Sample records for quartz glass substrate

  1. Reactive magnetron sputtering of N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass for transmission photocathode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Sasinková, V.; Boháček, P.; Arbet, J.

    2018-03-01

    N-doped carbon thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate and quartz glass by RF reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and an Ar+N2 gas mixture. During the magnetron sputtering, the substrate holder temperatures was kept at 800 °C. The carbon film thickness on the silicon substrate was about 70 nm, while on the quartz glass it was in the range 15 nm – 60 nm. The elemental concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the intensity ratios I D/I G of the D and G peaks of the carbon films. The transmission photocathodes prepared were placed in the hollow-cathode assembly of a Pierce-structure DC gun to produce photoelectrons. The quantum efficiency (QE) was calculated from the laser energy and cathode charge measured. The properties of the transmission photocathodes based on semitransparent N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass and their potential for application in DC gun technology are discussed.

  2. Magnetic activity of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric magnetic materials fabricated on quartz glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narushima, Kazuki; Ashizawa, Yoshito; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius; Nakagawa, Katsuji

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic activity of surface plasmons in Au/MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, and Zn) polycrystalline bilayer films fabricated on a quartz glass substrate was studied for future magnetic sensor applications using surface plasmon resonance. The excitation of surface plasmons and their magnetic activity were observed in all investigated Au/MFe2O4 films. The magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline Au/NiFe2O4 film was larger than those of the other polycrystalline Au/MFe2O4 films, the epitaxial NiFe2O4 film, and metallic films. The large magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline film is controlled by manipulating surface plasmon excitation conditions and magnetic properties.

  3. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  4. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Schulz, Stephen; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) surface fabricated upon a quartz substrate using nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated to enhance light emission from fluorescent molecules in close proximity to the PC surface. Quartz was selected for its low autofluorescence characteristics compared to polymer-based PCs, improving the detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PC Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF). Nanoimprint lithography enables economical fabrication of the subwavelength PCEF surface structure over entire 1x3 in2 quartz slides. The demonstrated PCEF surface supports a transverse magnetic (TM) resonant mode at a wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm and an incident angle of θ = 11°, which amplifies the electric field magnitude experienced by surface-bound fluorophores. Meanwhile, another TM mode at a wavelength of λ = 690 nm and incident angle of θ = 0° efficiently directs the fluorescent emission toward the detection optics. An enhancement factor as high as 7500 × was achieved for the detection of LD-700 dye spin-coated upon the PC, compared to detecting the same material on an unpatterned glass surface. The detection of spotted Alexa-647 labeled polypeptide on the PC exhibits a 330 × SNR improvement. Using dose-response characterization of deposited fluorophore-tagged protein spots, the PCEF surface demonstrated a 140 × lower limit of detection compared to a conventional glass substrate. PMID:21164826

  5. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2009-03-01

    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  6. VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Sun, Hong-Jun; Wang, Min-Huan; Miao, Li-Hua; Liu, Hong-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Zhi; Bian, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF)-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR) transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT) deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows. PMID:28772673

  7. Machining of glass and quartz using nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenasi, David; Kaszemeikat, Tristan; Mueller, Norbert; Lemke, Andreas; Eichler, Hans Joachim

    2012-03-01

    New laser processing strategies in micro processing of glass, quartz and other optically transparent materials are being developed with increasing effort. Utilizing diode-pumped solid-state laser generating nanosecond pulsed green (532 nm) laser light in conjunction with either scanners or special trepanning systems can provide for reliable glass machining at excellent efficiency. Micro ablation can be induced either from the front or rear side of the glass sample. Ablation rates of over 100 μm per pulse can be achieved in rear side processing. In comparison, picosecond laser processing of glass and quartz (at a wavelength of 1064 or 532 nm) yield smaller feed rates at however much better surface and bore wall quality. This is of great importance for small sized features, e.g. through-hole diameters smaller 50 μm in thin glass. Critical for applications with minimum micro cracks and maximum performance is an appropriate distribution of laser pulses over the work piece along with optimum laser parameters. Laser machining tasks are long aspect micro drilling, slanted through holes, internal contour cuts, micro pockets and more complex geometries in e.g. soda-lime glass, B33, B270, D236T, AF45 and BK7 glass, quartz, and Zerodur.

  8. Large-scale uniform ZnO tetrapods on catalyst free glass substrate by thermal evaporation method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the growth of ZnO-Ts on glass substrate by thermal evaporation method. • Glass substrate without any catalyst or a seed layer. • The morphology was controlled by adjusting the temperature of the material and the substrate. • Glass substrate was placed vertically in the quartz tube. - Abstract: Here, we report for the first time the catalyst-free growth of large-scale uniform shape and size ZnO tetrapods on a glass substrate via thermal evaporation method. Three-dimensional networks of ZnO tetrapods have needle–wire junctions, an average leg length of 2.1–2.6 μm, and a diameter of 35–240 nm. The morphologymore » and structure of ZnO tetrapods were investigated by controlling the preparation temperature of each of the Zn powder and the glass substrate under O{sub 2} and Ar gases. Studies were carried out on ZnO tetrapods using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, and a photoluminescence. The results showed that the sample grow in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferentially oriented along (002) direction, good crystallinity and high transmittance. The band gap value is about 3.27 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a very sharp peak at 378 nm and a weak broad green emission.« less

  9. Studies of LA-ICP-MS on quartz glasses at different wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Becker, J S; Tenzler, D

    2001-07-01

    The capability of LA-ICP-MS for determination of trace impurities in transparent quartz glasses was investigated. Due to low or completely lacking absorption of laser radiation, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) proves difficult on transparent solids, and in particular the quantification of measurement results is problematic in these circumstances. Quartz glass reference materials of various compositions were studied by using a Nd:YAG laser system with focused laser radiation of wavelengths of 1064 nm, 532 nm and 266 nm, and an ICP-QMS (Elan 6000, Perkin Elmer). The influence of ICP and laser ablation conditions in the analysis of quartz glasses of different compositions was investigated, with the laser power density in the region of interaction between laser radiation and solid surface determining the ablation process. The trace element concentration was determined via calibration curves recorded with the aid of quartz glass reference materials. Under optimized measuring conditions the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves are in the range of 0.9-1. The relative sensitivity factors of the trace elements determined in the quartz glass matrix are 0.1-10 for most of the trace elements studied by LA-ICP-MS. The detection limits of the trace elements in quartz glass are in the low ng/g to pg/g range.

  10. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  11. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Manuel Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine Wk; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-03-29

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  12. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  13. Quartz and feldspar glasses produced by natural and experimental shock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Hornemann, U.

    1972-01-01

    Refractive index, density, and infrared absorption studies of naturally and experimentally shocked-produced glasses formed from quartz, plagioclase, and alkali-feldspar confirm the existence of two main groups of amorphous forms of the framework silicates: solid-state and liquid-state glasses. These were apparently formed as metastable release products of high-pressure-phases above and below the glass transition temperatures. Solid-state glasses exhibit a series of structural states with increasing disorder caused by increasing shock pressures and temperatures. They gradually merge into the structural state of fused minerals similar to that of synthetic glasses quenched from a melt. Shock-fused alkali feldspars can, however, be distinguished from their laboratory-fused counterparts by infrared absorption and by higher density.

  14. Thin glass substrates for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, Reiner H.; Wegener, Holger; Kruse, Anke; Hildebrand, Norbert

    2000-10-01

    Flat panel displays play an important role as the visual interface for today's electronic devices (Notebook computers, PDA's, pagers, mobile phones, etc.). Liquid Crystal Display's are dominating the market. While for higher resolution displays active matrix displays like Thin Film Transistor LCD's are used, portable devices are mainly using Super Twisted Nematic (STN) displays. Based on the application, STN displays for mobile applications require thinner glass substrates with improved surface quality at a lower cost. The requirements and trends for STN glass substrates are identified and discussed. Different glass manufacturing processes are used today for the manufacture of these substrates. Advantages and disadvantages of the different glass substrate types are presented and discussed.

  15. Guided growth of horizontal GaN nanowires on quartz and their transfer to other substrates.

    PubMed

    Goren-Ruck, Lior; Tsivion, David; Schvartzman, Mark; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2014-03-25

    The guided growth of horizontal nanowires has so far been demonstrated on a limited number of substrates. In most cases, the nanowires are covalently bonded to the substrate where they grow and cannot be transferred to other substrates. Here we demonstrate the guided growth of well-aligned horizontal GaN nanowires on quartz and their subsequent transfer to silicon wafers by selective etching of the quartz while maintaining their alignment. The guided growth was observed on different planes of quartz with varying degrees of alignment. We characterized the crystallographic orientations of the nanowires and proposed a new mechanism of "dynamic graphoepitaxy" for their guided growth on quartz. The transfer of the guided nanowires enabled the fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors from aligned nanowire arrays on oxidized silicon wafers and the production of crossbar arrays. The guided growth of transferrable nanowires opens up the possibility of massively parallel integration of nanowires into functional systems on virtually any desired substrate.

  16. Direct micromachining of quartz glass plates using pulsed laser plasma soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makimura, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Hisao; Kenmotsu, Youichi; Murakami, Kouichi; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated direct micromachining of quartz glass, using pulsed laser plasma soft x-rays (LPSXs) having a potential capability of nanomachining because the diffraction limit is ˜10nm. The LPSX's were generated by irradiation of a Ta target with 532nm laser light from a conventional Q switched Nd :YAG laser at 700mJ/pulse. In order to achieve a sufficient power density of LPSX's beyond the ablation threshold, we developed an ellipsoidal mirror to obtain efficient focusing of LPSXs at around 10nm. It was found that quartz glass plates are smoothly ablated at 45nm/shot using the focused and pulsed LPSX's.

  17. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Wen G.

    1997-01-01

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  18. Role of Substrate on Quartz Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farver, J. R.; Winslow, D.; Onasch, C.

    2010-12-01

    Quartz cementation in quartz aggregates has been experimentally investigated. The starting material was disaggregated detrital quartz grains from the well-sorted, mature St. Peter Sandstone. The ‘as-is’ grains have patches of iron oxide coatings and some have euhedral overgrowths that contain iron oxide dust rims. In addition a set of experiments was run using grains that were cleaned by soaking in sodium hydrosulfite and sodium bisulfate solutions to remove exposed iron oxide coatings. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (≈30 mg) to provide a source of silica for the quartz cement, AlCl3 powder (≈3 mg) to provide a tracer for Cathodoluminescence (CL) identification of cement formed during the experiment, 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (≈25 mg) to increase the silica solubility and to better mimic oil field brines, and the natural quartz grains (100-130 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in Au capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 250°C to 450°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 8 weeks. After the experiments, the samples were vacuum impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy containing a blue dye. After curing, the sample charge was sawn in half along its long axis and one half was polished (to 1 micron diamond paste) for analysis. The nature and amount of quartz cement in the samples were determined by a combination of CL, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Photomosaics of the samples were created and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement formed during the experiment was easily recognized from the quartz grains (and previous overgrowths) by the difference in luminescence. The results indicate the amorphous silica powder provides a ready source for silica for quartz cementation due to its greater solubility than the quartz. The cementation rates are rapid (>14% cement formed in 2 weeks at 450°C and >7% in 8 weeks at 250°C). Compared to

  19. Investigation on nonlinear optical properties of MoS2 nanoflake, grown on silicon and quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayesteh, S.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, MoS2 was directly synthesized by one-step thermal chemical vapour deposition (TCVD), on different substrates including Si/SiO2 and quartz, using MoO3 and sulfide powders as precursor. The XRD patterns demonstrate the high crystallinity of MoS2 on Si/SiO2 and quartz substrates. SEM confirmed the formation of MoS2 grown on both substrates. According to line width and frequency difference between the E1 2g and A1g in Raman spectroscopy, it is inferred that the MoS2 grown on Si/SiO2 substrate is monolayer and the MoS2 grown on quartz substrate is multilayer. Moreover, by assessment of MoS2 nanoflake band gap via UV-visible analysis, it verified the formation of few layer structures. In addition, the open-aperture and close-aperture Z-scan techniques were employed to study the nonlinear optical properties including nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the synthesized MoS2. All experiments were performed using a diode laser with a wavelength of 532 nm as light source. The monolayer MoS2 synthesized on Si/SiO2, display considerable two-photon absorption. However, the multilayer MoS2 synthesized on quartz displayed saturable absorption (SA). It is noticeable that both samples demonstrate obvious self-defocusing behaviour.

  20. Protection from high-velocity impact particles for quartz glass by coatings on the basis of Al-Si-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, I. A.; Rybalko, E. V.; Fedorischeva, M. V.; Solntsev, V. L.; Cherniavsky, A. G.; Kaleri, A. Yu.; Psakhie, S. G.; Sergeev, V. P.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the research of the phase composition and the mechanical properties of the coatings on the basis of Al-Si-N system produced by pulsed magnetron sputtering on the KV glass substrates. By the X-ray diffraction method, it has been discovered that the coatings contain AlN phase (hcp) with different thickness. The deposition of Al-Si-N coating system allows both increasing the microhardness of the surface layer of the quartz glass up to 29 GPa, and maintaining high elastic properties (We > 0.70). The laboratory tests have been carried out involving the impact of high-speed flows of iron particles on the Al-Si-N protective coating with different thicknesses produced by pulsed magnetron sputtering. The increase of Al-Si-N coating thickness from 1µm to 10µm decreases 4-fold the surface density of the craters on the samples caused by a high-speed flow of iron particles.

  1. A cellular glass substrate solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, R.; Bell, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a second generation point focusing solar concentration is discussed. The design is based on reflective gores fabricated of thin glass mirror bonded continuously to a contoured substrate of cellular glass. The concentrator aperture and structural stiffness was optimized for minimum concentrator cost given the performance requirement of delivering 56 kWth to a 22 cm diameter receiver aperture with a direct normal insolation of 845 watts sq m and an operating wind of 50 kmph. The reflective panel, support structure, drives, foundation and instrumentation and control subsystem designs, optimized for minimum cost, are summarized. The use of cellular glass as a reflective panel substrate material is shown to offer significant weight and cost advantages compared to existing technology materials.

  2. EFFECTS OF QUARTZ PARTICLE SIZE AND SUCROSE ADDITION ON MELTING BEHAVIOR OF A MELTER FEED FOR HIGH-LEVEL GLASS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    MARCIAL J; KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2010-07-28

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 {micro}m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only inmore » feeds with 5-{micro}m quartz particles; particles {ge}150 {micro}m formed clusters. Particles of 5 {micro}m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles {ge}150 {micro}m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles. Over 100 sites in the United States are currently tasked with the storage of nuclear waste. The largest is the Hanford Site located in southeastern Washington State with 177 subterranean tanks containing over fifty-million gallons of nuclear waste from plutonium production from 1944 through 1987. This waste will be vitrified at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. In the vitrification process, feed is charged into a melter and converted into glass to be ultimately stored in a permanent repository. The duration of waste-site cleanups by the vitrification process depends on the rate of melting, i.e., on the rate of the feed-to-glass conversion. Foaming associated with the melting process and the rate of dissolution of quartz particles (silica being the major glass-forming additive) are assumed to be important factors that influence the rate of melting. Previous studies on foaming of high-alumina feed demonstrated that varying the makeup of a melter feed has a significant impact on foaming. The volume of feeds that contained 5

  3. Luminescence of silicon dioxide different polymorph modification: Silica glass, α-quartz, stishovite, coesite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Trukhin, A. N., E-mail: truhins@cfi.lu.lv

    2014-10-21

    Stishovite, coesite, oxygen deficient silica glass as well as irradiated α-quartz, exhibit two luminescence bands: a blue one and an UV one both excitable in the range within optical gap. There are similarities in spectral position and in luminescence decay kinetics among centers in these materials. The interpretation was done on the model of Oxygen Deficient Centers (ODC) [1]. The ODC(II) or twofold coordinated silicon and ODC(I) are distinguished. ODC(I) is object of controversial interpretation. The Si-Si oxygen vacancy [2] and complex defect including latent twofold coordinated silicon [3] are proposed. Remarkably, this luminescence center does not exist in asmore » grown crystalline α-quartz. However, destructive irradiation of α-quartz crystals with fast neutrons, γ rays, or dense electron beams [4–6] creates ODC(I) like defect. In tetrahedron structured coesite the self trapped exciton (STE) luminescence observed with high energetic yield (∼30%) like in α-quartz crystals. STE in coesite coexists with oxygen deficient-like center. In octahedron structured stishovite STE was not found and only ODC exists.« less

  4. Substrate dependent hierarchical structures of RF sputtered ZnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, S. R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2018-05-01

    RF magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnS nanostructures with special emphasis given to study the effect of substrates (quartz, glass and quartz substrate pre-coated with Au, Ag, Cu and Pt) on the structure, surface evolution and optical properties. Type of substrate has a significant influence on the crystalline phase, film morphology, thickness and surface roughness. The present study elucidates the suitability of quartz substrate for the deposition of stable and highly crystalline ZnS films. We found that the role of metal layer on quartz substrate is substantial in the preparation of hierarchical ZnS structures and these structures are of great importance due to its high specific area and potential applications in various fields. A mechanism for morphological evolution of ZnS structures is also presented based on the roughness of substrates and primary nonlocal effects in sputtering. Furthermore, the findings suggest that a controlled growth of hierarchical ZnS structures may be achieved with an ordinary RF sputtering technique by changing the substrate type.

  5. Effect of laser pulse repetition frequency on the optical breakdown threshold of quartz glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Schöneseiffen, S.; Konov, V. I.; Dausinger, F.

    2013-08-01

    The thresholds of optical breakdown in the volume of quartz glass were measured in relation to the number of pulses under irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses with different pulse repetition frequencies (1 - 400 kHz). Increasing this frequency from 10 to 400 kHz was found to substantially lower the breakdown threshold for 500-fs long pulses (at a wavelength of 1030 nm) and to lower to a smaller degree for 5-ps long pulses (515 nm). A strong frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold is observed under the same conditions as a manifold decrease of the breakdown threshold with increase in the number of pulses in a pulse train. The dependence of the optical breakdown on the number of pulses is attributable to the accumulation of point defects under multiple subthreshold irradiation, which affects the mechanism of collisional ionisation. In this case, the frequency dependence of the breakdown threshold of quartz glass is determined by the engagement of shortlived defects in the ionisation mechanism.

  6. Nanohole and dot patterning processes on quartz substrate by R-θ electron beam lithography and nanoimprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Kazutake; Suzuki, Kouta; Iyama, Hiromasa; Kishimoto, Shuji; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Fine hole and dot patterns with bit pitches (bp’s) of less than 40 nm were fabricated in the circular band area of a quartz substrate by R-θ electron beam lithography (EBL), reactive ion etching (RIE), and nanoimprinting. These patterning processes were studied to obtain minimum pitch sizes of hole and dot patterns without pattern collapse. The patterning on the circular band was aimed to apply these patterning processes to future high-density bit-patterned media (BPM) for hard disk drive (HDD) and permanent memory for the long life archiving of digital data. In hole patterning, a minimum-22-nm-bp and 8.2-nm-diameter pattern (1.3 Tbit/in.2) was obtained on a quartz substrate by optimizing the R-θ EBL and RIE processes. Dot patterns were replicated on another quartz substrate by nanoimprinting using a hole-patterned quartz substrate as a master mold followed by RIE. In dot patterning, a minimum-30-nm-bp and 18.5-nm-diameter pattern (0.7 Tbit/in.2) was obtained by introducing new descum conditions. It was observed that the minimum bp of successful patterning increased as the fabrication process proceeded, i.e., from 20 nm bp in the first EBL process to 30 nm bp in the last quartz dot patterning process. From the measured diameters of the patterns, it was revealed that pattern collapse was apt to occur when the value of average diameter plus 3 sigma of diameter was close to the bp. It was suggested that multiple fabrication processes caused the degradation of pattern quality; therefore, hole patterning is more suitable than dot patterning for future applications owing to the lower quality degradation by its simple fabrication process.

  7. Soda-based glass fabricated from Thailand quartz sands doped with silver compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won-in, Krit; Dararutana, Pisutti

    2012-10-01

    Yellow colored glass which used for luxury art glass in ancient time was fabricated by the addition of silver compound into the molten glass. It was proved that it was actually silver nanoparticle technology. In this work, the SiO2-(Na2O,K2O)-CaO-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO glass system was prepared in the laboratory scale based on local quartz sands from Trat Province, eastern area of Thailand as the silica raw material. Various concentrations of silver nitrate were added. After the complete conventional melting process, the bubble-free yellow glasses were yielded. Physical and optical properties such as density, refractive index and optical absorption spectra were measured. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy was carried out to study their morphology. The refractive indices and densities were increased as the increase of the silver contents. Electron micrographs showed the presence of silver nanoparticle in the glass matrix. UV-VIS spectra were in good agreement with that found from SEM measurements and corresponded with the universally accepted. It was also showed that the more brilliance on the surface of the glass products was obtained after firing with a gas torch.

  8. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  9. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr2+ act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth. PMID:26710210

  10. High-pressure infrared sepctra of alpha-quartz, coesite, stishovite and silica glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Q.; Hemley, R. J.; Kruger, M. B.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-01-01

    High-pressure infrared absorption spectra of alpha-quatz, coesite, stishovite, and SiO2 glass are consistent with the primary compression mechanism of the initially tetrahedrally bonded phases being the bending of the Si-O-Si angle at pressures less than 10-20 GPa. At higher pressures, up to 40 GPa, we observe a decline in the intensity of the infrared SiO4 asymmetric-stretching vibrations of all three phases, with an increase in the relative amplitude between 700 and 900/cm. This change in intensities is attributed to an increase in the average coordination number of silicon through extreme distortion of tetrahedra. At pressures above approximately 20 GPa, the low-pressure crystalline polymorphs gradually become amorphous, and the infrared spectra provide evidence for an increase in silicon coordination in these high-density amorphous phases. The pressure-amorphized samples prepared from quartz and coesite differ structurally both from each other and from silica glass that has been compressed, and the high pressure spectra indicate that these materials are considerably more disordered than stishovite under comparable pressure conditions. Average mode Grueneisen parameters calculated for quartz, stishovite and fused silica from both infrared and Raman spectra are compatible with the corresponding thermodynamic value of the Grueneisen parameter, however, that of coesite is significantly discrepant.

  11. Effect of substrate and post-deposition annealing on nanostructure and optical properties of CdTe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Ebrahim; Raoufi, Davood

    2018-04-01

    Thermal evaporation is one of the promising methods for depositing CdTe thin films, which can obtain the thin films with the small thickness. In this work, CdTe nanoparticles have deposited on SiO2 substrates such as quartz (crystal) and glass (amorphous) at a temperature (Ts) of 150 °C under a vacuum pressure of 2 × 10‑5 mbar. The thickness of CdTe thin films prepared under vacuum pressure is 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results showed the formation of CdTe cubic phase with a strong preferential orientation of (111) crystalline plane on both substrates. The grain size (D) in this orientation obtained about 7.41 and 5.48 nm for quartz and glass respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) measurements indicated the optical band gap about 1.5 and 1.52 eV for CdTe thin films deposited on quartz and glass respectively. Furthermore, to show the effect of annealing temperature on structure and optical properties of CdTe thin films on quartz and glass substrates, the thin films have been annealed at temperatures 50 and 70 °C for one hour. The results of this work indicate that the structure’s parameters and optical properties of CdTe thin films change due to increase in annealing temperature.

  12. III-nitride core–shell nanorod array on quartz substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Si-Young; Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Lekhal, Kaddour; Lee, Ho-Jun; Jho, Young-Dahl; Lee, Dong-Seon; Lee, Yong-Tak; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We report the fabrication of near-vertically elongated GaN nanorods on quartz substrates. To control the preferred orientation and length of individual GaN nanorods, we combined molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with pulsed-mode metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The MBE-grown buffer layer was composed of GaN nanograins exhibiting an ordered surface and preferred orientation along the surface normal direction. Position-controlled growth of the GaN nanorods was achieved by selective-area growth using MOCVD. Simultaneously, the GaN nanorods were elongated by the pulsed-mode growth. The microstructural and optical properties of both GaN nanorods and InGaN/GaN core–shell nanorods were then investigated. The nanorods were highly crystalline and the core–shell structures exhibited optical emission properties, indicating the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride nano-optoelectronic devices on amorphous substrates. PMID:28345641

  13. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  14. Solar-Array Substrate From Glass-Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirls, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Design elminiates glass superstrate and associated metal framing. Panel has two trapezoidal stiffening ribs for structural support. Strategic placement of ribs with embedded support tubes (standard PVC tubing) minimizes bending moments and resulting stresses produced by installation and windloads. Glass-reinforced concrete panel has smooth flat surface suitable for solar substrate and includes structural bracing for rigidity and design adaptable to mass production.

  15. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  16. Factors Influencing Material Removal And Surface Finish Of The Polishing Of Silica Glasses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical Properties of Quartz and Zerodur ® ..................................... 48 TABLE 4.2: Results from variable load and lap velocity experiments...of glass and glass-ceramic substrates which are used in a vast amount of applications, from optics for lithographic machines to mirrors and lenses...SiO2) glass polishing with metal oxide abrasive particles. This scheme will mirror the experimentation in this thesis, and hopefully provide a better

  17. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  18. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D [Fairfield, CA; Theiss, Steven D [Woodbury, MN; Carey, Paul G [Mountain View, CA; Smith, Patrick M [San Ramon, CA; Wickbold, Paul [Walnut Creek, CA

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using silver-coated porous glass-ceramic substrates.

    PubMed

    Pan, Z; Zavalin, A; Ueda, A; Guo, M; Groza, M; Burger, A; Mu, R; Morgan, S H

    2005-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been studied using a silver-coated porous glass-ceramic material as a new type of substrate. The porous glass-ceramic is in the CaO-TiO2-P2O5 system prepared by controlled crystallization and subsequent chemical leaching of the dense glass-ceramic, leaving a solid skeleton with pores ranging in size from 50 nm to submicrometer. Silver was coated on the surface of the porous glass-ceramic by radio frequency (RF) sputtering or e-beam evaporation in vacuum. SERS spectra of excellent quality were obtained from several dyes and carboxylic acid molecules, including rhodamine 6G, crystal violet, isonicotinic acid, and benzoic acid, using this new substrate. This new substrate showed a good compatibility with these molecules. The porous glass ceramic with a nanometer-structured surface accommodated both test molecules and silver film. The absorbed molecules were therefore better interfaced with silver for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  20. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J

    2010-08-11

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5°C/min up to 1200°C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 µm. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds withmore » 5-μm quartz particles; particles >150 µm formed clusters. Particles of 5 µm completely dissolved by 900°C whereas particles >150 µm did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200°C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.« less

  1. Microelectromechanical systems-based visible-near infrared Fabry-Perot tunable filters using quartz substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Tan, Songsheng; Zander, Dennis R.

    2012-07-01

    There is a need to develop miniature optical tunable filters for small hyperspectral imagers. We plan to develop a number of miniature Fabry-Perot tunable filters (FPTFs) using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, each operating over a different wavelength region, to cover spectral regions from the visible to the longwave infrared (IR). Use of a MEMS-based FPTF as a dispersive element will reduce the size, weight, and power requirements of hyperspectral imagers and make them less expensive. A key requirement for such a filter is a large optical aperture. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating FPTFs with a 6 mm optical aperture operating in the visible to near IR spectral region (400 to 800 nm) using commercially available thin quartz wafers as the substrate. The FPTF design contains one fixed silver (Ag) mirror and one electrostatically movable Ag mirror, each grown on a quartz substrate with a low total thickness variation. Gold (Au) bumps are used to control the initial air gap distance between the two mirrors, and Au-Au bonding is used to bond the device. We describe material selection, device design, modeling, fabrication, interferometric, and spectral characterizations.

  2. Effect of Primary-Ion Current Density on Charge Compensation in SIMS Analysis of a Quartz Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kazuyuki; Isogai, Akio

    1988-05-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of a quartz glass by means of negative ion bombardment, the effect of the negative ion current density (Ji) has been investigated. The results show that under lower Ji (<20 μA/cm2), time is required to compensate for the surface charge and the time is inversely proportional to Ji.

  3. Design and development of thin quartz glass WFXT polynomial mirror shells by direct polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, L.; Campana, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Combrinck, H.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freeman, R.; Langstrof, P.; Mattaini, E.; Morton, R.; Oberle, B.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Pels, C.; Schenk, C.; Stock, R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) is a medium class mission for X-ray surveys of the sky with an unprecedented area and sensitivity. In order to meet the effective area requirement, the design of the optical system is based on very thin mirror shells, with thicknesses in the 1-2 mm range. In order to get the desired angular resolution (10 arcsec requirement, 5 arcsec goal) across the entire 1x1 degree FOV (Field Of View), the design of the optical system is based on nested modified grazing incidence Wolter-I mirrors realized with polynomial profiles, focal plane curvature and plate scale corrections. This design guarantees an increased angular resolution at large off-axis angle with respect to the normally used Wolter I configuration, making WFXT ideal for survey purposes. The WFXT X-ray Telescope Assembly is composed by three identical mirror modules of 78 nested shells each, with diameter up to 1.1 m. The epoxy replication process with SiC shells has already been proved to be a valuable technology to meet the angular resolution requirement of 10 arcsec. To further mature the telescope manufacturing technology and to achieve the goal of 5 arcsec, a deterministic direct polishing method is under investigation. The direct polishing method has already been used for past missions (as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra): the technological challenge now is to apply it for almost ten times thinner shells. Under investigation is quartz glass (fused silica), a well-known material with good thermo-mechanical and polishability characteristics that could meet our goal in terms of mass and stiffness, with significant cost and time saving with respect to SiC. Our approach is based on two main steps: first quartz glass tubes available on the market are grinded to conical profiles, and second the obtained shells are polished to the required polynomial profiles by CNC (Computer Numerical Control) polishing machine. In this paper, the first results of the direct grinding and polishing of

  4. Terahertz Bandpass Frequency Selective Surfaces on Glass Substrates Using a Wet Micromachining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzan, Mehrab; Khan, Talha Masood; Bolat, Sami; Nebioglu, Mehmet Ali; Altan, Hakan; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Topalli, Kagan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents terahertz (THz) frequency selective surfaces (FSS) implemented on glass substrate using standard microfabrication techniques. These FSS structures are designed for frequencies around 0.8 THz. A fabrication process is proposed where a 100-μm-thick glass substrate is formed through the HF etching of a standard 500-μm-thick low cost glass wafer. Using this fabrication process, three separate robust designs consisting of single-layer FSS are investigated using high-frequency structural simulator (HFSS). Based on the simulation results, the first design consists of a circular ring slot in a square metallic structure on top of a 100-μm-thick Pyrex glass substrate with 70% transmission bandwidth of approximately 0.07 THz, which remains nearly constant till 30° angle of incidence. The second design consists of a tripole structure on top of a 100-μm-thick Pyrex glass substrate with 65% transmission bandwidth of 0.035 THz, which remains nearly constant till 30° angle of incidence. The third structure consists of a triangular ring slot in a square metal on top of a 100-μm-thick Pyrex glass substrate with 70% transmission bandwidth of 0.051 THz, which remains nearly constant up to 20° angle of incidence. These designs show that the reflections from samples can be reduced compared to the conventional sample holders used in THz spectroscopy applications, by using single layer FSS structures manufactured through a relatively simple fabrication process. Practically, these structures are achieved on a fabricated 285-μm-thick glass substrate. Taking into account the losses and discrepancies in the substrate thickness, the measured results are in good agreement with the electromagnetic simulations.

  5. Porous glass makes effective substrate for ozone-sensing reagent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Porous-glass substrate is used for absorption of a dye used in measuring the concentration of atmospheric ozone at high altitudes. This measurement is based on the chemiluminescence produced in the reaction between ozone and the dye, rhodamine B. The porous glass provides a large interstitial surface area which promotes this reaction.

  6. Chalcogenide Glass Lasers on Silicon Substrate Integrated Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0013 Chalcogenide glass lasers on silicon substrate integrated photonics Clara Dimas MASDAR INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY...PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) MASDAR INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY - MIST...communication by reducing coupling losses, chip size, energy requirements and manufacturing cost. Chalcogenide glass (ChG) light sources doped with rare earth

  7. Guidelines for bottom-up approach of nanocarbon film formation from pentacene using heated tungsten on quartz substrate without metal catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heya, Akira; Matsuo, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    The guidelines for a bottom-up approach of nanographene formation from pentacene using heated tungsten were investigated using a novel method called hot mesh deposition (HMD). In this method, a heated W mesh was set between a pentacene source and a quartz substrate. Pentacene molecules were decomposed by the heated W mesh. The generated pentacene-based decomposed precursors were then deposited on the quartz substrate. The pentacene dimer (peripentacene) was obtained from pentacene by HMD using two heated catalysts. As expected from the calculation with the density functional theory in the literature, it was confirmed that the pentacene dimer can be formed by a reaction between pentacene and 6,13-dihydropentacene. This technique can be applied to the formation of novel nanographene on various substrates without metal catalysts.

  8. Investigation on nonlinear optical properties of MoS2 nanoflakes grown on silicon and quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayesteh, Samaneh; Zahra Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Reyhani, Ali

    2018-05-01

    In this study, MoS2 nanoflakes were directly grown on different substrates—Si/SiO2 and quartz—by one-step thermal chemical vapor deposition using MoO3 and sulfide powders as precursors. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated the formation of MoS2 structures on both substrates. Moreover, UV-visible and photoluminescence analysis confirmed the formation of MoS2 few-layer structures. According to Raman spectroscopy, by assessment of the line width and frequency shift differences between the and A 1g, it was inferred that the MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate was monolayer and that grown on the quartz substrate was multilayer. In addition, open-aperture and close-aperture Z-scan techniques were employed to study the nonlinear optical properties including nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the grown MoS2. All experiments were performed using a diode laser with a wavelength of 532 nm as the light source. It is noticeable that both samples demonstrate obvious self-defocusing behavior. The monolayer MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate displayed considerable two-photon absorption while, the multilayer MoS2 synthesized on the quartz exhibited saturable absorption. In general, few-layered MoS2 would be useful for the development of nanophotonic devices like optical limiters, optical switchers, etc.

  9. Low-temperature wafer direct bonding of silicon and quartz glass by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Xu, Jikai; Zeng, Xiaorun; Tian, Yanhong; Wang, Chunqing; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile bonding process for combining silicon and quartz glass wafers by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning. After a post-annealing at 200 °C, strong bonding interfaces with no defects or microcracks were obtained. On the basis of the detailed surface and bonding interface characterizations, the bonding mechanism was explored and discussed. The amino groups terminated on the cleaned surfaces might contribute to the bonding strength enhancement during the annealing. This cost-effective bonding process has great potentials for silicon- and glass-based heterogeneous integrations without requiring a vacuum system.

  10. Additive manufacturing of transparent fused quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Hostetler, John M.; Gilbert, Luke; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates a filament-fed process for additive manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Glasses such as fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications, which include optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. AM has several attractive benefits such as increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research into glass AM has focused primarily on nonoptical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for use in high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser-generated molten region, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Spectroscopy and pyrometry are used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the molten region. The effects of the laser power and scan speed are determined by measuring the morphology of single tracks. Thin walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. This information is used to deposit solid pieces including a cylindrical-convex shape capable of focusing visible light. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the printed fused quartz are measured. These results show that the filament-fed process has the potential to print transmissive optics.

  11. One-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hua; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, it demonstrated one-step femtosecond laser welding and internal machining of three fused silica substrates in the optical- and non-optical-contact regimes by focusing 1030-nm laser pulses at the middle of the second substrate. Focusing laser pulses within the second glass in optical-contact and non-optical-contact samples induces permanent internal structural modification, leading to the three glass substrates bonding together simultaneously. The bonding mechanism is based on the internal modification of glass, and this mechanism is different from that of ordinary glass welding at the interface. Welding-spot size is affected by not only the gap distance (ablation effect) and heat transmission, but also by gravity through examining the sizes of the welding spots on the four contact welding surfaces. The maximum bonding strength of the lower interface (56.2 MPa) in the optical-contact regime is more than double that (27.6 MPa) in the non-optical-contact regime.

  12. Aligned crystalline semiconducting film on a glass substrate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2010-08-24

    A semiconducting structure having a glass substrate. In one embodiment, the glass substrate has a softening temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The structure includes a nucleation layer formed on a surface of the substrate, a template layer deposited on the nucleation layer by one of ion assisted beam deposition and reactive ion beam deposition, at least on biaxially oriented buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer, and a biaxially oriented semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making the semiconducting structure is also described.

  13. Influence of the Substrate on the Formation of Metallic Glass Coatings by Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, John; Concustell, Amadeu; Dosta, Sergi; Cinca, Núria; Cano, Irene G.; Guilemany, Josep M.

    2016-06-01

    Cold gas spray technology has been used to build up coatings of Fe-base metallic glass onto different metallic substrates. In this work, the effect of the substrate properties on the viscoplastic response of metallic glass particles during their impact has been studied. Thick coatings with high deposition efficiencies have been built-up in conditions of homogeneous flow on substrates such as Mild Steel AISI 1040, Stainless Steel 316L, Inconel 625, Aluminum 7075-T6, and Copper (99.9%). Properties of the substrate have been identified to play an important role in the viscoplastic response of the metallic glass particles at impact. Depending on the process gas conditions, the impact morphologies show not only inhomogeneous deformation but also homogeneous plastic flow despite the high strain rates, 108 to 109 s-1, involved in the technique. Interestingly, homogenous deformation of metallic glass particles is promoted depending on the hardness and the thermal diffusivity of the substrate and it is not exclusively a function of the kinetic energy and the temperature of the particle at impact. Coating formation is discussed in terms of fundamentals of dynamics of undercooled liquids, viscoplastic flow mechanisms of metallic glasses, and substrate properties. The findings presented in this work have been used to build up a detailed scheme of the deposition mechanism of metallic glass coatings by the cold gas spraying technology.

  14. Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Transformation Front Velocities That Determine Thermal Stability of Vapor-Deposited Glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Dalal, Shakeel S.; Ediger, M. D.

    2015-02-09

    Stable organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition transform into the supercooled liquid via propagating fronts of molecular mobility, a mechanism different from that exhibited by glasses prepared by cooling the liquid. In this paper, we show that spectroscopic ellipsometry can directly observe this front-based mechanism in real time and explore how the velocity of the front depends upon the substrate temperature during deposition. For the model glass former indomethacin, we detect surface-initiated mobility fronts in glasses formed at substrate temperatures between 0.68T g and 0.94T g. At each of two annealing temperatures, the substrate temperature during deposition can changemore » the transformation front velocity by a factor of 6, and these changes are imperfectly correlated with the density of the glass. We also observe substrate-initiated fronts at some substrate temperatures. By connecting with theoretical work, we are able to infer the relative mobilities of stable glasses prepared at different substrate temperatures. Finally, an understanding of the transformation behavior of vapor-deposited glasses may be relevant for extending the lifetime of organic semiconducting devices.« less

  15. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOEpatents

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  16. Comparative study between chemical and atmospheric pressure plasma jet cleaning on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Fhong, Soon Chin; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet with low frequency and argon as working gas is presented in this paper to demonstrate its application for glass substrate clean and modification. The glass substrate clean by atmospheric pressure plasma jet is an efficient method to replace other substrate clean method. A comparative analysis is done in this paper between substrate cleaned by chemical and plasma treatment methods. Water contact angle reading is taken for a different method of substrate clean and period of treatment. Under the plasma treatment, the sample shows low surface adhesion due to having the surface property of super hydrophilic surface 7.26°. This comparative analysis is necessary in the industrial application for cost production due to sufficient time and method of substrate clean.

  17. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be < 90%. For this work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  18. Printed electronic on flexible and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futera, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2010-09-01

    Organic electronics is a platform technology that enables multiple applications based on organic electronics but varied in specifications. Organic electronics is based on the combination of new materials and cost-effective, large area production processes that provide new fields of application. Organic electronic by its size, weight, flexibility and environmental friendliness electronics enables low cost production of numerous electrical components and provides for such promising fields of application as: intelligent packaging, low cost RFID, flexible solar cells, disposable diagnostic devices or games, and printed batteries [1]. The paper presents results of inkjetted electronics elements on flexible and glass substrates. The investigations was target on characterizing shape, surface and geometry of printed structures. Variety of substrates were investigated, within some, low cost, non specialized substrate, design for other purposes than organic electronic.

  19. Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Yushan; Cai, Haoyuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Changwei; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL) method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz) and 1.68 (SF5 glass), the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS) and figure of merit (FOM). Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results.

  20. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA Annealing of induced absorption in quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, P. B.; Sergeev, A. P.

    2010-11-01

    Annealing of individual bands of electron-beam-induced absorption (IA) in the region of 150 — 400 nm in KS-4V, KU-1, and Corning 7980 (ArF Grade) quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation is studied. It is shown that the phototransformation of the IA spectra occurs mainly due to a significant decrease in the amplitudes of bands at λ = 183.5, 213, and 260 nm. The role played by interstitial oxygen, hydrogen, and chlorine in the formation and relaxation of glass defects is considered.

  1. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  2. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  3. Adsorption of goethite onto quartz and kaolinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; Weiner, Eugene R.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of colloidal goethite onto quartz and kaolinite substrates has been studied as a function of pH and NaCl concentration. Goethite adsorption was measured quantitatively by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that adsorption onto both substrates is due primarily to coulombic forces; however, the pH dependence of adsorption is very different for the two substrates. This is explained by the fact that the surface charge on quartz is entirely pH-dependent, while kaolinite has surface faces which carry a permanent negative charge. Adsorption of goethite on to kaolinite increases markedly with increasing NaCl concentration, while adsorption onto quartz is relatively independent of NaCl concentration. This can be explained by the influence of NaCl concentration upon the development of surface charge on the substrates. A method is described for separating surface-bound goethite from free goethite.

