic stability of the comb in both the time and frequency domains to assess its suitability for future precision metrology applications. Intensity autocorrelation measurements and line-by-line comb control reveal near-transform-limited picosecond pulse trains that are associated with good relative phase and amplitude stability of the comb lines. The comb's 36-GHz line spacing can be readily photodetected, which enables measurements of its intrinsic and absolute phase fluctuations.

  4. OSL dating of fine-grained quartz from Holocene Yangtze delta sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.; Tada, R.; Zheng, H.; Ke, W.; Saito, K.; Irino, T.; Chao, L.; Shiyi, L.; Uchida, M.

    2014-12-01

    Flood events in the Yangtze River are associated with variation in East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation. Understanding the frequency and scale of the EASM precipitation during the Holocene is a key to understanding the mechanism and cyclicity of floods and droughts. Because about 70% of the annual discharge occurs during the flood season, the Yangtze delta sediments provide a good archive of EASM precipitation. In this study, we investigate the possibility of applying OSL dating to establishing high-resolution chronologies for the Yangtze delta sediment cores YD13-1H and G3. The objectives of this study are: (1) test whether fine grained quartz in present day suspended particle matter (SPM) is fully bleached or reset before deposition, (2) where possible, test quartz fine- and coarse-grain OSL dating against radiocarbon shell ages, (3) interpret the sediment transport processes through the differential bleaching of quartz and feldspar OSL signals. We show that the SPM collected from the surface water column of the Yangtze River during the flood season is well-bleached (offset ~60 years). Fine-grained pro-delta sediments are thus potentially a good dosimeter for OSL dating. OSL ages sediment cores indicate a pronounced change in sedimentation rate at ~6 ka and ~2ka. These events are consistent with what is known of the evolution of the Yangtze catchment and delta. The delta began to build at ~6 ka (Zhao et al., 1979), and human activities increased significantly in the catchment at ~2ka (Chen et al., 1985). It is however surprising that the entire top 9 m of sediment only records these two events. The question of whether significant deposition was limited to 2 ka and 6 ka, or whether the record has been disturbed by erosion/reworking remains. These issues are discussed in terms of the reliability of the quartz OSL ages, the degree of bleaching by comparison with polymineral OSL signals, and the relationship of the OSL ages to the sedimentary record.

  5. Quartz crystal microbalance for the cardiac markers/antibodies binding kinetic measurements in the plasma samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, L. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Archakov, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was exploited for cardiac markers detection and kinetic studies of immunochemical reaction of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and human heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) with the corresponding monoclonal antibodies in undiluted plasma (serum) and standard solutions. The QCM technique allowed to dynamically monitor the kinetic differences in specific interactions and nonspecific sorption, without multiple labeling procedures and separation steps. The affinity binding process was characterized by the association (ka) and the dissociation (kd) kinetic constants and the equilibrium association (K) constant, all of which were obtained from experimental data.

  6. GIXAFS study of Fe3+ sorption and precipitation on natural quartz surfaces

    Waychunas, G.; Davis, J.; Reitmeyer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Grazing-incidence EXAFS has been used to characterize the structure of Fe3+ sorbed onto natural single crystal quartz surfaces. Fe3+ sorption at ca. 5% monolayer coverage on a natural crystal allowed to equilibrate in air resulted in formation of hematite nuclei with strong texturing on r-and m-planes. EXAFS calculations suggests that both O and Fe backscattering is necessary to yield acceptable structural models, that about 50% of the sorbed iron resides in nuclei, and that the approximate dimensions of the nuclei can be estimated via Feff 7.0 calculations of various nuclei sizes and shapes.

  7. Feasibility demonstration for hydrogen chloride detection using a chemisorption technique and a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Workman, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring concentrations of hydrogen chloride between 1 part per billion and 10 parts per million at standard temperature and pressure is presented. The feasibility of a low-cost device incorporating a chemisorption technique coupled with a quartz crystal microbalance was demonstrated in the field at the Viking B launch using a Titan-Centaur vehicle from Kennedy Space Center on August 20, 1975. Hydrogen chloride is a product of solid rocket combustion. The concentration level of hydrogen chloride for this particular launch was measured as approximately 0.2 parts per million at 4 km from the launch site.