  4. Direct Growth of III-Nitride Nanowire-Based Yellow Light-Emitting Diode on Amorphous Quartz Using Thin Ti Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabaswara, Aditya; Min, Jung-Wook; Zhao, Chao; Janjua, Bilal; Zhang, Daliang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-02-01

    Consumer electronics have increasingly relied on ultra-thin glass screen due to its transparency, scalability, and cost. In particular, display technology relies on integrating light-emitting diodes with display panel as a source for backlighting. In this study, we undertook the challenge of integrating light emitters onto amorphous quartz by demonstrating the direct growth and fabrication of a III-nitride nanowire-based light-emitting diode. The proof-of-concept device exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.6 V, on an amorphous quartz substrate. We achieved 40% transparency across the visible wavelength while maintaining electrical conductivity by employing a TiN/Ti interlayer on quartz as a translucent conducting layer. The nanowire-on-quartz LED emits a broad linewidth spectrum of light centered at true yellow color ( 590 nm), an important wavelength bridging the green-gap in solid-state lighting technology, with significantly less strain and dislocations compared to conventional planar quantum well nitride structures. Our endeavor highlighted the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride optoelectronic device on a scalable amorphous substrate through facile growth and fabrication steps. For practical demonstration, we demonstrated tunable correlated color temperature white light, leveraging on the broadly tunable nanowire spectral characteristics across red-amber-yellow color regime.

  5. Direct Growth of III-Nitride Nanowire-Based Yellow Light-Emitting Diode on Amorphous Quartz Using Thin Ti Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Prabaswara, Aditya; Min, Jung-Wook; Zhao, Chao; Janjua, Bilal; Zhang, Daliang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M; Alyamani, Ahmed Y; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S

    2018-02-06

    Consumer electronics have increasingly relied on ultra-thin glass screen due to its transparency, scalability, and cost. In particular, display technology relies on integrating light-emitting diodes with display panel as a source for backlighting. In this study, we undertook the challenge of integrating light emitters onto amorphous quartz by demonstrating the direct growth and fabrication of a III-nitride nanowire-based light-emitting diode. The proof-of-concept device exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.6 V, on an amorphous quartz substrate. We achieved ~ 40% transparency across the visible wavelength while maintaining electrical conductivity by employing a TiN/Ti interlayer on quartz as a translucent conducting layer. The nanowire-on-quartz LED emits a broad linewidth spectrum of light centered at true yellow color (~ 590 nm), an important wavelength bridging the green-gap in solid-state lighting technology, with significantly less strain and dislocations compared to conventional planar quantum well nitride structures. Our endeavor highlighted the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride optoelectronic device on a scalable amorphous substrate through facile growth and fabrication steps. For practical demonstration, we demonstrated tunable correlated color temperature white light, leveraging on the broadly tunable nanowire spectral characteristics across red-amber-yellow color regime.

  6. The Mixed Processing Models Development Of Thermal Fracture And Laser Ablation On Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Hong; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hwang, Chi-Hung

    2011-01-01

    As the industries of cell phone and LCD TV were vigorously flourishing and the manufacturing requirements for LCD glass substrate were getting higher, the thermal fracture cutting technology (TFCT) has progressively become the main technology for LCD glass substrate cutting. Due to using laser as the heat source, the TFCT has many advantages, such as uniform heating, small heat effect zone, and high cutting speed, smooth cutting surface and low residual stress, etc. Moreover, a general laser ablation processing or traditional diamond wheel cutting does not have the last two advantages. The article presents a mixed processing of glass substrate, which consists of TFCT and laser ablation mechanisms, and how to enhance the cutting speed with little ablation laser energy. In this study, a 10W Nd:YAG laser and a 40W CO2 laser are used as the heat source of TFCT and laser ablation processing, respectively. The result indicates that the speed of the mixed processing is more than twice the speed of TFCT. Furthermore, after the mixed processing, the residual stresses in the glass substrates are also smaller.

  7. Super-bright and short-lived photoluminescence of textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film on quartz glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Lee, Jaebum; Kim, Jongsu; Seo, Kwangil; Kwon, Kevin; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2010-02-01

    Green-emissive textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film was fabricated by a thermal diffusion of ZnO:Mn on quartz glass. The characterization has been performed in terms of Mn2+ ions concentration (Mn/Zn=1~9 mol %). As an increase of Mn2+ ions concentration in the Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor film, the emission peak was red shifted from 519 nm to 526 nm, and the decay time to 10% of the maximum intensity was shorter from 20 ms to 0.5 ms. All annealed Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor films became textured along some hexagonal directions on the amorphous quartz glass. The brightest Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ film at optimal Mn2+ concentration of 5 % showed the photoluminescence brightness of 65 % and the shortened decay time of 4.4 ms in comparison with a commercially Zn2SiO4: Mn2+ powder phosphor screen. The excellencies can be attributed to a unique textured structure.

  8. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Sputtered-Grown InN Films on ZnO Buffered Silicon, Bulk GaN, Quartz and Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Umar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ahmed, Naser M.; Afzal, Naveed

    2018-05-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were grown on Si (111), bulk GaN, quartz and sapphire substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Prior to the film deposition, a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer was deposited on all the substrates. The x-ray diffraction patterns of InN films on ZnO-buffered substrates indicated c-plane-oriented films whereas the Raman spectroscopy results indicated A1 (LO) and E2 (high) modes of InN on all the substrates. The crystalline quality of InN was found to be better on sapphire and quartz than on the other substrates. The surface roughness of InN was studied using an atomic force microscope. The results indicated higher surface roughness of the film on sapphire as compared to the others; however, roughness of the film was lower than 8 nm on all the substrates. The electrical properties indicated higher electron mobility of InN (20.20 cm2/Vs) on bulk GaN than on the other substrates. The optical band gap of InN film was more than 2 eV in all the cases and was attributed to high carrier concentration in the film.

  9. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Díaz, Luis A.; Prado, Catuxa; Cabal, Belén; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel) have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar) according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log). PMID:25056542

  10. Synthesis and characterization of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Alizadeh, M.; Shuhaimi, A.; Sundaram, S.; Hakim, K. M.; Goh, B. T.; Rahman, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    InN nanocrystals were grown on glass substrate by plasma assisted reactive evaporation technique and the quality was compared with InN on Si (111) substrate. Single phase InN was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and micro Raman analysis on both the substrates. Agglomerated and Hexagonal faceting nanocrystals observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows InN nanocrystals are nearly stochiometric. Photoluminescence reveals a broad emission near bandedge at 2 .04 eV and defect band at 1.07 eV. The Hall measurement on both the substrates reveals high electron carrier concentration. These encouraging results obtained suggested that high quality single crystalline InN can be obtained on glass substrate further optimizing the growth parameters. This novel growth of InN nanocrystals on glass substrate is an important step towards the development of monolithic, high efficiency low-cost InGaN-based renewable energy sources.

  11. Low CTE glass, SiC & Beryllium for lightweight mirror substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland; Cayrel, Marc

    2005-10-01

    This paper is intended to analyze the relative merits of low CTE glass, SiC and Beryllium as candidates for lightweight mirror substrates in connection with real practical experience and example or three major projects using these three materials and running presently at SAGEM-REOSC. Beryllium and SiC have nice thermal and mechanical properties but machined glass ceramic can still well compete technically or economically in some cases.

  12. Substrate effects on photoluminescence and low temperature phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.

  13. Binding of mouse immunoglobulin G to polylysine-coated glass substrate for immunodiagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Tewari, Rupinder; Bajpai, Ram Prakash; Bharadwaj, Lalit Mohan; Raiteri, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    We report a method for immobilizing mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) on polylysine-coated glass substrate for immunodiagnostic applications. Mouse IgG molecules were immobilized on polylysine-coated glass substrate employing 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and protein A. The amino groups of the polylysine-coated glass slide were cross linked to the carboxyl groups of protein A employing EDC crosslinker. Protein A was employed as it binds to the constant Fc region of antibodies keeping their antigen binding sites on the variable F ab region free to bind to antigens. The qualitative analysis of surface immobilized mouse IgG was done by fluorescent microscopy employing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled mouse IgG molecules. The immobilization densities of protein A and mouse IgG were determined by 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) substrate assay employing horse radish peroxidise labelled molecules and were found to be 130 +/- 17 ng/cm2 and 596 +/- 31 ng/cm2 respectively. The biomolecular coatings analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were found to be uniform.

  14. Distinguishing shocked from tectonically deformed quartz by the use of the SEM and chemical etching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gratz, A.J.; Fisler, D.K.; Bohor, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple sets of crystallographically-oriented planar deformation features (PDFs) are generated by high-strain-rate shock waves at pressures of > 12 GPa in naturally shocked quartz samples. On surfaces, PDFs appear as narrow (50-500 nm) lamellae filled with amorphosed quartz (diaplectic glass) which can be etched with hydrofluoric acid or with hydrothermal alkaline solutions. In contrast, slow-strain-rate tectonic deformation pressure produces wider, semi-linear and widely spaced arrays of dislocation loops that are not glass filled. Etching samples with HF before examination in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for unambiguous visual distinction between glass-filled PDFs and glass-free tectonic deformation arrays in quartz. This etching also reveals the internal 'pillaring' often characteristic of shock-induced PDFs. This technique is useful for easily distinguishing between shock and tectonic deformation in quartz, but does not replace optical techniques for characterizing the shock features.

  15. Conductive stability of graphene on PET and glass substrates under blue light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xueying; Liu, Xianming; Li, Xiangdi; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Electrical properties of graphene transparent conductive film under visible light irradiation are investigated. The CVD-grown graphene on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates for flexible and rigid touch screen display application are chosen for research. The resistances of graphene with and without gold trichloride (AuCl3) doping are measured in vacuum and atmosphere environment under blue light irradiation. Results show that the conductivities of all samples change slowly under light irradiation. The change rate and degree are related to the substrate material, doping, environment and lighting power. Graphene on flexible PET substrate is more stable than that on rigid glass substrate. Doping can improve the electrical conductivity but induce instability under light irradiation. Finally, the main reason resulting in the graphene resistance slowly increasing under blue light irradiation is analyzed.

  16. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  17. Effect of tacticity on the structure and glass transition temperature of polystyrene adsorbed onto solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negash, Solomon; Tatek, Yergou B.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out atomistic (all-atom) molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of tacticity on the structure and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polystyrene (PS) thin films adsorbed on two distinct types of solid substrates. The systems consist of thin films made of atactic, isotactic, and syndiotactic PS chains supported by graphite or hydroxylated α-quartz substrates, which are known to be atomically flat but chemically and structurally different. We have observed a marked dependence of the film structure on substrate type as well as on tacticity. For instance, rings' orientation near substrate surfaces depends on substrate type for atactic PS and isotactic PS films, while no such dependence is observed for syndiotactic PS films whose interfacial structure seems to result from their propensity to adopt the trans conformation rather than their specific interaction with the substrates. Moreover, our results indicate that glass transition temperatures of substrate supported polystyrene films are higher compared to those of the corresponding free-standing films. More specifically, PS films on graphite exhibit larger Tg values than those on α-quartz, and we have noticed that syndiotactic PS has the largest Tg irrespective of the substrate type. Furthermore, the local Tg in the region of the film in contact with the substrates shows a strong tacticity and substrate dependence, whereas no dependencies were found for the local Tg in the middle of the film. Substrate-film interaction energy and chains' dynamics near substrate-film interfaces were subsequently investigated in order to substantiate the obtained Tgs, and it was found that films with higher Tgs are strongly adsorbed on the substrates and/or exhibit smaller interfacial chains' dynamics essentially due to steric hindrance.

  18. Growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on silicon and quartz substrate by spray pyrolysis of a natural precursor: Turpentine oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afre, Rakesh A.; Soga, T.; Jimbo, T.; Kumar, Mukul; Ando, Y.; Sharon, M.

    2005-10-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were grown by spray pyrolysis of turpentine oil and ferrocene mixture at 700 °C. Using this simple method, we report the successful growth of vertically aligned nanotubes of 300 μm length and diameter in the range of 50-100 nm on Si(1 0 0) substrate. The ferrocene act as an in situ Fe catalyst precursor and forming the nanosize iron particles for formation of VACNTs on Si and quartz substrates. Morphological differences between aligned carbon nanotubes grown on different substrates are studied and discussed by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy characterizations.

  19. Investigations of YBa2Cu3O y films sputtered onto a substrate of amorphous quartz with a platinum buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, Yu. V.; Snigirev, O. V.; Porokhov, N. V.; Evlashin, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of investigations using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of composite materials made from YBa2Cu3O y films sputtered (using various regimes) onto a substrate of amorphous quartz with a platinum buffer layer, have been given.

  20. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  1. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  2. High extinction ratio terahertz wire-grid polarizers with connecting bridges on quartz substrates.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, John S; Vangala, Shivashankar; Zhang, Weidong; Pfeiffer, Carl; Brown, Elliott R; Guo, Junpeng

    2017-03-01

    A terahertz (THz) wire-grid polarizer with metallic bridges on a quartz substrate was simulated, fabricated, and tested. The device functions as a wide-band polarizer to incident THz radiation. In addition, the metallic bridges permit the device to function as a transparent electrode when a DC bias is applied to it. Three design variations of the polarizer with bridges and a polarizer without bridges were studied. Results show the devices with bridges have average s-polarization transmittance of less than -3  dB and average extinction ratios of approximately 40 dB across a frequency range of 220-990 GHz and thus are comparable to a polarizer without bridges.

  3. Coating extracellular matrix proteins on a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass substrate for improved cell culture.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hiro-taka; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Harada, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass surface is superior to an untreated glass surface for coating with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins when used as a cell culture substrate to observe cell physiology and behavior. We found that MDCK cells cultured on untreated glass coated with ECM removed the coated ECM protein and secreted different ECM proteins. In contrast, the cells did not remove the coated ECM protein when seeded on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated (i.e., silanized) glass coated with ECM. Furthermore, the morphology and motility of cells grown on silanized glass differed from those grown on non-treated glass, even when both types of glass were initially coated with laminin. We also found that cells on silanized glass coated with laminin had higher motility than those on silanized glass coated with fibronectin. Based on our results, we suggest that silanized glass is a more suitable cell culture substrate than conventional non-treated glass when coated by ECM for observations of ECM effects on cell physiology.

  4. Shocked Quartz Aggregates of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary at Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Shock-metamorphosed quartz (i.e., shocked quartz) at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (K/T) at Colorado [1,2] reveals the following mineralogical data by X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution electron micrograph with energy- dispersive spectrometry. 1. Shocked quartz is not normal (perfect crystalline) quartz mineral but various quartz aggregates that show relatively low X-ray intensity (i.e., imperfect crystalline) and shock lamellae with crystalline quartz and amorphous glass [3]. 2. Analytical electron micrographs indicate that crystalline quartz silica with spotty dislocation features is included in dendritic amorphous glasses of potassium (K) feldspar composition. Various compositions of glassy materials are found in shocked quartz aggregates as matrix or alternate shock lamellae, which is important to estimate the target rock of impact. The composition of glassy matrix is dendritic K-feldspar in the K/T boundary at Clear Creak North (CCN), Colorado, whereas that in the Barringer Crater is quartz-rich composition from the target rock of sandstone (or some mixture with iron meteorite), and that in artificial impact rock [3] is dendritic silica composition. It is found in this study that shocked quartz aggregates from the CCN K/T boundary samples are supplied from quartz and K-feldspar-bearing target rock at impact event (Table 1). Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the compositions, texture, and origin of shocked quartz aggregates. References: [1] Alvarez L. W. et al. (1980) Science, 208, 1095-1107. [2] Izett G. (1989) GSA Spec. Pap. 249, 1-194. [3] Miura Y. (1991) Shock Waves, 1, 35-41, Springer-Verlag.

  5. Densification behavior of ceramic and crystallizable glass materials constrained on a rigid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calata, Jesus N.

    2005-11-01

    Constrained sintering is an important process for many applications. The sintering process almost always involves some form of constraint, both internal and external, such as rigid particles, reinforcing fibers and substrates to which the porous body adheres. The densification behavior of zinc oxide and cordierite-base crystallizable glass constrained on a rigid substrate was studied to add to the understanding of the behavior of various materials undergoing sintering when subjected to external substrate constraint. Porous ZnO films were isothermally sintered at temperatures between 900°C and 1050°C. The results showed that the densification of films constrained on substrates is severely reduced. This was evident in the sintered microstructures where the particles are joined together by narrower necks forming a more open structure, instead of the equiaxed grains with wide grain boundaries observed in the freestanding films. The calculated activation energies of densification were also different. For the density range of 60 to 64%, the constrained film had an activation energy of 391 +/- 34 kJ/mole compared to 242 +/- 21 kJ/mole for the freestanding film, indicating a change in the densification mechanism. In-plane stresses were observed during the sintering of the constrained films. Yielding of the films, in which the stresses dropped slight or remained unchanged, occurred at relative densities below 60% before the stresses climbed linearly with increasing density followed by a gradual relaxation. A substantial amount of the stresses remained after cooling. Free and constrained films of the cordierite-base crystallizable glass (glass-ceramic) were sintered between 900°C and 1000°C. The substrate constraint did not have a significant effect on the densification rate but the constrained films eventually underwent expansion. Calculations of the densification activation energy showed that, on average, it was close to 1077 kJ/mole, the activation energy of the glass

  6. Electrical transport properties of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes aligned on ST-cut quartz substrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A method is introduced to isolate and measure the electrical transport properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) aligned on an ST-cut quartz, from room temperature down to 2 K. The diameter and chirality of the measured SWNTs are accurately defined from Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A significant up-shift in the G-band of the resonance Raman spectra of the SWNTs is observed, which increases with increasing SWNTs diameter, and indicates a strong interaction with the quartz substrate. A semiconducting SWNT, with diameter 0.84 nm, shows Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and Coulomb blockade behaviors at low temperatures. Another semiconducting SWNT, with a thinner diameter of 0.68 nm, exhibits a transition from the semiconducting state to an insulating state at low temperatures. These results elucidate some of the electrical properties of SWNTs in this unique configuration and help pave the way towards prospective device applications. PMID:25170326

  7. Progress In The Commercialization Of A Carbonaceous Solar Selective Absorber On A Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, John D.; Haiad, J. Carlos; Averett, Anthony J.

    1987-11-01

    A carbonaceous solar selective absorber is formed on a glass substrate by coating the glass with a silver infrared reflecting layer, electroplating a thin nickel catalyst coating on the silver using very special plating conditions, and then exposing the nickel coated, silvered glass substrate to acetylene at a temperature of about 400 - 500°C for about five minutes. A fairly large plater and conveyor oven have been constructed and operated for the formation of these solar selective absorbers in order to study the formation of this absorber by a process which might be used commercially. Samples of this selective absorber on a glass substrate have been formed using the plater and conveyor oven. The samples, which have the best optical properties, have an absorptance of about 0.9 and an emittance of about 0.03. Excessive decomposition of the acetylene by the walls of the oven at higher temperatures with certain wall materials and oven geometries can prevent the formation of good selective absorbers. Procedures for preventing excessive decomposition of the acetylene and the knowledge gained so far by these studies is discussed.

  8. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    DOEpatents

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2003-05-06

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  9. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    DOEpatents

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Harju, Karen M.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2005-07-19

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  10. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  11. Magneto-optic evaluation of antiferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated on a quartz substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Srinath; Panmand, Rajendra; Kumar, Ganapathy; Mahajan, Satish M.; Kale, Bharat B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a prima facie study of the magneto-optic response of antiferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated on a quartz substrate investigated by MOKE. The concentrations of the iron oxide nanoparticles in the films were varied from 8.6% to 21.5% and showed a linear increase in film thicknesses. As the concentration of the iron oxide nanoparticles were increased, the samples changed from a net-like morphology to a crystalline morphology. Magnetization reversals in the lower concentration samples were asymmetric with the reversals for the ascending and descending branch of the hysteresis loop occurring on the same side. The asymmetry in the magnetization reversal was attributed to the angle between the antiferromagnetic easy axis and the external magnetic field. With increase in concentration, an improvement in the magneto-optic response was observed with the magnetization reversal occurring via coherent rotation for both ascending and descending branches of the hysteresis loop. The changes in the magneto-optic behavior for the samples with higher concentrations is attributed to the strong exchange interactions and changes in the shape of the nanoparticles. Sensitivity studies performed on the samples showed an increased magneto-optic sensitivity to changes in magnetic field for samples of higher concentration. The high sensitivity of these samples could be exploited in magneto-optic sensors. Nanoparticles on a quartz substrate could find applications in bio-medicine due to their bio-compatibility.

  12. Pentacene Organic Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Paper and Glass Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    FEB 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pentacene organic thin - film transistors on flexible...Nanotechnology 25 (2014) 094005 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/25/9/094005 Pentacene organic thin - film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Adam T...organic thin - film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on several types of flexible substrate: commercial photo paper, ultra-smooth specialty paper and

  13. Peptide synthesis on glass substrate using acoustic droplet ejector.

    PubMed

    Youngki Choe; Shih-Jui Chen; Eun Sok Kim

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a 9-mers-long peptide ladder structure of glycine on a modified glass surface using a nanoliter droplet ejector. To synthesize peptide on a glass substrate, SPOT peptide synthesis protocol was followed with a nozzleless acoustic droplet ejector being used to eject about 300 droplets of preactivated amino acid solution to dispense 60 nL of the solution per mer. The coupling efficiency of each mer was measured with FITC fluorescent tag to be 96%, resulting in net 70% efficiency for the whole 9-mer-long peptide of glycine. Usage of a nanoliter droplet ejector for SPOT peptide synthesis increases the density of protein array on a chip.

  14. Superhydrophilic nanopillar-structured quartz surfaces for the prevention of biofilm formation in optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Soo; Ji, Seungmuk; Abdullah, Abdullah; Kim, Duckil; Lim, Hyuneui; Lee, Donghyun

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation on optical devices such as contact lenses, optical glasses, endoscopic devices, and microscopic slides and lenses are major concerns in the field of medicine and biomedical engineering. To solve these problems, here we present the first report of superhydrophilic transparent nanopillar-structured surfaces with bactericidal properties. To construct bactericidal surfaces, we imitated a topological mechanism found in nature in which nanopillar-structured surfaces cause a mechanical disruption of the outer cell membranes of bacteria, resulting in bacterial cell death. We used nanosphere lithography to fabricate nanopillars with various sharpnesses and heights on a quartz substrate. Water contact angle and light reflectance measurements revealed superhydrophilic, antifogging and antireflective properties, which are important for use in optical devices. To determine bactericidal efficiency, the fabricated surfaces were incubated and tested against two Gram-negative bacteria associated with biofilm formation and various diseases in humans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The highest bactericidal activity was achieved with nanopillars that measured 300 nm in height and 10 nm in apex diameter. Quartz substrates patterned with such nanopillars killed ∼38,000 P. aeruginosa and ∼27,000 E. coli cells cm-2 min-1, respectively. Thus, the newly designed nanopillar-structured bactericidal surfaces are suitable for use in the development of superhydrophilic and transparent optical devices.

  15. Enhanced transparency, mechanical durability, and antibacterial activity of zinc nanoparticles on glass substrate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jin-Seok; Park, Byeong-Ju; Eom, Ji-Ho; Heo, So-Young; Jung, Min-Wook; An, Ki-Seok; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneously distributed zinc nanoparticles (NPs) on the glass substrate were investigated for the transmittance, mechanical durability, and antibacterial effect. The buffered Ti NPs between Zn NPs and glass substrate were studied for an enhancement of the transmittance and mechanical endurance. The Ti NPs buffered Zn NPs showed a high transmittance of approximately 91.5% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a strong antibacterial activity for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The buffered Ti NPs are attractive for an excellent mechanical endurance of the Zn NPs. The Zn NPs did not require the protection layer to prevent the degradation of the performance for both the antibacterial effect and the transmittance. PMID:25183360

  16. Improving the properties of zinc oxide thin-film surface acoustic wave device on glass substrate by introducing double alumina layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yi-Fan; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films with c-axis (0002) orientation have been successfully grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Al2O3/glass substrates. The alumina films were firstly deposited on glass substrates, and then secondly deposited on interdigital transducer/ZnO film/alumina film/glass substrates by electron beam evaporation. The crystalline structure and surface roughness of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The phase velocity and coupling coefficient of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) device were both increased when we deposited the double alumina layers. On the other hand, the temperature coefficient of frequency becomes better if we increase the thickness of the lower alumina film. The experimental result is beneficial for improving the performance of the ZnO thin-film SAW devices on inexpensive glass substrates.

  17. Determining pre-eruptive compositions of late Paleozoic magma from kaolinized volcanic ashes: Analysis of glass inclusions in quartz microphenocrysts from tonsteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, James D.; Congdon, Roger D.; Lyons, Paul C.

    1995-02-01

    Glass inclusions in quartz microphenocrysts were analyzed for major and minor elements by electron microprobe and H, Li, Be, B, Rb, Sr, Y, Nb, Mo, Sn, Cs, Ce, Th, and U by ion microprobe. The phenocrysts and inclusions occur as fresh relicts in about eleven strongly kaolinized, air-fall volcanic ash units (tonsteins) that outcrop in five states located in the central Appalachian basin; the ashes were erupted during the Pennsylvanian. Even though the whole-rock tonstein samples are extremely altered, the glass trapped in quartz microphenocrysts preserves pre-eruptive melt compositions, and, consequently, the inclusions are useful for determining compositions of source magmas and identifying geochemical trends indicative of magmatic evolution. Interpretation of inclusion compositions indicates the strongly altered tonsteins were derived from potassium-enriched, metaluminous to mildly peraluminous magma(s). The tonsteins can be divided into two groups on the basis of trapped melt compositions: older tonsteins that have inclusions with high Sr and normative quartz contents and comparatively low concentrations of U, Th, Rb, Y, Cs, Nb, F, and Cl (±Be) and younger tonsteins whose inclusions contain low Sr and normative quartz and high concentrations of U, Th, Rb, Y, Cs, Nb, F, and Cl (±Be). In general, as concentrations of Sr decreased, the magmatic abundances of Rb, Y, Cs, Nb, U, Th, Cl, and F (±Be) increased. The associated magma or magmas were highly evolved, volatile enriched, and contained Rb, Nb, and Y abundances characteristic of continental within-plate granites; compositions ranged from high-silica rhyolite to topaz rhyolite. Pre-eruptive volatile abundances in the source magma(s) were generally high but also highly variable. Chlorine contents of melt(s) ranged from 0.02-0.23 wt%, and F ranged from 0.01-0.7 wt%. Concentrations of H 2O in melt(s) ranged from 1.6-6.5 wt%. The high pre-eruptive H 2O contents are consistent with large eruptive volumes indicating

  18. Evidence of a Love wave bandgap in a quartz substrate coated with a phononic thin layer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Ting-Wei; Wu, Tsung-Tsong, E-mail: wutt@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Yu-Ching

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Love wave propagation in a micro-fabricated phononic crystal (PC) structure consisting of a 2D, periodically etched silica film deposited on a quartz substrate. The dispersion characteristics of Love waves in such a phononic structure were analyzed with various geometric parameters by using complex band structure calculations. For the experiment, we adopted reactive-ion etching with electron-beam lithography to fabricate a submicrometer phononic structure. The measured results exhibited consistency with the numerical prediction. The results of this study may serve as a basis for developing PC-based Love wave devices.

  19. Bonding strength of glass-ceramic trabecular-like coatings to ceramic substrates for prosthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Baino, Francesco; Pugno, Nicola M; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    A new approach based on the concepts of quantized fracture mechanics (QFM) is presented and discussed in this paper to estimate the bonding strength of trabecular-like coatings, i.e. glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the architecture of cancellous bone, to ceramic substrates. The innovative application of glass-derived scaffolds as trabecular-like coatings is proposed in order to enhance the osteointegration of prosthetic ceramic devices. The scaffolds, prepared by polymeric sponge replication, are joined to alumina substrates by a dense glass-ceramic coating (interlayer) and the so-obtained 3-layer constructs are investigated from micro-structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoints. In particular, the fracture strengths of three different crack propagation modes, i.e. glass-derived scaffold fracture, interface delamination or mixed fracture, are predicted in agreement with those of experimental mechanical tests. The approach proposed in this work could have interesting applications towards an ever more rational design of bone tissue engineering biomaterials and coatings, in view of the optimization of their mechanical properties for making them actually suitable for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Substrate temperature controls molecular orientation in two-component vapor-deposited glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, J.; Walters, D. M.; Zhou, D.; ...

    2016-02-22

    Vapor-deposited glasses can be anisotropic and molecular orientation is important for organic electronics applications. In organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), for example, the orientation of dye molecules in two-component emitting layers significantly influences emission efficiency. Here we investigate how substrate temperature during vapor deposition influences the orientation of dye molecules in a model two-component system. We determine the average orientation of a linear blue light emitter 1,4-di-[4-( N,N-diphenyl)amino]styrylbenzene (DSA-Ph) in mixtures with aluminum-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq 3) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and IR dichroism. We find that molecular orientation is controlled by the ratio of the substrate temperature during deposition and the glassmore » transition temperature of the mixture. Furthermore, these findings extend recent results for single component vapor-deposited glasses and suggest that, during vapor deposition, surface mobility allows partial equilibration towards orientations preferred at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid.« less

  1. High quality-factor quartz tuning fork glass probe used in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Yanhao; Shimizu, Yuki; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a high quality-factor (Q-factor) quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a glass probe attached, used in frequency modulation tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the surface profile metrology of micro and nanostructures. Unlike conventionally used QTFs, which have tungsten or platinum probes for tapping mode AFM, and suffer from a low Q-factor influenced by the relatively large mass of the probe, the glass probe, which has a lower density, increases the Q-factor of the QTF probe unit allowing it to obtain better measurement sensitivity. In addition, the process of attaching the probe to the QTF with epoxy resin, which is necessary for tapping mode AFM, is also optimized to further improve the Q-factor of the QTF glass probe. The Q-factor of the optimized QTF glass probe unit is demonstrated to be very close to that of a bare QTF without a probe attached. To verify the effectiveness and the advantages of the optimized QTF glass probe unit, the probe unit is integrated into a home-built tapping mode AFM for conducting surface profile measurements of micro and nanostructures. A blazed grating with fine tool marks of 100 nm, a microprism sheet with a vertical amplitude of 25 µm and a Fresnel lens with a steep slope of 90 degrees are used as measurement specimens. From the measurement results, it is demonstrated that the optimized QTF glass probe unit can achieve higher sensitivity as well as better stability than conventional probes in the measurement of micro and nanostructures.

  2. Design and fabrication of directional diffractive device on glass substrate for multiview holographic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanfeng; Cai, Zhijian; Liu, Quan; Zou, Wenlong; Guo, Peiliang; Wu, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Multiview holographic 3D display based on the nano-grating patterned directional diffractive device can provide 3D images with high resolution and wide viewing angle, which has attracted considerable attention. However, the current directional diffractive device fabricated on the photoresist is vulnerable to damage, which will lead to the short service life of the device. In this paper, we propose a directional diffractive device on glass substrate to increase its service life. In the design process, the period and the orientation of the nano-grating at each pixel are carefully calculated accordingly by the predefined position of the viewing zone, and the groove parameters are designed by analyzing the diffraction efficiency of the nano-grating pixel on glass substrate. In the experiment, a 4-view photoresist directional diffractive device with a full coverage of pixelated nano-grating arrays is efficiently fabricated by using an ultraviolet continuously variable spatial frequency lithography system, and then the nano-grating patterns on the photoresist are transferred to the glass substrate by combining the ion beam etching and the reactive ion beam etching for controlling the groove parameters precisely. The properties of the etched glass device are measured under the illumination of a collimated laser beam with a wavelength of 532nm. The experimental results demonstrate that the light utilization efficiency is improved and optimized in comparison with the photoresist device. Furthermore, the fabricated device on glass substrate is easier to be replicated and of better durability and practicability, which shows great potential in the commercial applications of 3D display terminal.

  3. Direct deposition of silver nanoplates on quartz surface by sequence pre-treatment hydroxylation and silanisation.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Norhayati; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Ali Umar, Akrajas; Shapter, Joseph George

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles deposited on quartz substrates are widely used as SERS substrates. The nanoparticles can be deposited directly from colloidal solution by dipping technique. However, the adhesion of the particles on the quartz surface is very poor. Normally the substrate is pre-treated with hydroxylation or silanisation process. In this paper, we have demonstrated that the application of the sequence pre-treatment hydroxylation and silanisation have improved the density of silver nanoplates desposited on the quartz surface. •Sequence hydroxylation and silanisation pre-treatment assists the deposition of the nanoplate on the surface.•Various immersion times of the quartz surface into the colloidal nanoplates determined size distributions and density surface of the nanoplates on the surface.

  4. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, Richard M.; Tuthill, Clinton D.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

  5. Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

    2003-05-01

    An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages ofmore » delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.« less

  6. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): Deep Fluid Sampling in Fractured Quartz, Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, R. J.; Reed, M. H.; Grist, H. R.; Fridriksson, T.; Danielsen, P.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    In July of 2011 a fluid inclusion tool (FIT) was deployed in well RN-17b of the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland, with the goal of sampling fluids in situ at the deepest feed point in the well. The tool consists of a perforated stainless steel pipe containing eight stainless steel mesh canisters, each loaded with 10mm-scale blocks of thermally fractured quartz. Except for one control canister, in each canister the fractured quartz blocks were surrounded by a different grain size of SiO¬2 glass that ranged in size from 10μm-scale glass wool to cm-scale glass shards. The FIT was left in the well on a wireline at a depth of 2768m and retrieved after three weeks. The fluid at 2768m depth is known from November 2010 well logs to have a temperature of about 330°C and pressure of 170 bars, a pressure ~40 bar too high for boiling at that temperature. After retrieval, quartz in all of the canisters contained liquid-dominated fluid inclusions, but their quantity and size differed by canister. Groups of inclusions occur in healed fractures and both healed and open fracture surfaces are visible within single quartz blocks. Measurements on a heating and cooling stage yield approximant inclusion homogenization temperatures of 332°C and freezing points of -2.0°C. These measurements and a pressure of 170 bars yield trapping temperatures of 335°C and a NaCl weight percent of 3.4, both of which match known values, thus verifying that the device trapped fluids as intended. In upcoming studies, these fluids will be analyzed using bulk methods and LA-ICP-MS on individual inclusions. The glass added to the quartz blocks in the canisters allowed the Reykjanes fluids to precipitate enough quartz to heal fractures and trap fluids despite the fluid undersaturation in quartz. Almost all of the glass that was added to the canisters, 27 to 66 grams in each (except glass wool), was consumed in the experiment. Remaining glass was in the non-mesh bottom caps of the canisters where fluid

  7. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  8. Laser welding of pre-functionalized glass substrates: a fabrication and chemical stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, R. R.; Reuvekamp, S.; Zuilhof, H.; Blom, M. T.; Vrouwe, E. X.

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature bonding of glass substrates is of great interest in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing, and we study how laser welding could be used for this. This technology allows for the modification of glass channels with temperature-sensitive materials prior to bonding. We study the effects of the welding process by investigation of the thermal degradation of a biotin monolayer and whether it retains the ability to conjugate with fluorescently-labelled streptavidin.

  9. Seebeck coefficient of synthesized Titanium Dioxide thin film on FTO glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usop, R.; Hamed, N. K. A.; Megat Hasnan, M. M. I.; Ikeda, H.; Sabri, M. F. M.; Ahmad, M. K.; Said, S. M.; Salleh, F.

    2018-04-01

    In order to fabricate a thermoelectric device on glass substrate for harvesting waste heat energy through house appliances, the Seebeck coefficient of translucent TiO2 thin film was investigated. The TiO2 thin film was synthesized by using hydrothermal method with F-SnO2 coated glass as substrate. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, the synthesized TiO2 thin film was found to be in nanometer-scale rod structure with a thickness of 4 µm. The Seebeck coefficient was measured in the temperature range of 300 – 400 K. The Seebeck coefficient is found to be in negative value which shows that synthesized film is an n-type semiconductor material, and is lower than the value of bulk-size material. This reduction in Seebeck coefficient of TiO2 thin film is likely due to the low dimensional effect and the difference of carrier concentration.

  10. Evaluating the critical strain energy release rate of bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates after degradation.

    PubMed

    Matinmanesh, A; Li, Y; Nouhi, A; Zalzal, P; Schemitsch, E H; Towler, M R; Papini, M

    2018-02-01

    It has been reported that the adhesion of bioactive glass coatings to Ti6Al4V reduces after degradation, however, this effect has not been quantified. This paper uses bilayer double cantilever (DCB) specimens to determine G IC and G IIC , the critical mode I and mode II strain energy release rates, respectively, of bioactive coating/Ti6Al4V substrate systems degraded to different extents. Three borate-based bioactive glass coatings with increasing amounts of incorporated SrO (0, 15 and 25mol%) were enamelled onto Ti6Al4V substrates and then immersed in de-ionized water for 2, 6 and 24h. The weight loss of each glass composition was measured and it was found that the dissolution rate significantly decreased with increasing SrO content. The extent of dissolution was consistent with the hypothesis that the compressive residual stress tends to reduce the dissolution rate of bioactive glasses. After drying, the bilayer DCB specimens were created and subjected to nearly mode I and mode II fracture tests. The toughest coating/substrate system (one composed of the glass containing 25mol% SrO) lost 80% and 85% of its G IC and G IIC , respectively, in less than 24h of degradation. The drop in G IC and G IIC occurred even more rapidly for other coating/substrate systems. Therefore, degradation of borate bioactive glass coatings is inversely related to their fracture toughness when coated onto Ti6A4V substrates. Finally, roughening the substrate was found to be inconsequential in increasing the toughness of the system as the fracture toughness was limited by the cohesive toughness of the glass itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Copper-doped waveguides in glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirkova-Hradilova, Jarmila; Tresnakova-Nebolova, Pavlina; Jirka, Ivan; Mach, Karel; Perina, Vratislav; Mackova, Anna; Kuncova, Gabriela

    2001-05-01

    We have studied fabrication and properties of copper ion- exchanged waveguides fabricated in various types of special soda-lime silicate glass as well as commercial optical glass substrates. The ion exchange was performed in melts containing either CuI or CuII at temperatures from 350 degrees C to 500 degrees C for times ranging from 5 minutes to 21 hrs. Optical properties of the fabricated waveguides were studied using mode spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy and composition of the waveguides was determined by SEM, RBS, EPR and ESCA. After the ion exchange the refractive index increased, according to fabrication conditions, up to (Delta) n equals +0.0693 and the guides supported up to 16 TE and TM modes. The CuI $ARLR CuII redox reaction during the fabrication depended strongly on the composition as well as the temperature of the reaction melts. In the Cu2Cl2ZnCl2 melts the oxidation of CuI to CuII was strongly hampered, so that CuI prevailed in the waveguiding region. These samples exhibited the most intensive blue-green luminescence, in spite of those fabricated using the CuII-based reaction melts, where practically no blue-green luminescence was observed. ESCA measurement revealed an easy charge transfer between the both oxidation states of copper in the very surface regions of the samples.

  12. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOEpatents

    Curlee, R.M.; Tuthill, C.D.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-04-23

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals. 2 figures.

  14. Small Particle Impact Damage on Different Glass Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waxman, R.; Guven, I.; Gray, P.

    2017-01-01

    Impact experiments using sand particles were performed on four distinct glass substrates. The sand particles were characterized using the X-Ray micro-CT technique; 3-D reconstruction of the particles was followed by further size and shape analyses. High-speed video footage from impact tests was used to calculate the incoming and rebound velocities of the individual sand impact events, as well as particle volume. Further, video analysis was used in conjunction with optical and scanning electron microscopy to relate the incoming velocity and shape of the particles to subsequent fractures, including both radial and lateral cracks. Analysis was performed using peridynamic simulations.

  15. Fabrication of highly uniform and porous MgF2 anti-reflective coatings by polymer-based sol-gel processing on large-area glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Raut, Hemant Kumar; Dinachali, Saman Safari; Ansah-Antwi, Kwadwo Konadu; Ganesh, V Anand; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-12-20

    Despite recent progress in the fabrication of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) anti-reflective coatings (ARCs), simple, effective and scalable sol-gel fabrication of MgF2 ARCs for large-area glass substrates has prospective application in various optoelectronic devices. In this paper, a polymer-based sol-gel route was devised to fabricate highly uniform and porous MgF2 ARCs on large-area glass substrates. A sol-gel precursor made of polyvinyl acetate and magnesium trifluoroacetate assisted in the formation of uniformly mesoporous MgF2 ARCs on glass substrates, leading to the attainment of a refractive index of ~1.23. Systematic optimization of the thickness of the ARC in the sub-wavelength regime led to achieving ~99.4% transmittance in the case of the porous MgF2 ARC glass. Precise control of the thickness of porous MgF2 ARC glass also resulted in a mere ~0.1% reflection, virtually eliminating reflection off the glass surface at the target wavelength. Further manipulation of the thickness of the ARC on either side of the glass substrate led to the fabrication of relatively broadband, porous MgF2 ARC glass.

  16. Magnetic glass-film based on single-nanosize 𝜺 -Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikiyo, Marie; Namai, Asuka; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2017-05-01

    We report a magnetic thin film of single-nanosize ɛ-Fe2O3 in SiO2 matrix. The glass-film was prepared by sintering a silica coated iron oxide hydroxide on a quartz substrate in air. The glass-film consists of ɛ-Fe2O3 of 8.8 nm size, and its thickness was 570 nm (0.57 μm) with a roughness of 10 nm (0.01 μm). UV-vis spectrum showed that the glass-film has small absorbance of 0.043 at 500 nm. The magneto-optical effect was investigated, and Faraday ellipticity showed a magnetic hysteresis loop with a coercive field of 3.0 ± 0.2 kOe. Furthermore, single-nanosize ɛ-Fe2O3 without silica was prepared as a reference sample, and ferroelectricity was observed. Therefore, the present thin glass-film consists of single-nanosize ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  17. Performance comparison of polarized white light emitting diodes using wire-grid polarizers with polymeric and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jung-Chieh; Chou, Shih-Chieh

    2018-03-01

    Polarized white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) packaged with reflective metal wire-grid polarizer of polymeric and glass substrates were investigated. The performance comparison of polymeric wire-grid polarizer film (WGF) and nano wire-grid polarizer (NWGP) with glass substrate was evaluated. The transverse electric field (TE) polarization transmittance of WGF is less than that of NWGP due to its smaller grid parameters. Despite of the higher duty cycle of WGF, the angular-dependent extinction ratio (ER) of the polarized WLEDs (PWLEDs) with WGF is higher than that of with NWGP. Regarding increasing drive currents, the PWLEDs with NWGP had better color stability than that with WGF due to better substrate thermal stability. In summary, linewidth, period and substrate material are the crucial factors for the PWLED packaging using wire grid polarizer.

  18. Direct Growth of Graphene Films on 3D Grating Structural Quartz Substrates for High-Performance Pressure-Sensitive Sensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefen; Sun, Tai; Yang, Jun; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dacheng; Fang, Liang; Lu, Bin; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-07-06

    Conformal graphene films have directly been synthesized on the surface of grating microstructured quartz substrates by a simple chemical vapor deposition process. The wonderful conformality and relatively high quality of the as-prepared graphene on the three-dimensional substrate have been verified by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra. This conformal graphene film possesses excellent electrical and optical properties with a sheet resistance of <2000 Ω·sq(-1) and a transmittance of >80% (at 550 nm), which can be attached with a flat graphene film on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, and then could work as a pressure-sensitive sensor. This device possesses a high-pressure sensitivity of -6.524 kPa(-1) in a low-pressure range of 0-200 Pa. Meanwhile, this pressure-sensitive sensor exhibits super-reliability (≥5000 cycles) and an ultrafast response time (≤4 ms). Owing to these features, this pressure-sensitive sensor based on 3D conformal graphene is adequately introduced to test wind pressure, expressing higher accuracy and a lower background noise level than a market anemometer.

  19. Anti-reflective coating with a conductive indium tin oxide layer on flexible glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yilin; Malay, Robert E; Wen, Xin; Bezama, Christian N; Soman, Varun V; Huang, Ming-Huang; Garner, Sean M; Poliks, Mark D; Klotzkin, David

    2018-03-20

    Flexible glass has many applications including photovoltaics, organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting, and displays. Its ability to be processed in a roll-to-roll facility enables high-throughput continuous manufacturing compared to conventional glass processing. For photovoltaic, OLED lighting, and display applications, transparent conductors are required with minimal optical reflection losses. Here, we demonstrate an anti-reflective coating (ARC) that incorporates a useful transparent conductor that is realizable on flexible substrates. This reduces the average reflectivity to less than 6% over the visible band from normal incidence to incident angles up to 60°. This ARC is designed by the average uniform algorithm method. The coating materials consist of a multilayer stack of an electrically functional conductive indium tin oxide with conductivity 2.95×10 5   Siemens/m (31 Ω/□), and AlSiO 2 . The coatings showed modest changes in reflectivity and no delamination after 10,000 bending cycles. This demonstrates that effective conductive layers can be integrated into ARCs and can be realized on flexible glass substrates with proper design and process control.

  20. A Fully Integrated Quartz MEMS VHF TCXO.

    PubMed

    Kubena, Randall L; Stratton, Frederic P; Nguyen, Hung D; Kirby, Deborah J; Chang, David T; Joyce, Richard J; Yong, Yook-Kong; Garstecki, Jeffrey F; Cross, Matthew D; Seman, S E

    2018-06-01

    We report on a 32-MHz quartz temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) fully integrated with commercial CMOS electronics and vacuum packaged at wafer level using a low-temperature MEMS-after quartz process. The novel quartz resonator design provides for stress isolation from the CMOS substrate, thereby yielding classical AT-cut f/T profiles and low hysteresis which can be compensated to < ±0.2 parts per million over temperature using on-chip third-order compensation circuitry. The TCXO operates at low power of 2.5 mW and can be thinned to as part of the wafer-level eutectic encapsulation. Full integration with large state-of-the-art CMOS wafers is possible using carrier wafer techniques.

  1. Optical properties of nanocrystalline Y2O3 thin films grown on quartz substrates by electron beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorczyk, Tadeusz; Biegański, Piotr; Serafińczuk, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Yttrium oxide thin films of a thickness 221-341 nm were formed onto quartz substrates by reactive physical vapor deposition in an oxygen atmosphere. An electron beam gun was applied as a deposition source. The effect of substrate temperature during film deposition (in the range of 323-673 K) on film structure, surface morphology and optical properties was investigated. The surface morphology studies (with atomic force microscopy and diffuse spectra reflectivity) show that the film surface was relatively smooth with RMS surface roughness in the range of 1.7-3.8 nm. XRD analysis has revealed that all diffraction lines belong to a cubic Y2O3 structure. The films consisted of small nanocrystals. Their average grain size increases from 1.6 nm to 22 nm, with substrate temperature rising from 323 K to 673 K. Optical examinations of transmittance and reflectance were performed in the spectral range of 0.2-2.5 μm. Optical constants and their dispersion curves were determined. Values of the refractive index of the films were in the range of n = 1.79-1.90 (at 0.55 μm) for substrate temperature during film deposition of 323-673 K. The changes in the refractive index upon substrate temperature correspond very well with the increase in the nanocrystals grain diameter and with film porosity.

  2. Compressibility of one glass and two glass ceramics to 4 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalas, I.; Auret, J. G.; Hart, S.

    1986-05-01

    By monitoring the piston dispacement, up to 4 GPa, in a static high pressure piston-cylinder apparatus the volume compression of Duran 50 glass, Macor machinable glass ceramic and CER-VIT C101 glass ceramic was determined. It was established that the compressibility of Duran 50 increases with pressure up to 4 GPa. The values obtained for CER-VIT C101 indicate that, at about 0.8 GPa, the structure of this material transforms to low quartz.

  3. Constructing honeycomb micropatterns on nonplanar substrates with high glass transition temperature polymers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianyun; Gong, Jianliang; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei; Zhong, Yawen; Ma, Zhi; Svrcek, Vladimir

    2012-08-15

    In Qiao's previous report, only star polymers with T(g) (glass transition temperature) below 48°C were found forming homogeneous honeycomb coatings on the nonplanar substrates. The polymers with high T(g) are believed not able to duplicate nonplanar substrate due to their brittleness. This article presents a comprehensive study on the construction of macroporous polymeric films on various nonplanar substrates with static breath figure (BF) technique, using linear polymers with high T(g). Two kinds of linear polymers with high T(g), polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) and polystyrene without polar end groups, are employed to prepare 3-dimensional macroporous films on different nonplanar substrates. Scanning electronic microscopy views on the side wall in addition to views in-plane prove that polymer films with BF array perfectly replicated the surface features of these substrates. The formation processes of macropores on these substrates are analyzed in detail, and it demonstrates that neither molecular topography nor T(g) of polymers is the critical factor contouring nonplanar substrate. A new hypothesis involving polymer plasticization and conformation during the solvent evaporation is formulated. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft lithography using perfluorinated polyether molds and PRINT technology for fabrication of 3-D arrays on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Kenton B.; Wiles, Natasha S.; Herlihy, Kevin P.; Maynor, Benjamin W.; Rolland, Jason P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2006-03-01

    The fabrication of nanometer size structures and complex devices for microelectronics is of increasing importance so as to meet the challenges of large-scale commercial applications. Soft lithography typically employs elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds to replicate micro- and nanoscale features. However, the difficulties of PDMS for nanoscale fabrication include inherent incompatibility with organic liquids and the production of a residual scum or flash layer that link features where the nano-structures meet the substrate. An emerging technologically advanced technique known as Pattern Replication in Non-wetting Templates (PRINT) avoids both of these dilemmas by utilizing photocurable perfluorinated polyether (PFPE) rather than PDMS as the elastomeric molding material. PFPE is a liquid at room temperature that exhibits low modulus and high gas permeability when cured. The highly fluorinated PFPE material allows for resistance to swelling by organic liquids and very low surface energies, thereby preventing flash layer formation and ease of separation of PFPE molds from the substrates. These enhanced characteristics enable easy removal of the stamp from the molded material, thereby minimizing damage to the nanoscale features. Herein we describe that PRINT can be operated in two different modes depending on whether the objects to be molded are to be removed and harvested (i.e. to make shape specific organic particles) or whether scum free objects are desired which are adhered onto the substrate (i.e. for scum free pattern generation using imprint lithography). The former can be achieved using a non-reactive, low surface energy substrate (PRINT: Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates) and the latter can be achieved using a reactive, low surface energy substrate (PRINT: Pattern Replication in Non-wetting Templates). We show that the PRINT technology can been used to fabricate nano-particle arrays covalently bound to a glass substrate with no scum layer

  5. Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. C.; Man, B. Y.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, C. S.; Liu, M.; Yang, C.; Gao, S. B.; Feng, D. J.; Hu, G. D.; Huang, Q. J.; Chen, X. F.; Zhang, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel method for the direct metal-free growth of graphene on quartz substrate. The direct-grown graphene yields excellent nonlinear saturable absorption properties and is demonstrated to be suitable as a saturable absorber (SA) for an ultrafast solid-state laser. Nearly Fourier-limited 367 fs was obtained at a central wavelength of 1048 nm with a repetition rate of 105.7 MHz. At a pump power of 7.95 W, the average output power was 1.93 W and the highest pulse energy reached 18.3 nJ, with a peak power of 49.8 kW. Our work opens an easy route for making a reliable graphene SA with a mode-locking technique and also displays an exciting prospect in making low-cost and ultrafast lasers.

  6. Germanium-Assisted Direct Growth of Graphene on Arbitrary Dielectric Substrates for Heating Devices

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Ziwen; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao

    Direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates is a prerequsite for the development of graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the current graphene synthesis directly on dielectric substrates always involves metal contamination problem, and the direct production of graphene patterns still remains unattainable and challenging. We propose herein a semiconducting Ge-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to directly grow monolayer graphene on arbitrary dielectric substrates. By pre-patterning of catalytic Ge layer, the graphene with desired pattern can be achieved with extreme ease. Due to the catalysis of Ge, monolayer graphene is able to form on Ge covered dielectric substrates including SiOmore » 2/Si, quartz glass and sapphire substrates. Optimization of the process parameters leads to the complete sublimation of catalytic Ge layer during or immediately after monolayer graphene formation, thus resulting in direct deposition of large-area continuous graphene on dielectric substrates. The large-area, highly conductive graphene synthesized on transparent dielectric substrate using the proposed approach has exhibited wide applications, e.g., in defogger and in thermochromic displays, with both devices possessing excellent performances.« less

  7. Germanium-Assisted Direct Growth of Graphene on Arbitrary Dielectric Substrates for Heating Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Ziwen; Xue, Zhongying; Zhang, Miao; ...

    2017-05-31

    Direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates is a prerequsite for the development of graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the current graphene synthesis directly on dielectric substrates always involves metal contamination problem, and the direct production of graphene patterns still remains unattainable and challenging. We propose herein a semiconducting Ge-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to directly grow monolayer graphene on arbitrary dielectric substrates. By pre-patterning of catalytic Ge layer, the graphene with desired pattern can be achieved with extreme ease. Due to the catalysis of Ge, monolayer graphene is able to form on Ge covered dielectric substrates including SiOmore » 2/Si, quartz glass and sapphire substrates. Optimization of the process parameters leads to the complete sublimation of catalytic Ge layer during or immediately after monolayer graphene formation, thus resulting in direct deposition of large-area continuous graphene on dielectric substrates. The large-area, highly conductive graphene synthesized on transparent dielectric substrate using the proposed approach has exhibited wide applications, e.g., in defogger and in thermochromic displays, with both devices possessing excellent performances.« less

  8. Alteration of architecture of MoO₃ nanostructures on arbitrary substrates: growth kinetics, spectroscopic and gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Illyaskutty, Navas; Sreedhar, Sreeja; Sanal Kumar, G; Kohler, Heinz; Schwotzer, Matthias; Natzeck, Carsten; Pillai, V P Mahadevan

    2014-11-21

    MoO3 nanostructures have been grown in thin film form on five different substrates by RF magnetron sputtering and subsequent annealing; non-aligned nanorods, aligned nanorods, bundled nanowires, vertical nanorods and nanoslabs are formed respectively on the glass, quartz, wafer, alumina and sapphire substrates. The nanostructures formed on these substrates are characterized by AFM, SEM, GIXRD, XPS, micro-Raman, diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A detailed growth model for morphology alteration with respect to substrates has been discussed by considering various aspects such as surface roughness, lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient, of both substrates and MoO3. The present study developed a strategy for the choice of substrates to materialize different types MoO3 nanostructures for future thin film applications. The gas sensing tests point towards using these MoO3 nanostructures as principal detection elements in gas sensors.

  9. Influence of substrate mineralogy on bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate: implications for stone conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-06-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carbonatogenic bacterial community isolated from porous calcarenite stone in a historical building) and direct application of sterile M-3P medium to limestone and sandstone with their own bacterial communities. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 2-dimensional XRD (2D-XRD) analyses revealed that abundant highly oriented calcite crystals formed homoepitaxially on the calcitic substrates, irrespective of the bacterial type. Conversely, scattered spheroidal vaterite entombing bacterial cells formed on the silicate substrates. These results show that carbonate phase selection is not strain specific and that under equal culture conditions, the substrate type is the overruling factor for calcium carbonate polymorph selection. Furthermore, carbonate productivity is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the substrate. Calcitic substrates offer a higher affinity for bacterial attachment than silicate substrates, thereby fostering bacterial growth and metabolic activity, resulting in higher production of calcium carbonate cement. Bacterial calcite grows coherently over the calcitic substrate and is therefore more chemically and mechanically stable than metastable vaterite, which formed incoherently on the silicate substrates. The implications of these results for technological applications of bacterial carbonatogenesis, including building stone conservation, are discussed.

  10. Influence of Substrate Mineralogy on Bacterial Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate: Implications for Stone Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carbonatogenic bacterial community isolated from porous calcarenite stone in a historical building) and direct application of sterile M-3P medium to limestone and sandstone with their own bacterial communities. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 2-dimensional XRD (2D-XRD) analyses revealed that abundant highly oriented calcite crystals formed homoepitaxially on the calcitic substrates, irrespective of the bacterial type. Conversely, scattered spheroidal vaterite entombing bacterial cells formed on the silicate substrates. These results show that carbonate phase selection is not strain specific and that under equal culture conditions, the substrate type is the overruling factor for calcium carbonate polymorph selection. Furthermore, carbonate productivity is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the substrate. Calcitic substrates offer a higher affinity for bacterial attachment than silicate substrates, thereby fostering bacterial growth and metabolic activity, resulting in higher production of calcium carbonate cement. Bacterial calcite grows coherently over the calcitic substrate and is therefore more chemically and mechanically stable than metastable vaterite, which formed incoherently on the silicate substrates. The implications of these results for technological applications of bacterial carbonatogenesis, including building stone conservation, are discussed. PMID:22447589

  11. Crystal Nucleation Using Surface-Energy-Modified Glass Substrates.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Kyle A; Schaab, Kevin M; Sha, Jierui; Bond, Andrew H

    2017-08-02

    Systematic surface energy modifications to glass substrates can induce nucleation and improve crystallization outcomes for small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and proteins. A comparatively broad probe for function is presented in which various APIs, proteins, organic solvents, aqueous media, surface energy motifs, crystallization methods, form factors, and flat and convex surface energy modifications were examined. Replicate studies ( n ≥ 6) have demonstrated an average reduction in crystallization onset times of 52(4)% (alternatively 52 ± 4%) for acetylsalicylic acid from 91% isopropyl alcohol using two very different techniques: bulk cooling to 0 °C using flat surface energy modifications or microdomain cooling to 4 °C from the interior of a glass capillary having convex surface energy modifications that were immersed in the solution. For thaumatin and bovine pancreatic trypsin, a 32(2)% reduction in crystallization onset times was demonstrated in vapor diffusion experiments ( n ≥ 15). Nucleation site arrays have been engineered onto form factors frequently used in crystallization screening, including microscope slides, vials, and 96- and 384-well high-throughput screening plates. Nucleation using surface energy modifications on the vessels that contain the solutes to be crystallized adds a layer of useful variables to crystallization studies without requiring significant changes to workflows or instrumentation.

  12. Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Ke, Kevin; Hasselbrink, Ernest F; Hunt, Alan J

    2005-08-15

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies have long sought a fast, reliable method to overcome the creative limitations of planar fabrication methods, the resolution limits of lithography, and the materials limitations for fast prototyping. In the present work, we demonstrate direct 3D machining of submicrometer diameter, subsurface fluidic channels in glass, via optical breakdown near critical intensity, using a femtosecond pulsed laser. No postexposure etching or bonding is required; the channel network (or almost any arbitrary-shaped cavity below the surface) is produced directly from "art-to-part". The key to this approach is to use very low energy, highly focused, pulses in the presence of liquid. Microbubbles that result from laser energy deposition gently expand and extrude machining debris from the channels. These bubbles are in a highly damped, low Reynolds number regime, implying that surface spalling due to bubble collapse is unimportant. We demonstrate rapid prototyping of three-dimensional "jumpers", mixers, and other key components of complex 3D microscale analysis systems in glass substrates.

  13. Study on Thermochromic VO2 Films Grown on ZnO-Coated Glass Substrates for “Smart Windows”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Song, Pung Keun; Odaka, Hidehumi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2003-10-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one of the most attractive thermochromic materials, which show large changes in optical and electrical properties at the transition temperature (Tt) close to the atmospheric temperature (approximately 340 K). We already reported for VO2 deposition by rf magnetron sputtering using V2O3 or V2O5 targets that VO2 films thicker than 400 nm showed high thermochromic performance, whereas the VO2 films thinner than 200 nm did not show such performance because of their poor crystallinity and off-stoichiometry. In this study, very thin thermochromic VO2 films with thicknesses of about 50 nm were successfully deposited using highly < 001>-preferred oriented ZnO polycrystalline films as a buffer layer between the VO2 film and glass substrate (VO2/ZnO/glass) because of the heteroepitaxial growth of VO2 polycrystalline films. W-doped VO2 films were also deposited on the ZnO-coated glass substrates (ZnO/glass) by cosputtering. It was confirmed that W doping for thin VO2 films deposited on the ZnO/glass can decrease Tt systematically. Such very thin VO2 films should have high potential for application in “smart windows”.

  14. Sealing glass-ceramics with near-linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James J. M.; Dai, Steve

    2016-08-22

    The sequence of crystallization in a recrystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li 2O–SiO 2–Al 2O 3–K 2O–B 2O 3–P 2O 5–ZnO was analyzed by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a two-stage heat-treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a first hold temperature 650°C, followed by heating to a second hold temperature of 810°C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650°C (first hold). Cristobalite crystallized at the second hold temperature of 810°C, growing from the residual glass rather than converting from the Quartz. The coexistence of quartz and cristobalitemore » resulted in a glass-ceramic having a near-linear thermal strain, as opposed to the highly nonlinear glass-ceramic where the cristobalite is the dominant silica crystalline phase. HTXRD was also performed to analyze the inversion and phase stability of the two types of fully crystallized glass-ceramics. While the inversion in cristobalite resembles the character of a first-order displacive phase transformation, i.e., step changes in lattice parameters and thermal hysteresis in the transition temperature, the inversion in quartz appears more diffuse and occurs over a much broader temperature range. Furthermore, localized tensile stresses on quartz and possible solid-solution effects have been attributed to the transition behavior of quartz crystals embedded in the glass-ceramics.« less

  15. Spreading of Emulsions on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2012-11-01

    The wettability of emulsions is an important factor with explicit influence in an extensive variety of industrial applications ranging from the petroleum to food industries. Surprisingly, there is no comprehensive study of emulsion spreading to date; this is due to the complexity of the structure of the emulsions and non-homogeneity of the dispersed phase bubbles in size as well as distribution through the emulsion. The spreading of water/silicone oil emulsions on glass substrates was investigated. The emulsions were prepared with varying volume fractions of water dispersed in silicone oil, with addition of small amounts of surfactant to stabilize the emulsion structure. The time dependent variation of dynamic contact angle, base diameter, and the spreading rate of the droplets of an emulsion are different from a pure substance. The effect of water/silicone oil weight percentage as well as the droplet size and dispersed phase bubble size were also investigated. The weight percentage of water/silicone oil emulsion and droplet size did not have significant influence on the spreading dynamics; however the dispersed phase drop size affected the spreading dynamics substantially.

  16. Evolution of Structural and Electrical Properties of Carbon Films from Amorphous Carbon to Nanocrystalline Graphene on Quartz Glass by HFCVD.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zihao; Shen, Honglie; Chen, Jieyi; Li, Xuemei; Jiang, Ye

    2018-05-23

    Direct growth of graphene films on glass is of great importance but has so far met with limited success. The noncatalytic property of glass results in the low decomposition ability of hydrocarbon precursors, especially at reduced temperatures (<1000 °C), and therefore amorphous carbon (a-C) films are more likely to be obtained. Here, we report the hydrogen influence on the structural and electrical properties of carbon films deposited on quartz glass at 850 °C by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The results revealed that the obtained a-C films were all graphitelike carbon films. Structural transition of the deposited films from a-C to nanocrystalline graphene was achieved by raising the hydrogen dilution ratios from 10 to over 80%. On the basis of systematic structural and chemical characterizations, a schematic process with three steps including sp 2 chain aggregation, aromatic ring formation, and sp 3 bond etching was proposed to interpret the structural evolution. The nanocrystalline graphene films grown on glass by HFCVD exhibited good electrical performance with a carrier mobility of 36.76 cm 2 /(V s) and a resistivity of 5.24 × 10 -3 Ω cm over an area of 1 cm 2 . Temperature-dependent electrical characterizations revealed that the electronic transport in carbon films was dominated by defect, localized, and extended states, respectively, when increasing the temperature from 75 to 292 K. The nanocrystalline graphene films presented higher carrier mobility and lower carrier concentration than those of a-C films, which was mainly attributed to their smaller conductive activation energy. The present investigation provides an effective way for direct growth of graphene films on glass at reduced temperatures and also offers useful insights into the understanding of structural and electrical relationship between a-C and graphene.

  17. Radon gas, useful for medical purposes, safely fixed in quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, P. R.; Stein, L.; Zirin, M. H.

    1966-01-01

    Radon gas is enclosed in quartz or glass ampules by subjecting the gas sealed at a low pressure in the ampules to an ionization process. This process is useful for preparing fixed radon sources for radiological treatment of malignancies, without the danger of releasing radioactive gases.

  18. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors on quartz fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yuta; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yano, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Tomoaki; Fuyuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Toda, Sadayuki; Koaizawa, Hisashi; Mimura, Akio; Suzuki, Kenkichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a thin quartz fiber for the first time. The poly-Si used in the active layer of the TFTs was prepared by excimer laser annealing of an amorphous Si thin film deposited on the fiber. Top-gated TFTs were fabricated on the fiber, and a field effect mobility of 10cm2/Vs was obtained. The proposed TFTs on a thin quartz fiber, named fiber TFTs, have potential application in microelectronic devices using TFTs fabricated on one-dimensional substrates.

  19. Synthesis of Poly-Silicon Thin Films on Glass Substrate Using Laser Initiated Metal Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon for Space Power Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Safe, Husam H.; Naseem, Hameed A.; Brown, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Poly-silicon thin films on glass substrates are synthesized using laser initiated metal induced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. These films can be used to fabricate solar cells on low cost glass and flexible substrates. The process starts by depositing 200 nm amorphous silicon films on the glass substrates. Following this, 200 nm of sputtered aluminum films were deposited on top of the silicon layers. The samples are irradiated with an argon ion cw laser beam for annealing. Laser power densities ranging from 4 to 9 W/cm2 were used in the annealing process. Each area on the sample is irradiated for a different exposure time. Optical microscopy was used to examine any cracks in the films and loss of adhesion to the substrates. X-Ray diffraction patterns from the initial results indicated the crystallization in the films. Scanning electron microscopy shows dendritic growth. The composition analysis of the crystallized films was conducted using Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy. The results of poly-silicon films synthesis on space qualified flexible substrates such as Kapton are also presented.

  20. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  1. Glass Fiber Used in Light Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-05

    narrow pulse width is extended about 4 millimicroseconds/ kilometer, the gallium arsenide emptying into the laser is extended about 0.1...glass for the core forms quartz glass fiber. Possibly the use of the chemical vapour deposition method can make low ref racting glass for the...directly from the vapour phase and reaches a very high optical homogeneity. When the temperature of the high frequency induction plasma flame is very

  2. Efficiency of generation of optical centers in KS-4V and KU-1 quartz glasses at neutron and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamov, A. Kh.; Salikhbaev, U. S.; Ibragimova, E. M.; Nuritdinov, I.; Fayzullaev, B. S.; Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I.

    2013-11-01

    Pure quartz glasses of KS-4V and KU-1 types are candidates for optical plasma diagnostic system in ITER. The purpose of experiment was to study the efficiency of defect production in these glasses under irradiation with 60Со γ-quanta (5.7 Gy/s) dose range of 102-107 Gy and the fission reactor neutrons in the fluency range of 1020-1023 n/m2 and gammas simulating the plasma influence. In KU-1 (1000 ppm OH) the accumulation kinetics of E‧-(5.75 eV) and NBO-(1.9 eV) centers at γ-doses⩾5×105 Gy and neutron fluencies <1021 n/m2 is faster, than that in KS-4V glasses (<0.1 ppm OH) that is caused by rupture of hydrogen bonds. At fluencies >1021 n/m2 the NBO accumulation kinetics is slower in KU-1 than in KS-4B, because highly mobile hydrogen atoms access to the generated NBO centers. In KS-4V irradiated to γ-doses102-5 × 103 Gy a new unstable absorption band at 1.8 eV was found, which is caused by the glass synthesis conditions and alkali metal impurities. The transparency at 3.5-6.2 eV at fluencies 1020-5 × 1021 n/m2 is higher in KS-4V than KU-1. However at fluencies >1021 n/m2 in KS-4V the photoluminescence band at 2.7 eV is more intensive and distorts a diagnosed signal. The transparency in 3.5-1.2 eV at fluencies >1021 n/m2 is higher in KU-1 than KS-4V.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet reflectivity studies of gold on glass and metal substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinsky, Sharon R.; Malina, Roger F.; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of gold from 44 to 920 A at grazing incidence. Gold was deposited using vacuum evaporation and electroplating on substrates of glass and polished nickel, respectively. Measurements are also presented of the extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of electroless nickel in the same wavelength region, where one of the polished nickel substrates was used as a sample. Derived optical constants for evaporated and electroplated gold and electroless nickel are presented. Additional studies of the effects of various contaminants on the EUV reflectivity are also reported. The variations of the optical constants are discussed in terms of density variations, surface roughness and contamination effects. These results ae reported as part of studies for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite program to determine acceptance criteria for the EUV optics, contamination budgets and calibration plans.

  4. Use of Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) as a substrate for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirls, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A substrate for flat plate photovoltaic solar panel arrays using a glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) material was developed. The installed cost of this GRC panel is 30% less than the cost goal of the Near Term Low-Cost Flat Plate Photovoltaic Solar Array Program. The 4 ft by 8 ft panel is fabricated from readily available inexpensive materials, weighs a nominal 190 lbs., has exceptionally good strength and durability properties (rigid and resists weathering), is amenable to mass production and is easily installed on simple mountings. Solar cells are encapsulated in ethylene/vinyl acetate with Tedlar backing and Korad cover film. The laminates are attached to the GRC substrate with acrylic transfer tape and edge sealed with silicone RTV adhesive.

  5. Application of hydrometallurgy techniques in quartz processing and purification: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Lei, Shaomin; Pei, Zhenyu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhangjie; Xie, Feixiang

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on separation and purification of metallic minerals by hydrometallurgy techniques, applications of the chemical techniques in separation and purification of non-metallic minerals are rarely reported. This paper reviews disparate areas of study into processing and purification of quartz (typical non-metallic ore) in an attempt to summarize current work, as well as to suggest potential for future consolidation in the field. The review encompasses chemical techniques of the quartz processing including situations, progresses, leaching mechanism, scopes of application, advantages and drawbacks of micro-bioleaching, high temperature leaching, high temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching. Traditional leaching techniques including micro-bioleaching and high temperature leaching are unequal to demand of modern glass industry for quality of quartz concentrate because the quartz products has to be further processed. High temperature pressure leaching and catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching provide new ways to produce high-grade quartz sand with only one process and lower acid consumption. Furthermore, the catalyzed high temperature pressure leaching realizes effective purification of quartz with extremely low acid consumption (no using HF or any fluoride). It is proposed that, by integrating the different chemical processes of quartz processing and expounding leaching mechanisms and scopes of application, the research field as a monopolized industry would benefit.

  6. Particle shape effect on erosion of optical glass substrates due to microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxman, Rachel; Gray, Perry; Guven, Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    Impact experiments using sand particles and soda lime glass spheres were performed on four distinct glass substrates. Sand particles were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. High-speed video footage from impact tests was used to calculate incoming and rebound velocities of the individual impact events, as well as the particle volume and two-dimensional sphericity. Furthermore, video analysis was used in conjunction with optical and scanning electron microscopy to relate the incoming velocity and particle shape to subsequent fractures, including both radial and lateral cracks. Indentation theory [Marshall et al., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 65, 561-566 (1982)] was applied and correlated with lateral crack lengths. Multi-variable power law regression was performed, incorporating the particle shape into the model and was shown to have better fit to damage data than the previous indentation model.

  7. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Daniel; Conde, Ana; García, Iñaki; Gracia-Escosa, Elena; de Damborenea, Juan J.; Peña, Jose I.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics. PMID:28788311

  8. Quartz cement in sandstones: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Earle F.

    silcretes are chiefly cemented by opal and microcrystalline quartz, whereas water-table silcretes have abundant normal syntaxial quartz overgrowths. Silica for silcrete cements and replacements comes from quartz, silicate minerals, and locally volcanic glass, in alluvium and bedrock.

  9. Developing quartz wafer mold manufacturing process for patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Masaharu; Ishikawa, Mikio; Itoh, Kimio; Kurihara, Masaaki; Hoga, Morihisa

    2009-04-01

    Recently, patterned media have gained attention as a possible candidate for use in the next generation of hard disk drives (HDD). Feature sizes on media are predicted to be 20-25 nm half pitch (hp) for discrete-track media in 2010. One method of fabricating such a fine pattern is by using a nanoimprint. The imprint mold for the patterned media is created from a 150-millimeter, rounded, quartz wafer. The purpose of the process introduced here was to construct a quartz wafer mold and to fabricate line and space (LS) patterns at 24 nmhp for DTM. Additionally, we attempted to achieve a dense hole (HOLE) pattern at 12.5 nmhp for BPM for use in 2012. The manufacturing process of molds for patterned media is almost the same as that for semiconductors, with the exception of the dry-etching process. A 150-millimeter quartz wafer was etched on a special tray made from carving a 6025 substrate, by using the photo-mask tool. We also optimized the quartz etching conditions. As a result, 24 nmhp LS and HOLE patterns were manufactured on the quartz wafer. In conclusion, the quartz wafer mold manufacturing process was established. It is suggested that the etching condition should be further optimized to achieve a higher resolution of HOLE patterns.

  10. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates with glass buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Kurosaki, A.; Kondo, H.; Shimizu, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the magnetic properties of PLD-made Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates, an adoption of a glass buffer layer was carried out. The glass layer could be fabricated under the deposition rate of approximately 70 μm/h on a Si substrate using a Nd-YAG pulse laser in the vacuum atmosphere. The use of the layer enabled us to reduce the Pr content without a mechanical destruction and enhance (BH)max value by approximately 20 kJ/m3 compared with the average value of non-buffer layered Pr-Fe-B films with almost the same thickness. It is also considered that the layer is also effective to apply a micro magnetization to the films deposited on Si ones.

  11. Characterization of Deposits on Glass Substrate as a Tool in Failure Analysis: The Orbiter Vehicle Columbia Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, J. D.; Melroy, P.; McDanels, S.; Wallace, T.; Zapata, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    In connection with the accident investigation of the space shuttle Columbia, an analysis methodology utilizing well established microscopic and spectroscopic techniques was implemented for evaluating the environment to which the exterior fused silica glass was exposed. Through the implementation of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction, details emerged regarding the manner in which a charred metallic deposited layer formed on top of the exposed glass. Due to nature of the substrate and the materials deposited, the methodology proved to allow for a more detailed analysis of the vehicle breakup. By contrast, similar analytical methodologies on metallic substrates have proven to be challenging due to strong potential for error resulting from substrate contamination. This information proved to be valuable to not only those involved in investigating the break up of Columbia, but also provides a potential guide for investigating future high altitude and high energy accidents.

  12. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Meral, Kadem, E-mail: kademm@atauni.edu.tr; Arik, Mustafa, E-mail: marik@tatauni.edu.tr; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasingmore » the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.« less

  13. Characteristics of the Arcing Plasma Formation Effect in Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving of Glass, Based on Machine Vision

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dung-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine vision method is applied to monitor and estimate the status of a SACE-drilled hole in quartz glass. During the machining of quartz glass, the spring-fed tool electrode was pre-pressured on the quartz glass surface to feed the electrode that was in contact with the machining surface of the quartz glass. In situ image acquisition and analysis of the SACE drilling processes were used to analyze the captured image of the state of the spark discharge at the tip and sidewall of the electrode. The results indicated an association between the accumulative size of the SACE-induced spark area and deepness of the hole. The results indicated that the evaluated depths of the SACE-machined holes were a proportional function of the accumulative spark size with a high degree of correlation. The study proposes an innovative computer vision-based method to estimate the deepness and status of SACE-drilled holes in real time. PMID:29565303

  14. Characteristics of the Arcing Plasma Formation Effect in Spark-Assisted Chemical Engraving of Glass, Based on Machine Vision.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Wu, Dung-Sheng

    2018-03-22

    Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine vision method is applied to monitor and estimate the status of a SACE-drilled hole in quartz glass. During the machining of quartz glass, the spring-fed tool electrode was pre-pressured on the quartz glass surface to feed the electrode that was in contact with the machining surface of the quartz glass. In situ image acquisition and analysis of the SACE drilling processes were used to analyze the captured image of the state of the spark discharge at the tip and sidewall of the electrode. The results indicated an association between the accumulative size of the SACE-induced spark area and deepness of the hole. The results indicated that the evaluated depths of the SACE-machined holes were a proportional function of the accumulative spark size with a high degree of correlation. The study proposes an innovative computer vision-based method to estimate the deepness and status of SACE-drilled holes in real time.

  15. Dependence of the quality of adhesion between poly(dimethylsiloxane) and glass surfaces on the conditions of treatment with oxygen plasma.

    PubMed

    Millare, Brent; Thomas, Marlon; Ferreira, Amy; Xu, Hong; Holesinger, Madison; Vullev, Valentine I

    2008-11-18

    Treatment with oxygen-containing plasma is an essential step for the fabrication of devices containing components of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Such oxidative treatment chemically modifies the surface of PDMS allowing it to permanently adhere to glass, quartz, PDMS and other silica-based substrates. Overexposure of PDMS to oxidative gas plasma, however, compromises its adhesiveness. Therefore, regulation of the duration and the conditions of the plasma treatment is crucial for achieving sufficient surface activation without overoxidation. Using a semiquantitative ternary approach, we evaluated the quality of adhesion ( QA) between flat PDMS and glass substrates pretreated with oxygen plasma under a range of different conditions. The quality of adhesion manifested good correlation trends with the surface properties of the pretreated PDMS. Examination of the QA dependence on the treatment duration and on the pressure and the RF power of the plasma revealed a range of oxidative conditions that allowed for permanent adhesion with quantitative yields.

  16. A novel strategy for durable superhydrophobic coating on glass substrate via using silica chains to fix silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qi-Zhang; Fang, Yue-Yun; Liu, Peng-Yi; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Shi, Ji-Fu; Xu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The practical application of superhydrophobic coatings on glass is usually restricted by their poor wear resistance due to the insufficient adhesion. A double-silica-layered structure was proposed to reinforce the coating adhesion on glass substrate. The wettability, surface morphologies, and chemical composition were investigated by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared superhydrophobic coating displays a good wear-resistance by emery paper and sand abrasion, which also has excellent thermal stability and UV resistance. This strategy shows a bright future for durable superhydrophobic coating on glass.

  17. High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Chemical interaction of chalcogenides and some impurities (CS 2, TeO2 ) with the quartz glass at high temperature leads to the thin layers formation...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1523 TITLE: High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides...Materials Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 341 - 349 HIGH-PURITY GLASSES BASED ON ARSENIC CHALCOGENIDES M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S

  18. The peculiarity of the formation of zinc films on a glass substrate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tomaev, V. V., E-mail: tvaza@mail.ru; Saint Petersburg Mining University, Russia, 199106, St. Petersburg, V.O., 21-st line, 2; Polishchuk, V. A., E-mail: vpvova2010@yandex.ru

    2016-06-17

    Thin Nanocrystalline films of the zinc have been fabricated by thermal spraying on the glass substrate. Morphologies and structure of the films had been investigated by the methods X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It is found that the surface of the films has a different types of the nanocrystals zinc. Were detected intergrowths of two or more the nanocrystals, hexagonal shape. Using the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of a new phase, had been evaluated the geometrical and thermodynamic parameters nanocrystals zinc.

  19. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  20. Development of a novel non-contact inspection technique to detect micro cracks under the surface of a glass substrate by thermal stress-induced light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as a chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are important techniques in glass substrate manufacturing. However, these techniques may cause micro cracks under the surface of glass substrates because they used mechanical friction. A stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM), which was combined with light scattering method and mechanical stress effects, was proposed for inspecting surfaces to detect polishing-induced micro cracks. However, in the conventional SILSM, samples need to be loaded with physical contact, and the loading point is invisible in transparent materials. Here, we introduced a novel non-contact SILSM using a heating device. A glass substrate was heated first, and then the light scattering intensity of micro cracks was detected by a cooled charge-couple device camera during the natural cooling process. Results clearly showed during the decreasing surface temperature of a glass substrate, appropriate thermal stress is generated for detecting micro cracks by using the SILSM and light scattering intensity from micro cracks changes. We confirmed that non-contact thermal SILSM (T-SILSM) can detect micro cracks under the surface of transparent materials.

  1. Bioactive glass 13-93 as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Tan, Andrea R; Rahaman, Mohammed N; Bal, B Sonny; Hung, Clark T; Cook, James L

    2011-10-01

    Replacement of diseased areas of the joint with tissue-engineered osteochondral grafts has shown potential in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Bioactive glasses are candidates for the osseous analog of these grafts. (1) Does Bioactive Glass 13-93 (BG 13-93) as a subchondral substrate improve collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in a tissue-engineered cartilage layer? (2) Does BG 13-93 as a culture medium supplement increase the collagen and glycosaminoglycan production and improve the mechanical properties in a tissue-engineered cartilage layer? In Study 1, bioactive glass samples (n = 4) were attached to a chondrocyte-seeded agarose layer to form an osteochondral construct, cultured for 6 weeks, and compared to controls. In Study 2, bioactive glass samples (n = 5) were cocultured with cell-seeded agarose for 6 weeks. The cell-seeded agarose layer was exposed to BG 13-93 either continuously or for the first or last 2 weeks in culture or had no exposure. Osteochondral constructs with a BG 13-93 base had improved glycosaminoglycan deposition but less collagen II content. Agarose scaffolds that had a temporal exposure to BG 13-93 within the culture medium had improved mechanical and biochemical properties compared to continuous or no exposure. When used as a subchondral substrate, BG 13-93 did not improve biochemical properties compared to controls. However, as a culture medium supplement, BG 13-93 improved the biochemical and mechanical properties of a tissue-engineered cartilage layer. BG 13-93 may not be suitable in osteochondral constructs but could have potential as a medium supplement for neocartilage formation.

  2. Interface layer to tailor the texture and surface morphology of Al-doped ZnO polycrystalline films on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2017-06-01

    A 10-nm-thick radio frequency magnetron-sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) showing a texture with a preferential (0001) orientation on amorphous glass substrates was used as an interface layer for tailoring the orientation of 490-nm-thick polycrystalline AZO films subsequently deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 200 °C. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis showed that the resulting 500-nm-thick AZO films showed a texture with a highly preferential c-axis orientation. This showed that DC-magnetron-sputtered AZO films grew along with the orientation matching that of the interface layer, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited on bare glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering exhibited a mixed orientation of the c-plane and other planes. The surface morphology was also improved while retaining the lateral grain size by applying the interface layer as revealed by atomic force microscopy.

  3. Sugar microarray via click chemistry: molecular recognition with lectins and amyloid β (1-42)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Erino; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Miura, Yoshiko

    2009-06-01

    Sugar microarrays were fabricated on various substrates via click chemistry. Acetylene-terminated substrates were prepared by forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold substrate with alkyl-disulfide and on silicon, quartz and glass substrates with a silane-coupling reagent. The gold substrates were subjected to surface plasmon resonance measurements, and the quartz and glass substrates were subjected to spectroscopy measurements and optical microscopy observation. The saccharide-immobilized substrate on the gold substrate showed specific interaction with the corresponding lectin, and the saccharides showed inert surface properties to other proteins with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also focused on the saccharide-protein interaction on protein amyloidosis of Alzheimer amyloid β. Amyloid β peptide showed conformation transition on the saccharide-immobilization substrate into a β-sheet, and fibril formation and amyloid aggregates were found on the specific saccharides.

  4. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Idaho Falls, ID; Hyde, Timothy A [Idaho Falls, ID; Fincke, James R [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  5. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  6. Influences of Indium Tin Oxide Layer on the Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered (BaSr)TiO3 Thin Films on Indium Tin Oxide-Coated Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Song; Oh, Myung Hwan; Kim, Chong Hee

    1993-06-01

    Nearly stoichiometric ((Ba+Sr)/Ti=1.08-1.09) and optically transparent (BaSr)TiO3 thin films were deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by means of rf magnetron sputtering for their application to the insulating layer of an electroluminescent flat panel display. The influence of the ITO layer on the properties of (BaSr)TiO3 thin films deposited on the ITO-coated substrate was investigated. The ITO layer did not affect the crystallographic orientation of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film, but enhanced the grain growth. Another effect of the ITO layer on (BaSr)TiO3 thin films was the interdiffusion phenomenon, which was studied by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As the substrate temperature increased, interdiffusion intensified at the interface not only between the grown film and ITO layer but also between the ITO layer and base glass substrate. The refractive index (nf) of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film deposited on a bare glass substrate was 2.138-2.286, as a function of substrate temperature.

  7. Excellent Brightness with Shortening Lifetime of Textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ Phosphor Films on Quartz Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jehong; Park, Kwangwon; Lee, Jaebum; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Seongsin Margaret; Kung, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Green-emissive textured Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor films were fabricated by the thermal diffusion of ZnO:Mn on quartz glass. The Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor films became textured along several hexagonal directions and their chemical composition was continuously graded at the interface. The decay time of Mn2+ was as short as 4.4 ms, and the optical transition probability of the films defined as the inverse of decay time showed a strong correlation with film texture degree as a function of annealing temperature. The brightest Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ film showed a photoluminescent brightness as high as 65% compared with a commercial Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ phosphor powder screen and a maximum absolute transparency of 70%. These excellent optical properties are explained by the combination of the unique textured structure and continuous grading of the Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ chemical composition at the interface.