  8. Modification of kaolinite surfaces through mechanochemical activation with quartz: A diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform and chemometrics study.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray L; Kristóf, János; Kokot, Serge; Kloprogge, J Theo; Makó, Eva

    2006-12-01

    Studies of kaolinite surfaces are of industrial importance. One useful method for studying the changes in kaolinite surface properties is to apply chemometric analyses to the kaolinite surface infrared spectra. A comparison is made between the mechanochemical activation of Kiralyhegy kaolinites with significant amounts of natural quartz and the mechanochemical activation of Zettlitz kaolinite with added quartz. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, the preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive assistance (GAIA). The clear discrimination of the Kiralyhegy spectral objects on the two PC scores plots (400-800 and 800-2030 cm(-1)) indicated the dominance of quartz. Importantly, no ordering of any spectral objects appeared to be related to grinding time in the PC plots of these spectral regions. Thus, neither the kaolinite nor the quartz are systematically responsive to grinding time according to the spectral criteria investigated. The third spectral region (2600-3800 cm(-1), OH vibrations), showed apparent systematic ordering of the Kiralyhegy and, to a lesser extent, Zettlitz spectral objects with grinding time. This was attributed to the effect of the natural quartz on the delamination of kaolinite and the accompanying phenomena (i.e., formation of kaolinite spheres and water). The mechanochemical activation of kaolinite and quartz, through dry grinding, results in changes to the surface structure. Different grinding times were adopted to study the rate of destruction of the kaolinite and quartz structures. This relationship (i.e., grinding time) was classified using PROMETHEE and GAIA methodology.

  9. Transformations to granular zircon revealed: Twinning, reidite, and ZrO2 in shocked zircon from Meteor Crater (Arizona, USA)

    Cavosie, Aaron; Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Hörz, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Granular zircon in impact environments has long been recognized but remains poorly understood due to lack of experimental data to identify mechanisms involved in its genesis. Meteor Crater in Arizona (United States) contains abundant evidence of shock metamorphism, including shocked quartz, the high pressure polymorphs coesite and stishovite, diaplectic SiO2 glass, and lechatelierite (fused SiO2). Here we report the presence of granular zircon, a new shocked mineral discovery at Meteor Crater, that preserve critical orientation evidence of specific transformations that occurred during its formation at extreme impact conditions. The zircon grains occur as aggregates of sub-µm neoblasts in highly shocked Coconino Formation Sandstone (CFS) comprised of lechatelierite. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that each grain consists of multiple domains, some with boundaries disoriented by 65°, a known {112} shock-twin orientation. Other domains have crystallographic c-axes in alignment with {110} of neighboring domains, consistent with the former presence of the high pressure ZrSiO4 polymorph reidite. Additionally, nearly all zircon preserve ZrO2 + SiO2, providing evidence of partial dissociation. The genesis of CFS granular zircon started with detrital zircon that experienced shock-twinning and reidite formation from 20 to 30 GPa, ultimately yielding a phase that retained crystallographic memory; this phase subsequently recrystallized to systematically oriented zircon neoblasts, and in some areas partially dissociated to ZrO2. The lechatelierite matrix, experimentally constrained to form at >2000 °C, provided an ultra high-temperature environment for zircon dissociation (~1670 °C) and neoblast formation. The capacity of granular zircon to preserve a cumulative P-T record has not been recognized previously, and provides a new method for retrieving histories of impact-related mineral transformations in the crust at conditions far beyond which most rocks melt.

  10. Influence of humic acid concentration on nTiO2 attachment to quartz sand and Fe-coated quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Wu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of nano-scale or micro-scale titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) in subsurface environments are strongly influenced by nTiO2 attachment to sediment grains. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of humic acid (HA) in the attachment of nTiO2 to sand at low HA concentrations that are relevant to typical groundwater conditions, so that mechanisms that control nTiO2 immobilization and transport in groundwater can be elucidated. nTiO2 may carry either positive or negative charges in natural water, therefore, environmental factors such as pH, humic substances, and Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment grains, which are known to control the transport of negatively-charged colloids, may influence nTiO2 in different manners. Attachment of nTiO2 to quartz sand and Fe oxyhydroxide coated quartz sand are experimentally measured under a range of HA concentrations at fixed pH. Experimental results show that at pH 5, negatively-charged HA strongly adsorbs to positively-charged nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, which, at low HA concentrations, partially neutralizes the positive charges on nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and therefore decreases the repulsive electrostatic forces between the surfaces, resulting in relatively high nTiO2 attachment. At high HA concentrations, adsorbed HA reverses the surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and makes nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide strongly negatively charged, resulting in low nTiO2 attachment. At pH 9, HA, nTiO2, and Fe oxyhydroxide are all negatively charged, and HA adsorption is low and does not have a strong impact on the attachment of nTiO2. This study demonstrates that the changes in surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide coating caused by HA adsorption could be a key factor that controls the attachment of nTiO2 to sediment grains.