  8. Enhanced red photoluminescence of quartz by silicon nanocrystals thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, A.; Pourgolestani, M.; Taheri, M.; Mansour, N.

    2018-03-01

    The room-temperature photoluminescence properties of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) thin film on a quartz substrate were investigated, which presents the red emission enhancement of quartz. We show that the photoluminescence intensity of quartz, in the wavelength range of 640-700 nm, can be enhanced as much as 15-fold in the presence of the SiNCs thin film. Our results reveal that the defect states at the SiNCs/SiO2 interface can be excited more efficiently by indirect excitation via the SiNCs, leading to the prominent red photoluminescence enhancement under the photo-excitation in the range of 440-470 nm. This work suggests a simple pathway to improve silicon-based light emitting devices for photonic applications.

  9. Direct observation of CD4 T cell morphologies and their cross-sectional traction force derivation on quartz nanopillar substrates using focused ion beam technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Won-Yong; Hong, Chang-Hee; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Direct observations of the primary mouse CD4 T cell morphologies, e.g., cell adhesion and cell spreading by culturing CD4 T cells in a short period of incubation (e.g., 20 min) on streptavidin-functionalized quartz nanopillar arrays (QNPA) using a high-content scanning electron microscopy method were reported. Furthermore, we first demonstrated cross-sectional cell traction force distribution of surface-bound CD4 T cells on QNPA substrates by culturing the cells on top of the QNPA and further analysis in deflection of underlying QNPA via focused ion beam-assisted technique.

  10. Simple method of DNA stretching on glass substrate for fluorescence image and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Guru P.; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Lee, Hyunsoo; Guthold, Martin; Joseph, Vincent S.; Hong, Jong-Dal; Kim, Jeongyong

    2013-05-01

    Study of biological molecule DNA has contributed to developing many breaking thoughts and wide applications in multidisciplinary fields, such as genomic, medical, sensing and forensic fields. Stretching of DNA molecules is an important supportive tool for AFM or spectroscopic studies of DNA in a single molecular level. In this article, we established a simple method of DNA stretching (to its full length) that occurred on a rotating negatively-charged surface of glass substrate. The isolation of a single DNA molecule was attained by the two competitive forces on DNA molecules, that is, the electrostatic attraction developed between the positively charged YOYO-1 stained DNA and the negatively charged substrate, and the centrifugal force of the rotating substrate, which separates the DNA aggregates into the single molecule. Density of stretched DNA molecules was controlled by selecting the specific parameters such as spinning time and rates, loading volume of DNA-dye complex solution etc. The atomic force microscopy image exhibited a single DNA molecule on the negatively-charged substrate in an isolated state. Further, the photoluminescence spectra of a single DNA molecule stained with YOYO-1 were achieved using the method developed in the present study, which is strongly believed to effectively support the spectroscopic analysis of DNA in a single molecular level.

  11. Multiferroic YCrO3 thin films grown on glass substrate: Resistive switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeongdae; Ahn, Yoonho; Son, Jong Yeog

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline YCrO3 thin films were deposited on (111) Pt/Ta/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YCrO3 thin films exhibited good ferroelectric properties with remnant polarization of about 5 µC/cm2. Large leakage current was observed by I- V curve and ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The YCrO3 resistive random access memory (RRAM) capacitor showed unipolar switching behaviors with SET and RESET voltages higher than those of general NiO RRAM capacitors. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Preparation of Cobalt-Based Electrodes by Physical Vapor Deposition on Various Nonconductive Substrates for Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yizhen; Wang, Le; Chen, Mingxing; Jin, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Rui

    2017-12-08

    Artificial photosynthesis requires efficient anodic electrode materials for water oxidation. Cobalt metal thin films are prepared through facile physical vapor deposition (PVD) on various nonconductive substrates, including regular and quartz glass, mica sheet, polyimide, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Subsequent surface electrochemical modification by cyclic voltammetry (CV) renders these films active for electrocatalytic water oxidation, reaching a current density of 10 mA cm -2 at a low overpotential of 330 mV in 1.0 m KOH solution. These electrodes are robust with unchanged activity throughout prolonged chronopotentiometry measurements. This work is thus significant to show that the combination of PVD and CV is very valuable and convenient to fabricate active electrodes on various nonconductive substrates, particularly with flexible polyimide and PET substrates. This efficient, safe and convenient method can potentially be expanded to many other electrochemical applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Transfer of graphene onto Pt/Glass substrate for transparent and large area graphene film using low temperature water bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Tengku Norazman Tengku Abd; Rosli, Aimi Bazilah; Yusoff, Marmeezee Mohd; Herman, Sukreen Hana; Zulkifli, Zurita

    2018-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the transfer of graphene at low temperature using water bath. Graphene in water solution (highly opaque) was transferred onto Platinum/Glass (Pt/Glass) substrate and the technique involves no additional chemicals. We obtained high transparency and large area of graphene film that is free of contaminants. The transferred graphene is characterized using FESEM, Raman spectroscopy and I-V measurements. This transfer method enables us to transfer graphene onto ZnO thin film for memristive devices.

  14. Production of glass-ceramics from sewage sludge and waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Petersone, L.; Krage, L.; Drille, M.; Filipenkov, V.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study for recycling of sewage sludge and waste glass from JSC "Valmieras stikla skiedra" treatment of them to the dense glass-ceramic composite material using powder technology is estimated. The physical-chemical properties of composite materials were identified - density 2.19 g/cm3, lowest water absorption of 2.5% and lowest porosity of 5% for the samples obtained in the temperature range of sintering 1120 - 1140 °C. Regarding mineralogical composition of glass-ceramics the following crystalline phases were identified by XRD analysis: quartz (SiO2), anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and hematite (Fe2O3), which could ensure the high density of materials and improve the mechanical properties of material - compressive strength up to 60.31±5.09 - 52.67±19.18 MPa. The physical-chemical properties of novel materials corresponds to dense glass-ceramics composite which eventually could be used as a building material, e.g. for floor covering, road pavement, exterior tiles etc.

  15. Shaping Si, NiCo, and glass substrates via stresses in the coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Ye, Shi; Liu, Tianchen; Assoufid, Lahsen; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Here we report progress toward the fabrication of adaptive or active Si X-ray mirrors via a two step process. The first step is to curve a Si flat and then coat it with Terfenol-D that will allow the shape control via the application of a magnetic field. The goal is to create a mirror whose local (a few mm-length scale) slope can be changed and left for several hours or more. The current work described here was done in on Si to demonstrate the ability to produce the initial curvature, and in parallel, work to on magnetically hard NiCo 5 cm x 5 cm square plus on a glass sample. The glass sample was used a proto-type to model making changes in two different locations on a mirror. The NiCo sample was used to show that a magnetic field can be retained in a magnetically hard substrate such that the magnetically induced stress in the Terfenol-D was able to maintain a deformation for as long as time permitted to make the measurement which was 71 hours.

  16. Enhanced Adhesion of EVA Laminates to Primed Glass Substrates Subjected to Damp-Heat Exposure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of glass-surface priming to promote enhanced adhesion of EVA laminates during damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity. The primary objective was to develop advanced encapsulant formulations by incorporation of various primer formulations that exhibit improved adhesion during damp-heat exposure. Several primer formulations were identified that greatly enhanced the EVA adhesion strength, including to the extent that peeling could not be initiated, even for the laminates of the glass substrate/fast-cure EVA15295P/TPE backsheet (a Tedlar/polyester/EVA tri-laminate) that were exposed in a damp-heat test chamber for more than 750 h. The results show that a synergisticmore » increase in the interfacial hydrophobicity, siloxane density, and cross-linking density are the key attributes to the improvement in the EVA adhesion strength.« less

  17. Quantifying the mode II critical strain energy release rate of borate bioactive glass coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates.

    PubMed

    Matinmanesh, A; Li, Y; Clarkin, O; Zalzal, P; Schemitsch, E H; Towler, M R; Papini, M

    2017-11-01

    Bioactive glasses have been used as coatings for biomedical implants because they can be formulated to promote osseointegration, antibacterial behavior, bone formation, and tissue healing through the incorporation and subsequent release of certain ions. However, shear loading on coated implants has been reported to cause the delamination and loosening of such coatings. This work uses a recently developed fracture mechanics testing methodology to quantify the critical strain energy release rate under nearly pure mode II conditions, G IIC , of a series of borate-based glass coating/Ti6Al4V alloy substrate systems. Incorporating increasing amounts of SrCO 3 in the glass composition was found to increase the G IIC almost twofold, from 25.3 to 46.9J/m 2 . The magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the coating were quantified, and it was found that the residual stresses in all cases distributed uniformly over the cross section of the coating. The crack was driven towards, but not into, the glass/Ti6Al4V substrate interface due to the shear loading. This implied that the interface had a higher fracture toughness than the coating itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometers on a Glass Epoxy Polyimide Resin Substrate with Copper Terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Jun; Kawabata, Miki; Oyama, Daisuke; Uehara, Gen

    We have developed fabrication technique of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers based on Nb/AlAlOx/Nb junctions directly on a glass epoxy polyimide resin substrate, which has copper terminals embedded in advance. The advantage of this method is that no additional substrate and wirebonds are needed for assembly. Compared to conventional SQUID magnetometers, which are assembled with a SQUID chip fabricated on a Si substrate and wirebonding technique, low risk of disconnection can be expected. A directly-coupled multi-loop SQUID magnetometer fabricated with this method has as good noise performance as a SQUID magnetometer with the same design fabricated on a Si wafer. The magnetometer sustained its performance through thermal cycle test 13 times so far.

  19. Quantification of elemental area densities in multiple metal layers (Au/Ni/Cu) on a Cr-coated quartz glass substrate for certification of NMIJ CRM 5208-a.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Tomoko; Zhu, Yanbei; Ito, Mika; Takatsuka, Toshiko; Terauchi, Shinya; Kurokawa, Akira; Inagaki, Kazumi

    2018-04-01

    Area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers on a Cr-coated quartz substrate were characterized to certify a multiple-metal-layer certified reference material (NMIJ CRM5208-a) that is intended for use in the analysis of the layer area density and the thickness by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers were calculated from layer mass amounts and area. The layer mass amounts were determined by using wet chemical analyses, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after dissolving the layers with diluted mixture of HCl and HNO 3 (1:1, v/v). Analytical results of the layer mass amounts obtained by the methods agreed well with each another within their uncertainty ranges. The area of the layer was determined by using a high-resolution optical scanner calibrated by Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS) standard scales. The property values of area density were 1.84 ± 0.05 μg/mm 2 for Au, 8.69 ± 0.17 μg/mm 2 for Ni, and 8.80 ± 0.14 μg/mm 2 for Cu (mean ± expanded uncertainty, coverage factor k = 2). In order to assess the reliability of these values, the density of each metal layer calculated from the property values of the area density and layer thickness measured by using a scanning electron microscope were compared with available literature values and good agreement between the observed values and values obtained in previous studies.

  20. Dimensional stability. [of glass and glass-ceramic materials in diffraction telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochen, R.; Justie, B.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal stability of glass and glass-ceramic materials is important to the success of a large diffraction-limited telescope. The results are presented of an experimental study of the dimensional stability of glasses and glass ceramics being considered for substrates of massive diffraction-limited mirrors designed for several years of service in earth orbit. The purpose of the study was to measure the relative change in length of the candidate substrate materials, to the order of 5 parts in 10 to the 8th power, as a function of several years time. The development of monolithic test etalons, the development and improvement of two types of ultra-high precision interferometers, and certain aspects of tests data presently achieved are discussed.

  1. Material for "Substrate temperature controls molecular orientation in two-component vapor- deposited glasses." Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 3265.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jiang, Jing [Nanjing University; Walters, Diane M [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Zhou, Dongshan [Nanjing University; Ediger, Mark D [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2016-08-18

    Data set for work presented in Jiang, J.; Walters, D. M.; Zhou, D.; Ediger, M. D. “Substrate Temperature Controls Molecular Orientation in Two -Component Vapor-deposited Glasses.” Soft Matt. 2016, 12, 3265. Includes all data presented in the manuscript as well as example raw data and analysis.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of triangular silver nanoplates immobilized on polyelectrolyte multilayer-modified glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabor, Janice B.; Kawamura, Koki; Muko, Daiki; Kurawaki, Junichi; Niidome, Yasuro

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of surface-immobilized silver nanostructures with reproducible plasmonic properties by dip-coating technique is difficult due to shape alteration. To address this challenge, we used a polyelectrolyte multilayer to promote immobilization of as-received triangular silver nanoplates (TSNP) on a glass substrate through electrostatic interaction. The substrate-immobilized TSNP were characterized by absorption spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy. The bandwidth and peak position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands can be tuned by simply varying the concentration of the colloidal solution and immersion time. TSNP immobilized from a higher concentration of colloidal solution with longer immersion time produced broadened LSPR bands in the near-IR region, while a lower concentration with shorter immersion time produced narrower bands in the visible region. The shape of the nanoplates was retained even at long immersion time. Analysis of peak positions and bandwidths also revealed the point at which the main species of the immobilization had been changed from isolates to aggregates.

  3. Growth of ZnO nanorods on glass substrate deposited using dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rozina Abdul; Ghafar, Safiah Ab; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO unique properties make it attractive for electronics and optoelectronics application. There are varieties synthesis of ZnO nanostructure but one of the best ways is by using dip coating method due to its simplicity, low cost and reliability. This research investigated the effect of precursor concentration on the morphology of ZnO nanorods using dip coating technique. ZnO nanorods is synthesized by using zinc nitrate as precursor and glass slide as substrate. The morphology of ZnO is characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). By using different concentration of precursor, each outcome demonstrated diverse morphologies.

  4. Fractography of glasses and ceramics II

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Frechette, V.D.; Varner, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Topics addressed include finite element stress analysis and crack path prediction of imploding CRT; fractography and fracture mechanics of combustion growth diamond thin films; the fracture behavior of machineable hydroxyapatite; a fractal approach to crack branching (bifurcation) in glass; the fracture of glass-ionomer cements; the effect of quartz particle size on the strength and toughness of whitewares; and a proposed standard practice for fractographic analysis of monolithic advanced ceramics. Also treated are thermal exposure effects on ceramic matrix composites, fractography applied to rock core analysis, fractography of flexurally fractured glass rods, the fractographic determination of K(IC) and effects of microstructuralmore » effects in ceramics.« less

  5. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a continuous glass-forming melt where dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the reacting melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs during melting. We studied the melter feed viscosity during heating and correlated it with volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and gas phase. The measurements were performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min, starting at several different temperatures. The effects of undissolved quartz particles,more » gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the melter feed viscosity were determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases.« less

  6. The Effect of Foaming and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed eventually becomes a continuous glass-forming melt in which dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs in the cold cap. We measured the viscosity during heating of the feed and correlated it with the independently determined volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and the gas phase. The measurement was performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min starting at severalmore » different temperatures. The effect of quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the glass-forming melt viscosity was determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases to data.« less

  7. Determination of work of adhesion of gelatin hydrogels on a glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakre, Avinash A.; Singh, Arun K.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, work of adhesion (w adh ) of soft gelatin hydrogels on a smooth glass substrate is determined experimentally using the wedge adhesion test. The results showed that w adh decreases with the increase in gelatin concentration in the hydrogels but the same is found to be independent of thickness of hydrogel specimen. These results are used further for establishing a scaling law between w adh and mesh size (ξ) of the three dimensional structure present in the hydrogel as w adh ∼ ξ 8.6. Finite element analysis is also carried out for validating the fracture stability of wedge test in view of analytical prediction. At the end, practical significance of the present study is also discussed.

  8. Polymer brushes: a controllable system with adjustable glass transition temperature of fragile glass formers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shi-Jie; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2014-01-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations for coarse-grained polymer brushes in a wide temperature range to investigate the factors that affect the glass transition in these systems. We focus on the influences of free surface, polymer-substrate interaction strength, grafting density, and chain length not only on the change of glass transition temperature Tg, but also the fragility D of the glass former. It is found that the confinement can enhance the dependence of the Tg on the cooling rate as compared to the bulk melt. Our layer-resolved analysis demonstrates that it is possible to control the glass transition temperature Tg of polymer brushes by tuning the polymer-substrate interaction strength, the grafting density, and the chain length. Moreover, we find quantitative differences in the influence range of the substrate and the free surface on the density and dynamics. This stresses the importance of long range cooperative motion in glass formers near the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the string-like cooperative motion analysis demonstrates that there exists a close relation among glass transition temperature Tg, fragility D, and string length ⟨S⟩. The polymer brushes that possess larger string length ⟨S⟩ tend to have relatively higher Tg and smaller D. Our results suggest that confining a fragile glass former through forming polymer brushes changes not only the glass transition temperature Tg, but also the very nature of relaxation process.

  9. Control of electroosmosis in coated quartz capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Blair J.; Van Alstine, James; Snyder, Robert S.; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings for controlling the electroosmotic fluid flow that hinders electrophoretic processes is studied using analytical particle microelectrophoresis. The mobilities of 2-micron diameter glass and polystyrene latex spheres (exhibiting both negative and zero effective surface charge) were measured in 2-mm diameter quartz capillaries filled with NaCl solutions within the 3.5-7.8 pH range. It is found that capillary inner surface coatings using 5000 molecular weight (or higher) poly(ethylene glycol): significantly reduced electroosmosis within the selected pH range, were stable for long time periods, and appeared to be more effective than dextran, methylcellulose, or silane coatings.

  10. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  11. High-gain dipole antenna using polydimethylsiloxane-glass microsphere (PDMS-GM) substrate for 5G applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Wan Asilah Wan; Ngah, Razali; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Ali, Mohd Tarmizi

    2017-01-01

    A new dipole antenna designed using polydimethylsiloxane-glass microsphere (PDMS-GM) substrate is presented. The PDMS-GM substrate offered a lower permittivity of 1.85 compared to pure PDMS of 2.7. This resulted in a wide operating frequency range from 19 GHz up to more than 45 GHz, indicating a bandwidth of more than 28 GHz. The proposed PDMS-GM antenna featured a gain of up to 13.3 dB compared to pure PDMS which only produced 13 GHz of bandwidth and 5.5 dB gain. Instead of wide bandwidth and high gain, the proposed antenna is capable of becoming water resistant by covering its radiator and SMA connector. Such capabilities of the new PDMS-GM antenna indicated suitability for the fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication systems.

  12. Rutilated quartz: combining Ti-in-quartz thermometry and lattice diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Towbin, H.; Ackerson, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Ti content of quartz can be used to evaluate crystallization temperatures in silicic magmas like the S-type Jillamatong granodiorite of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Additionally, the presence of crystallographically-aligned exsolved rutile needles in quartz from this granodiorite suggests that post-crystallization modification of Ti in quartz can be used to assess magmatic cooling rates. In this study we report Ti-in-quartz temperatures that indicate crystallization between 600-700 °C at this location (i.e., 25-60 ppmw Ti, P = 5 kbar, aTiO2= 0.46-0.66). After crystallization, Ti in quartz can be reset via lattice diffusion, a process that can be quantified or evaluated from experimentally-determined values [Cherniak et al., 2007; where DTi = 7x10-8exp (-273±12kJmol-1/RT) m2sec-1)]. The slow diffusivity of Ti through the quartz lattice is one factor that contributes to the general use of quartz thermometry - this is to say that unrealistically long time periods are required in order for a cooling quartz crystal to re-equilibrate with the new thermal regime. This is particularly true of crystal cores (generally on the mm scale), where the diffusive length scale from the core to rim of the crystal could be used to suggest core retention is likely in even the slowest cooling granitic systems. In the Jillamatong pluton - as we predict is possible in a significant body of granitoids - coupling of slow diffusion and decreasing Ti solubility in quartz upon cooling can lead to a situation where a quartz crystal becomes saturated in Ti (i.e., aTiO2=1) and rutile exsolutions develop. The radius ( 0.6 microns) and distribution of these needles, coupled with the diffusive draw down well ( 11 microns) around these exsolutions, can be used to evaluate the cooling history of the pluton, thus providing a comprehensive time-integrated crystallization and cooling history of plutonic rocks. ReferencesCherniak et al., 2007. Chem. Geol. 236, 65-74 Thomas et al., 2010. Contrib. Mineral

  13. A pH sensor based on electric properties of nanotubes on a glass substrate

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Motonori; Ishii, Atsushi; Subagyo, Agus; Hosoi, Hirotaka; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Mukasa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a pH-sensitive device on a glass substrate based on properties of carbon nanotubes. Nanotubes were immobilized specifically on chemically modified areas on a substrate followed by deposition of metallic source and drain electrodes on the area. Some nanotubes connected the source and drain electrodes. A top gate electrode was fabricated on an insulating layer of silane coupling agent on the nanotube. The device showed properties of ann-type field effect transistor when a potential was applied to the nanotube from the top gate electrode. Before fabrication of the insulating layer, the device showed that thep-type field effect transistor and the current through the source and drain electrodes depend on the buffer pH. The current increases with decreasing pH of the CNT solution. This device, which can detect pH, is applicable for use as a biosensor through modification of the CNT surface. PMID:21806848

  14. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Reed, Scott T.

    1984-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  15. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  16. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  17. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  18. Rapid bonding of Pyrex glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Kogi, Atsuna; Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2007-03-01

    A newly developed vacuum hot press system has been specially designed for the thermal bonding of glass substrates in the fabrication process of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. This system includes a vacuum chamber equipped with a high-pressure piston cylinder and carbon plate heaters. A temperature of up to 900 degrees C and a force of as much as 9800 N could be applied to the substrates in a vacuum atmosphere. The Pyrex substrates bonded with this system under different temperatures, pressures, and heating times were evaluated by tensile strength tests, by measurements of thickness, and by observations of the cross-sectional shapes of the microchannels. The optimal bonding conditions of the Pyrex glass substrates were 570 degrees C for 10 min under 4.7 N/mm(2) of applied pressure. Whereas more than 16 h is required for thermal bonding with a conventional furnace, the new system could complete the whole bonding processes within just 79 min, including heating and cooling periods. Such improvements should considerably enhance the production rate of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. Whereas flat and dust-free surfaces are required for conventional thermal bonding, especially without long and repeated heating periods, our hot press system could press a fine dust into glass substrates so that even the areas around the dust were bonded. Using this capability, we were able to successfully integrate Pt/Ti thin film electrodes into a Pyrex glass microchip.

  19. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  20. Friction measurements in piston-cylinder apparatus using quartz-coesite reversible transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akella, J.

    1979-01-01

    The value of friction determined by monitoring piston displacement as a function of nominal pressure on compression and decompression cycles at 1273 K is compared with the friction value obtained by reversing the quartz-coesite transition at 1273 and 1073 K in a talc-glass-alsimag cell (Akella and Kennedy, 1971) and a low-friction salt cell (Mirwald et al., 1975). Quenching runs at 1273 K gave double values of friction of 0.25 GPa for the talc-glass-alsimag cell and 0.03 GPa for the salt cell. The piston-displacement technique gave somewhat higher values. Use of piston-displacement hysteresis loops in evaluating the actual pressure on a sample may lead to overestimates for decompression runs and underestimates for compression runs.

  1. Examination of the sintering process-dependent properties of TiO2 on glass and textile substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junger, Irén Juhász; Homburg, Sarah Vanessa; Grethe, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas; Fiedler, Johannes; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, Anne; Blachowicz, Tomasz; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the development of smart textiles has attracted great attention. Such textiles can contain small electrical devices, which need a power supply. Dye-sensitized solar cells, which can be produced from nontoxic, cheap, low-purity materials, could fill this purpose. However, to reach reasonable cell properties, sintering the TiO2 layer on the substrate is necessary. Unfortunately, only a few textile materials can withstand a sintering process at high temperatures. Therefore, it is important to find an optimal temperature leading to a reasonable improvement of the cell characteristics without damaging the textile substrate. The influence of the sintering temperature on different properties is investigated. For this, the surface properties of the TiO2 coating, such as adhesion to the substrate, dye adsorption characteristic, and film stability, are investigated on different substrates, i.e., a glass plate, a stainless steel nonwoven fabric, and a carbon woven fabric. Two commercially available TiO2 sources are used: a TiO2 dispersion obtained from Man Solar and a water-based solution of TiO2 particles purchased from Kronos. The influence of the sintering temperature on short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of solar cells on the aforementioned substrates is also examined.

  2. AuCl3 doping-induced conductive unstability for CVD-grown graphene on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaqing; Liu, Xianming; Cao, Xueying; Zhang, Peng; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is a candidate material for next-generation high performance transparent conducting film (TCF) to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) materials. However, the sheet resistance of large area graphene obtained by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is higher than other kinds of TCFs. The main strategies for improving the electrical conductivity of graphene films have been based on various doping treatments. AuCl3 is one of the most effective dopants. In this paper, we investigate the influence of AuCl3 doping on the conductive stability of CVD-grown graphene. Large area graphene film synthesized by CVD and transferred to glass substrates is taken as experimental sample. AuCl3 in nitromethane is used to dope the graphene films to improve the electrical conductivity. Another sample without doping is prepared for comparison. The resistances of graphene under periodic visible light irradiation with and without AuCl3 doping are measured. Results show that the resistances for all samples increase exponentially under lighting, while decrease slowly in an exponential form as well after the light is switched off. The relative resistance changes for undoped and doped samples are compared under 445nm light irradiation with 40mW/cm2, 60mW/cm2, 80mW/cm2, 100mW/cm2 in atmosphere and vacuum. The change rate and degree for doped graphene are greater than that of undoped graphene. It is evident from the experimental data that AuCl3 doping may induce conductive unstability for CVD-grown graphene on glass substrate.

  3. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  4. Synthesis of sub-micro-flakes CrSe2 on glass and (110) Si substrates by solvothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qingkai; Liu, Changyou; Zhang, Binbin; Jie, Wanqi

    2018-06-01

    Layered structure MX2 (M = transition metal, X = S, Se and Te) chalcogenides have rich physic properties and potential applications. While it is still a challenge to prepare the chalcogenides by solvothermal method. In this work, we reported a new solution method to prepare CrSe2 sub-micro-flakes on different substrates. The surface morphologies, structures and compositions of the precursor CrSe2(en)1/2 and CrSe2 were investigated by SEM, XRD, thermogravimetric, IR and Raman spectra. The CrSe2 flakes with the sizes of 5-15 μm were obtained on both glass and (110) Si crystalline substrates. The formation mechanism of CrSe2 sub-micro-flakes is suggested.

  5. Temperature-responsive polymer-brush constructed on a glass substrate by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Hiromi; Kondo, Takuya; Suzuki, Hisatomo; Ohno, Kohji

    2010-05-15

    A polymer brush of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (MDM) was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using a 11-(2-bromoisobutyroyloxy)undecyl moiety-carrying initiator covalently fixed to a glass substrate. An aqueous solution of the MDM polymer (E-PMDM), which had been prepared for comparison, turned to be opaque above certain temperature (26.2 °C for E-PMDM (M(n,GPC)=1.84×10(4))), which was corresponding to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymer. The PMDM polymer brush accumulated on the glass surface also indicated temperature-responsive changes in contact angle of air bubble in the air-in-water system. Furthermore, non-specific adsorption of various proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA), human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and bovine plasma fibrinogen (BPF)) to the surface of polymer brush on the glass plate was examined by the bicinchoninic acid method. The PMDM brush did not adsorb IgG and BPF significantly below the LCST of the polymer chain, whereas adsorbed a larger amount of the proteins above the LCST. A similar but less significant temperature-responsive adsorption was observed in the case of BSA. These results suggest usability of the temperature-responsive polymer-brushes with pendent ω-methoxy oligo(ethylene glycol) groups to coat various materials for bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Glass for Solid State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  7. Positron Interactions with Oriented Polymers and with Chiral Quartz Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Positron annihilation in various materials has been applied to characterize microstructure for decades. In this work, PALS was used to study material nanostructure, with a focus on the size and density of free volume and hole relaxation properties in polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA); fundamental studies of polarized positron interaction with chiral crystals were also studied. Free volume relaxation in PC and PMMA with different levels of simple shear orientation was studied by PALS. Effects of applied pressure on the free volume recovery were evaluated. Combining the bulk- and pressure-dependent PALS analyses, the removal of applied pressure led to free-volume relaxation in all samples studied. The alignment of the polymer chains and free-volume holes imposes molecular restrictions on the molecular mobility of both PC and PMMA in their glassy states. Results indicated that the relaxation of the free volume holes at temperatures below glass transition is mostly reversible. Longitudinally polarized positron particles were used to reveal asymmetric interactions in chiral quartz crystals. Experimental results showed a significant intensity difference in free positronium annihilation for left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) chiral quartz crystals. Doppler broadening energy spectra (DBES) of z-cut LH or RH quartz disks at different angles were also measured by an "S parameter" to probe the observed difference. It was found that obtained annihilation energy difference of DBES was in agreement with the result of positron annihilation in bulk chiral crystals. PALS was used to compare different orientations and confirm asymmetric interactions in natural versus synthetic quartz LH and RH crystals in z and non-z orientations. Significant lifetime and intensity differences in free positronium annihilation for LH and RH quartz crystals were observed. The trend was found to be same in the related crystallographic orientations of the LH or RH crystals; the

  8. BARRINGER AWARD ADDRESS: Shock Metamorphism of Quartz in Nature and Experiment: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffler, D.

    1993-07-01

    Quartz as a widespread rock-forming mineral of the Earth's crust represents the most sensitive indicator of impact-induced shock waves and therefore provides an outstanding tool for the recognition of terrestrial impact formations and for the pressure calibration of shock metamorphosed rocks. This paper attempts to summarize the current knowledge in this field. Shocked quartz has been observed in quite variable spatial relations to impact craters: (1) in the crater basement, (2) in rock and mineral clasts of polymict breccias, and (3) in distal ejecta such as tektites and global air- fall beds (e.g., K/T boundary). Quartz displays a wide variety of shock- induced mechanical deformations and transformations [1,2]. Microscopically observable effects are multiple sets of planar fractures (PF) and planar deformation features (PDF) parallel to low indices crystallographic planes; mosaickism; reduced refractivity and birefringence; partial transformation to stishovite; increased optic axial angle; amorphization (diaplectic glass), partial transformation to coesite; and melting (lechatelierite). Additional effects at the atomic scale are well documented by TEM, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy [3-7]. All types of shock effects observed so far in natural quartz have been reproduced by experimental shock waves in the laboratory and in large scale TNT and nuclear explosions. By means of sophisticated techniques the pressure dependence of shock effects has been calibrated with high precision. Threshold pressures at room temperature (given in GPa) for the onset of certain effects in single crystals and in nonporous quartzofeldpathic rocks are: 7.5 +- 2, 10 +- 2, 20 +- 2 (various PFs and PDFs), 12 +- 1 (stishovite), 25 +- 1 (reduced refractive index and density), ~30 (coesite), 34 +- 1 (total transformation to diaplectic glass), 50 +- 2 (melting and formation of lechatelierite) [8-12]. The type of shock effects, their paragenetic combination, and their formation pressure are

  9. Imaging surface contacts: Power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Kilgore, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to obtain microscope images of regions of contact between roughened surfaces of transparent materials, while the surfaces are subjected to static loads or undergoing frictional slip. Static loading experiments with quartz, calcite, soda-lime glass and acrylic plastic at normal stresses to 30 MPa yield power law distributions of contact areas from the smallest contacts that can be resolved (3.5 ??m2) up to a limiting size that correlates with the grain size of the abrasive grit used to roughen the surfaces. In each material, increasing normal stress results in a roughly linear increase of the real area of contact. Mechanisms of contact area increase are by growth of existing contacts, coalescence of contacts and appearance of new contacts. Mean contacts stresses are consistent with the indentation strength of each material. Contact size distributions are insensitive to normal stress indicating that the increase of contact area is approximately self-similar. The contact images and contact distributions are modeled using simulations of surfaces with random fractal topographies. The contact process for model fractal surfaces is represented by the simple expedient of removing material at regions where surface irregularities overlap. Synthetic contact images created by this approach reproduce observed characteristics of the contacts and demonstrate that the exponent in the power law distributions depends on the scaling exponent used to generate the surface topography.

  10. Aluminum Solubility Mechanisms in Quartz: Implications for Al-in-Quartz Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, E.; Thomas, J. B.; Nachlas, W. O.

    2016-12-01

    Trace element thermobarometers in minerals are becoming increasingly important tools for studying geologic processes in many different geologic environments. The solubility of some trace-level (i.e. <1000 ppmw) components in minerals can be measured and used to estimate the pressure (P) and/or temperature (T) of mineral crystallization. To date, quartz has been useful for trace element thermobarometry (based on its Ti content) due to its common occurrence in many rock types and therefore can provide information on a wide range of petrologic processes. However, this technique relies on an independent constraint on T (or P) to calculate P (or T), which can be difficult to obtain in some rocks. To add to the utility of quartz as a thermobarometer, we have experimentally co-crystallized quartz and aluminosilicates at elevated P-T conditions to determine Al solubilities in quartz, which will allow use of the crossing isopleths method to determine a unique P and T solution from two independent techniques (using Ti and Al) in the same mineral. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that Al concentrations in quartz vary systematically with P and T, and also show that Al is soluble at greater levels than Ti. The success of an Al-in-quartz thermobarometer relies on determining both the variations in Al solubility across P-T space as well as the solubility mechanism for Al substitution into the quartz structure. To determine these parameters, we use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to quantify H+ contents as a charge-balancing ion for Al3+ to replace Si4+, electron microprobe (EPMA) to measure Al concentrations, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine the coordination environment of Al in quartz.

  11. Microstructure and magnetic properties of (001) textured L1(0) FePt films on amorphous glass substrate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Speliotis, T; Varvaro, G; Testa, AM

    2015-05-15

    L1(0) FePt thin films with an island-like morphology and magnetic perpendicular anisotropy were grown at low temperature (300 < T-dep< 375 degrees C) by magnetron sputtering on Hoya glass substrates using a 30-nm thick Cr (2 0 0) underlayer. An MgO buffer layer with a thickness of 2 nm was used to inhibit the diffusion from the Cr underlayer and promote the growth of (0 0 1) oriented L1(0) FePt films by inducing an in-plane lattice distortion. By varying the substrate temperature and the Ar sputter pressure (3.5 < P-Ar< 15 mTorr) during the deposition, the degree of chemical order,more » the microstructure and the magnetic properties were tuned and the best properties in term of squareness ratio (M-r/M-s similar to 0.95) and coercive field (H-c similar to 14 kOe) were observed for films deposited at T-dep = 350 degrees C and P-Ar= 5 mTorr, due to the appearance of a tensile strain, which favors the perpendicular anisotropy. The analysis of the angular dependence of remanent magnetization curves on the optimized sample suggests that the magnetization reversal is highly incoherent due to the inter-island interactions. Our results provide useful information on the low temperature growth of FePt films with perpendicular anisotropy onto glass substrates, which are relevant for a variety of technological applications, such as magnetic recording and spintronic devices. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  12. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body.

    PubMed

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  13. Investigation of the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of the Nano-Scale GZO Thin Films on Glass and Flexible Polyimide Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Chen, Kun-Neng; Hsu, Chao-Ming; Liu, Min-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Ga2O3-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass and flexible polyimide (PI) substrates at room temperature (300 K), 373 K, and 473 K by the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. After finding the deposition rate, all the GZO thin films with a nano-scale thickness of about 150 ± 10 nm were controlled by the deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the GZO thin films were not amorphous and all exhibited the (002) peak, and field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that only nano-scale particles were observed. The dependences of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO thin films on different deposition temperatures and substrates were investigated. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure the elemental composition at the chemical and electronic states of the GZO thin films deposited on different substrates, which could be used to clarify the mechanism of difference in electrical properties of the GZO thin films. In this study, the XPS binding energy spectra of Ga2p3/2 and Ga2p1/2 peaks, Zn2p3/2 and Zn2p1/2 peaks, the Ga3d peak, and O1s peaks for GZO thin films on glass and PI substrates were well compared. PMID:28335216

  14. High aspect ratio nano-fabrication of photonic crystal structures on glass wafers using chrome as hard mask.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Nazmul; Justice, John; Lovera, Pierre; McCarthy, Brendan; O'Riordan, Alan; Corbett, Brian

    2014-09-05

    Wafer-scale nano-fabrication of silicon nitride (Si x N y ) photonic crystal (PhC) structures on glass (quartz) substrates is demonstrated using a thin (30 nm) chromium (Cr) layer as the hard mask for transferring the electron beam lithography (EBL) defined resist patterns. The use of the thin Cr layer not only solves the charging effect during the EBL on the insulating substrate, but also facilitates high aspect ratio PhCs by acting as a hard mask while deep etching into the Si x N y . A very high aspect ratio of 10:1 on a 60 nm wide grating structure has been achieved while preserving the quality of the flat top of the narrow lines. The presented nano-fabrication method provides PhC structures necessary for a high quality optical response. Finally, we fabricated a refractive index based PhC sensor which shows a sensitivity of 185 nm per RIU.

  15. Photolithography and Selective Etching of an Array of Quartz Tuning Fork Resonators with Improved Impact Resistance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2001-08-01

    Quartz tuning fork blanks with improved impact-resistant characteristics for use in Qualcomm mobile station modem (MSM)-3000 central processing unit (CPU) chips for code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems were designed using finite element method (FEM) analysis and suitable processing conditions were determined for the reproducible precision etching of a Z-cut quartz wafer into an array of tuning forks. Negative photoresist photolithography for the additive process was used in preference to positive photoresist photolithography for the subtractive process to etch the array of quartz tuning forks. The tuning fork pattern was transferred via a conventional photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 Å chromium/gold mask was coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the back surface of the wafer. With the protective metallization area of the tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through the quartz wafer was performed at 80°C in a ± 1.5°C controlled bath containing a concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove the unwanted areas of the quartz wafer. The quality of the quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of the quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. Selective etching of a 100 μm quartz wafer could be achieved within 90 min at 80°C. A selective etching procedure with reproducible precision has thus been established and enables the photolithographic mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators.

  16. Density functional study of the adsorption of aspirin on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, A.; Nadimi, E.; Plänitz, P.; Radehaus, C.

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adsorption geometry of aspirin molecule on a hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface has been investigated using DFT calculations. The optimized adsorption geometry indicates that both, adsorbed molecule and substrate are strongly deformed. Strong hydrogen bonding between aspirin and surface hydroxyls, leads to the breaking of the original hydroxyl-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds (Hydrogenbridges) on the surface. In this case new hydrogen bonds on the hydroxylated (0 0 1) α-quartz surface appear which significantly differ from those at the clean surface. The 1.11 eV adsorption energy reveals that the interaction of aspirin with α-quartz is an exothermic chemical interaction.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO Hexagonal Micro Discs on Glass Substrates Using the Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Zbib, Mohamad B.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important transparent conducting oxide of potential use in solar cells, electronics, photoelectronics, and sensors. In this work ZnO micro discs were synthesized in thin film form on glass substrates using the low cost spray pyrolysis method. The films were prepared from a precursor solution of ZnCl2 in distilled water at a substrate temperature of 300 ± 5°C. The as-synthesized samples were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The morphology of the films showed randomly distributed micro discs of hexagonal shape. The EDS reports showed that the films contained Cl and Fe. Size analysis was performed using ImageJ software, where the average diameter was found to be 4.8 ± 0.9 μm, and the average thickness was found to be 254 ± 43 nm.

  18. Room temperature bonding and debonding of polyimide film and glass substrate based on surface activate bonding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Kai; Fujino, Masahisa; Matsumoto, Yoshiie; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-02-01

    The temporary bonding of polyimide (PI) films and glass substrates is a key technology for realizing flexible devices with thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this paper, we report the surface activated bonding (SAB) method using Si intermediate layers and its bonding and debonding mechanisms after heating. The bonding interface composed of Si and Fe shows a higher bond strength than the interface of only Si, while the bond strengths of both interfaces decrease with post bonding heating. It is also clarified by composition analysis on the debonded surfaces and cross-sectional observation of the bonding interface that the bond strength depends on the toughness of the intermediated layers and PI. The SAB method using Si intermediate layers is found to be applicable to the bonding and debonding of PI and glass.

  19. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  20. A quartz-based micro catalytic methane sensor by high resolution screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenshuai; Jing, Gaoshan; Bian, Xiaomeng; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2016-02-01

    A micro catalytic methane sensor was proposed and fabricated on a bulk fused quartz substrate using a high resolution screen printing technique for the first time, with reduced power consumption and optimized sensitivity. The sensor was designed by the finite element method and quartz was chosen as the substrate material and alumina support with optimized dimensions. Fabrication of the sensor consisted of two MEMS processes, lift-off and high resolution screen printing, with the advantages of high yield and uniformity. When the sensor’s regional working temperature changes from 250 °C to 470 °C, its sensitivity increases, as well as the power consumption. The highest sensitivity can reach 1.52 mV/% CH4. A temperature of 300 °C was chosen as the optimized working temperature, and the sensor’s sensitivity, power consumption, nonlinearity and response time are 0.77 mV/% CH4, 415 mW, 2.6%, and 35 s, respectively. This simple, but highly uniform fabrication process and the reliable performance of this sensor may lead to wide applications for methane detection.

  1. An algorithm for temperature correcting substrate moisture measurements: aligning substrate moisture responses with environmental drivers in polytunnel-grown strawberry plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Martin; Janes, Stuart; Jenkins, Malcolm; Nicholl, Chris; Kühn, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the use of temperature corrected substrate moisture data to improve the relationship between environmental drivers and the measurement of substrate moisture content in high porosity soil-free growing environments such as coir. Substrate moisture sensor data collected from strawberry plants grown in coir bags installed in a table-top system under a polytunnel illustrates the impact of temperature on capacitance-based moisture measurements. Substrate moisture measurements made in our coir arrangement possess the negative temperature coefficient of the permittivity of water where diurnal changes in moisture content oppose those of substrate temperature. The diurnal substrate temperature variation was seen to range from 7° C to 25° C resulting in a clearly observable temperature effect in substrate moisture content measurements during the 23 day test period. In the laboratory we measured the ML3 soil moisture sensor (ThetaProbe) response to temperature in Air, dry glass beads and water saturated glass beads and used a three-phase alpha (α) mixing model, also known as the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), to derive the permittivity temperature coefficients for glass and water. We derived the α value and estimated the temperature coefficient for water - for sensors operating at 100MHz. Both results are good agreement with published data. By applying the CRIM equation with the temperature coefficients of glass and water the moisture temperature coefficient of saturated glass beads has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude to a moisture temperature coefficient of

  2. Ultra-slim flexible glass for roll-to-roll electronic device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Sean; Glaesemann, Scott; Li, Xinghua

    2014-08-01

    As displays and electronics evolve to become lighter, thinner, and more flexible, the choice of substrate continues to be critical to their overall optimization. The substrate directly affects improvements in the designs, materials, fabrication processes, and performance of advanced electronics. With their inherent benefits such as surface quality, optical transmission, hermeticity, and thermal and dimensional stability, glass substrates enable high-quality and long-life devices. As substrate thicknesses are reduced below 200 μm, ultra-slim flexible glass continues to provide these inherent benefits to high-performance flexible electronics such as displays, touch sensors, photovoltaics, and lighting. In addition, the reduction in glass thickness also allows for new device designs and high-throughput, continuous manufacturing enabled by R2R processes. This paper provides an overview of ultra-slim flexible glass substrates and how they enable flexible electronic device optimization. Specific focus is put on flexible glass' mechanical reliability. For this, a combination of substrate design and process optimizations has been demonstrated that enables R2R device fabrication on flexible glass. Demonstrations of R2R flexible glass processes such as vacuum deposition, photolithography, laser patterning, screen printing, slot die coating, and lamination have been made. Compatibility with these key process steps has resulted in the first demonstration of a fully functional flexible glass device fabricated completely using R2R processes.

  3. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  4. Highly transparent and lower resistivity of yttrium doped ZnO thin films grown on quartz glass by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Narinder; Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Kim, Deuk Young; Singh, Narinder

    2016-11-01

    We prepared highly transparent yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films on quartz glass by a sol-gel method, and then annealed them at 600 °C in vacuum. All samples showed hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the (002) direction. We observed the average grain size of Y: 2 at% thin film to be in the range of 15-20 nm. We observed blue shift in the optical bandgap (3.29 eV→3.32 eV) by increasing the Y concentration (0-2 at%), due to increasing the number of electrons, and replacing the di-valent (Zn2+) with tri-valent (Y3+) dopants. Replacing the higher ionic radii (Y3+) with smaller ionic radii (Zn2+) expanded the local volume of the lattice, which reduced the lattice defects, and increased the intensity ratio of NBE/DLE emission (INBE/IDLE). We also observed the lowest (172 meV) Urbach energy of Y: 2 at% thin film, and confirmed the high structural quality. Incorporation of the appropriate Y concentration (2 at%) improved the crystallinity of YZO thin films, which led to less carrier scattering and lower resistivity.

  5. Carbon buffer layers for smoothing superpolished glass surfaces as substrates for molybdenum /silicon multilayer soft-x-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Stock, H J; Hamelmann, F; Kleineberg, U; Menke, D; Schmiedeskamp, B; Osterried, K; Heidemann, K F; Heinzmann, U

    1997-03-01

    Zerodur and BK7 glass substrates (developed by Fa. Glaswerke Schott, D-55014 Mainz, Germany) from Carl Zeiss Oberkochen polished to a standard surface roughness of varsigma = 0.8 nm rms were coated with a C layer by electron-beam evaporation in the UHV. The roughness of the C-layer surfaces is reduced to 0.6 nm rms. A normal-incidence reflectance of 50% at a wavelength of 13 nm was measured for a Mo/Si multilayer soft-x-ray mirror with 30 double layers (N = 30) deposited onto the BK7/C substrate, whereas a similar Mo/Si multilayer (N = 30) evaporated directly onto the bare BK7 surface turned out to show a reflectance of only 42%.

  6. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured Behind Glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffusemore » reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air–quartz and sample–quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40–60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Finally, empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300–2300 nm range.« less

  7. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s–1000 s km3) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ∼760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500–3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies. PMID:22666359

  8. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain themore » timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.« less

  9. Production of mineral aggregates in quartz tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Pall Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Knak Jensen, Svend; Merrison, Jonathan Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction Tumbling experiments with quartz sand with the purpose of tracing the effect of broken bonds in mineral surfaces resulted in an unexpected production of aggregates. These aggregates are a few microns in diameter, spherical and resembling tiny white "snowballs." Particle comminution by aeolian and other natural weathering processes are known in soil science and is often seen as an increase of fine particles towards the top of soil profiles (Nørnberg, P. 1987, 1988, 2002, J.S. Wright 2007). When mineral grains collide in aeolian processes they break up along weakness zones in the crystal lattice. This mechanism causes broken bonds between atoms in the crystal lattice and results in reactive groups in the mineral surface. This mechanism provides the background for experiments to investigate the oxidation processes of magnetite on the planet Mars. The primary magnetic iron oxide phase on Mars is to day known to be magnetite and the colour of the dust on Mars is most likely due to hematite. To investigate if the oxidation process could take place without going over dissolution and precipitation in water, experiments with tumbling of quartz grains in sealed glass containers along with magnetite were started. The idea was that activated bonds at the surface of quartz could oxidize magnetite and convert it to hematite over time. This proved to be the case (Merrison, J.P. et al. 2010). However, in these experiments we observed the formation of the white aggregates which has been the subject of the study that we present here. Results of tumbling experiments Commercially available quarts (Merck) was sieved to obtain the fraction between 125 and 1000 µm. This fraction was tumbled in glass containers for months and resulted in production of a significant amount of fine grained material (Merrison, J.P et al. 2010). A part of this fine fraction consists of the "snowball"-like aggregates which is a fragile element with relatively high specific surface. The physical

  10. Comparison of effects on macrophage cultures of glass fibre, glass powder, and chrysotile asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Beck, E. G.; Holt, P. F.; Manojlović, N.

    1972-01-01

    Beck, E. G., Holt, P. F., and Manojlović, N. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 280-286. Comparison of effects on macrophage cultures of glass fibre, glass powder, and chrysotile asbestos. The effects on macrophage cultures of glass fibre, glass powder, and chrysotile asbestos are compared. Glass fibre behaves like chrysotile in producing an increase in cell membrane permeability in cultured macrophages. This is demonstrable by the increase in lactic dehydrogenase activity in the supernatant fluid. The metabolism, measured by lactate production, is not reduced as it is when quartz is phagocytosed. Glass powder behaves like the inert dust corundum, producing little change in the number of cells stained by erythrosin B and a small increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, both being in the range of the control. There is an increase in lactate production as a result of higher metabolism due to phagocytosis. Dusts may produce two basic effects, namely a toxic effect and change in cell membrane permeability. A non-specific effect on the cell membrane due to the slow and sometimes incomplete process of ingestion of long fibres is probably a function of the morphology, particularly the length of the fibres. A primary specific effect induced by some dusts immediately follows contact with the cell membrane. Images PMID:4339803

  11. Laser cutting of ultra-thin glasses based on a nonlinear laser interaction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhouling

    2013-07-01

    Glass panel substrates have been widely used in consumer electronics such as in flat panel TVs, laptops, and cell phones. With the advancement in the industry, the glass substrates are becoming thinner and stronger for reduced weight and volume, which brings great challenges for traditional mechanical processes in terms of cut quality, yield, and throughput. Laser glass cutting provides a non-contact process with minimum impact and superior quality compared to the mechanical counterparts. In this paper, we presented recent progresses in advanced laser processing of ultra-thin glass substrates, especially laser-cutting of ultra-thin glasses by a high power laser through a nonlinear interaction effect. Our results indicate that this technique has great potential of application for mass production of ultra-thin glass substrates.

  12. Molecular Orientation in Two Component Vapor-Deposited Glasses: Effect of Substrate Temperature and Molecular Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark

    Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.

  13. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  14. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  15. Radiation effects in a glass-ceramic (Zerodur)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koumvakalis, N.; Jani, M.G.; Halliburton, L.E.

    1985-04-01

    Zerodur is a low-expansion glass-ceramic with important applications in laser-gyro guidance systems. The material contains by weight 70-75% crystalline quartz in the form of crystallites approximately 50 nm in diameter which are embedded in a glass matrix. The glass-crystal ratio is adjusted so that the resultant expansion coefficient at room temperature is near zero. Ionizing radiation causes numerous effects in Zerodur. The most obvious is a change in the optical absorption, and this will have possible consequences in the thermal expansion behavior. Thus, characterization of radiation-induced defects will help solve problems affecting Zerodur's performance in guidance systems and will providemore » an understanding of the basic properties of this unique class of materials.« less

  16. Synthesis and structure of a stuffed derivative of α-quartz, Mg 0.5AlSiO 4

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Hongwu; Heaney, Peter J.; Yu, Ping; ...

    2015-10-01

    A structural derivative of quartz with the composition Mg 0.5AlSiO 4 has been grown from glass and characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Rietveld analysis of the XRD data indicates that the framework of Mg 0.5AlSiO 4 is isostructural with α-quartz, rather than β-quartz, as is consistent with previous theoretical modeling (Sternitzke and Müller 1991). Al and Si exhibit long-range disorder over the framework tetrahedral sites, indicated by the absence of the superlattice reflections corresponding to the doubling of c relative to that of quartz. Nevertheless, 29Si NMR measurementsmore » show that Al and Si exhibit partial short-range order with an ordering degree of 56%. Electron diffraction reveals superlattice reflections indicative of doubled periodicities along the a-axes. In conclusion, Fourier electron density maps show that Mg occupies channel sites that each are bonded to six O atoms, in contrast to the tetrahedral coordination of Li in the β-quartz-type framework for β-eucryptite, LiAlSiO 4. Furthermore, the concentrations of Mg in adjacent channels are different, resulting in framework distortions that generate the superstructures along a.« less

  17. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randive, Kirtikumar; Hurai, Vratislav

    2015-09-01

    Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  18. Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola

    2004-11-01

    Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.

  19. Kinetics of the coesite to quartz transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosenfelder, J.L.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The survival of coesite in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks has important implications for the exhumation of subducted crustal rocks. We have conducted experiments to study the mechanism and rate of the coesite ??? quartz transformation using polycrystalline coesite aggregates, fabricated by devitrifying silica glass cylinders containing 2850H/106 Si at 1000??C and 3.6 GPa for 24h. Conditions were adjusted following synthesis to transform the samples at 700-1000??C at pressures 190-410 MPa below the quartz-coesite equilibrium boundary. Reaction proceeds via grain-boundary nucleation and interface-controlled growth, with characteristic reaction textures remarkably similar to those seen in natural UHP rocks. We infer that the experimental reaction mechanism is identical to that in nature, a prerequisite for reliable extrapolation of the rate data. Growth rates obtained by direct measurement differ by up to two orders of magnitude from those estimated by fitting a rate equation to the transformation-time data. Fitting the rates to Turnbull's equation for growth therefore yields two distinct sets of parameters with similar activation energies (242 or 269 kJ/mol) but significantly different pre-exponential constants. Extrapolation based on either set of growth rates suggests that coesite should not be preserved on geologic time scales if it reaches the quartz stability field at temperatures above 375-400??C. The survival of coesite has previously been linked to its inclusion in strong phases, such as garnet, that can sustain a high internal pressure during decompression. Other factors that may play a crucial role in preservation are low fluid availability - possibly even less than that of our nominally "dry" experiments - and the development of transformation stress, which inhibits nucleation and growth. These issues are discussed in the context of our experiments as well as recent observations from natural rocks. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Femtosecond laser texturing of glass substrates for improved light in-coupling in thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imgrunt, J.; Chakanga, K.; von Maydell, K.; Teubner, U.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their low thickness, thin-film solar cells usually suffer from poor light absorption. To improve this situation, light-management is necessary. Within the present work, in order to enhance light coupling, an ultra-short-pulse laser is used for texturing substrates. Here commercially available multi component soda lime glass substrates are patterned with a dot grid at ambient air pressure with 150 fs pulses, centered at a wavelength of 775 nm. The structures consist of small depressions with approximately 3 μ m diameter. Varying depths of around 300 nm could be well reproduced. Reducing the pitch (distance between structure-to-structure centers), from ten to approximately one times the crater diameter, influences the structure quality and increases the deformation of the surface in the vicinity of the depressions. Consequently, the diffuse light scattering is improved from 0 to 30% haze. Overall, the presented approach is quite simple. This single-step texturing technique which can be easily used on different substrates is applicable in a wide range of thin-film solar cells. It has the advantage that ultra-thin electrodes can be used as the front contact as well as the potential to be integrated into a PV production line. Thus, complicated layer stacks for absorption enhancement can be avoided.

  1. The concept of the phases ratio control during the formation of composite filamentary nanocrystals xInSe-(1-x)In2O3 on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, S. A.; Tomaev, V. V.; Stoyanova, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    The method of vacuum deposition on substrates of glass marks the C-29 series PbSe deposited film and the film In the area 3x3 mm2 and a thickness of ˜1 μm. Films are oxidized in dry air at a temperature of 550 °C. Based on studies by X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy shows the principal possibility of formation of nanowires xInSe-(1-x)In2O3 on the PbSe/In structure. The results allowed to formulate the concept of the control of phases ratio in the forming nanowires xInSe-(1-x)In2O3 on glass substrates.

  2. Direct growth of ZnO tetrapod on glass substrate by Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, M. F. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Aziz, T. N. T. A.; Zulkifli, Z.

    2018-03-01

    This research demonstrates the growth of ZnO tetrapod structure on glass substrate for different types of flow gas and at different growth temperatures. The study on the morphological structure and electrical properties of ZnO thin film growth by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) technique showed that the optimum growth temperature was obtained at 750°C with ZnO nanotetrapod morphological structure. Introducing Nitrogen gas flow during the growth process exhibited leg-to-leg linking ZnO tetrapods morphology. The electrical properties of ZnO tetrapods film were measured by using two point probes and it shows that, the sample growth in Ar and O2 atmosphere have better I-V characteristic.

  3. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of alternative glass microchannel plates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    O'Mahony, Aileen, E-mail: aom@incomusa.com; Craven, Christopher A.; Minot, Michael J.

    The technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has enabled the development of alternative glass microchannel plates (MCPs) with independently tunable resistive and emissive layers, resulting in excellent thickness uniformity across the large area (20 × 20 cm), high aspect ratio (60:1 L/d) glass substrates. Furthermore, the use of ALD to deposit functional layers allows the optimal substrate material to be selected, such as borosilicate glass, which has many benefits compared to the lead-oxide glass used in conventional MCPs, including increased stability and lifetime, low background noise, mechanical robustness, and larger area (at present up to 400 cm{sup 2}). Resistively stable, high gain MCPs are demonstratedmore » due to the deposition of uniform ALD resistive and emissive layers on alternative glass microcapillary substrates. The MCP performance characteristics reported include increased stability and lifetime, low background noise (0.04 events cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}), and low gain variation (±5%)« less

  5. Plating by glass-bead peening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babecki, A. J.; Haehner, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Technique permits plating of primarily metallic substrates with either metals or nonmetals at normal temperature. Peening uses compressed air to apply concurrent streams of small glass beads and powdered plating material to the substrate.

  6. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  7. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells fabricated at low substrate temperature 110°C on flexible PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, M.; Kumari, Juhi; Venkanna, K.; Agarwal, Pratima

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on flexible Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and corning glass. The a-Si:H thin films were prepared at low substrate temperature (110oC) on corning 1737 glass with different rf powers. The influence of rf power on structural and optoelectronic properties of i-a-Si:H were studied. The films deposited at rf power 50W show less broadening of <ɛ2> peak. This indicates these films are more ordered. With this optimized parameter for i-layer, solar cells fabricated on flexible PET substrate show best efficiency of 3.3% whereas on corning glass 3.82%.

  8. Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2017-02-01

    Glasses including have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of borosilicate glasses. Compared to soda-lime glasses, borosilicate glasses have improved coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and are widely used because of thermal shock resistance. In this work, borosilicate glass filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed glass as well as the residual stress trapped in the glass. The transparency of glass allows residual stress to be measured using a polariscope. The effect of the substrate as well and substrate temperature are analyzed. We show that if fracture due to thermal shock can be avoided during deposition, then the residual stress can be relieved with an annealing step, removing birefringence. When combined with progress toward avoiding bubble entrapment in printed glass, we show the AM approach has the potential to produce high quality optically transparent glass for optical applications.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  10. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  12. Metallic glass as a temperature sensor during ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature of the interface and/or a superficial layer of a substrate during ion plating was investigated using a metallic glass of the composition Fe67Co18B14Si1 as the substrate and as the temperature sensor. Transmission electron microscopy and diffraction studies determined the microstructure of the ion-plated gold film and the substrate. Results indicate that crystallization occurs not only in the film, but also in the substrate. The grain size of crystals formed during ion plating was 6 to 60 nm in the gold film and 8 to 100 nm in the substrate at a depth of 10 to 15 micrometers from the ion-plated interface. The temperature rise of the substrate during ion plating was approximately 500 C. Discontinuous changes in metallurgical microstructure, and physical, chemical, and mechanical properties during the amorphous to crystalline transition in metallic glasses make metallic glasses extremely useful materials for temperature sensor applications in coating processes.

  13. Black synthetic quartz glass layer for optical fiber cross-talk reduction fabricated by VAD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Soichi; Fukuda, Kaoru; Onishi, Gen; Fujii, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    In this report the new black-glass fiber-preform fabricated by the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method to realize high-resolution optical bundle fibers is discussed with the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and the transmittance spectrum measurement. The black glass consists of SiO2, GeO2, Bi2O3 and Al2O3. Firstly, the rod-shaped soot of SiO2 and GeO2 is prepared by blowing SiCl4 and GeCl4 into the oxyhydrogen burner. Then the soot is dipped into the solution of the Bi and Al compounds. After drying the soot with Bi and Al penetrated, the soot is consolidated into the glass preform by heating with the carbon heater at 1650 degrees Celsius. The diameter of the obtained preform is 10.5 mm and the black glass layer thickness is 2.6 mm located at the periphery. The Bi concentration distribution shows the content of several wt% in the black glass layer. The black glass preform is drawn into the black optical fiber being expected to make a clear image because of no light leaking from the neighboring optical fibers as compared to the conventional fiber endoscope.

  14. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOEpatents

    Tomsia, Antoni P [Pinole, CA; Saiz, Eduardo [Berkeley, CA; Gomez-Vega, Jose M [Nagoya, JP; Marshall, Sally J [Larkspur, CA; Marshall, Grayson W [Larkspur, CA

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  15. Comparison of a model vapor deposited glass films to equilibrium glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flenner, Elijah; Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Zamponi, Francesco

    Vapor deposition of particles onto a substrate held at around 85% of the glass transition temperature can create glasses with increased density, enthalpy, kinetic stability, and mechanical stability compared to an ordinary glass created by cooling. It is estimated that an ordinary glass would need to age thousands of years to reach the kinetic stability of a vapor deposited glass, and a natural question is how close to the equilibrium is the vapor deposited glass. To understand the process, algorithms akin to vapor deposition are used to create simulated glasses that have a higher kinetic stability than their annealed counterpart, although these glasses may not be well equilibrated either. Here we use novel models optimized for a swap Monte Carlo algorithm in order to create equilibrium glass films and compare their properties with those of glasses obtained from vapor deposition algorithms. This approach allows us to directly assess the non-equilibrium nature of vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses. Simons Collaboration on Cracking the Glass Problem and NSF Grant No. DMR 1608086.

  16. Tuning the morphology of silver nanostructures photochemically coated on glass substrates: an effective approach to large-scale functional surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaier, Mohamed; Vidal, Loic; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Bubendorff, Jean-Luc; Balan, Lavinia

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a simple and environmentally friendly photochemical process capable of generating nano-layers (8-22 nm) of silver nanostructures directly onto glass surfaces. This approach opens the way to large-scale functionalized surfaces with plasmonic properties through a single light-induced processing. Thus, Ag nanostructures top-coated were obtained through photo-reduction, at room temperature, of a photosensitive formulation containing a metal precursor, free from extra toxic stabilizers or reducing agents. The reactive formulation was confined between two glass slides and exposed to a continuous near-UV source. In this way, stable silver nano-layers can be generated directly on the substrate with a very good control of the morphology of as-synthesized nanostructures that allows tailoring the optical properties of the coated layers. The position and width of the corresponding surface plasmon resonance bands can be adjusted over a broad spectral window. By extension, this low-cost and easy-to-apply process can also be used to coat ultra thin layers of metal nanostructures on a variety of substrates. The possibility of controlling of nanostructures shape should achieve valuable developments in many fields, as diverse as plasmonics, surface enhanced Raman scattering, nano-electronic circuitry, or medical devices.

  17. Fabrication of Fresnel micro lens array in borosilicate glass by F2-laser ablation for glass interposer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning; Fricke-Begemann, Thomas; Ihlemann, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    The future need for more bandwidth forces the development of optical transmission solutions for rack-to-rack, boardto- board and chip-to-chip interconnects. The goals are significant reduction of power consumption, highest density and potential for bandwidth scalability to overcome the limitations of the systems today with mostly copper based interconnects. For system integration the enabling of thin glass as a substrate material for electro-optical components with integrated micro-optics for efficient light coupling to integrated optical waveguides or fibers is becoming important. Our glass based packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. This kind of packaging consists of a thin glass substrate with integrated micro lenses providing a platform for photonic component assembly and optical fiber or waveguide interconnection. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer size and characterizes excellent optical and high frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. A suitable micro lens approach has to be comparable with different commercial glasses and withstand post-processing like soldering. A benefit of using laser ablated Fresnel lenses is the planar integration capability in the substrate for highest integration density. In the paper we introduce our glass based packaging concept and the Fresnel lens design for different scenarios like chip-to-fiber, chip-to-optical-printed-circuit-board coupling. Based on the design the Fresnel lenses were fabricated by using a 157 nm fluorine laser ablation system.

  18. Fabrication of tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn on transparent substrate by nucleation-controlled liquid-phase crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hiroshi; Amamoto, Takashi; Koyama, Masahiro; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    We developed a method of forming single-crystalline germanium-tin (GeSn) alloy on transparent substrates that is based on liquid-phase crystallization. By controlling and designing nucleation during the melting growth process, a highly tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn layer was grown on a quartz substrate without using any crystal-seeds or catalysts. The peak field-effect hole mobility of 423 cm2/V s was obtained for a top-gate single-crystalline GeSn MOSFET on a quartz substrate with a Sn content of 2.6%, indicating excellent crystal quality and mobility enhancement due to Sn incorporation and tensile strain.

  19. Redox-dependent solubility of technetium in low activity waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; McCloy, John S.

    2014-06-01

    The solubility of technetium was measured in a Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass simulant, to investigate the extent that technetium solubility controls the incorporation of technetium into LAW glass. A series of LAW glass samples, spiked with 500-6000 ppm of Tc as potassium pertechnetate, were melted at 1000 °C in sealed fused quartz ampoules. Technetium solubility was determined in the quenched bulk glass to be 2000-2800 ppm, with slightly reducing conditions due to choice of milling media resulting in reductant contamination and higher solubility. The chemical form of technetium obtained by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy is mainly isolated, octahedrally-coordinated Tc(IV), with a minority of Tc(VII) in some glasses and TcO2 in two glasses. The concentration and speciation of technetium depends on glass redox and amount of technetium added. Salts formed at the top of higher technetium loaded glasses during the melt. The results of this study show that technetium solubility should not be a factor in technetium retention during melting of Hanford LAW glass.

  20. Resistive-pulse and rectification sensing with glass and carbon nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Wang, Dengchao; Mirkin, Michael V

    2017-03-01

    Along with more prevalent solid-state nanopores, glass or quartz nanopipettes have found applications in resistive-pulse and rectification sensing. Their advantages include the ease of fabrication, small physical size and needle-like geometry, rendering them useful for local measurements in small spaces and delivery of nanoparticles/biomolecules. Carbon nanopipettes fabricated by depositing a thin carbon layer on the inner wall of a quartz pipette provide additional means for detecting electroactive species and fine-tuning the current rectification properties. In this paper, we discuss the fundamentals of resistive-pulse sensing with nanopipettes and our recent studies of current rectification in carbon pipettes.

  1. Fabrication of high-density In3Sb1Te2 phase change nanoarray on glass-fabric reinforced flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jong Moon; Shin, Dong Ok; Yin, You; Seo, Hyeon Kook; Kim, Daewoon; In Kim, Yong; Jin, Jung Ho; Kim, Yong Tae; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Ouk Kim, Sang; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2012-06-01

    Mushroom-shaped phase change memory (PCM) consisting of a Cr/In3Sb1Te2 (IST)/TiN (bottom electrode) nanoarray was fabricated via block copolymer lithography and single-step dry etching with a gas mixture of Ar/Cl2. The process was performed on a high performance transparent glass-fabric reinforced composite film (GFR Hybrimer) suitable for use as a novel substrate for flexible devices. The use of GFR Hybrimer with low thermal expansion and flat surfaces enabled successful nanoscale patterning of functional phase change materials on flexible substrates. Block copolymer lithography employing asymmetrical block copolymer blends with hexagonal cylindrical self-assembled morphologies resulted in the creation of hexagonal nanoscale PCM cell arrays with an areal density of approximately 176 Gb/in2.

  2. Highly organized smectic-like packing in vapor-deposited glasses of a liquid crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Gujral, Ankit; Gomez, Jaritza; Jiang, Jing; ...

    2016-12-26

    Glasses of a model smectic liquid crystal-forming molecule, itraconazole, were prepared by vapor deposition onto substrates with temperatures ranging from T substrate = 0.78T g to 1.02T g, where T g (=330 K) is the glass transition temperature. The films were characterized using X-ray scattering techniques. For T substrate near and below T g, glasses with layered smectic-like structures can be prepared and the layer spacing can be tuned by 16% through the choice of T substrate. Remarkably, glasses prepared with T substrate values above T g exhibit levels of structural organization much higher than that of a thermally annealedmore » film. These results are explained by a mechanism based upon a preferred molecular orientation and enhanced molecular motion at the free surface, indicating that molecular organization in the glass is independent of the anchoring preferred at the substrate. Furthermore, these results suggest new strategies for optimizing molecular packing within active layers of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices.« less

  3. Gallium arsenide/gold nanostructures deposited using plasma method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mangla, O.; Physics Department, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007; Roy, S.

    2016-05-23

    The fabrication of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanostructures on gold coated glass, quartz and silicon substrates using the high fluence and highly energetic ions has been reported. The high fluence and highly energetic ions are produced by the hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma in a modified dense plasma focus device. The nanostructures having mean size about 14 nm, 13 nm and 18 nm are deposited on gold coated glass, quartz and silicon substrates, respectively. The optical properties of nanostructures studied using absorption spectra show surface plasmon resonance peak of gold nanoparticles. In addition, the band-gap of GaAs nanoparticles is more than that ofmore » bulk GaAs suggesting potential applications in the field of optoelectronic and sensor systems.« less

  4. Investigation of plasma dynamics and spatially varying O and OH concentrations in atmospheric pressure plasma jets impinging on glass, water and metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuanfu; Pei, Xuekai; Gidon, Dogan; Wu, Fan; Wu, Shuqun; Lu, Xinpei

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have attracted considerable attention over the last decade, specifically for use in surface engineering. A comparative study of an APPJ, driven by pulsed DC voltage, is conducted in order to examine the plasma impingement onto different surfaces. In this paper, the effect of gas flow rate and composition is investigated using three kinds of substrates: dielectric glass, distilled water and metal plate using fast imaging. Alongside discharges associated with rising and falling voltage, a so-called third discharge is observed during the pulse for water and metal surfaces which corresponds to a restrike breakdown from surfaces to nozzle. The differences in plasma dynamics observed are mainly attributed to the differences in substrate conductivity. In addition, spatial and temporal distributions of OH and O density are investigated by means of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The OH/O LIF intensity is found to be much higher for metal and water substrates compared to the glass plate. We attribute this effect to the differences in power dissipation associated with the presence and intensity of the third discharge. Effects of gas flow rate and seed gas (H2O and O2) mixing on the LIF enhancement are also studied. The related results provide additional insights for optimizing the generation of reactive species.

  5. Mobility restrictions and glass transition behaviour of an epoxy resin under confinement.

    PubMed

    Djemour, A; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J

    2015-04-07

    Confinement can have a big influence on the dynamics of glass formers in the vicinity of the glass transition. Already 40 to 50 K above the glass transition temperature, thermal equilibration of glass formers can be strongly influenced by the confining substrate. We investigate the linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity cp of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) in a temperature interval of 120 K around the glass transition temperature. The epoxy resin is filled into controlled pore glasses with pore diameters between 4 and 111 nm. Since DGEBA can form H-bonds with silica surfaces, we also investigate the influence of surface silanization of the porous substrates. In untreated substrates a core/shell structure of the epoxy resin can be identified. The glass transition behaviours of the bulk phase and that of the shell phase are different. In silanized substrates, the shell phase disappears. At a temperature well above the glass transition, a second transition is found for the bulk phase - both in the linear expansion data as well as in the specific heat capacity. The cp data do not allow excluding the glass transition of a third phase as being the cause for this transition, whereas the linear expansion data do so. The additional transition temperature is interpreted as a separation between two regimes: above this temperature, macroscopic flow of the bulk phase inside the porous structure is possible to balance the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between DGEBA and the substrate. Below the transition temperature, this degree of freedom is hindered by geometrical constraints of the porous substrates. Moreover, this second transition could also be found in the linear expansion data of the shell phase.

  6. Sputtering characteristics, crystal structures, and transparent conductive properties of TiOxNy films deposited on α-Al2O3(0 0 0 1) and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-12-01

    Adding N2 gas during reactive sputtering of a Ti target prevented the target surface from being severely poisoned by oxygen atoms and sustained a high deposition rate for titanium oxynitride films under metal-mode-like sputtering conditions. With progress in the degree of oxidization, films deposited onto a glass substrate varied from TiO1-xNx having a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to TiO2-xNx having an anatase structure. Titanium oxynitride films deposited on an Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate were epitaxial with major orientations toward the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions for fcc-TiO1-xNx and (1 1 2) for anatase-TiO2-xNx. Intermediately oxidized films between TiO1-xNx and TiO2-xNx were amorphous on the glass substrate but crystallized into a Magneli phase, TinO(N)2n-1, on the Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate. Partially substituting oxygen in TiO2 with nitrogen as well as continuously irradiating the growing film surface with a Xe plasma stream preferentially formed anatase rather than rutile. However, the occupation of anion sites with enough oxygen rather than nitrogen was the required condition for anatase crystals to form. The transparent conductive properties of epitaxial TiO2-xNx films on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) were superior to those of microcrystalline films on the glass substrate. Since resistivity and optical transmittance of TiOxNy films vary continuously with changing N2 flow rate, their transparent conductive properties can be controlled more easily than TiOx. Nb5+ ions could be doped as donors in TiO2-xNx anatase crystals.

  7. High-quality substrate for fluorescence enhancement using agarose-coated silica opal film.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Li, Juan; Sun, Liguo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Lv, Linli; Zhao, Xiangwei; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Jing; Lv, Mei; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-08-01

    To improve the sensitivity of fluorescence detection in biochip, a new kind of substrates was developed by agarose coating on silica opal film. In this study, silica opal film was fabricated on glass substrate using the vertical deposition technique. It can provide stronger fluorescence signals and thus improve the detection sensitivity. After coating with agarose, the hybrid film could provide a 3D support for immobilizing sample. Comparing with agarose-coated glass substrate, the agarose-coated opal substrates could selectively enhance particular fluorescence signals with high sensitivity when the stop band of the silica opal film in the agarose-coated opal substrate overlapped the fluorescence emission wavelength. A DNA hybridization experiment demonstrated that fluorescence intensity of special type of agarose-coated opal substrates was about four times that of agarose-coated glass substrate. These results indicate that the optimized agarose-coated opal substrate can be used for improving the sensitivity of fluorescence detection with high quality and selectivity.

  8. Research on Glass Frit Deposition Based on the Electrospray Process

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yifang; Chen, Daner; Zhan, Zhan; Li, Chenlei; Zheng, Jianyi; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the electrospray technology is used to easily deposit the glass frit into patterns at a micro-scale level. First, far-field electrospray process was carried out with a mixture of glass frit in the presence of ethanol. A uniform, smooth, and dense glass frit film was obtained, verifying that the electrospray technology was feasible. Then, the distance between the nozzle and the substrate was reduced to 2 mm to carry out near-field electrospray. The experimental process was improved by setting the range of the feed rate of the substrate to match both the concentration and the flow rate of the solution. Spray diameter could be less at the voltage of 2 kV, in which the glass frit film was expected to reach the minimum line width. A uniform glass frit film with a line width within the range of 400–500 μm was prepared when the speed of the substrate was 25 mm/s. It indicates that electrospray is an efficient technique for the patterned deposition of glass frit in wafer-level hermetic encapsulation. PMID:28773417

  9. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Schnable, George L.; Wu, Chung P.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  10. Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  11. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F

    2008-09-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates.

  12. Slumped glass foils as substrate for adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Hołyszko, Joanna; Pelliciari, Carlo; Spiga, Daniele; Vecchi, Gabriele; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Thin glass modular mirrors are a viable solution to build future X-ray telescopes with high angular resolution and large collecting area. In our laboratories, we shape thin glass foils by hot slumping and we apply pressure to assist the replication of a cylindrical mould figure; this technology is coupled with an integration process able to damp low frequency errors and produces optics in the Wolter I configuration, typical for the X-ray telescopes. From the point of view of the hot slumping process, the efforts were focused in reducing low-, mid- and high- frequency errors of the formed Eagle glass foils. Some of our slumped glass foils were used for the development of active X-ray optics, where piezoelectric actuators are used to correct the slumped glass foil deviations from the ideal shape. In particular, they were used for the Adjustable X-raY optics for astrOnoMy project (AXYOM) developed in Italy, and the X-ray Surveyor mission, as developed at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory / Center for Astrophysics (SAO/CfA) in USA. In this paper we describe the optimisation of the hot slumping process, comparing the results with the requirements of the considered active optics projects. Finally, since the present configuration of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) coating equipment is limited to 100 x 100 mm2, the slumped glass foils used for the SAO project were cut from 200 x 200 mm2 to 100 x 100 mm2, and a low-frequency change was observed. A characterisation of the profile change upon cutting is presented.

  13. Microstructural and Optical Properties of Porous Alumina Elaborated on Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghdoudi, W.; Gaidi, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2013-03-01

    A transparent porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure was formed on a glass substrate using the anodization of a highly pure evaporated aluminum layer. A parametric study was carried out in order to achieve a fine control of the microstructural and optical properties of the elaborated films. The microstructural and surface morphologies of the porous alumina films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pore diameter, inter-pore separation, and the porous structure as a function of anodization conditions were investigated. It was then found that the pores density decreases with increasing the anodization time. Regular cylindrical porous AAO films with a flat bottom structure were formed by chemical etching and anodization. A high transmittance in the 300-900 nm range is reported, indicating a fulfilled growth of the transparent sample (alumina) from the aluminum metal. The data showed typical interference oscillations as a result of the transparent characteristics of the film throughout the visible spectral range. The thickness and the optical constants ( n and k) of the porous anodic alumina films, as a function of anodizing time, were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) regions.

  14. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  15. Resistive-pulse and rectification sensing with glass and carbon nanopipettes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixian; Wang, Dengchao

    2017-01-01

    Along with more prevalent solid-state nanopores, glass or quartz nanopipettes have found applications in resistive-pulse and rectification sensing. Their advantages include the ease of fabrication, small physical size and needle-like geometry, rendering them useful for local measurements in small spaces and delivery of nanoparticles/biomolecules. Carbon nanopipettes fabricated by depositing a thin carbon layer on the inner wall of a quartz pipette provide additional means for detecting electroactive species and fine-tuning the current rectification properties. In this paper, we discuss the fundamentals of resistive-pulse sensing with nanopipettes and our recent studies of current rectification in carbon pipettes. PMID:28413354

  16. Removal forces and adhesion properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glass substrates probed by optical tweezer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Pignon, Frédéric; Piau, Jean-Michel; Magnin, Albert; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Schmitz, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    In agroindustry, the hygiene of solid surfaces is of primary importance in order to ensure that products are safe for consumers. To improve safety, one of the major ways consists in identifying and understanding the mechanisms of microbial cell adhesion to nonporous solid surfaces or filtration membranes. In this paper we investigate the adhesion of the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae (about 5μm in diameter) to a model solid surface, using well-defined hydrophilic glass substrates. An optical tweezer device developed by Piau [J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 144, 1 (2007)] was applied to yeast cells in contact with well-characterized glass surfaces. Two planes of observation were used to obtain quantitative measurements of removal forces and to characterize the corresponding mechanisms at a micrometer length scale. The results highlight various adhesion mechanisms, depending on the ionic strength, contact time, and type of yeast. The study has allowed to show a considerable increase of adhering cells with the ionic strength and has provided a quantitative measurement of the detachment forces of cultured yeast cells. Force levels are found to grow with ionic strength and differences in mobility are highlighted. The results clearly underline that a microrheological approach is essential for analyzing the adhesion mechanisms of biological systems at the relevant local scales.

  17. Biaxially oriented CdTe films on glass substrate through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, R. J.; Su, P.-Y.; Bhat, I.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, T.-M.; Wang, G.-C.

    2015-09-01

    Heteroepitaxial CdTe films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on glass substrates through nanostructured Ge/CaF2 buffer layers which were biaxially oriented. It allows us to explore the structural properties of multilayer biaxial semiconductor films which possess small angle grain boundaries and to test the principle of a solar cell made of such low-cost, low-growth-temperature semiconductor films. Through the x-ray diffraction and x-ray pole figure analysis, the heteroepitaxial relationships of the mutilayered films are determined as [111] in the out-of-plane direction and <1\\bar{1}0>CdTe//<1\\bar{1}0>Ge//{< \\bar{1}10> }{{{CaF}}2} in the in-plane direction. The I-V curves measured from an ITO/CdS/CdTe/Ge/CaF2/glass solar cell test structure shows a power conversion efficiency of ˜η = 1.26%, illustrating the initial success of such an approach. The observed non-ideal efficiency is believed to be due to a low shunt resistance and high series resistance as well as some residual large-angle grain boundary effects, leaving room for significant further improvement.

  18. ORIGIN OF QUARTZ IN COAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cecil, C. Blaine; Stanton, Ronald W.

    1984-01-01

    Both a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe (EMP) were used in this study to analyze the cathodoluminescence properties of quartz grains in samples of the Upper Freeport coal bed because quartz grains in coal are small (silt sized) and below the resolution capabilities of a standard luminoscope. Quartz grains were identified by the detection of silicon alone with energy dispersive X-ray units attached to both the SEM and the EMP.

  19. Synthesis and properties of ultra-long InP nanowires on glass.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Veer; Pale, Ville; Khayrudinov, Vladislav; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-12-16

    We report on the synthesis of Au-catalyzed InP nanowires (NWs) on low-cost glass substrates. Ultra-dense and ultra-long (up to ∼250 μm) InP NWs, with an exceptionally high growth rate of ∼25 μm min -1 , were grown directly on glass using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Structural properties of InP NWs grown on glass were similar to the ones grown typically on Si substrates showing many structural twin faults but the NWs on glass always exhibited a stronger photoluminescence (PL) intensity at room temperature. The PL measurements of NWs grown on glass reveal two additional prominent impurity related emission peaks at low temperature (10 K). In particular, the strongest unusual emission peak with an activation energy of 23.8 ± 2 meV was observed at 928 nm. Different possibilities including the role of native defects (phosphorus and/or indium vacancies) are discussed but most likely the origin of this PL peak is related to the impurity incorporation from the glass substrate. Furthermore, despite the presence of suspected impurities, the NWs on glass show outstanding light absorption in a wide spectral range (60%-95% for λ = 300-1600 nm). The optical properties and the NW growth mechanism on glass is discussed qualitatively. We attribute the exceptionally high growth rate mostly to the atmospheric pressure growth conditions of our MOVPE reactor and stronger PL intensity on glass due to the impurity doping. Overall, the III-V NWs grown on glass are similar to the ones grown on semiconductor substrates but offer additional advantages such as low-cost and light transparency.

  20. Vapor-deposited organic glasses exhibit enhanced stability against photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yue; Dalal, Shakeel S; Ediger, M D

    2018-04-18

    Photochemically stable solids are in demand for applications in organic electronics. Previous work has established the importance of the molecular packing environment by demonstrating that different crystal polymorphs of the same compound react at different rates when illuminated. Here we show, for the first time, that different amorphous packing arrangements of the same compound photodegrade at different rates. For these experiments, we utilize the ability of physical vapor deposition to prepare glasses with an unprecedented range of densities and kinetic stabilities. Indomethacin, a pharmaceutical molecule that can undergo photodecarboxylation when irradiated by UV light, is studied as a model system. Photodegradation is assessed through light-induced changes in the mass of glassy thin films due to the loss of CO2, as measured by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition degraded more slowly under UV illumination than did the liquid-cooled glass, with the difference as large as a factor of 2. Resistance to photodegradation correlated with glass density, with the vapor-deposited glasses being up to 1.3% more dense than the liquid-cooled glass. High density glasses apparently limit the local structural changes required for photodegradation.

  1. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Colloidal Crystals on a Glass Substrate with Depletion Attraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suxia; Nozawa, Jun; Hu, Sumeng; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Okada, Junpei; Uda, Satoshi

    2017-10-10

    The heterogeneous nucleation of colloidal crystals with attractive interactions has been investigated via in situ observations. We have found two types of nucleation processes: a cluster that overcomes the critical size for nucleation with a monolayer, and a method that occurs with two layers. The Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) for these two types of nucleation processes are evaluated by taking into account the effect of various interfacial energies. In contrast to homogeneous nucleation, the change in interfacial free energy, Δσ, is generated for colloidal nucleation on a foreign substrate such as a cover glass in the present study. The Δσ and step free energy of the first layer, γ 1 , are obtained experimentally based on the equation deduced from classical nucleation theory (CNT). It is concluded that the ΔG of q-2D nuclei is smaller than of monolayer nuclei, provided that the same number of particles are used, which explains the experimental result that the critical size in q-2D nuclei is smaller than that in monolayer nuclei.

  2. Green-emissive transparent BaSi 2O 5:Eu 2 + film phosphor on quartz glass created by a sputtering thermal diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, K. I.; Park, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. H.; Choi, J. C.; Bae, J. S.