  11. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    DOE PAGES

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2017-08-24

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ~200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, atmore » ~100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. Lastly, we show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.« less

  12. Effect of laser pulse repetition frequency on the optical breakdown threshold of quartz glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Schöneseiffen, S.; Konov, V. I.; Dausinger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The thresholds of optical breakdown in the volume of quartz glass were measured in relation to the number of pulses under irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses with different pulse repetition frequencies (1 - 400 kHz). Increasing this frequency from 10 to 400 kHz was found to substantially lower the breakdown threshold for 500-fs long pulses (at a wavelength of 1030 nm) and to lower to a smaller degree for 5-ps long pulses (515 nm). A strong frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold is observed under the same conditions as a manifold decrease of the breakdown threshold with increase in the number of pulses in a pulse train. The dependence of the optical breakdown on the number of pulses is attributable to the accumulation of point defects under multiple subthreshold irradiation, which affects the mechanism of collisional ionisation. In this case, the frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold of quartz glass is determined by the engagement of shortlived defects in the ionisation mechanism.

  13. Strain softening along the MCT zone from the Sikkim Himalaya: Relative roles of Quartz and Micas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali; Mitra, Gautam

    2011-06-01

    In the Darjeeling - Sikkim Himalaya, two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; each has accommodated translation greater than 100 km. The lower MCT2 places Greater Himalayan amphibolite grade Paro-Lingtse gneiss over Lesser Himalayan greenschist grade Daling metapelites. The MCT2 is folded by the underlying Lesser Himalayan duplex and is exposed at different structural positions of the fold. At Pelling, the MCT2 zone is exposed as a ˜373 m thick NW dipping fault zone that exposes ˜19 m of hanging wall mylonitized Lingtse gneiss. The Lingtse protolith shows evidence of amphibolite grade plastic deformation features in quartz and feldspar. Within the hanging wall mylonite zone (HWMZ), quartz and feldspar have undergone grain-size reduction by different deformation mechanisms and feldspars are sericitized suggesting the presence of fluids during deformation. We estimate a temperature of ˜300 °C within the fault zone during fluid-assisted retrogression and deformation. Reaction softening of feldspars produced a large proportion of intrinsically weak matrix. This, in combination with development of a strong foliation defined by parallel mica grains, resulted in strain softening along the MCT2 zone, and concentrated the deformation along a thin zone or zones.

  14. Full paleostress tensor reconstruction using quartz veins of Panasqueira Mine, central Portugal; part I: Paleopressure determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaques, Luís; Pascal, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    Paleostress tensor restoration methods are traditionally limited to reconstructing geometrical parameters and are unable to resolve stress magnitudes. Based on previous studies we further developed a methodology to restore full paleostress tensors. We concentrated on inversion of Mode I fractures and acquired data in Panasqueira Mine, Portugal, where optimal exposures of mineralized quartz veins can be found. To carry out full paleostress restoration we needed to determine (1) pore (paleo)pressure and (2) vein attitudes. The present contribution focuses specifically on the determination of pore pressure. To these aims we conducted an extensive fluid inclusion study to derive fluid isochores from the quartz of the studied veins. To constrain P-T conditions, we combined these isochores with crystallisation temperatures derived from geochemical analyses of coeval arsenopyrite. We also applied the sphalerite geobarometer and considered two other independent pressure indicators. Our results point to pore pressures of ∼300 MPa and formation depths of ∼10 km. Such formation depths are in good agreement with the regional geological evolution. The obtained pore pressure will be merged with vein inversion results, in order to achieve full paleostress tensor restoration, in a forthcoming companion paper.