    2009-10-01

    Eu 2+-doped BaSi 2O 5 film phosphors on quartz substrates are fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering thermal diffusion. The BaSi 2O 5: Eu 2+ phosphor crystals have some preferred orientations that are lattice-spacing matched with the crystallized β- SiO 2 crystals, and they show pore and grain boundary-free morphology with a rod-like shape fused into the crystallized β- SiO 2 crystals. The BaSi 2O 5: Eu 2+ film phosphor has a high transparency, with a transmittance of about 30% in visible light. The BaSi 2O 5: Eu 2+ film phosphor shows 510 nm green emission from the f-d transition of the Eu 2+ ions, and in particular the best sample shows a green photoluminescence brightness of about 5% of a BaSi 2O 5: Eu 2+ powder phosphor screen. These excellences in optical properties can be explained by less optical scattering at pores or grain boundaries, and less reflection at the continuously index-changed interface.

  3. Physical vapor deposition as a route to glasses with liquid crystalline order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jaritza

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is an effective route to prepare glasses with a unique combination of properties. Substrate temperatures near the glass transition (Tg) and slow deposition rates can access enhanced mobility at the surface of the glass allowing molecules at the surface additional time to sample different molecular configurations. The temperature of the substrate can be used to control molecular mobility during deposition and properties in the resulting glasses such as higher density, kinetic stability and preferential molecular orientation. PVD was used to prepare glasses of itraconazole, a smectic A liquid crystal. We characterized molecular orientation using infrared and ellipsometry. Molecular orientation can be controlled by choice of Tsubstrate in a range of temperatures near Tg. Glasses deposited at Tsubstrate = Tg show nearly vertical molecular orientation relative to the substrate; at lower Tsubstrate, molecules are nearly parallel to the substrate. The molecular orientation depends on the temperature of the substrate during preparation and not on the molecular orientation of the underlying layer. This allows preparing samples of layers with differing orientations. We find these glasses are homogeneous solids without evidence of domain boundaries and are molecularly flat. We interpret the combination of properties obtained for vapor-deposited glasses of itraconazole to result from a process where molecular orientation is determined by the structure and dynamics at the free surface of the glass during deposition. We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses prepared using PVD of a rod-like molecule, posaconazole, which does not show equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These glasses show substantial molecular orientation that can be controlled by choice of Tsubstrate during deposition. Ellipsometry and IR indicate that glasses prepared at Tg - 3 K are highly ordered. At these Tsubstrate, molecules show preferential vertical

  4. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  5. High performance SERS on nanoporous gold substrates synthesized by chemical de-alloying a Au-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yanpeng; Scaglione, Federico; Rizzi, Paola; Battezzati, Livio

    2017-12-01

    A Au20Cu48Ag7Pd5Si20 metallic glass precursor has been used to synthesize nanoporous gold by chemical de-alloying in a mixture of HNO3 and HF. Gold ligaments of size ranging from 45 to 100 nm were obtained as a function of HNO3 concentration, electrolyte temperature and de-alloying time. The as-prepared nanoporous gold exhibited strong surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect using 4,4‧-bi-pyridine as probe molecule. For application in melamine sensing, the detection limit of 10-6 M was achieved, which indicated that this biocompatible material has great potential as SERS active substrate.

  6. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  7. Substrate Curvature Restricts Spreading and Induces Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joo; Yang, Shengyuan

    2017-09-01

    While cells attach, spread, migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical environments, the mechanical factors of these environments influence the shapes, sizes, and adhesion forces of the cells. Here, the authors culture human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on a unique class of curvature-defined substrates, micro glass ball embedded polyacrylamide gels, prepared with an improved protocol, and investigate the spreading responses of the hMSCs on the glass balls to study the effects of substrate curvature on the spreading of hMSCs. The authors find that, among the used diameters of glass balls, the minimum diameter of a glass ball on which an hMSC can attach and spread is 500 μm. In contrast to the well-spread morphologies with randomly-multiple lamellipodia for the hMSCs growing on the flat glass plates, the morphologies of the hMSCs growing on the glass balls are almost uniformly spindle-shaped with two lamellipodia. The sensitivities of the attachment and spreading morphology of an hMSC to substrate curvature are very different from those of a fibroblast. The RT-PCR analysis reveals that the substrate curvature alone can induce adipogenesis of the hMSCs. These findings imply that substrate curvature has profound effects on stem cell behaviors, and detailed and in-depth studies on these effects and their underlying biophysical mechanisms are necessary. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Method for making glass-ceramic articles exhibiting high frangibility

    DOEpatents

    Beall, George H.; Brydges, III., William T.; Ference, Joseph; Kozlowski, Theodore R.

    1976-02-03

    This invention is concerned with glass-ceramic articles having compositions within a very narrowly-delimited area of the MgO-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -B.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 field and having alpha-quartz and sapphirine as the principal crystal phases, resulting from nucleation through a combination of TiO.sub.2 and ZrO.sub.2. Upon contacting such articles with lithium ions at an elevated temperature, said lithium ions will replace magnesium ions on a two Li.sup.+-for-one Mg.sup..sup.+2 basis within the crystal structures, thereby providing a unitary glass-ceramic article having an integral surface layer wherein the principal crystal phase is a lithium-stuffed beta-quartz solid solution. That transformation of crystal phases results in compressive stresses being set up within the surface layer as the articles are cooled. Through the careful control of composition, crystallization treatment, and the parameters of the replacement reaction in the crystal structures, a tremendous degree of stored elastic energy can be developed within the articles such that they will demonstrate frangibility when fractured but will not exhibit undesirable spontaneous breakage and/or spalling.

  9. Microcraters formed in glass by projectiles of various densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, J. F.; Mandeville, J.-C.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was conducted investigating the effect of projectile density on the structure and size of craters in soda lime glass and fused quartz. The projectiles were spheres of polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB), aluminum, and iron with velocities between 0.5 and 15 km/sec and diameters between 0.4 and 5 microns. The projectile densities spanned the range expected for primary and secondary particles of micrometer size at the lunar surface, and the velocities spanned the lower range of micrometeoroid velocities and the upper range of secondary projectile velocities. There are changes in crater morphology as the impact velocity increases, and the transitions occur at lower velocities for the projectiles of higher density. The sequence of morphological features of the craters found for PS-DVB impacting soda lime glass for increasing impact velocity, described in a previous work (Mandeville and Vedder, 1971), also occurs in fused quartz and in both targets with the more dense aluminum and iron projectiles. Each transition in morphology occurs at impact velocities generating a certain pressure in the target. High density projectiles require a lower velocity than low-density projectiles to generate a given shock pressure.

  10. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  11. In situ electric properties of Ag films deposited on rough substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Yu, Sen-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Ju; Chen, Miao-Gen; Jiao, Zhi-Wei; Si, Ping-Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Silver (Ag) films have been deposited on rough substrates (including frosted glass and silicone grease), and for comparison on flat glass, by DC-magnetron sputtering, and their sheet resistances measured in situ during deposition. It is found that the growth of Ag films proceeds through three distinct stages: discontinuous, semi-continuous, and continuous regimes. The sheet resistance on rough substrates jumps in the vicinity of the percolation threshold, whereas the resistance on flat substrates decreases monotonically during deposition. The abnormal in situ electric properties on rough substrates are well explained based on the differences of the growth mechanism and microstructure of Ag films on different substrates.

  12. The relationship between structural and optical properties of Se-Ge-As glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayebloo, M.; Rezvani, M.; Tavoosi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the structural and optical characterization of bulk Se-Ge-As glasses has been investigated. In this regards, six different Se60Ge40-xAsx (0 ≤ x ≤ 25) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique in quartz ampoule. The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The fundamental absorption edge for all the glasses was analyzed in terms of the theory proposed by Davis and Mott. According to achieved results, fully amorphous phase can easily form in different Se-Ge-As systems. The thermal and optical characteristic of Se60Ge40-xAsx glasses shows anomalous behavior at 5 mol% of As for the glass transition temperature, transmittance, absorption edge, optical energy gap and Urbach energy. The highest glass transition temperature, transmittance, optical energy gap and Urbach energy properties were achieved in Se60Ge35As5 glass as a result of the highest connectivity of cations and anions in glass network.

  13. Imaging Demonstration of a Glass Gas Electron Multiplier with Electronic Charge Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuya, Yuki; Thuiner, Patrik; Oliveri, Eraldo; Resnati, Filippo; Stenis, Miranda van; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ropelewski, Leszek

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a Glass Gas Electron Multiplier (Glass GEM, G-GEM), which is composed of two copper electrodes separated by a photosensitive etchable glass substrate having holes arranged in a hexagonal pattern. In this paper, we report the result of imaging using a G-GEM combined with a 2D electronic charge readout. We used a crystallized photosensitive etchable glass as the G-GEM substrate. A precise X-ray image of a small mammal was successfully obtained with position resolutions of approximately 110 to 140 μm in RMS.

  14. Electrostatic transfer of epitaxial graphene to glass.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ohta, Taisuke; Pan, Wei; Howell, Stephen Wayne

    2010-12-01

    We report on a scalable electrostatic process to transfer epitaxial graphene to arbitrary glass substrates, including Pyrex and Zerodur. This transfer process could enable wafer-level integration of graphene with structured and electronically-active substrates such as MEMS and CMOS. We will describe the electrostatic transfer method and will compare the properties of the transferred graphene with nominally-equivalent 'as-grown' epitaxial graphene on SiC. The electronic properties of the graphene will be measured using magnetoresistive, four-probe, and graphene field effect transistor geometries [1]. To begin, high-quality epitaxial graphene (mobility 14,000 cm2/Vs and domains >100 {micro}m2) is grown on SiC in an argon-mediated environmentmore » [2,3]. The electrostatic transfer then takes place through the application of a large electric field between the donor graphene sample (anode) and the heated acceptor glass substrate (cathode). Using this electrostatic technique, both patterned few-layer graphene from SiC(000-1) and chip-scale monolayer graphene from SiC(0001) are transferred to Pyrex and Zerodur substrates. Subsequent examination of the transferred graphene by Raman spectroscopy confirms that the graphene can be transferred without inducing defects. Furthermore, the strain inherent in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) is found to be partially relaxed after the transfer to the glass substrates.« less

  15. Subpicosecond pulses from a neodymium-glass laser with a solid-liquid phototropic shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, G. B.; Dulneva, E. G.; Karasev, V. B.; Okishev, A. V.; Telegin, L. S.

    1985-02-01

    Subpicosecond, spectrally limited pulses were generated in a mode-locked silicate-Nd-glass laser by means of a phototropic shutter. The shutter featured molecules of an organic dye added to a matrix composed of an isobutyl alcohol-filled quartz micropore glass plate. A coating on the inner surface of one of the cell windows was 0.99 reflective at the lasing wavelength. Single pulses with 0.5-1 psec length were generated, validating the use of a solid-liquid shutter for producing subpicosecond pulses with a Nd-glass laser. Furthermore, the liquid component permitted output powers of up to 5 W/sq cm without eliciting thermooptical effects.

  16. High-Throughput Characterization of Vapor-Deposited Organic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Shakeel S.

    Glasses are non-equilibrium materials which on short timescales behave like solids, and on long timescales betray their liquid-like structure. The most common way of preparing a glass is to cool the liquid faster than it can structurally rearrange. Until recently, most preparation schemes for a glass were considered to result in materials with undifferentiable structure and properties. This thesis utilizes a particular preparation method, physical vapor deposition, in order to prepare glasses of organic molecules with properties otherwise considered to be unobtainable. The glasses are characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, both as a dilatometric technique and as a reporter of molecular packing. The results reported here develop ellipsometry as a dilatometric technique on a pair of model glass formers, alpha,alpha,beta-trisnaphthylbenzene and indomethacin. It is found that the molecular orientation, as measured by birefringence, can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature during the deposition. In order to efficiently characterize the properties of vapor-deposited indomethacin as a function of substrate temperature, a high-throughput method is developed to capture the entire interesting range of substrate temperatures in just a few experiments. This high-throughput method is then leveraged to describe molecular mobility in vapor-deposited indomethacin. It is also used to demonstrate that the behavior of organic semiconducting molecules agrees with indomethacin quantitatively, and this agreement has implications for emerging technologies such as light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics and thin-film transistors made from organic molecules.

  17. Spatial variation in deposition rate coefficients of an adhesion-deficient bacterial strain in quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Tong, Meiping; Camesano, Terri A; Johnson, William P

    2005-05-15

    The transport of bacterial strain DA001 was examined in packed quartz sand under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Under all conditions, the retained bacterial concentrations decreased with distance from the column inlet at a rate that was faster than loglinear, indicating that the deposition rate coefficient decreased with increasing transport distance. The hyperexponential retained profile contrasted againstthe nonmonotonic retained profiles that had been previously observed for this same bacterial strain in glass bead porous media, demonstrating that the form of deviation from log-linear behavior is highly sensitive to system conditions. The deposition rate constants in quartz sand were orders of magnitude below those expected from filtration theory, even in the absence of electrostatic energy barriers. The degree of hyperexponential deviation of the retained profiles from loglinear behavior did not decrease with increasing ionic strength in quartz sand. These observations demonstrate thatthe observed low adhesion and deviation from log-linear behavior was not driven by electrostatic repulsion. Measurements of the interaction forces between DA001 cells and the silicon nitride tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) showed that the bacterium possesses surface polymers with an average equilibrium length of 59.8 nm. AFM adhesion force measurements revealed low adhesion affinities between silicon nitride and DA001 polymers with approximately 95% of adhesion forces having magnitudes < 0.8 nN. Steric repulsion due to surface polymers was apparently responsible for the low adhesion to silicon nitride, indicating that steric interactions from extracellular polymers controlled DA001 adhesion deficiency and deviation from log-linear behavior on quartz sand.

  18. Roughness measurement and ion-beam polishing of super-smooth optical surfaces of fused quartz and optical ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chkhalo, N I; Churin, S A; Pestov, A E; Salashchenko, N N; Vainer, Yu A; Zorina, M V

    2014-08-25

    The main problems and the approach used by the authors for roughness metrology of super-smooth surfaces designed for diffraction-quality X-ray mirrors are discussed. The limitations of white light interferometry and the adequacy of the method of atomic force microscopy for surface roughness measurements in a wide range of spatial frequencies are shown and the results of the studies of the effect of etching by argon and xenon ions on the surface roughness of fused quartz and optical ceramics, Zerodur, ULE and Sitall, are given. Substrates of fused quartz and ULE with the roughness, satisfying the requirements of diffraction-quality optics intended for working in the spectral range below 10 nm, are made.

  19. Quartz crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  20. Stability of perovskite solar cells on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Ho Won; Chen, Wei; Liu, Fangzhou; He, Yanling; Leung, Tik Lun; Wang, Yushu; Wong, Man Kwong; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Ng, Alan Man Ching; He, Zhubing; Chan, Wai Kin; Tang, Jinyao

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells are emerging photovoltaic technology with potential for low cost, high efficiency devices. Currently, flexible devices efficiencies over 15% have been achieved. Flexible devices are of significant interest for achieving very low production cost via roll-to-roll processing. However, the stability of perovskite devices remains a significant challenge. Unlike glass substrate which has negligible water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), polymeric flexible film substrates suffer from high moisture permeability. As PET and PEN flexible substrates exhibit higher water permeability then glass, transparent flexible backside encapsulation should be used to maximize light harvesting in perovskite layer while WVTR should be low enough. Wide band gap materials are transparent in the visible spectral range low temperature processable and can be a moisture barrier. For flexible substrates, approaches like atomic layer deposition (ALD) and low temperature solution processing could be used for metal oxide deposition. In this work, ALD SnO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and solution processed spin-on-glass was used as the barrier layer on the polymeric side of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated PEN substrates. The UV-Vis transmission spectra of the prepared substrates were investigated. Perovskite solar cells will be fabricated and stability of the devices were encapsulated with copolymer films on the top side and tested under standard ISOS-L-1 protocol and then compared to the commercial unmodified ITO/PET or ITO/PEN substrates. In addition, devices with copolymer films laminated on both sides successfully surviving more than 300 hours upon continuous AM1.5G illumination were demonstrated.

  1. Refractory amorphous metallic (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 coatings on steel substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Khanna, S. K.; Mehra, M.; Johnson, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory metallic coatings of (W/0.6/ Re/0.4/)76B24 (WReB) have been deposited onto glass, quartz, and heat-treated AISI 52100 bearing steel substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited WReB films are amorphous, as shown by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns; chemically homogeneous, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis; and they exhibit a very high (approximately 1000 C) crystallization temperature. Adhesion strength of these coatings on heat-treated AISI 52100 steel is in excess of approximately 20,000 psi and they possess high microhardness (approximately 2400 HV50). Unlubricated wear resistance of such hard and adherent amorphous metallic coatings on AISI 52100 steel is studied using the pin-on-disc method under various loading conditions. Amorphous metallic WReB coatings, about 4 microns thick, exhibit an improvement of more than two and a half orders of magnitude in the unlubricated wear resistance over that of the uncoated AISI 52100 steel.

  2. Vacuum electrolysis of quartz

    DOEpatents

    King, James Claude

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure is directed to a method for processing quartz used in fabricating crystal resonators such that transient frequency change of resonators exposed to pulse irradiation is virtually eliminated. The method involves heating the crystal quartz in a hydrogen-free atmosphere while simultaneously applying an electric field in the Z-axis direction of the crystal. The electric field is maintained during the cool-down phase of the process.

  3. Optically continuous silcrete quartz cements of the St. Peter Sandstone: High precision oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacque L.; Fu, Bin; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2007-08-01

    determined by ion microprobe rules out a systematic regional variation of temperature as predicted for MVT brines and there are no other known heating events in these sediments that were never buried to depths >1 km. The data in this study suggest that quartz overgrowths formed as silcretes in the St. Peter Sandstone from meteoric water with δ 18O values of -10‰ to -5‰ at 10-30 °C. This interpretation runs counter to conventional wisdom based on fibrous or opaline silica cements suggesting that the formation of syntaxial quartz overgrowths requires higher temperatures. While metastable silica cements commonly form at high degrees of silica oversaturation following rapid break-down reactions of materials such as of feldspars or glass, the weathering of a clean quartz arenite is slower facilitating chemical equilibrium and precipitation of crystallographically oriented overgrowths of α-quartz.

  4. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  5. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mn-doping-induced photocatalytic activity enhancement of ZnO nanorods prepared on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nur Ajrina; Fauzia, Vivi; Iwan, S.; Roza, Liszulfah; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Budi, Setia

    2018-05-01

    Mn-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates via a two-steps process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal methods with four different concentrations Mn-doping (0, 1, 3, and 7 mol%). Introduction of Mn into ZnO is known could enhance the photocatalytic activity owing to the increase in the defect sites that effectively suppress the recombination of free electrons and holes. In this study, results show that Mn-doping has effectively modified the nucleations and crystal growth of ZnO, as evidenced by the increasing in the diameter, height, and the number of nanorods per unit area, besides slightly reduced the band gap and increased the oxygen vacancy concentrations in the ZnO lattice. This condition has successfully multiplied the photocatalytic performance of the ZnO nanorods in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the undoped-ZnO sample where in the typical process the MB can be degraded approximately 77% within only 35 min under a UV light irradiation.

  7. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indiummore » Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at

  8. RGB and white-emitting organic lasers on flexible glass.

    PubMed

    Foucher, C; Guilhabert, B; Kanibolotsky, A L; Skabara, P J; Laurand, N; Dawson, M D

    2016-02-08

    Two formats of multiwavelength red, green and blue (RGB) laser on mechanically-flexible glass are demonstrated. In both cases, three all-organic, vertically-emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are assembled onto a common ultra-thin glass membrane substrate and fully encapsulated by a thin polymer overlayer and an additional 50 µm-thick glass membrane in order to improve the performance. The first device format has the three DFB lasers sitting next to each other on the glass substrate. The DFB lasers are simultaneously excited by a single overlapping optical pump, emitting spatially separated red, green and blue laser output with individual thresholds of, respectively, 28 µJ/cm(2), 11 µJ/cm(2) and 32 µJ/cm(2) (for 5 ns pump pulses). The second device format has the three DFB lasers, respectively the red, green and blue laser, vertically stacked onto the flexible glass. This device format emits a white laser output for an optical pump fluence above 42 µJ/cm(2).

  9. Nanosheet controlled epitaxial growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktar, M.; Chopra, A.; Bijkerk, F.; Rijnders, G.

    2014-09-01

    Integration of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films on glass substrates is of high importance for device applications. However, to make use of the superior ferro- and piezoelectric properties of PZT, well-oriented crystalline or epitaxial growth with control of the crystal orientation is a prerequisite. In this article, we report on epitaxial growth of PZT films with (100)- and (110)-orientation achieved by utilizing Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO) and Ti0.87O2 (TO) nanosheets as crystalline buffer layers. Fatigue measurements demonstrated stable ferroelectric properties of these films up to 5 × 109 cycles. (100)-oriented PZT films on CNO nanosheets show a large remnant polarization of 21 μC/cm2 that is the highest remnant polarization value compared to (110)-oriented and polycrystalline films reported in this work. A piezoelectric response of 98 pm/V is observed for (100)-oriented PZT film which is higher than the values reported in the literature on Si substrates.

  10. Surface roughening and scaling behavior of vacuum-deposited SnCl{sub 2}Pc organic thin films on different substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Obaidulla, Sk. Md.; Giri, P. K., E-mail: giri@iitg.ernet.in; Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039

    2015-11-30

    The evolution of surface morphology and scaling behavior of tin (IV) phthalocyanine dichloride (SnCl{sub 2}Pc) thin films grown on Si(100) and glass substrates have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and height-height correlation function analysis. X-ray diffraction measurement confirms the crystalline nature of the SnCl{sub 2}Pc thin film on glass substrate, while no crystallographic ordering is present for the film grown on Si substrate. The growth exponent β is found to be much larger for the film on glass substrate (0.48 ± 0.07) as compared to that on Si substrate (0.21 ± 0.08), which may be due to the high step-edge barrier, so-calledmore » Ehrlich-Schwöbel barrier, resulting in the upward dominant growth on glass substrate. From the 2D fast Fourier transform of AFM images and derived scaling exponents, we conclude that the surface evolution follows a mound like growth. These results imply the superiority of glass substrate over the Si substrate for the growth of device quality SnCl{sub 2}Pc thin film.« less

  11. Development of a tuned interfacial force field parameter set for the simulation of protein adsorption to silica glass.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James A; Abramyan, Tigran; Yancey, Jeremy A; Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Stuart, Steven J; Latour, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption free energies for eight host-guest peptides (TGTG-X-GTGT, with X = N, D, G, K, F, T, W, and V) on two different silica surfaces [quartz (100) and silica glass] were calculated using umbrella sampling and replica exchange molecular dynamics and compared with experimental values determined by atomic force microscopy. Using the CHARMM force field, adsorption free energies were found to be overestimated (i.e., too strongly adsorbing) by about 5-9 kcal/mol compared to the experimental data for both types of silica surfaces. Peptide adsorption behavior for the silica glass surface was then adjusted using a modified version of the CHARMM program, which we call dual force-field CHARMM, which allows separate sets of nonbonded parameters (i.e., partial charge and Lennard-Jones parameters) to be used to represent intra-phase and inter-phase interactions within a given molecular system. Using this program, interfacial force field (IFF) parameters for the peptide-silica glass systems were corrected to obtain adsorption free energies within about 0.5 kcal/mol of their respective experimental values, while IFF tuning for the quartz (100) surface remains for future work. The tuned IFF parameter set for silica glass will subsequently be used for simulations of protein adsorption behavior on silica glass with greater confidence in the balance between relative adsorption affinities of amino acid residues and the aqueous solution for the silica glass surface.

  12. Development of a Tuned Interfacial Force Field Parameter Set for the Simulation of Protein Adsorption to Silica Glass

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James A.; Abramyan, Tigran; Yancey, Jeremy A.; Thyparambil, Aby A.; Wei, Yang; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption free energies for eight host–guest peptides (TGTG-X-GTGT, with X = N, D, G, K, F, T, W, and V) on two different silica surfaces [quartz (100) and silica glass] were calculated using umbrella sampling and replica exchange molecular dynamics and compared with experimental values determined by atomic force microscopy. Using the CHARMM force field, adsorption free energies were found to be overestimated (i.e., too strongly adsorbing) by about 5–9 kcal/mol compared to the experimental data for both types of silica surfaces. Peptide adsorption behavior for the silica glass surface was then adjusted using a modified version of the CHARMM program, which we call dual force-field CHARMM, which allows separate sets of nonbonded parameters (i.e., partial charge and Lennard-Jones parameters) to be used to represent intra-phase and inter-phase interactions within a given molecular system. Using this program, interfacial force field (IFF) parameters for the peptide-silica glass systems were corrected to obtain adsorption free energies within about 0.5 kcal/mol of their respective experimental values, while IFF tuning for the quartz (100) surface remains for future work. The tuned IFF parameter set for silica glass will subsequently be used for simulations of protein adsorption behavior on silica glass with greater confidence in the balance between relative adsorption affinities of amino acid residues and the aqueous solution for the silica glass surface. PMID:22941539

  13. INERTIAL CASCADE IMPACTOR SUBSTRATE MEDIA FOR FLUE GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes Southern Research Institute's experience with greases and glass fiber filter material used as collection substrates in inertial cascade impactors. Available greases and glass fiber filter media have been tested to determine which are most suitable for flue g...

  14. Relationship between Mass Loading and Frequency Temperature Characteristics of AT-Cut Quartz Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xun; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Goka, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuaki

    2003-07-01

    Past experiments indicated that the mass loading (R) results in a shift of the apparent orientation angle of the quartz plate and this shift is proportional to the thickness of the metal film and the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients (α) of the electrode and the substrate. In this study, first we make a new model that includes the anisotropy of quartz based on the model of EerNisse [Proc. 29th Annu. Freq. Control Symp., 1975, p. 1] to obtain the thermally induced strain bias. Then, we deduce a simple relationship for the thickness shear vibrations from Lee and Tang’s [IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. & Freq. Control 34 (1987) 659] theory of small-magnitude vibration superposing on the bias strain field. A new method which can enable a strict analysis of the phenomenon is thus developed. The simulation of several kinds of metal films is performed. The results agree well with the above-mentioned experimental results.

  15. The effect of substrate on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in atomic thin films.

    PubMed

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2014-07-14

    Glasses have a wide range of technological applications. The recent discovery of ultrastable glasses that are obtained by depositing the vapor of a glass-forming liquid onto the surface of a cold substrate has sparked renewed interest in the effects of confinements on physicochemical properties of liquids and glasses. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of substrate on thin films of a model glass-forming liquid, the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system, and compute profiles of several thermodynamic and kinetic properties across the film. We observe that the substrate can induce large oscillations in profiles of thermodynamic properties such as density, composition, and stress, and we establish a correlation between the oscillations in total density and the oscillations in normal stress. We also demonstrate that the kinetic properties of an atomic film can be readily tuned by changing the strength of interactions between the substrate and the liquid. Most notably, we show that a weakly attractive substrate can induce the emergence of a highly mobile region in its vicinity. In this highly mobile region, structural relaxation is several times faster than in the bulk, and the exploration of the potential energy landscape is also more efficient. In the subsurface region near a strongly attractive substrate, however, the dynamics is decelerated and the sampling of the potential energy landscape becomes less efficient than the bulk. We explain these two distinct behaviors by establishing a correlation between the oscillations in kinetic properties and the oscillations in lateral stress. Our findings offer interesting opportunities for designing better substrates for the vapor deposition process or developing alternative procedures for situations where vapor deposition is not feasible.

  16. Quartz ball valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, C.; Ingle, W. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A ball valve particularly suited for use in the handling of highly corrosive fluids is described. It is characterized by a valve housing formed of communicating segments of quartz tubing, a pair of communicating sockets disposed in coaxial alignment with selected segments of tubing for establishing a pair of inlet ports communicating with a common outlet port, a ball formed of quartz material supported for displacement between the sockets and configured to be received alternately thereby, and a valve actuator including a rod attached to the ball for selectively displacing the ball relative to each of the sockets for controlling fluid flow through the inlet ports.

  17. Quartz c-axis orientation patterns in fracture cement as a measure of fracture opening rate and a validation tool for fracture pattern models

    DOE PAGES

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.; Marrett, Randall

    2016-03-09

    Here, we evaluate a published model for crystal growth patterns in quartz cement in sandstone fractures by comparing crystal fracture-spanning predictions to quartz c-axis orientation distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of spanning quartz deposits. Samples from eight subvertical opening-mode fractures in four sandstone formations, the Jurassic– Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation, northwestern Alberta Foothills (Canada), Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (USA; Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation), Piceance Basin, Colorado (USA), and upper Jurassic–lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group (Taylor sandstone) and overlying Travis Peak Formation, east Texas, have similar quartzose composition and grain size but contain fractures with different temperature historiesmore » and opening rates based on fluid inclusion assemblages and burial history. Spherical statistical analysis shows that, in agreement with model predictions, bridging crystals have a preferred orientation with c-axis orientations at a high angle to fracture walls. The second form of validation is for spanning potential that depends on the size of cut substrate grains. Using measured cut substrate grain sizes and c-axis orientations of spanning bridges, we calculated the required orientation for the smallest cut grain to span the maximum gap size and the required orientation of the crystal with the least spanning potential to form overgrowths that span across maximum measured gap sizes. We find that within a 10° error all spanning crystals conform to model predictions. Using crystals with the lowest spanning potential based on crystallographic orientation (c-axis parallel to fracture wall) and a temperature range for fracture opening measured from fluid inclusion assemblages, we calculate maximum fracture opening rates that allow crystals to span. These rates are comparable to those derived independently from fracture temperature histories based on burial history and

  18. Quartz c-axis orientation patterns in fracture cement as a measure of fracture opening rate and a validation tool for fracture pattern models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.; Marrett, Randall

    Here, we evaluate a published model for crystal growth patterns in quartz cement in sandstone fractures by comparing crystal fracture-spanning predictions to quartz c-axis orientation distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of spanning quartz deposits. Samples from eight subvertical opening-mode fractures in four sandstone formations, the Jurassic– Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation, northwestern Alberta Foothills (Canada), Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (USA; Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation), Piceance Basin, Colorado (USA), and upper Jurassic–lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group (Taylor sandstone) and overlying Travis Peak Formation, east Texas, have similar quartzose composition and grain size but contain fractures with different temperature historiesmore » and opening rates based on fluid inclusion assemblages and burial history. Spherical statistical analysis shows that, in agreement with model predictions, bridging crystals have a preferred orientation with c-axis orientations at a high angle to fracture walls. The second form of validation is for spanning potential that depends on the size of cut substrate grains. Using measured cut substrate grain sizes and c-axis orientations of spanning bridges, we calculated the required orientation for the smallest cut grain to span the maximum gap size and the required orientation of the crystal with the least spanning potential to form overgrowths that span across maximum measured gap sizes. We find that within a 10° error all spanning crystals conform to model predictions. Using crystals with the lowest spanning potential based on crystallographic orientation (c-axis parallel to fracture wall) and a temperature range for fracture opening measured from fluid inclusion assemblages, we calculate maximum fracture opening rates that allow crystals to span. These rates are comparable to those derived independently from fracture temperature histories based on burial history and

  19. Universal elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability in α-quartz and quartz homeotypes under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Juncai; Zhu, Hailiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental property of pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in ice and ice-like materials (notably α-quartz), the occurrence of mechanical instability can be related to violation of Born criteria for elasticity. The most outstanding elastic feature of α-quartz before PIA has been experimentally reported to be the linear softening of shear modulus C44, which was proposed to trigger the transition through Born criteria B3. However, by using density-functional theory, we surprisingly found that both C44 and C66 in α-quartz exhibit strong nonlinearity under compression and the Born criteria B3 vanishes dominated by stiffening of C14, instead of by decreasing of C44. Further studies of archetypal quartz homeotypes (GeO2 and AlPO4) repeatedly reproduced the same elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability, suggesting a universal feature of this family of crystals and challenging the long-standing idea that negative pressure derivatives of individual elastic moduli can be interpreted as the precursor effect to an intrinsic structural instability preceding PIA. The implications of this elastic anomaly in relation to the dispersive softening of the lowest acoustic branch and the possible transformation mechanism were also discussed. PMID:26099720

  20. Universal elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability in α-quartz and quartz homeotypes under pressure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juncai; Zhu, Hailiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2015-06-23

    As a fundamental property of pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in ice and ice-like materials (notably α-quartz), the occurrence of mechanical instability can be related to violation of Born criteria for elasticity. The most outstanding elastic feature of α-quartz before PIA has been experimentally reported to be the linear softening of shear modulus C44, which was proposed to trigger the transition through Born criteria B3. However, by using density-functional theory, we surprisingly found that both C44 and C66 in α-quartz exhibit strong nonlinearity under compression and the Born criteria B3 vanishes dominated by stiffening of C14, instead of by decreasing of C44. Further studies of archetypal quartz homeotypes (GeO2 and AlPO4) repeatedly reproduced the same elastic-hardening-driven mechanical instability, suggesting a universal feature of this family of crystals and challenging the long-standing idea that negative pressure derivatives of individual elastic moduli can be interpreted as the precursor effect to an intrinsic structural instability preceding PIA. The implications of this elastic anomaly in relation to the dispersive softening of the lowest acoustic branch and the possible transformation mechanism were also discussed.

  1. Immersion angle dependence of the resonant-frequency shift of the quartz crystal microbalance in a liquid: effects of longitudinal wave.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Minoru; Kobirata, Satoshi; Aizawa, Hideo; Kurosawa, Shigeru

    2007-06-19

    We investigated the effects of the longitudinal wave on the immersion angle dependence of the resonant-frequency shift, deltaF, of the quartz crystal microbalance, QCM. In order to study exactly the effects, we employed the three types of cells: normal cell, cell with the glass beads and cell with sponge. The longitudinal wave exists in the normal cell. On the other hand, both the cell with the glass beads and the cell with sponge eliminate the longitudinal wave. As results, we have found that the tendencies of deltaF are the same in the three types of cells. That is, we conclude that the longitudinal wave does not have effects on the immersion angle dependence of deltaF.

  2. Quartz tuning fork-based frequency modulation atomic force spectroscopy and microscopy with all digital phase-locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sangmin; Hong, Mun-heon; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Lee, Kunyoung; Lee, Manhee; Jhe, Wonho

    2012-11-01

    We present a platform for the quartz tuning fork (QTF)-based, frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) system for quantitative study of the mechanical or topographical properties of nanoscale materials, such as the nano-sized water bridge formed between the quartz tip (˜100 nm curvature) and the mica substrate. A thermally stable, all digital phase-locked loop is used to detect the small frequency shift of the QTF signal resulting from the nanomaterial-mediated interactions. The proposed and demonstrated novel FM-AFM technique provides high experimental sensitivity in the measurement of the viscoelastic forces associated with the confined nano-water meniscus, short response time, and insensitivity to amplitude noise, which are essential for precision dynamic force spectroscopy and microscopy.

  3. Quartz tuning fork-based frequency modulation atomic force spectroscopy and microscopy with all digital phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    An, Sangmin; Hong, Mun-heon; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Lee, Kunyoung; Lee, Manhee; Jhe, Wonho

    2012-11-01

    We present a platform for the quartz tuning fork (QTF)-based, frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) system for quantitative study of the mechanical or topographical properties of nanoscale materials, such as the nano-sized water bridge formed between the quartz tip (~100 nm curvature) and the mica substrate. A thermally stable, all digital phase-locked loop is used to detect the small frequency shift of the QTF signal resulting from the nanomaterial-mediated interactions. The proposed and demonstrated novel FM-AFM technique provides high experimental sensitivity in the measurement of the viscoelastic forces associated with the confined nano-water meniscus, short response time, and insensitivity to amplitude noise, which are essential for precision dynamic force spectroscopy and microscopy.

  4. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  5. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Rice, Jarrett A.; ...

    2016-05-23

    The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification. Here, to investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700°C before the emerging glass-forming melt was completely connected. Above 700°C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles gradually dissolved in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded with transient foam. Finally, knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion willmore » help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.« less

  6. Measurement of Interfacial Adhesion in Glass-Epoxy Systems Using the Indentation Method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hutchins, Karen Isabel

    2015-07-01

    The adhesion of coatings often controls the performance of the substrate-coating system. Certain engineering applications require an epoxy coating on a brittle substrate to protect and improve the performance of the substrate. Experimental observations and measurements of interfacial adhesion in glass-epoxy systems are described in this thesis. The Oliver and Pharr method was utilized to calculate the bulk epoxy hardness and elastic modulus. Spherical indentations were used to induce delaminations at the substrate-coating interface. The delamination sizes as a function of load were used to calculate the interfacial toughness. The interfacial fracture energy of my samples is an order ofmore » magnitude higher than a previous group who studied a similar glass-epoxy system. A comparison study of how different glass treatments affect adhesion was also conducted: smooth versus rough, clean versus dirty, stressed versus non-stressed.« less

  7. GaN-on-glass success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    The successful growth of GaN-based LEDs on amorphous glass avoids the size and cost limitations of a sapphire substrate, says Jun Hee Choi from the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology in South Korea.

  8. Graphene as discharge layer for electron beam lithography on insulating substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junku; Li, Qunqing; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Lihui; Chen, Mo; Fan, Shoushan

    2013-09-01

    Charging of insulating substrates is a common problem during Electron Beam lithography (EBL), which deflects the beam and distorts the pattern. A homogeneous, electrically conductive, and transparent graphene layer is used as a discharge layer for EBL processes on insulating substrates. The EBL resolution is improved compared with the metal discharge layer. Dense arrays of holes with diameters of 50 nm and gratings with line/space of 50/30 nm are obtained on quartz substrate. The pattern placement errors and proximity effect are suppressed over a large area and high quality complex nanostructures are fabricated using graphene as a conductive layer.

  9. Long range wetting transparency on top of layered metal dielectric substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    multi-layered stacks were deposited onto glass substrates ( silica -based Micro cover glass , 22mmx22mm from VWR (48366-067), index of refraction n...necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Long-range wetting transparency on top of layered metal-dielectric substrates M. A...as far as ~100 nm beneath the water/MgF2 interface. We refer to this phenomenon as long range wetting transparency . The latter effect cannot be

  10. PZT piezoelectric films on glass for Gen-X imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The proposed adaptive optics system for the Gen-X telescope uses piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. The low softening transition of the glass substrates imposes several processing challenges that require the development of new approaches to deposit high quality PZT thin films. Synthesis and optimization of chemical solution deposited 1 μm thick films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 on small area (1 in2) and large area (16 in2) Pt/Ti/glass substrates has been performed. In order to avoid warping of the glass at temperatures typically used to crystallize PZT films ({700°C), a lower temperature, two-step crystallization process was employed. An {80 nm thick seed layer of PbZr0.30Ti0.70O3 was deposited to promote the growth of the perovskite phase. After the deposition of the seed layer, the films were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) furnace at 550°C for 3 minutes to nucleate the perovskite phase. This was followed by isothermal annealing at 550°C for 1 hour to complete crystallization. For the subsequent PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 layers, the same RTA protocol was performed, with the isothermal crystallization implemented following the deposition of three PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 spin-coated layers. Over the frequency range of 1 kHz to 100 kHz, films exhibit relative permittivity values near 800 with loss tangents below 0.07. Hysteresis loops show low levels of imprint with coercive fields of 40-50 kV/cm in the forward direction and 50-70 kV/cm in the reverse direction. The remanent polarization varied from 25-35 μC/cm2 and e31,f values were approximately -5.0 C/m2. In scaling up the growth procedure to large area films, where warping becomes more pronounced due to the increased size of the substrate, the pyrolysis and crystallization conditions were performed in a box furnace to improve the temperature uniformity. By depositing films on both sides of the glass substrate, the tensile stresses are balanced, providing a

  11. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  12. Si-29 NMR spectroscopy of naturally-shocked quartz from Meteor Crater, Arizona: Correlation to Kieffer's classification scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Cygan, R. T.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied solid state Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to five naturally-shocked Coconino Sandstone samples from Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of examining possible correlations between NMR spectral characteristics and shock level. This work follows our observation of a strong correlation between the width of a Si-29 resonance and peak shock pressure for experimentally shocked quartz powders. The peak width increase is due to the shock-induced formation of amorphous silica, which increases as a function of shock pressure over the range that we studied (7.5 to 22 GPa). The Coconino Sandstone spectra are in excellent agreement with the classification scheme of Kieffer in terms of presence and approximate abundances of quartz, coesite, stishovite, and glass. We also observe a new resonance in two moderately shocked samples that we have tentatively identified with silicon in tetrahedra with one hydroxyl group in a densified form of amorphous silica.

  13. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  14. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form. [Yucca Mountain Project

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300{degrees}C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surfacemore » reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 {degrees}C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs.« less

  15. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis. PMID:24686729

  16. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.

    1985-02-19

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  17. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  18. MAS-NMR studies of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses and glass-ceramics having different Li 2O/Al 2O 3 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of phases in lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses of composition (wt%) xLi 2O-71.7SiO 2-(17.7- x)Al 2O 3-4.9K 2O-3.2B 2O 3-2.5P 2O 5 (5.1≤ x≤12.6) upon heat treatment were studied. 29Si, 27Al, 31P and 11B MAS-NMR were employed for structural characterization of both LAS glasses and glass-ceramics. In glass samples, Al is found in tetrahedral coordination, while P exists mainly in the form of orthophosphate units. B exists as BO 3 and BO 4 units. 27Al NMR spectra show no change with crystallization, ruling out the presence of any Al containing phase. Contrary to X-ray diffraction studies carried out, 11B (high field 18.8 T) and 29Si NMR spectra clearly indicate the unexpected crystallization of a borosilicate phase (Li,K)BSi 2O 6, whose structure is similar to the aluminosilicate virgilite. Also, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) and quartz (SiO 2) were identified in the 29Si NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics. 31P NMR spectra of the glass-ceramics revealed the presence of Li 3PO 4 and a mixed phase (Li,K) 3PO 4 at low alkali concentrations.

  19. Facile surface modification of glass with zwitterionic polymers for improving the blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Xiaojuan; Liu, Pingsheng; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Haomiao; Li, Li

    2018-06-01

    A facile procedure to modify glass film with zwitterionic polymers for improving the blood compatibility was introduced. The glass slides were first silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPT) to generate methacrylate groups on the surface. Then, N, N’-dimethyl-N-methacryloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium (DMMSA), a sulfobetaine zwitterionic monomer, was polymerized on the silanized glass substrates by free-radical polymerization in order to graft the zwitterionic polymers onto the substrates. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized to analyze the surface properties of the grafted glass. The blood compatibility of the grafted glass was verified by whole blood contacting and platelet adhesion experiments in vitro. The results showed that the zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted on the glass surface, and consequently significantly inhibited the platelet adhesion and whole blood cell attachment.

  20. Mechanical and optical nanodevices in single-crystal quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Miller, Rachel; Venkataraman, Vivek; Lončar, Marko

    2017-12-01

    Single-crystal α-quartz, one of the most widely used piezoelectric materials, has enabled a wide range of timing applications. Owing to the fact that an integrated thin-film based quartz platform is not available, most of these applications rely on macroscopic, bulk crystal-based devices. Here, we show that the Faraday cage angled-etching technique can be used to realize nanoscale electromechanical and photonic devices in quartz. Using this approach, we demonstrate quartz nanomechanical cantilevers and ring resonators featuring Qs of 4900 and 8900, respectively.

  1. Comparative study of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsari, E.; Kostopoulou, M.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Rapakoulias, D. E.

    2011-05-01

    The deposition of hydrophobic fluorocarbon coatings from C2F6 and C2F6-H2 rf discharges on different substrates was examined. Polyester textile, glass and two different ceramic compounds were used as substrates. The effect of the total gas pressure, the rf power dissipation and the deposition time on the hydrophobic character of the samples was investigated. Films deposited on polyester textiles at low pressure (0.03 mbar) and power consumption (16 mW cm-2) using pure C2F6 presented the highest water contact angles (~150°). On the other hand, the addition of hydrogen was necessary in order to deposit stable hydrophobic coatings on glass and ceramic substrates. Coatings deposited on glass at intermediate deposition rates (~100 Å min-1) and pressures presented the highest angles (~105°). Concerning the heavy clay ceramics, samples treated in low-pressure (0.05 mbar) and low-power (16 mW cm-2) discharges showed the highest contact angles. The deposition time was found to play an important role in the hydrophobicity and long-term behaviour of porous and rough substrates.

  2. Experimental study on the ejecta-velocity distributions caused by low-velocity impacts on quartz sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujido, S.; Arakawa, M.; Suzuki, A. I.; Yasui, M.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Regolith formation on asteroids is caused by successive impacts of small bodies. The ejecta velocity distribution during the crater formation process is one of the most important physical properties related to the surface-evolution process, and the distribution is also necessary to reconstruct the planetary-accretion process among planetesimals. The surface of small bodies, such as asteroids and planetesimals in the solar system, could have varying porosity, strength, and density, and the impact velocity could vary across a wide range from a few tens of m/s to several km/s. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct impact experiments by changing the physical properties of the target and the projectile in a wide velocity range in order to constrain the crater-formation process applicable to the small bodies in the solar system. Housen and Holsapple (2011) compiled the data of ejecta velocity distribution with various impact velocities, porosities, grain sizes, grain shapes, and strengths of the targets, and they improved their ejecta scaling law. But the ejecta velocity data is not enough for varying projectile densities and for impact velocities less than 1 km/s. In this study, to investigate the projectile density dependence of the ejecta velocity distribution at a low velocity region, we conducted impact experiments with projectile densities from 1.1 to 11.3 g/cm^3. Then, we try to determine the effect of projectile density on the ejecta velocity distribution by means of the observation of each individual ejecta grain. Experimental methods: We made impact cratering experiments by using a vertical-type one-stage light-gas gun (V-LGG) set at Kobe University. Targets were quartz sand (irregular shape) and glass beads (spherical shape) with the grain size of 500 μ m (porosity 44.7 %). The target container with the size of 30 cm was set in a large vacuum chamber with air pressure less than 10^3 Pa. The projectile materials that we used were lead, copper

  3. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  4. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications

    PubMed Central

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude. PMID:29099765

  5. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    PubMed

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  6. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hung, Cheng-Hung; McCamy, James; Ashtosh, Ganjoo

    2017-01-27

    The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate manufacturing processes for technologies that will enable commercialization of a large-area and low-cost “integrated substrate” product for rigid OLED SSL lighting. The integrated substrate product will consist of a low cost, float glass substrate combined with a transparent conductive anode film layer, and light out-coupling (internal and external extraction layers) structures. In combination, these design elements will enable an integrated substrate meeting or exceeding 2015 performance targets for cost ($60/m2), extraction efficiency (50%) and sheet resistance (<10 ohm/sq).

  7. Second-harmonic phonon spectroscopy of α -quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winta, Christopher J.; Gewinner, Sandy; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Wolf, Martin; Paarmann, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate midinfrared second-harmonic generation as a highly sensitive phonon spectroscopy technique that we exemplify using α -quartz (SiO2) as a model system. A midinfrared free-electron laser provides direct access to optical phonon resonances ranging from 350 to 1400 cm-1 . While the extremely wide tunability and high peak fields of a free-electron laser promote nonlinear spectroscopic studies—complemented by simultaneous linear reflectivity measurements—azimuthal scans reveal crystallographic symmetry information of the sample. Additionally, temperature-dependent measurements show how damping rates increase, phonon modes shift spectrally and in certain cases disappear completely when approaching Tc=846 K where quartz undergoes a structural phase transition from trigonal α -quartz to hexagonal β -quartz, demonstrating the technique's potential for studies of phase transitions.

  8. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji

    2015-03-15

    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glassmore » substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.« less

  9. Carbon dioxide/brine wettability of porous sandstone versus solid quartz: An experimental and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Alnili, Firas; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed; Roshan, Hamid; Rahman, Taufiq; Verall, Michael; Lebedev, Maxim; Sarmadivaleh, Mohammad; Iglauer, Stefan; Barifcani, Ahmed

    2018-08-15

    Wettability plays an important role in underground geological storage of carbon dioxide because the fluid flow and distribution mechanism within porous media is controlled by this phenomenon. CO 2 pressure, temperature, brine composition, and mineral type have significant effects on wettability. Despite past research on this subject, the factors that control the wettability variation for CO 2 /water/minerals, particularly the effects of pores in the porous substrate on the contact angle at different pressures, temperatures, and salinities, as well as the physical processes involved are not fully understood. We measured the contact angle of deionised water and brine/CO 2 /porous sandstone samples at different pressures, temperatures, and salinities. Then, we compared the results with those of pure quartz. Finally, we developed a physical model to explain the observed phenomena. The measured contact angle of sandstone was systematically greater than that of pure quartz because of the pores present in sandstone. Moreover, the effect of pressure and temperature on the contact angle of sandstone was similar to that of pure quartz. The results showed that the contact angle increases with increase in temperature and pressure and decreases with increase in salinity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental study of quartz inclusions in garnet at pressures up to 3.0 GPa: evaluating validity of the quartz-in-garnet inclusion elastic thermobarometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Spear, Frank S.

    2018-05-01

    Garnet crystals with quartz inclusions were hydrothermally crystallized from oxide starting materials in piston-cylinder apparatuses at pressures from 0.5 to 3 GPa and temperatures ranging from 700 to 800 °C to study how entrapment conditions affect remnant pressures of quartz inclusions used for quartz-in-garnet (QuiG) elastic thermobarometry. Systematic changes of the 128, 206 and 464 cm-1 Raman band frequencies of quartz were used to determine pressures of quartz inclusions in garnet using Raman spectroscopy calibrations that describe the P-T dependencies of Raman band shifts for quartz under hydrostatic pressure. Within analytical uncertainties, inclusion pressures calculated for each of the three Raman band frequencies are equivalent, which suggests that non-hydrostatic stress effects caused by elastic anisotropy in quartz are smaller than measurement errors. The experimental quartz inclusions have pressures ranging from - 0.351 to 1.247 GPa that span the range of values observed for quartz inclusions in garnets from natural rocks. Quartz inclusion pressures were used to model P-T conditions at which the inclusions could have been trapped. The accuracy of QuiG thermobarometry was evaluated by considering the differences between pressures measured during experiments and pressures calculated using published equation of state parameters for quartz and garnet. Our experimental results demonstrate that Raman measurements performed at room temperature can be used without corrections to estimate garnet crystallization pressures. Calculated entrapment pressures for quartz inclusions in garnet are less than 10% different from pressures measured during the experiments. Because the method is simple to apply with reasonable accuracy, we expect widespread usage of QuiG thermobarometry to estimate crystallization conditions for garnet-bearing silicic rocks.

  11. Method for fabricating transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-09-02

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  12. Volatiles on the surface of Apollo 15 green glass and trace-element distributions among Apollo 15 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, C.-L.; Boynton, W. V.; Sundberg, L. L.; Wasson, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    Zn, Ge, Cd, In, and Au have been detected in surficial deposits on Apollo 15 green-glass spherules, and it is suggested that these deposits are condensates from the magmatic gas phase which was responsible for the pneumatic expulsion of the green glass from the lunar interior. Thermodynamic data indicate that chlorides and fluorides were the dominant forms of the volatile metals. The Ar-40x content of a nongreen-glass soil fraction is greater than that found in green-glass. Mare and low-K Fra Mauro basalts seem to be the most prominent components of Apollo 15 soil. The correlation of Zn with Ar-40x and with Pb-204 is studied, and the distribution of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts is considered.

  13. Characterization of a smartphone size haptic rendering system based on thin-film AlN actuators on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.; Casset, F.; Danel, J. S.; Chappaz, C.; Basrour, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents for the first time the characterization of a smartphone-size haptic rendering system based on the friction modulation effect. According to previous work and finite element modeling, the homogeneous flexural modes are needed to get the haptic feedback effect. The device studied consists of a thin film AlN transducers deposited on an 110  ×  65 mm2 glass substrate. The transducer’s localization on the glass plate allows a transparent central area of 90  ×  49 mm2. Electrical and mechanical parameters of the system are extracted from measurement. From this extraction, the electrical impedance matching reduced the applied voltage to 17.5 V AC and the power consumption to 1.53 W at the resonance frequency of the vibrating system to reach the haptic rendering specification. Transient characterizations of the actuation highlight a delay under the dynamic tactile detection. The characterization of the AlN transducers used as sensors, including the noise rejection, the delay or the output charge amplitude allows detections with high accuracy of any variation due to external influences. Those specifications are the first step to a low-power-consumption feedback-looped system.

  14. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  15. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Coto, Borja; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  16. Conversion of Nuclear Waste to Molten Glass: Cold-Cap Reactions in Crucible Tests

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Rice, Jarrett A.

    2016-05-23

    The feed-to-glass conversion, which comprises complex chemical reactions and phase transitions, occurs in the cold-cap zone during nuclear waste vitrification. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate. To investigate the conversion process, we analyzed heat-treated samples of a simulated high-level waste feed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis – wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, leaching tests, and residual anion analysis. Feed dehydration, gas evolution, and borate phase formation occurred at temperatures below 700 °C before the emerging glass-forming melt wasmore » completely connected. Above 800 °C, intermediate aluminosilicate phases and quartz particles were gradually dissolving in the continuous borosilicate melt, which expanded into transient foam. Knowledge of the chemistry and physics of feed-to-glass conversion will help us control the conversion path by changing the melter feed makeup to maximize the glass production rate.« less

  17. Effect of substrates on Zinc Oxide thin films fabrication using sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Rosmalini Ab; Taib, Nurmalina Mohd; Ahmad, Wan Rosmaria Wan; Aziz, Anees Abdul; Sabirin Zoolfakar, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The properties of ZnO thin films were deposited on three different substrates via dip coating method was investigated. The films were prepared on glass, ITO and p-type silicon. Characterization of the film revealed that the properties of the dip coated ZnO thin films were influenced by the type of substrates. The grains on ITO and glass were ∼10 nm in size while the grains on wafer agglomerate together to form a denser film. Studies of the optical properties using UV-VIS-NIR of the fabricated films demonstrated that glass has the highest transmittance compared to ITO.

  18. Ideal glass transitions in thin films: An energy landscape perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Ganesan, Venkat

    2003-07-01

    We introduce a mean-field model for the potential energy landscape of a thin fluid film confined between parallel substrates. The model predicts how the number of accessible basins on the energy landscape and, consequently, the film's ideal glass transition temperature depend on bulk pressure, film thickness, and the strength of the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition temperature of thin films, suggesting the utility of landscape-based approaches for studying the behavior of confined fluids.

  19. Method for forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Iona, ID

    2008-01-29

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  20. Printing Silver Nanogrids on Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wesley C.; Valcarce, Ron; Iles, Peter; Smith, James S.; Glass, Gabe; Gomez, Jesus; Johnson, Glen; Johnston, Dan; Morham, Maclaine; Befus, Elliot; Oz, Aimee; Tomaraei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript describes a laboratory experiment that provides students with an opportunity to create conductive silver nanogrids using polymeric templates. A microcontact-printed polyvinylpyrrolidone grid directs the citrate-induced reduction of silver ions for the fabrication of silver nanogrids on glass substrates. In addition to…

  1. Glass Polarization Induced Drift of a Closed-Loop Micro-Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; He, Jiangbo; Yu, Huijun; Peng, Bei; He, Xiaoping

    2018-01-20

    The glass polarization effects were introduced in this paper to study the main cause of turn-on drift phenomenon of closed-loop micro-accelerometers. The glass substrate underneath the sensitive silicon structure underwent a polarizing process when the DC bias voltage was applied. The slow polarizing process induced an additional electrostatic field to continually drag the movable mass block from one position to another so that the sensing capacitance was changed, which led to an output drift of micro-accelerometers. This drift was indirectly tested by experiments and could be sharply reduced by a shielding layer deposited on the glass substrate because the extra electrical filed was prohibited from generating extra electrostatic forces on the movable fingers of the mass block. The experimental results indicate the average magnitude of drift decreased about 73%, from 3.69 to 0.99 mV. The conclusions proposed in this paper showed a meaningful guideline to improve the stability of micro-devices based on silicon-on-glass structures.

  2. Glass Polarization Induced Drift of a Closed-Loop Micro-Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiangbo; Yu, Huijun; Peng, Bei; He, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    The glass polarization effects were introduced in this paper to study the main cause of turn-on drift phenomenon of closed-loop micro-accelerometers. The glass substrate underneath the sensitive silicon structure underwent a polarizing process when the DC bias voltage was applied. The slow polarizing process induced an additional electrostatic field to continually drag the movable mass block from one position to another so that the sensing capacitance was changed, which led to an output drift of micro-accelerometers. This drift was indirectly tested by experiments and could be sharply reduced by a shielding layer deposited on the glass substrate because the extra electrical filed was prohibited from generating extra electrostatic forces on the movable fingers of the mass block. The experimental results indicate the average magnitude of drift decreased about 73%, from 3.69 to 0.99 mV. The conclusions proposed in this paper showed a meaningful guideline to improve the stability of micro-devices based on silicon-on-glass structures. PMID:29361685

  3. Wafer-level manufacturing technology of glass microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossner, U.; Hoeftmann, T.; Wieland, R.; Hansch, W.

    2014-08-01

    In high-tech products, there is an increasing demand to integrate glass lenses into complex micro systems. Especially in the lighting industry LEDs and laser diodes used for automotive applications require encapsulated micro lenses. To enable low-cost production, manufacturing of micro lenses on wafer level base using a replication technology is a key technology. This requires accurate forming of thousands of lenses with a diameter of 1-2 mm on a 200 mm wafer compliant with mass production. The article will discuss the technical aspects of a lens manufacturing replication process and the challenges, which need to be solved: choice of an appropriate master for replication, thermally robust interlayer coating, choice of replica glass, bonding and separation procedure. A promising approach for the master substrate material is based on a lens structured high-quality glass wafer with high melting point covered by a coating layer of amorphous silicon or germanium. This layer serves as an interlayer for the glass bonding process. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes allow a deposition of layer coatings with different hydrogen and doping content influencing their chemical and physical behavior. A time reduced molding process using a float glass enables the formation of high quality lenses while preserving the recyclability of the mother substrate. The challenge is the separation of the replica from the master mold. An overview of chemical methods based on optimized etching of coating layer through small channels will be given and the impact of glass etching on surface roughness is discussed.

  4. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed. PMID:28773823

  5. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-08-18

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  6. Epitaxy versus oriented heterogeneous nucleation of organic crystals on ionic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, K. R.; Shlichta, P. J.; Wilcox, W. R.; Lefever, R. A.

    1997-04-01

    It is plausible to assume that epitaxy is a special case of heterogeneous nucleation in which a restrictive crystallographic relationship exists between substrate and deposit orientations. This would mean that epitaxial substrates should always induce a perceptible reduction in the critical supercooling for nucleation of the deposit. To test this hypothesis, the critical supercoolings of six organic compounds were measured on glass and 11 single-crystal cleaved substrates including (0001) graphite, (001) mica, (111) BaF 2, SrF 2, and CaF 2, and (100) KCl, KBr, KI, NaCl, NaF, and LiF. Reductions in supercooling (with reference to glass substrates) were checked many times for repeatability and reproducibility and shown in almost all cases to have a standard deviation of 1 C or less. Acetanilide, benzoic acid, and p-bromochlorobenzene showed a wide range of supercooling reductions and were oriented on all crystalline substrates. Naphthalene and p-dibromobenzene showed only slight supercooling reductions but were oriented on all substrates, including glass. Benzil showed strong supercooling reductions only for mica and KI but was oriented not only in these cases but also with KI, BaF 2, CaF 2, and graphite. There was little correlation between degree of lattice match and either supercooling reduction or degree of preferred orientation. These results suggest that, for the systems and geometry studied, forces such as molecular dipole binding and growth anisotropy had a stronger effect than lattice match.

  7. Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Ju, Yongfeng; Zhang, Long; He, Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Shen, Yinglong; Chen, Danping; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels with arbitrary lengths and configurations inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing. The main fabrication process includes two steps: (1) direct formation of hollow microchannels in a porous glass substrate immersed in water by femtosecond laser ablation and (2) postannealing of the glass substrate at ∼1150°C by which the porous glass can be consolidated. We show that a square-wavelike channel with a total length of ∼1.4 cm and a diameter of ∼64 μm can be easily produced ∼250 μm beneath the glass surface.

  8. A Naturally-Calibrated Flow Law for Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, A. D.; Platt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Flow laws for power-law behavior of quartz deforming by crystal-plastic processes with grain size sensitive creep included take the general form: ė = A σn f(H2O) exp(-Q/RT) dmWhere A - prefactor; σ - differential stress; n - stress exponent; f(H2O) - water fugacity; Q - activation energy; R - gas constant; T - temperature (K); d - grain size sensitivity raised to power m. Assuming the dynamically recrystallized grain size for quartz follows the peizometric relationship, substitute dm = (K σ-p)m, where K - piezometric constant; σ - differential stress; p - piezometric exponent. Rearranging the above flow law: ė = A K σ(n-pm) f(H2O) exp(-Q/RT)We use deformation temperatures, paleo-stresses, and strain rates calculated from rocks deformed in the Caledonian Orogeny, NW Scotland, along with existing experimental data, to compare naturally-calibrated values of stress exponent (n-pm) and activation energy (Q) to those determined experimentally. Microstructures preserved in the naturally-strained rocks closely resemble those produced by experimental work, indicating that quartz was deformed by the same mechanism(s). These observations validate the use of predetermined values for A as well as the addition of experimental data to calculate Q. Values for f(H2O) are based on calculated pressure and temperature conditions. Using the abovementioned constraints, we compare results, discuss challenges, and explore implications of naturally- vs. experimentally-derived flow laws for dislocation creep in quartz. Rocks used for this study include quartzite and quartz-rich psammite of the Cambrian-Ordovician shelf sequence and tectonically overlying Moine Supergroup. In both cases, quartz is likely the primary phase that controlled rheological behavior. We use the empirically derived piezometer for the dynamically recrystallized grain size of quartz to calculate the magnitude of differential stress, along with the Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer and the c-axis opening angle

  9. Fabrication of broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflective surface on glass for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Praveen; Srinivas, G.; Jakeer Khan G., H.; Siju, Barshilia, Harish C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a simple and cost effective HF-vapor phase etching method to fabricate the broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflective surface on glass substrate. Both-sides etched sodalime glass substrates under optimized conditions showed a broadband enhancement in the transmittance spectra with maximum transmittance as high as ~97% at 598 nm. FESEM results confirmed the formation of a graded nanoporous surface, which lowers it refractive index. The etched surface exhibited excellent AR property over a wide range of incidence angles (8°-48°), which is attributed due to the formation of graded porosity. Silicon solar cell covered with plain glass showed Isc of 0.123A and efficiency of 8.76%, while it showed Isc of 0.130A and efficiency of 9.2% when it was covered by etched glass. Furthermore, it exhibited an excellent anti-soiling property as compared to plain glass. All these results show its strong potential in the photovoltaic application.

  10. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  12. An ultrasensitive quartz crystal microbalance-micropillars based sensor for humidity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengtao; Su, Junwei; Su, Che-Fu; Dai, Wen; Cernigliaro, George; Sun, Hongwei

    2014-06-01

    A unique sensing device, which couples microscale pillars with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrate to form a resonant system, is developed to achieve several orders of magnitude enhancement in sensitivity compared to conventional QCM sensors. In this research, Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) micropillars are fabricated on a QCM substrate using nanoimprinting lithography. The effects of pillar geometry and physical properties, tuned by molecular weight (MW) of PMMA, on the resonant characteristics of QCM-micropillars device are systematically investigated. It is found that the resonant frequency shift increases with increasing MW. The coupled QCM-micropillars device displays nonlinear frequency response, which is opposite to the linear response of conventional QCM devices. In addition, a positive resonant frequency shift is captured near the resonant point of the coupled QCM-micropillars system. Humidity detection experiments show that compared to current nanoscale feature based QCM sensors, QCM-micropillars devices offer higher sensitivity and moderate response time. This research points to a novel way of improving sensitivity of acoustic wave sensors without the need for fabricating surface nanostructures.

  13. Reusable three-dimensional nanostructured substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhendong; Li, Qunqing; Bai, Benfeng; Fan, Shoushan

    2014-01-13

    To date, fabricating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured substrate with small nanogap was a laborious challenge by conventional fabrication techniques. In this article, we address a simple, low-cost, large-area, and spatially controllable method to fabricate 3D nanostructures, involving hemisphere, hemiellipsoid, and pyramidal pits based on nanosphere lithography (NSL). These 3D nanostructures were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates of single Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecule. The average SERS enhancement factor achieved up to 1011. The inevitably negative influence of the adhesion-promoting intermediate layer of Cr or Ti was resolved by using such kind of 3D nanostructures. The nanostructured quartz substrate is a free platform as a SERS substrate and is nondestructive when altering with different metal films and is recyclable, which avoids the laborious and complicated fabricating procedures.

  14. Reusable three-dimensional nanostructured substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, fabricating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured substrate with small nanogap was a laborious challenge by conventional fabrication techniques. In this article, we address a simple, low-cost, large-area, and spatially controllable method to fabricate 3D nanostructures, involving hemisphere, hemiellipsoid, and pyramidal pits based on nanosphere lithography (NSL). These 3D nanostructures were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates of single Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecule. The average SERS enhancement factor achieved up to 1011. The inevitably negative influence of the adhesion-promoting intermediate layer of Cr or Ti was resolved by using such kind of 3D nanostructures. The nanostructured quartz substrate is a free platform as a SERS substrate and is nondestructive when altering with different metal films and is recyclable, which avoids the laborious and complicated fabricating procedures. PMID:24417892

  15. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on Si substrates without predeposition of metal catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, J.

    2005-07-01

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be readily synthesized on quartz or silicon-oxide-coated Si substrates using a chemical vapor deposition method, but it is difficult to grow them on pure Si substrates without predeposition of metal catalysts. We report that aligned CNTs were grown by pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine at 1000°C on the templates created on Si substrates with simple mechanical scratching. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray energy spectroscopy analysis revealed that the trenches and patterns created on the surface of Si substrates were preferred nucleation sites for nanotube growth due to a high surface energy, metastable surface structure, and possible capillarity effect. A two-step pyrolysis process maintained Fe as an active catalyst.

  16. VIS-IR transmitting BGG glass windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Chin, Geoff D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2003-09-01

    BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 (BGG) glasses have the desired properties for various window applications in the 0.5-5 μm wavelength region. These glasses are low cost alternatives to the currently used window materials. Fabrication of a high optical quality 18" diameter BGG glass window has been demonstrated with a transmitted wave front error of λ/10 at 632 nm. BGG substrates have also been successfully tested for environmental weatherability (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. Preliminary EMI grids have been successfully applied on BGG glasses demonstrating attenuation of 20dB in X and Ku bands. Although the mechanical properties of BGG glasses are acceptable for various window applications, it is demonstrated here that the properties can be further improved significantly by the glassceramization process. The ceramization process does not add any significant cost to the final window material. The crystallite size in the present glass-ceramic limits its transmission to the 2-5 μm region.

  17. Fabrication of a novel quartz micromachined gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liqiang; Xing, Jianchun; Wang, Haoxu; Wu, Xuezhong

    2015-04-01

    A novel quartz micromachined gyroscope is proposed in this paper. The novel gyroscope is realized by quartz anisotropic wet etching and 3-dimensional electrodes deposition. In the quartz wet etching process, the quality of Cr/Au mask films affecting the process are studied by experiment. An excellent mask film with 100 Å Cr and 2000 Å Au is achieved by optimization of experimental parameters. Crystal facets after etching seriously affect the following sidewall electrodes deposition process and the structure's mechanical behaviours. Removal of crystal facets is successfully implemented by increasing etching time based on etching rate ratios between facets and crystal planes. In the electrodes deposition process, an aperture mask evaporation method is employed to prepare electrodes on 3-dimensional surfaces of the gyroscope structure. The alignments among the aperture masks are realized by the ABM™ Mask Aligner System. Based on the processes described above, a z-axis quartz gyroscope is fabricated successfully.

  18. The next generation CdTe technology- Substrate foil based solar cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ferekides, Chris

    The main objective of this project was the development of one of the most promising Photovoltaic (PV) materials CdTe into a versatile, cost effective, and high throughput technology, by demonstrating substrate devices on foil substrates using high throughput fabrication conditions. The typical CdTe cell is of the superstrate configuration where the solar cell is fabricated on a glass superstrate by the sequential deposition of a TCO, n-type heterojunction partner, p-CdTe absorber, and back contact. Large glass modules are heavy and present significant challenges during manufacturing (uniform heating, etc.). If a substrate CdTe cell could be developed (the main goal ofmore » this project) a roll-to-toll high throughput technology could be developed.« less

  19. Topological phases in (Na2O)x (P2O5)100-x glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Chandi; Chbeir, Ralph; Czaja, Andrew; Chen, Ping; Boolchand, Punit

    We have synthesized titled glasses in the 0 glass was synthesized by flash evaporation of bulk powder in a quartz tube as it was pumped in several attempts, and the variation of Tg and enthalpy of relaxation (ΔHnr) measured for each attempt. These data show that as the glass got drier, Tg increased to 431°C and ΔHnr became miniscule. At higher soda content (x >20%), Tg(x) increased steadily, but with appearance of a local maximum near x = 37.5%. On the other hand ΔHnr term, revealed a Trapezoidal-like minimum in the 32.5 % glasses at x >42.5% in the flexible phase while those in the 20% glasses, and these will discussed with recent results in the field.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  1. Studying the influence of substrate conductivity on the optoelectronic properties of quantum dots langmuir monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alwani, Ammar J.; Chumakov, A. S.; Begletsova, N. N.; Shinkarenko, O. A.; Markin, A. V.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Bratashov, D. N.; Gavrikov, M. V.; Venig, S. B.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) monolayers was studied by Langmuir Blodgett method. The fluorescence (PL) spectra of QD monolayers were investigated at different substrate type (glass, silicon and ITO glass) and the influence of graphene sheets layer (as a conductive surface) on the QDs properties has also been studied. The optoelectronic properties of QDs can be tuned by deposition of insulating nano-size layers of the liquid crystal between QDs and conductive substrate. The monolayer of QDs transferred on conductive surface (glass with ITO) has lowest intensity of PL spectra due to quenching effect. The PL intensity of QDs could be tuned by using various type of substrates or/and by transformed high conductive layer. Also the photooxidation processes of CdSe QDs monolayer on the solid surface can be controlled by selection of suitable substrate. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of QDs thin film on ITO surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Glass and Crystal Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prakash; Sandoval, Alejandra; Carter, Michael; Kumar, Akshaya

    2015-03-01

    Different types of quartz crystals and rare earth ions doped glasses have been identified using the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS is a real time technique, can be used to identify samples in solid, liquid and gas phases. The advantage of LIBS technique is that no sample preparation is required and laser causes extremely minimal damage to the sample surface. The LIBS spectrum of silicate glasses, prepared by sol-gel method and doped with different concentration of rare earth ions, has been recorded. The limit of detection of rare earth ions in glass samples has been calculated. Total 10 spectrums of each sample were recorded and then averaged to get a final spectrum. The ocean optics LIBS2500 plus spectrometer along with a Q- switched Nd: YAG laser (Quantel, Big Sky) were used to record the LIBS spectrum. This spectrometer can analyze the sample in the spectral range of 200 nm to 980 nm. The spectrum was processed by OOILIBS-plus (v1.0) software. This study has application in the industry where different crystals can be easily identified before they go for shaping and polishing. Also, concentration of rare earth ions in glass can be monitored in real time for quality control.

  3. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  4. Fabrication of a Quartz-Crystal-Microbalance/Optical-Waveguide Hybrid Sensor and In situ Evaluation of Vacuum-Evaporated Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Uno, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Ryo; Baba, Akira; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated a novel quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM)/optical-waveguide hybrid sensor. An in situ observation of a lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) thin-film deposition was conducted during vacuum evaporation, and the effectiveness of the sensor was demonstrated. The film thickness was obtained from the QCM frequency, and the optical absorption of the film was observed by optical waveguide spectroscopy using part of the QCM substrate without the electrode. The film absorption depends on the polarization direction, substrate temperature and deposition rate, owing to aggregate formation. The thickness dependence of the absorption property was also investigated.

  5. Photocatalytic quartz fiber felts with carbon-connected TiO2 nanoparticles for capillarity-driven continuous-flow water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Su, Xiaowen; Gao, Wenqiang; Wang, Fulei; Liu, Zhihe; Zhan, Jie; Liu, Baishan; Wang, Ruosong; Liu, Hong; Sang, Yuanhua

    2018-06-01

    Immobility of photocatalysts on substrates is a vital factor for the practical application of photocatalysis in polluted water/air treatment. In this study, TiO2 homogenously loaded quartz fiber felt was prepared by assembling of carboxyl-contained organic molecules functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of amino group-modified quartz fiber by electrostatic adsorption between them and followed by an anneal process. The immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles overcomes one main obstacle of the photocatalysts recycling in photocatalysis application. In addition, a plasma treatment endowed the hybrid photocatalyst a high hydrophilic property. Due to the homogeneous distribution of TiO2, charge carriers' separation by carbon, and full contact between water and the photocatalyst derived from the high hydrophilia, the TiO2/quartz fiber felt shows excellent photocatalytic performance. Based on the stable loading and the capillarity effect of the contacted fibers photocatalyst, a demo capillarity-driven continuous-flow water treatment photocatalysis reactor was designed and built up. The TiO2 nanoparticle/quartz fiber hybrid photocatalyst can disposal organic contaminants in actual industrial waste water from a dyeing factory in the continuous-flow reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the industrial waste water was decreased from 104 to 45 mg/L, overcoming the problem of deep water treatment which is difficult to solve by other methods. This study provides a new photocatalyst and reaction mode for the continuous-flow photocatalysis application.

  6. Laser micromilling of convex microfluidic channels onto glassy carbon for glass molding dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chen, Ming-Fei; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yang, Chung-Heng; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication of convex microfluidic channels on glassy carbon using an ultraviolet laser processing system to produce glass molding dies. The laser processing parameters, including various laser fluences and scanning speeds of galvanometers, were adjusted to mill a convex microchannel on a glassy carbon substrate to identify the effects of material removal. The machined glassy carbon substrate was then applied as a glass molding die to fabricate a glass-based microfluidic biochip. The surface morphology, milled width and depth, and surface roughness of the microchannel die after laser micromilling were examined using a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope. This study also investigates the transcription rate of microchannels after the glass molding process. To produce a 180 μm high microchannel on the GC substrate, the optimal number of milled cycles, laser fluence, and scanning speed were 25, 4.9 J/cm2, and 200 mm/s, respectively. The width, height, and surface roughness of milled convex microchannels were 119.6±0.217 μm, 180.26±0.01 μm, and 0.672±0.08 μm, respectively. These measured values were close to the predicted values and suitable for a glass molding die. After the glass molding process, a typical glass-based microchannel chip was formed at a molding temperature of 660 °C and the molding force of 0.45 kN. The transcription rates of the microchannel width and depth were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Thus, the proposed approach is suitable for performing in chemical, biochemical, or medical reactions.

  7. Melt-inclusion-hosted excess 40Ar in quartz crystals of the Bishop and Bandelier magma systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winick, J.A.; McIntosh, W.C.; Dunbar, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar experiments on melt-inclusion-bearing quartz (MIBQ) from the Bishop and Bandelier Tuff Plinian deposits indicate high concentrations of excess 40Ar in melt inclusions. Two rhyolite glass melt inclusion populations are present in quartz; exposed melt inclusions and trapped melt inclusions. Air-abrasion mill grinding and hydrofluoric acid treatments progressively remove exposed melt inclusions while leaving trapped melt inclusions unaffected. Laser step-heating of MIBQ yields increasing apparent ages as a function of exposed melt inclusion removal, reflecting the higher nonatmospheric 40Ar concentrations hosted in trapped melt inclusions. Exposed melt inclusion-free MIBQ from the Bishop, Upper Bandelier, and Lower Bandelier Tufts yield total-gas ages of 3.70 ?? 1.00 Ma, 11.54 ?? 0.87 Ma, and 14.60 ?? 1.50 Ma, respectively. We interpret these old apparent ages as compelling evidence for the presence of excess 40Ar in MIBQ. Trapped melt inclusions in sanidine phenocrysts may contain excess 40Ar concentrations similar to those in MIBQ. This excess 40Ar has the potential to increase single-crystal laser-fusion ages of sanidine by tens of thousands of years, relative to the actual eruption age.

  8. Hot Films on Ceramic Substrates for Measuring Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Greg; Leiser, Daniel; Bartlett, Jim; Lavine, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    Hot-film sensors, consisting of a metallic film on an electrically nonconductive substrate, have been used to measure skin friction as far back as 1931. A hot film is maintained at an elevated temperature relative to the local flow by passing an electrical current through it. The power required to maintain the specified temperature depends on the rate at which heat is transferred to the flow. The heat transfer rate correlates to the velocity gradient at the surface, and hence, with skin friction. The hot-film skin friction measurement method is most thoroughly developed for steady-state conditions, but additional issues arise under transient conditions. Fabricating hot-film substrates using low-thermal-conductivity ceramics can offer advantages over traditional quartz or polyester-film substrates. First, a low conductivity substrate increases the fraction of heat convected away by the fluid, thus increasing sensitivity to changes in flow conditions. Furthermore, the two-part, composite nature of the substrate allows the installation of thermocouple junctions just below the hot film, which can provide an estimate of the conduction heat loss.

  9. Plastic Deformation of Quartz: Unfinished business?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Starting at Harvard in the mid-1930's, David Griggs built a series of high pressure machines for experimental rock deformation. One persistent aim was to achieve the plastic deformation of quartz. Each time he built a new machine for higher pressure and/or temperature, one of the first materials he tested would be quartz. This search went on through a 500 MPa liquid-medium machine at temperatures up to 300°C, then with a gas-medium machine for temperatures up to 800°C, and finally with a solid-medium machine for higher pressures and temperatures. Quartz proved stubbornly resistant to deformation except at extremely high stresses until, finally and somewhat serendipitously, it was found possible to deform quartz at relatively low stresses in the presence of water under special conditions. The breakthrough came in an experiment in a 1500 MPa solid-medium apparatus in which talc was used as pressure medium. At the temperature of the experiment, the talc dehydrated and so released water. Under these conditions, natural quartz proved to be very weak and to readily undergo plastic deformation, a phenomenon that became known as "hydrolytic weakening". Soon after this discovery, it was also found that certain synthetic single crystals could be easily deformed ab initio. These crystals were from a particular set that had been grown rapidly under hydrothermal conditions and had incorporated water during growth. Attempts in our laboratory to weaken crystals in a gas-medium apparatus at around 300 MPa by cooking dry quartz in the presence of added water were all unsuccessful, although we could deform wet synthetic crystals. There was considerable speculation about a role of high pressure in promoting hydrolytic weakening, but the dilemma was eventually clarified by electron microscope studies by Fitz Gerald and coworkers. These studies showed that crystals that had been subjected to high pressure and temperature in the solid-medium apparatus were extensively microcracked

  10. Proof Test Diagrams for a Lithia-Alumina-Silica Glass-Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    2003-01-01

    The glass-ceramic (Zerodur, Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany) contains 70% to 78% by weight crystalline phase of high-quartz structure with a mean crystal size of 50-55 nm. The vitreous phase has a positive thermal expansion coefficient which is practically balanced by the negative coefficient of the crystalline phase. This results in a material which can maintain longitudinal stability during thermal cycling. This was one of the reasons for its choice as the material for the grazing incidence mirrors for the Chandra X-Ray Facility. Brittle materials such as glass and glass-ceramics which exhibit slow crack growth and subsequent fast fracture to failure exhibit a time dependence in strength. The decrease in strength for a constant applied load is known as static fatigue. In many cases, environment plays a major role in the material lifetime. It has been shown for silicate glasses that crack velocity will increase as the amount of water vapor in the environment surface finish and rate of loading. A rough surface finish leads to a lower tensile strength than for an optically polished surface. The strength of glass is observed in general to increase with increasing load rate. This phenomena is known as dynamic fatigue. This was observed for Zerodur by Tucker and Gent and Tucker in previous dynamic fatigue studies, in which lifetimes were obtained. All of the above named factors need to be considered when glass is to be used in load bearing applications.

  11. Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Otange, Ben O; Birech, Zephania; Okonda, Justus; Rop, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    We report on application of conductive silver paste smeared glass slides as Raman spectroscopy sample substrates for label-free detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. We also show that the same substrates can be applied in Raman spectroscopic screening of blood plasma for presence of HIV. The characteristic Raman spectrum of HIV-1 p24 antigen displayed prominent bands that were assigned to ribonucleic acids (RNA) and proteins that constitute the antigen. This spectrum can be used as reference during Raman spectroscopic screening for HIV in plasma within the first few days after exposure (<7 days). The Raman spectra obtained from HIV+ plasma displayed unique peaks centered at wavenumbers 928, 990, 1270, 1397, and 1446 cm -1 attributed to the Raman active vibrations in the virion carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Other bands similar to those reported in literature were also seen and assignments made. The attachment of the HIV virions to silver nanoparticles via gp120 glycoprotein knobs was thought to be responsible for the enhanced Raman signals of proteins associated with the virus. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied on the combined spectral data showed that HIV- and HIV+ spectra had differing spectral patterns. This indicated the great power of Raman spectroscopy in HIV detection when plasma samples are deposited onto silver paste smeared glass substrates. The Raman peaks responsible for the segregation of the spectral data in PCA were mainly those assigned to the viral proteins (645, 725, 813, 1270, and 1658 cm -1 ). Excellent results were obtained from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applied on the HIV+ Raman spectral data around the prominent peak centered at 1270 cm -1 with R (coefficient of correlation) and R 2 (coefficient of determination) values of 0.9958 and 0.9895, respectively. The method has the potential of being used as quick blood screening for HIV before blood transfusion with the Raman peaks assigned to the virion

  12. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  13. Microbially induced separation of quartz from hematite using sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Prakasan, M R Sabari; Natarajan, K A

    2010-07-01

    Cells and metabolic products of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were successfully used to separate quartz from hematite through environmentally benign microbially induced flotation. Bacterial metabolic products such as extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were isolated from both unadapted and mineral-adapted bacterial metabolite and their basic characteristics were studied in order to get insight into the changes brought about on bioreagents during adaptation. Interaction between bacterial cells and metabolites with minerals like hematite and quartz brought about significant surface-chemical changes on both the minerals. Quartz was rendered more hydrophobic, while hematite became more hydrophilic after biotreatment. The predominance of bacterial polysaccharides on interacted hematite and of proteins on quartz was responsible for the above surface-chemical changes, as attested through adsorption studies. Surface-chemical changes were also observed on bacterial cells after adaptation to the above minerals. Selective separation of quartz from hematite was achieved through interaction with quartz-adapted bacterial cells and metabolite. Mineral-specific proteins secreted by quartz-adapted cells were responsible for conferment of hydrophobicity on quartz resulting in enhanced separation from hematite through flotation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials.

    Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite.

    Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks.

    The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  15. Easily melting glass for assembly of optical fiber into connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setina, Janina; Auzans, Juris J.; Zolotarjova, J. J.

    1994-09-01

    The easily melting fluorine containing borophosphate glasses for construction knots have been obtained and investigated. The unique optical properties i.e. low refractive index - nD equals 1.41-1.45, wide spectral transparency region from 200 to 2000 nm as well as extended temperature application range from - 70 to +300 degree(s)C, thermostability and mechanical properties determine possibility to use fluorine containing borophosphate glass as optical glue. The process of structure formation within temperature range 20-1000 degree(s)C has been investigated in details. It has been determined by IR and X-ray methods that the development of glass network begins with decomposition of components at 500 degree(s)C with further formation of glass elements within temperature range 625-675 degree(s)C. The stable glassforming area is determined by P-O-B groups. The role of fluorine in structure development depends on its depolymerizator behavior, on the other hand it has some glassforming ability. Latter is based on ability of fluorine to move from boron to phosphorus coordination sphere. For the compositions under research the formation of monofluorophosphate groups at higher temperatures have been determined. The ratio P:B equals 1, 2:2 defines obtaining of stable glass without devitrification within the temperature range from 300 to 700 degree(s)C. The interfacial processes between fluorine containing melts and quartz fiber have been investigated.

  16. Ion irradiation synthesis of Ag-Au bimetallic nanospheroids in SiO2 glass substrate with tunable surface plasmon resonance frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xuan; Shibayama, Tamaki; Yu, Ruixuan; Takayanagi, Shinya; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2013-08-01

    Ag-Au bimetallic nanospheroids with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were synthesized by 100 keV Ar-ion irradiation of 30 nm Ag-Au bimetallic films deposited on SiO2 glass substrates. A shift of the LSPR peaks toward shorter wavelengths was observed up to an irradiation fluence of 1.0 × 1017 cm-2, and then shifted toward the longer wavelength because of the increase of fragment volume under ion irradiation. Further control of LSPR frequency over a wider range was realized by modifying the chemical components. The resulting LSPR frequencies lie between that of the pure components, and an approximate linear shift of the LSPR toward the longer wavelength with the Au concentration was achieved, which is in good agreement with the theoretical calculations based on Gans theory. In addition, the surface morphology and compositions were examined with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and microstructural characterizations were performed using a transmission electron microscope. The formation of isolated photosensitive Ag-Au nanospheroids with a FCC structure partially embedded in the SiO2 substrate was confirmed, which has a potential application in solid-state devices.