  15. Direct electro-optic effect in langasites and α-quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vadim

    2018-05-01

    Strain-constant (clamped) electro-optic coefficients r11S of langasite La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), langatate La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT), catangasite Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) and α-quartz are measured at 1540 nm in the frequency range of 3-25 MHz. Experimental ratio of clamped and unclamped electro-optic coefficients r11S/r11T is 0.97 for LGS, 0.91 for LGT, 0.31 for CTGS, and 0.49 for quartz. Most of direct electro-optic effect in LGS and LGT is associated with lanthanum ions: clamped electro-optic coefficient r11S in lanthanum-free CTGS is 14 times less than in LGS. Low piezoelectric contribution to unclamped electro-optic coefficient r11T makes LGS and LGT promising materials for electro-optic devices, whose performance can be deteriorated by piezoelectric effect, especially, for high-voltage optical voltage sensors.

  16. Evaluating the Radiation Damage to Quartz Rods in the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodale, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS experiment studies particle collisions to explore the fundamental particles of nature. A key instrumentation technology used by the ATLAS experiment are calorimeters for particle energy measurements. UIUC is developing a new Zero-Degree Calorimeter; a hadronic calorimeter located at zero-degrees from the collision axis. It consists of alternating layers of tungsten and oil; passive and active layers, respectively. The passive layers cause intense showers of secondary particles. These particles then produce Cherenkov radiation in the active layer. The oil in the active layer is replaced at a constant rate allowing for very high radiation doses in the detector without deteriorating the radiator material. The active layer includes wavelength shifters that absorb and re-emit isotropically the Cherenkov radiation. In this way, some of the photons arrive at two, hollow quartz rods which are filled by a second stage wavelength shifter. Here the light is absorbed and re-directed to a Silicon Photomultiplier for detection. In this paper, the impact of ionizing radiation on quartz rods will be discussed and the results from attenuation measurements will be presented.

  17. Kinetic Modeling of the Reaction Rate for Quartz and Carbon Pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Tangstad, Merete

    2018-04-01

    Kinetic modeling of quartz and carbon pellet at temperatures of 1898 K, 1923 K, and 1948 K (1625 °C, 1650 °C, and 1675 °C) was investigated in this study. The carbon materials used were charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal. The overall SiC producing reaction can be described by the reaction SiO2 + 3C = SiC + 2CO. In the SiC-producing step, the reaction rate of quartz and carbon pellet can be expressed as {d{ pct}}/dt = ( {1 - 0.40 × X_{fix - C}^{ - 0.86} × FC × {pct}} ) × A × \\exp ( { - E/{{RT}}} ) The carbon factor F C was used to describe the influence of different carbon materials that effect the gas-solid interface reaction. For charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal, the F C values were 0.83, 0.80, 0.94, and 0.83, respectively. The pre-exponential factor A values for the preceding four carbon materials were 1.06 × 1016 min-1, 4.21 × 1015 min-1, 3.85 × 109 min-1, and 1.00 × 1025 min-1, respectively. The activation energies E for the SiC-producing step were 570, 563, 336, and 913 kJ/mole for charcoal, coke, coal, and preheated coal pellets, respectively.

  18. Application of modern radiative transfer tools to model laboratory quartz emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitman, Karly M.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2005-08-01

    Planetary remote sensing of regolith surfaces requires use of theoretical models for interpretation of constituent grain physical properties. In this work, we review and critically evaluate past efforts to strengthen numerical radiative transfer (RT) models with comparison to a trusted set of nadir incidence laboratory quartz emissivity spectra. By first establishing a baseline statistical metric to rate successful model-laboratory emissivity spectral fits, we assess the efficacy of hybrid computational solutions (Mie theory + numerically exact RT algorithm) to calculate theoretical emissivity values for micron-sized α-quartz particles in the thermal infrared (2000-200 cm-1) wave number range. We show that Mie theory, a widely used but poor approximation to irregular grain shape, fails to produce the single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter needed to arrive at the desired laboratory emissivity values. Through simple numerical experiments, we show that corrections to single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter values generated via Mie theory become more necessary with increasing grain size. We directly compare the performance of diffraction subtraction and static structure factor corrections to the single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and emissivity for dense packing of grains. Through these sensitivity studies, we provide evidence that, assuming RT methods work well given sufficiently well-quantified inputs, assumptions about the scatterer itself constitute the most crucial aspect of modeling emissivity values.

  19. High resolution space quartz-flexure accelerometer based on capacitive sensing and electrostatic control technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, W; Wu, S C; Zhou, Z B; Qu, S B; Bai, Y Z