  17. Lineation-parallel c-axis Fabric of Quartz Formed Under Water-rich Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, P.

    2014-12-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of quartz is of great significance because it records much valuable information pertinent to the deformation of quartz-rich rocks in the continental crust. The lineation-parallel c-axis CPO (i.e., c-axis forming a maximum parallel to the lineation) in naturally deformed quartz is generally considered to form under high temperature (> ~550 ºC) conditions. However, most laboratory deformation experiments on quartzite failed to produce such a CPO at high temperatures up to 1200 ºC. Here we reported a new occurrence of the lineation-parallel c-axis CPO of quartz from kyanite-quartz veins in eclogite. Optical microstructural observations, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were integrated to illuminate the nature of quartz CPOs. Quartz exhibits mostly straight to slightly curved grain boundaries, modest intracrystalline plasticity, and significant shape preferred orientation (SPO) and CPOs, indicating dislocation creep dominated the deformation of quartz. Kyanite grains in the veins are mostly strain-free, suggestive of their higher strength than quartz. The pronounced SPO and CPOs in kyanite were interpreted to originate from anisotropic crystal growth and/or mechanical rotation during vein-parallel shearing. FTIR results show quartz contains a trivial amount of structurally bound water (several tens of H/106 Si), while kyanite has a water content of 384-729 H/106 Si; however, petrographic observations suggest quartz from the veins were practically deformed under water-rich conditions. We argue that the observed lineation-parallel c-axis fabric in quartz was inherited from preexisting CPOs as a result of anisotropic grain growth under stress facilitated by water, but rather than due to a dominant c-slip. The preservation of the quartz CPOs probably benefited from the preexisting quartz CPOs which renders most quartz grains unsuitably oriented for an easy a-slip at

  18. Rb, Sr, Nd, and Sm concentrations in quartz

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rossman, G.R.; Weis, D.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of Rb, Sr, Nd and Sm in quartz crystals from Crystal Peak, Colorado; Steward Mine, California; Tomas Gonzaga, Minas Gerais, Brazil; and Coleman Mines, Arkansas, were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from: 1.17 to 177 ppb Rb; 3.26 to 1027 ppm Sr; 0.0159 to 0.48 ppm Sm; 0.127 to 2.81 ppb Nd. In the Brazilian crystal, concentrations of these elements were correlated with the amount of fluid inclusion water measured visually by turbidity and quantitatively with infrared adsorption spectroscopy. The highest Rb content was found for a crystal free of visible inclusions, indicating that smallmore » amounts of Rb can also occur in quartz itself. Rb and Sr contents are much lower in synthetic quartz grown commercially from the Arkansas quartz.« less

  19. A review of melt and vapor growth techniques for polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for the growth of polydiacetylene thin films by melt and vapor growth and their subsequent polymerization are summarized. Films with random orientations were obtained when glass or quartz were used as substrates in the vapor growth process. Oriented polydiacetylene films were fabricated by the vapor deposition of diacetylene monomer onto oriented polydiacetylene on a glass substrate and its subsequent polymerization by UV light. A method for the growth of oriented thin films by a melt-shear growth process as well as a method of film growth by seeded recrstallization from the melt between glass plates, that may be applied to the growth of polydiacetylene films, are described. Moreover, a method is presented for the fabrication of single crystal thin films of polyacetylenes by irradiation of the surface of diacetylene single crystals to a depth between 100 and 2000 angstroms.

  20. Formation and possible growth mechanism of bismuth nanowires on various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. T.; Kasumov, A. Yu.; Kasumov, Yu. A.; Khodos, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we report results of a study of bismuth nanowires growth on various substrates, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, Pt, Au thin films on oxidized Si, Si (111), oxidized Si (100), and fused quartz. The nanowires (NW) were prepared by RF diode sputtering of Bi onto a substrate heated to about 200 °C. The structure of the wires was studied by a scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The NWs are monocrystalline up to a length of several micrometers and possess a very thin (less than 2 nm) oxide layer. A major influence of the substrate type on the quantity and the length of the obtained nanowires is observed. Based on the above studies, we propose a possible mechanism of a bismuth nanowire growth.

  1. Gas flow-field induced director alignment in polymer dispersed liquid crystal microdroplets deposited on a glass substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by the processes of polymerization and solvent evaporation induced phase separation. The electron and the optical polarization microscopies of the films reveal that PDLC microdroplets formed during the process of phase separation near the top surface of the film remain exposed and respond to shear stress due to air or gas flow on the surface. Optical response of the film to an air flow-induced shear stress input on the free surface has been measured. Director orientation in the droplets changes with the applied shear stress leading to time varying transmitted light intensity. Director dynamics of the droplet for an applied step shear stress has been discussed from free energy considerations. Results on the measurement of light transmission as a function of the gas flow parameter unambiguously demonstrate the potential of these systems for use as boundary layer and gas flow sensors.

  2. Anti-scratch AlMgB14 Gorilla® Glass coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrolaynen, V. V.; Grishin, A. M.; Rigoev, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    Hard aluminum-magnesium boride (BAM) films were fabricated onto Corning® Gorilla® Glass by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a single stoichiometric AlMgB14 target. BAM films exhibit a Vickers hardness from 10 to 30 GPa and a Young's modulus from 80 to 160 GPa depending on applied loading forces. Deposited hard coating increases the critical load at which glass substrate cracks. The adhesion energy of BAM films on Gorilla® Glass is 6.4 J/m2.

  3. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  4. Influence of thin-film metallic glass coating on fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glass: Experiments and finite element modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Chu, Jinn P.; Jia, Haoling; ...

    2017-03-21

    In this paper, a coating of the Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on the Zr 50Cu 30Al 10Ni 10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to investigate shear-band evolution under four-point-bend fatigue testing. The fatigue endurance-limit of the TFMG-coated samples is ~ 33% higher than that of the BMG. The results of finite-element modeling (FEM) revealed a delay in the shear-band nucleation and propagation in TFMG-coated samples under applied cyclic-loading. The FEM study of spherical indentation showed that the redistribution of stress by the TFMG coating prevents localized shear-banding in the BMG substrate. Finally, the enhanced fatigue characteristics of themore » BMG substrates can be attributed to the TFMG coatings retarding shear-band initiation at defects on the surface of the BMG.« less

  5. A New Thermal Treatment Process of Low Value Volcanic Glass towards the Production of Expanded Material and its Use on CNTs’ Synthesis as Substrate Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, Panagiotis M.; Samouhos, Michail; Taxiarchou, Maria; Tsakiridis, P.; Haggman, John; Joyce, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Pitchstone is a naturally occurring volcanic glass that contains considerable amount of chemically bound water (> 6 % wt). Due to its high water content, its direct thermal processing in conventional expansion furnaces towards the production of lightweight material, similar to expanded perlite, is practically impossible. In the current research paper a sophisticated 2 stage process is presented that consists of a partial dehydration and an expansion stage towards the production of high quality expanded material. After proper treatment, low-value volcanic glass is transformed to frothy, lightweight material of closed external surface and apparent density of 52 kg·m-3 that can be used in various branches of the industry. The material produced is used as substrate for the development of multiwall CNTs through CVD method. Dense multiwall CNT clusters were identified on expanded pitchstone surface, thus rendering the material suitable for such application.

  6. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol-bioactive glass hybrid membranes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luisa L S; Mansur, Herman S; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Pereira, Marivalda M

    2011-01-01

    The tissue engineering strategy is a new approach for the regeneration of cementum, which is essential for the regeneration of the periodontal tissue. This strategy involves the cell cultures present in this tissue, called cementoblasts, and located on an appropriate substrate for posterior implantation in the regeneration site. Prior studies from our research group have shown that the proliferation and viability of cementoblasts increase in the presence of the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glass particles. Therefore, one possible approach to obtaining adequate substrates for cementoblast cultures is the development of composite membranes containing bioactive glass. In the present study, composite films of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol-bioactive glass containing different glass contents were developed. Glutaraldehyde was also added to allow for the formation of cross-links and changes in the degradation rate. The glass phase was introduced in the material by a sol-gel route, leading to an organic-inorganic hybrid. The films were characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Bioactivity tests were also conducted by immersion of the films in simulated body fluid (SBF). Films containing up to 30% glass phase could be obtained. The formation of calcium phosphate was observed after the immersion of the films. A calcium phosphate layer formed more quickly on materials containing higher bioactive glass contents. In the hybrid containing 23% bioactive glass, a complete layer was formed after 24 h immersion, showing the high bioactivity of this material. However, despite the higher in vitro bioactivity, the film with 23% glass showed lower mechanical properties compared with films containing up to 17% glass.

  8. Synthesis and deformation of a Ti doped quartz aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, William O.; Hirth, Greg; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A primary advantage of studying mylonites for thermobarometric reconstructions of tectonic events is that it enables direct comparison of P-T estimates with the mechanics of quartz deformation. Quartz is a common phase in crustal mylonites and is a particularly sensitive recorder of metamorphic and rheologic conditions in shear zones, owing to its responsiveness to dynamic recrystallization, involvement in metamorphic reaction, and propensity for dissolution and precipitation. The signature of its trace element chemistry, particularly Ti, can reflect involvement from each of these processes. The concentration of Ti in mylonites is typically heterogeneous at the thin section scale, providing a rich record of the different factors that influence the incorporation of Ti in quartz. Observations of quartz in deformed mylonite and undeformed protolith from an extensional shear zone in the North American Cordillera (Shuswap Complex, Canada) show that an originally uniform Ti distribution was modified during deformation to form zoned crystals in which the core preserves a higher Ti concentration than the rim. The zoned Ti concentration likely records a continuum of deformation conditions during extension-related exhumation, and this presents a challenge in resolving the effect of deformation on the equilibrium solubility of Ti in quartz in natural settings. By conducting deformation experiments on synthetic quartz aggregates with known Ti concentration at a constant, elevated temperature and pressure under high strain conditions, we investigate the influence of progressive dynamic recrystallization on Ti solubility in quartz. This study applies a novel doping technique that enables the synthesis of a large population of quartz crystals with a precisely controlled Ti concentration and distribution. This produces a sample that most closely replicates the protolith of extensional shear zones that typically develop under retrograde conditions. This strategy can be used to

  9. Stability limits and transformation pathways of α-quartz under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. Y.; Shu, J.-F.; Yang, W. G.; Park, C.; Chen, M. W.; Fujita, T.; Mao, H.-K.; Sheng, H. W.

    2017-03-01

    Ubiquitous on Earth, α-quartz plays an important role in modern science and technology. However, despite extensive research in the past, the mechanism of the polymorphic transitions of α-quartz at high pressures remains poorly understood. Here, combining in situ single-crystal x-ray diffraction experiment and advanced ab initio modeling, we report two stability limits and competing transition pathways of α-quartz under high pressure. Under near-equilibrium compression conditions at room temperature, α-quartz transits to a new P 2 /c silica phase via a structural intermediate. If the thermally activated transition is kinetically suppressed, the ultimate stability of α-quartz is controlled by its phonon instability and α-quartz collapses into a different crystalline phase. Our studies reveal that pressure-induced solid-state transformation of α-quartz undergoes a succession of structural stability limits, due to thermodynamic and mechanical catastrophes, and exhibits a hierarchy of transition pathways contingent upon kinetic conditions.

  10. Comparison of inkjet-printed silver conductors on different microsystem substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Jené; Bezuidenhout, Petroné H.; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    Applications for diagnostic and environmental point-of-need require processes and building blocks to add smart features to disposable biosensors on low-cost substrates. A novel method for producing such biosensors is printing electronics using additive technologies. This work contributes to the toolbox of processes, materials and components for printed electronics manufacturing - as well as rapid prototyping - of circuits. Printing protocols were developed to facilitate successful inkjet printing of nanosilver ink (Harima NPS-JL) onto different microsystem substrates using a functional printer (Dimatix DMP-3281). Photo paper is a standard inkjet substrate, which were compared with glass, polycarbonate (PC), plastic projector transparency foil, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Comparison attributes include physical and electrical properties. The layout design comprised dogbone elements of 8 mm length, and widths varying between 100 μm and 2 mm. All printed features were thermally cured for 1 hour at 120 °C. The physical characteristics were measured with a laser scanning microscope (Zeiss LSM-5) to determine the width, thickness and surface roughness of the printed features. An LCR meter (GW-Instek 8110) was used to measure the printed structures' electrical characteristics (resistance, capacitance and inductance). A lumped element model and layout design rules were extracted to assist in standardized design procedures. The model incorporates prediction of the bandwidth attainable with these structures. The layer thickness on all substrates is larger than the 1 μm on photo paper, and varies between 1.6 μm (PC) and 7 μm (PDMS). The spreading for PDMS is similar to photo paper, but since for the other substrates it is between 5 (glass) and 10 (PC) times larger than for photo paper, the layout design rules require large spacing, leading to larger area networks. Electrical probing on the PDMS is not consistent and results are inconclusive. For the other substrates

  11. Mechanism of morphology transformation during annealing of nanostructured gold films on glass.

    PubMed

    Karakouz, Tanya; Tesler, Alexander B; Sannomiya, Takumi; Feldman, Yishay; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2013-04-07

    Nanostructured, just-percolated gold films were prepared by evaporation on bare glass. Annealing of the films at temperatures close to or higher than the softening temperature of the glass substrate induces morphological transformation to discrete Au islands and gradual embedding of the formed islands in the glass. The mechanism and kinetics of these processes are studied here using a combination of in situ high-temperature optical spectroscopy; ex situ characterization of the island shape by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), atomic force microcopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and numerical simulations of transmission spectra using the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) approach. It is shown that the morphological transformation of just-percolated, 10 nm (nominal thickness) Au films evaporated on glass and annealed at 600 °C, i.e., in the vicinity of the substrate glass transition temperature (Tg = 557 °C), proceeds via three processes exhibiting different time scales: (i) fast recrystallization and dewetting, leading to formation of single-crystalline islands (minutes); the initial spectrum characteristic of a continuous Au film is transformed to that of an island film, displaying a surface plasmon (SP) absorption band. (ii) Reshaping and faceting of the single-crystalline islands accompanied by formation of circumferential glass rims around them (first few hours); the overall optical response shows a blue shift of the SP band. (iii) Gradual island embedding in the glass substrate (tens of hours), seen as a characteristic red shift of the SP band. The influence of the annealing atmosphere (air, vacuum) on the embedding process is found to be minor. Numerical modeling of the extinction cross-section corresponding to the morphological transformations during island recrystallization and embedding is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Semi-transparent photovoltaic glazing based on electrodeposited CIGS solar cells on patterned molybdenum/glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidali, Tarik; Bou, Adrien; Coutancier, Damien; Chassaing, Elisabeth; Theys, Bertrand; Barakel, Damien; Garuz, Richard; Thoulon, Pierre-Yves; Lincot, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new way of preparing semi-transparent solar cells using Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite semiconductors as absorbers for BIPV applications is presented. The key to the elaboration process consists in the co-electrodeposition of Cu-In-Ga mixed oxides on submillimetric hole-patterned molybdenum substrate, followed by thermal reduction to metallic alloys and selenisation. This method has the advantage of being a selective deposition technique where the thin film growth is carried out only on Mo covered areas. Thus, after annealing, the transparency of the sample is always preserved, allowing light to pass through the device. A complete device (5 × 5 cm2) with 535 μm diameter holes and total glass aperture of around 35% shows an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 400 mV. Locally, the I-V curves reveal a maximum efficiency of 7.7%, VOC of 460 mV, JSC of 24 mA.cm-2 in an area of 0.1 cm2 with 35% aperture. This efficiency on the semi-transparent area is equivalent to a record efficiency of 11.9% by taking into account only the effective area.

  13. A sensitive plasmonic copper(II) sensor based on gold nanoparticles deposited on ITO glass substrate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lijun; Gao, Yan; Di, Junwei

    2016-09-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) based plasmonic probe was developed for sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) ion. The Au NPs were self-assembled on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) film coated glass substrate using poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDDA) as a linker and then calcined at 400°C to obtain pure Au NPs on ITO surface (ITO/Au NPs). The probe was fabricated by functionalizing l-cysteine (Cys) on to gold surface (ITO/Au NPs/Cys). The strong chelation of Cu(2+) with Cys formed a stable Cys-Cu complex, and resulted in the red-shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of the Au NPs. The introduction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the second complexant could form complex of Cys-Cu-BAS and further markedly enhanced the red-shift of the LSPR peak. This plasmonic probe provided a highly sensitive and selective detection towards Cu(2+) ions, with a wide linear detection range (10(-11)-10(-5)M) over 6 orders of magnitude. The simple and cost-effective probe was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  15. Glasses and Liquids Low on the Energy Landscape Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Shakeel; Fakhraai, Zahra; Ediger, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The lower portions of the potential energy landscape for glass-forming materials such as polymers and small molecules were historically inaccessible by experiments. Physical vapor deposition is uniquely able to prepare materials in this portion of the energy landscape, with the properties of the deposited material primarily modulated by the substrate temperature. Here we report on high-throughput experiments which utilize a temperature gradient stage to enable rapid screening of vapor-deposited organic glasses. Using ellipsometry, we characterize a 100 K range of substrate temperatures in a single experiment, allowing us to rapidly determine the density, kinetic stability, fictive temperature and molecular orientation of these glasses. Their properties fall into three temperature regimes. At substrate temperatures as low as 0.97Tg, we prepare materials which are equivalent to the supercooled liquid produced by cooling the melt. Below 0.9Tg (1.16TK) the properties of materials are kinetically controlled and highly tunable. At intermediate substrate temperatures we are able to produce materials whose bulk properties match those expected for the equilibrium supercooled liquid, down to 1.16TK, but are structurally anisotropic.

  16. Redox-active ionic-liquid-assisted one-step general method for preparing gold nanoparticle thin films: applications in refractive index sensing and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Enakshi; Rashid, Md Harunar; Biswas, Mrinmoy; Mandal, Tarun K

    2010-11-16

    We describe a general one-step facile method for depositing gold nanoparticle (GNP) thin films onto any type of substrates by the in situ reduction of AuCl(3) using a newly designed redox-active ionic liquid (IL), tetrabutylphosphonium citrate ([TBP][Ci]). Various substrates such as positively charged glass, negatively charged glass/quartz, neutral hydrophobic glass, polypropylene, polystyrene, plain paper, and cellophane paper are successfully coated with a thin film of GNPs. This IL ([TBP][Ci]) is prepared by the simple neutralization of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide with citric acid. We also demonstrate that the [TBP][Ci] ionic liquid can be successfully used to generate GNPs in an aqueous colloidal suspension in situ. The deposited GNP thin films on various surfaces are made up of mostly discrete spherical GNPs that are well distributed throughout the film, as confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. However, it seems that some GNPs are arranged to form arrays depending on the nature of surface. We also characterize these GNP thin films via UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The as-formed GNP thin films show excellent stability toward solvent washing. We demonstrate that the thin film of GNPs on a glass/quartz surface can be successfully used as a refractive index (RI) sensor for different polar and nonpolar organic solvents. The as-formed GNP thin films on different surfaces show excellent catalytic activity in the borohydride reduction of p-nitrophenol.

  17. Quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake granodiorite, north-central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Shank, Stephen G.

    1983-01-01

    Quartz-molybdenite veins up to 15 cm in width occur in fine to medium-grained porphyritic biotite-hornblende granodiorite at Priestly Lake north-central Maine. An area of about 150 m x 150 m contains quartz-molybdenite veins; a larger area is characterized by barren quartz veins. Quartz-molybdenite veins are concentrated within the most felsic variants of the intrusion as suggested by lower mafic mineral contents. The pluton has a narrow range in SiO2 (67-70 wt.%), major oxides, and in trace-element compositions. Molybdenite occurs as coarse grained clusters in pockets within the quartz veins, and fills fractures in the quartz veins and host rocks. Disseminated molybdenite in the granodiorite is relatively rare and occurs only in the area characterized by a high density of quartz veins (up to 50 veins per square meter). Alteration envelopes along the quartz veins are very thin or absent, although in some areas the granodiorite appears to be selectively and pervasively altered. Sericite, chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite, and quartz are concentrated near the quartz-molybdenite veins. Many of the field and geochemical characteristics of the Priestly Lake pluton are unlike those of major molybdenum-producing areas (Climax, Henderson, Urad). For example, the area of alteration seems to be of limited extent, the host rock is not intensely altered hydrothermally at the surface, the density of fractures is rather low in the mineralized area, and the amount of disseminated molybdenite appears to be small. However, the Priestly Lake pluton may be a small fraction of a concealed batholith as suggested by geophysical data. It is conceivable that the type of mineralization at the surface might be the expression of more extensive molybdenite mineralization at depth. The quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake pluton are significant because they indicate that potential molybdenum sources for producing mineralized granites were available at depth. Future studies should be

  18. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility ofmore » rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.« less

  19. Sealing glass-ceramics with near linear thermal strain, Part II: Sequence of crystallization and phase stability

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Griego, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Here, the sequence of crystallization in a re-crystallizable lithium silicate sealing glass-ceramic Li 2O-SiO 2-Al 2O 3-K 2O-B 2O 3-P 2O 5-ZnO was analyzed by in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Glass-ceramic specimens have been subjected to a 2-stage heat treatment schedule, including rapid cooling from sealing temperature to a 1st hold temperature 650 °C, following by heating to a 2nd hold temperature of 810 °C. Notable growth and saturation of Quartz was observed at 650 °C (1st hold).

  20. Substrate effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-07-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism was achieved in un-doped ZnO films on silicon and quartz substrates. Photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis suggested that the ferromagnetism was originated from singly occupied oxygen vacancies (roughly estimated as ˜0.55 μB/vacancy), created in ZnO films by annealing in argon. The saturated magnetization of ZnO films was enhanced from ˜0.44 emu/g (on quartz) to ˜1.18 emu/g (on silicon) after annealing at 600 °C, as silicon acted as oxygen getter and created more oxygen vacancies in ZnO films. This study clarified the origin of ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO and provides an idea to enhance the ferromagnetism.

  1. Flexible Substrates Comparison for Pled Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenna, G.; Miscioscia, R.; Tassini, P.; Minarini, C.; Vacca, P.; Valentino, O.

    2008-08-01

    Flexible substrate displays are critical to organic electronics, e-paper's and e-ink's development. Many different types of materials are under investigation, including glass, polymer films and metallic foils. In this work we report a comparison study of polymer films as flexible substrates for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) technology. The selected polymer substrates are two thermoplastic semi-crystalline polymers (PET and PEN) and a high Tg material that cannot be melt processed (PAR). Firstly, the chosen films were characterized in morphology and optical properties with the aim to confirm their suitability for optoelectronic applications. Transmittance was analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and roughness by a surface profilometer. Finally, the surface energy of substrates (untreated and after UV-ozone treatment) was estimated by contact angle measurements in order to evaluate their wettability for active materials deposition.

  2. Anderson localized modes in a disordered glass optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbasi, Salman; Hosseini, Seyedrasoul; Koch, Karl W.; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Mafi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    A beam of light can propagate in a time-invariant transversely disordered waveguide because of transverse Anderson localization. We developed a disordered glass optical ber from a porous artisan glass (satin quartz). The refractive index pro le of the disordered glass optical ber is composed of a non-uniform distribution of air voids which can be approximated as longitudinally invariant. The ll-fraction of air voids is higher at the regions closer to the boundary compared with the central regions. The experimental results show that the beam radius of a localized beam is smaller at the regions closer to the boundary than the one at the central regions. In order to understand the reason behind these observations, the fully vectorial modes of the disordered glass ber are calculated using the actual scanning electron microscope image of the ber tip. The numerical calculations show that the modes at regions closer to the boundary of the ber are more localized compared with the modes at the central regions. Coupling of an input beam to the less-localized modes with large tails at the central regions of the ber results in a large beam radius. In comparison, a beam of light launched at the regions close to the boundary couples to the highly compact modes of the ber and results in a small localized beam radius.

  3. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  4. Fabrication of Glass Microchannel via Glass Imprinting using a Vitreous Carbon Stamp for Flow Focusing Droplet Generator

    PubMed Central

    Refatul Haq, Muhammad; Kim, Youngkyu; Kim, Jun; Oh, Pyoung-hwa; Ju, Jonghyun; Kim, Seok-Min; Lim, Jiseok

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a cost-effective method of replicating glass microfluidic chips using a vitreous carbon (VC) stamp. A glass replica with the required microfluidic microstructures was synthesized without etching. The replication method uses a VC stamp fabricated by combining thermal replication using a furan-based, thermally-curable polymer with carbonization. To test the feasibility of this method, a flow focusing droplet generator with flow-focusing and channel widths of 50 µm and 100 µm, respectively, was successfully fabricated in a soda-lime glass substrate. Deviation between the geometries of the initial shape and the vitreous carbon mold occurred because of shrinkage during the carbonization process, however this effect could be predicted and compensated for. Finally, the monodispersity of the droplets generated by the fabricated microfluidic device was evaluated. PMID:29286341

  5. Concurrent measurements of size-segregated particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium using quartz fiber filters, glass fiber filters and cellulose membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shili; Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-11-01

    Current science and policy requirements have focused attention on the need to expand and improve particulate matter (PM) sampling methods. To explore how sampling filter type affects artifacts in PM composition measurements, size-resolved particulate SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ (SNA) were measured on quartz fiber filters (QFF), glass fiber filters (GFF) and cellulose membranes (CM) concurrently in an urban area of Beijing on both clean and hazy days. The results showed that SNA concentrations in most of the size fractions exhibited the following patterns on different filters: CM > QFF > GFF for NH4+; GFF > QFF > CM for SO42-; and GFF > CM > QFF for NO3-. The different patterns in coarse particles were mainly affected by filter acidity, and that in fine particles were mainly affected by hygroscopicity of the filters (especially in size fraction of 0.65-2.1 μm). Filter acidity and hygroscopicity also shifted the peaks of the annual mean size distributions of SNA on QFF from 0.43-0.65 μm on clean days to 0.65-1.1 μm on hazy days. However, this size shift was not as distinct for samples measured with CM and GFF. In addition, relative humidity (RH) and pollution levels are important factors that can enhance particulate size mode shifts of SNA on clean and hazy days. Consequently, the annual mean size distributions of SNA had maxima at 0.65-1.1 μm for QFF samples and 0.43-0.65 μm for GFF and CM samples. Compared with NH4+ and SO42-, NO3- is more sensitive to RH and pollution levels, accordingly, the annual mean size distribution of NO3- exhibited peak at 0.65-1.1 μm for CM samples instead of 0.43-0.65 μm. These methodological uncertainties should be considered when quantifying the concentrations and size distributions of SNA under different RH and haze conditions.

  6. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic substrates can be a solution. In this thesis, we investigate the possibilities of depositing thin film solar cells directly onto cheap plastic substrates. Micro-textured glass and sheets, which have a wide range of applications, such as in green house, lighting etc, are applied in these solar cells for light trapping. Thin silicon films can be produced by decomposing silane gas, using a plasma process. In these types of processes, the temperature of the growing surface has a large influence on the quality of the grown films. Because plastic substrates limit the maximum tolerable substrate temperature, new methods have to be developed to produce device-grade silicon layers. At low temperature, polysilanes can form in the plasma, eventually forming dust particles, which can deteriorate device performance. By studying the spatially resolved optical emission from the plasma between the electrodes, we can identify whether we have a dusty plasma. Furthermore, we found an explanation for the temperature dependence of dust formation; Monitoring the formation of polysilanes as a function of temperature using a mass-spectrometer, we observed that the polymerization rate is indeed influenced by the substrate temperature. For solar cell substrate material, our choice was polycarbonate (PC), because of its low cost, its excellent transparency and its relatively high glass transition temperature of 130-140°C. At 130°C we searched for deposition recipes for device quality silicon, using a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical deposition process. By diluting the feedstock silane with hydrogen gas, the silicon quality can be improved for amorphous silicon (a-Si), until we reach the

  7. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can includemore » a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.« less

  8. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Yu, Guang; Zhang, Jingbo; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2015-03-27

    A sensitive trace gas sensor platform based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is reported. A 1.395 μm continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback pigtailed diode laser was used as the excitation source and H2O was selected as the target analyte. Two kinds of quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonant frequency (f0) of 30.72 kHz and 38 kHz were employed for the first time as an acoustic wave transducer, respectively for QEPAS instead of a standard QTF with a f0 of 32.768 kHz. The QEPAS sensor performance using the three different QTFs was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. A minimum detection limit of 5.9 ppmv and 4.3 ppmv was achieved for f0 of 32.768 kHz and 30.72 kHz, respectively.

  9. Scalable creation of gold nanostructures on high performance engineering polymeric substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Wang, Pan; Wei, Shiliang; Huang, Yumin; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-12-01

    The article reveals a facile protocol for scalable production of gold nanostructures on a high performance engineering thermoplastic substrate made of polyarylene ether nitrile (PEN) for the first time. Firstly, gold thin films with different thicknesses of 2 nm, 4 nm and 6 nm were evaporated on a spin-coated PEN substrate on glass slide in vacuum. Next, the as-evaporated samples were thermally annealed around the glass transition temperature of the PEN substrate, on which gold nanostructures with island-like morphology were created. Moreover, it was found that the initial gold evaporation thickness and annealing atmosphere played an important role in determining the morphology and plasmonic properties of the formulated Au NPs. Interestingly, we discovered that isotropic Au NPs can be easily fabricated on the freestanding PEN substrate, which was fabricated by a cost-effective polymer solution casting method. More specifically, monodispersed Au nanospheres with an average size of ∼60 nm were obtained after annealing a 4 nm gold film covered PEN casting substrate at 220 °C for 2 h in oxygen. Therefore, the scalable production of Au NPs with controlled morphology on PEN substrate would open the way for development of robust flexible nanosensors and optical devices using high performance engineering polyarylene ethers.

  10. Activity of slip in amphibolite facies, fine-grained recrystallized quartz aggregates: high differential stress during high-T creep of quartz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, G.; Menegon, L. M.; Archanjo, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Quartz axis fabrics are a valuable tool to investigate strain partitioning/distribution in both naturally- and experimentally deformed quartz. Previous works have shown that slip dominates at high temperatures (> 600º C) and water-rich, commonly sub-magmatic conditions, typically associated with large grain sizes and grain boundary migration microstructures. In the Pernambuco shear zone, sheared quartz veins from a protomylonitic granitoid formed during the main amphibolite facies event constrained at mid-crustal conditions (550-600ºC, 5 kbar). The veins contain heterogeneously-deformed primary quartz grains, which typically form both flattened and elongated ribbons as well as more equant porphyroclasts surrounded by aggregates of fine-grained (ca. 20 µm) recrystallized aggregates. Recrystallized quartz with the same fine grain size may also occur in intracrystalline bands within the porphyroclasts. Chessboard extinction is widely observed in the porphyroclasts, and subgrain boundaries are either parallel or normal to the (0001) direction, suggesting slip on both basal and prismatic planes during recrystallization. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of porphyroclasts (≥ 100 µm) show maxima of (0001) axes subparallel to Z and X, suggesting coeval glide along both basal and prism planes during shearing. In the recrystallized aggregates, fabric strength tends to become weaker, but still records glide along and directions. These preliminary results suggest that naturally deformed quartz veins record coeval activity of and slip during dynamic recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. The microstructure suggests that the CPO of the fine-grained aggregates is host-controlled and results from dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization. To our knowledge, activity of slip in fine-grained recrystallized aggregates has never been reported before. Thus, these preliminary results call into question the general view that slip is expected to be

  11. Physical processes of quartz amorphization due to friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.; Miura, T.; Arakawa, I.; Shimizu, I.

    2011-12-01

    Solid state amorphization of minerals occurs in indentations, in shock experiments, and in high pressure metamorphic quartz rock. A production of amorphous material is also reported in experimentally created silicate gouges (Yund et al., 1990), and in San Andreas Fault core samples (Janssen et al., 2010). Rotary-shear friction experiments of quartz rocks imply dynamic weakening at seismic rates (Di Toro et al., 2004). These experiments have suggested that weakening is caused by formation and thixotropic behavior of a silica gel layer which comprises of very fine particles of hydrated amorphous silica on fault gouges (Goldsby & Tullis, 2002; Hayashi & Tsutsumi, 2010). Therefore, physical processes of amorphization are important to better understand weakening of quartz bearing rocks. In this study, we conducted a pin-on-disk friction experiment to investigate details of quartz amorphization (Muto et al, 2007). Disks were made of single crystals of synthetic and Brazilian quartz. The normal load F and sliding velocity V were ranged from 0.01 N to 1 N and from 0.01 m/s to 2.6 m/s, respectively. The friction was conducted using quartz and diamond pins (curvature radii of 0.2 ~ 3 mm) to large displacements (> 1000 m) under controlled atmosphere. We analyzed experiment samples by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. Raman spectroscopy (excitation wavelength 532.1 nm) provides lattice vibration modes, and was used to investigate the degree of amorphization of samples. Raman spectra of friction tracks on the disk show clear bands at wavenumbers of 126, 204, 356, 394, and 464 cm-1, characteristic of intact α-quartz. Remarkably, in experiments using diamond pins (F = 0.8 N, normal stress σr calculated by contact area = 293 ~ 440 MPa, V = 0.12 ~ 0.23 m/s), the bands at 204 and 464 cm-1 gradually broaden to reveal shoulders on the higher-wavenumber sides of these peaks. Especially, two distinguished peaks at 490 and 515 cm-1 and a weak broad peak at 606 cm-1 appear sporadically on

  12. Investigation of quartz diagenesis in mudstones of the Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, A.; Reece, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present preliminary core analysis of the diagenetic variability existing within a siliceous mudstone facies of the Permian Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations in the Midland Basin, Texas. Within this mudstone facies, the carbonate content varies from absent in several Wolfcamp Formation samples to >40 wt. % in the Spraberry Formation. A normalized ratio of quartz to clay content with carbonate removed reveals a systematic decrease in quartz content with increasing clay content. This relationship is typical of rocks with variable amounts of detrital quartz content. However, in this siliceous mudstone facies, the abundance of detrital quartz silt grains does not vary widely. Additionally, for the same clay content, the Wolfcamp Formation shows a higher concentration of quartz than the Spraberry Formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the presence of microcrystalline quartz cement that likely accounts for the increased quartz content in the Wolfcamp Formation. This research tests the hypothesis that the increased quartz cement in the Wolfcamp Formation may occur at the expense of the carbonate cement present in the overlying Spraberry Formation. Furthermore, the deviation in quartz content for the same clay concentration only occurs once the ratio of quartz to clay content increases beyond 1.2. This ratio may represent a threshold of detrital quartz in the clay matrix required to have enough porosity and nucleation surface area for authigenic quartz growth. The presence of matrix cement may impact the mechanical properties to favor fracturing and cataclasis over more ductile deformation. This would enhance development of secondary porosity, while also increasing permeability through the connection of primary pores. Acquiring a fundamental understanding of diagenesis in the Spraberry and Wolfcamp Formations will aid in better prediction of mechanical behavior during drilling and optimized resource recovery.

  13. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-10-10

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. However, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. The devices are designed with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.

  14. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. However, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. The devices are designed with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass. PMID:27721484

  15. The stability of annite+quartz: reversed experimental data for the reaction 2 annite+3 quartz=2 sanidine+3 fayalite +2 H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachs, E.; Benisek, Artur

    1995-10-01

    Reversals for the reaction 2 annite+3 quartz=2 sanidine+3 fayalite+2 H2O have been experimentally determined in cold-seal pressure vessels at pressures of 2, 3, 4 and 5 kbar, limiting annite +quartz stability towards higher temperatures. The equilibrium passes through the temperature intervals 500 540° C (2 kbar), 550 570° C (3 kbar), 570 590° C (4 kbar) and 590 610° C (5 kbar). Starting materials for most experiments were mixtures of synthetic annite +fayalite+sanidine+quartz and in some runs annite+quartz alone. Microprobe analyses of the reacted mixtures showed that the annites deviate slightly from their ideal Si/Al ratio (Si per formula unit ranges between 2.85 and 2.92, AlVI between 0.06 and 0.15). As determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, the Fe3+ content of annite in the assemblage annite+fayalite +sanidine+quartz is around 5 7%. The experimental data were used to extract the thermodynamic standard state enthalpy and entropy of annite as follows: H 0 f, Ann =-5125.896±8.319 [kJ/mol] and S 0 Ann=432.62±8.89 [J/mol/K] (consistent with the Holland and Powell 1990 data set), and H 0 f,Ann =-5130.971±7.939 [kJ/mol] and S 0 Ann=424.02±8.39 [J/mol/K] (consistent with the TWEEQ data base, Berman 1991). The preceeding values are close to the standard state properties derived from hydrogen sensor data of the redox reaction annite=sanidine+magnetite+ H 2 (Dachs 1994). The experimental half-reversal of Eugster and Wones (1962) on the annite +quartz breakdown reaction could not be reproduced experimentally (formation of annite from sanidine+fayalite+quartz at 540° C/1.035 kbar/magnetite-iron buffer) and probable reasons for this discrepancy remain unclear. The extracted thermodynamic standard state properties of annite were used to calculate annite and annite+quartz stabilities for pressures between 2 and 5 kbar.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of homogeneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates by single pulse UV-laser treatment of gold and silver films.

    PubMed

    Christou, Konstantin; Knorr, Inga; Ihlemann, Jürgen; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Beushausen, Volker

    2010-12-07

    The fabrication of SERS-active substrates, which offer high enhancement factors as well as spatially homogeneous distribution of the enhancement, plays an important role in the expansion of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to a powerful, quantitative, and noninvasive measurement technique for analytical applications. In this paper, a novel method for the fabrication of SERS-active substrates by laser treatment of 20, 40, and 60 nm thick gold and of 40 nm thick silver films supported on quartz glass is presented. Single 308 nm UV-laser pulses were applied to melt the thin gold and silver films. During the cooling process of the noble metal, particles were formed. The particle size and density were imaged by atomic force microscopy. By varying the fluence, the size of the particles can be controlled. The enhancement factors of the nanostructures were determined by recording self-assembled monolayers of benzenethiol. The intensity of the SERS signal from benzenethiol is correlated to the mean particle size and thus to the fluence. Enhancement factors up to 10(6) with a high reproducibility were reached. Finally we have analyzed the temperature dependence of the SERS effect by recording the intensity of benzenethiol vibrations from 300 to 120 K. The temperature dependence of the SERS effect is discussed with regard to the metal properties.

  17. Effect of Slice Error of Glass on Zero Offset of Capacitive Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, R.; Yu, H. J.; Zhou, W.; Peng, B.; Guo, J.

    2018-03-01

    Packaging process had been studied on capacitance accelerometer. The silicon-glass bonding process had been adopted on sensor chip and glass, and sensor chip and glass was adhered on ceramic substrate, the three-layer structure was curved due to the thermal mismatch, the slice error of glass lead to asymmetrical curve of sensor chip. Thus, the sensitive mass of accelerometer deviated along the sensitive direction, which was caused in zero offset drift. It was meaningful to confirm the influence of slice error of glass, the simulation results showed that the zero output drift was 12.3×10-3 m/s2 when the deviation was 40μm.

  18. Rhenium solubility in borosilicate nuclear waste glass: implications for the processing and immobilization of technetium-99.

    PubMed

    McCloy, John S; Riley, Brian J; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Hrma, Pavel; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W; Kruger, Albert A

    2012-11-20

    The immobilization of technetium-99 ((99)Tc) in a suitable host matrix has proven to be a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. In this context, the present work reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, in a sodium borosilicate glass. Glasses containing target Re concentrations from 0 to 10,000 ppm [by mass, added as KReO(4) (Re(7+))] were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampules to minimize the loss of Re from volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found as Re(7+) in all of the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. At higher rhenium concentrations, additional rhenium was retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of alkali perrhenates detected with X-ray diffraction. Since (99)Tc concentrations in a glass waste form are predicted to be <10 ppm (by mass), these Re results implied that the solubility should not be a limiting factor in processing radioactive wastes, assuming Tc as Tc(7+) and similarities between Re(7+) and Tc(7+) behavior in this glass system.

  19. Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and substrates.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Furukawa, Keiko; Serizawa, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2009-06-02

    Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals and surface-modified substrates were investigated by measuring adsorption behavior and adhesion strength with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The goal was to develop better control of HAp-nanocrystal coatings on biomedical materials. HAp nanocrystals with rodlike or spherical morphology were prepared by a wet chemical process followed by calcination at 800 degrees C with an antisintering agent to prevent the formation of sintered polycrystals. The substrate surface was modified by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, or graft polymerization with a functional monomer. QCM measurement showed that the rodlike HAp nanocrystals adsorbed preferentially onto anionic COOH-modified substrates compared to cationic NH2- or hydrophobic CH3-modified substrates. On the other hand, the spherical nanocrystals adsorbed onto NH2- and COOH-modified substrates, which indicates that the surface properties of the HAp nanocrystals determined their adsorption behavior. The adhesion strength, which was estimated from the force required to move the nanocrystal in contact-mode AFM, on a COOH-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was almost 9 times larger than that on a COOH-modified substrate prepared by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, indicating that the long-chain polymer grafted on the substrate mitigated the surface roughness mismatch between the nanocrystal and the substrate. The adhesion strength of the nanocrystal bonded covalently by the coupling reaction to a Si(OCH3)-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was approximately 1.5 times larger than that when adsorbed on the COOH-grafted substrate.

  20. Optical detectors based on thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.

    2015-06-01

    Optical detectors developed on base of thermo elastic effect In quartz crystalline (PTEK) attributed to the thermal detectors group. Such detectors occurred very effective for the registration of pulsed light energy or power of harmonically modulated laser radiation flux in a wide spectral (from UV to far IR) and dynamic ranges (from 10-6 to 300 W / cm2 with cooling) with a time constant up to10-6 seconds. When exposed to electromagnetic radiation occurs at the receiver thermal field which causes mechanical stress in the transient crystalline quartz, which in turn leads to a change in the polarization of crystalline quartz and, as a consequence, to an electric potential difference at the electrodes (the front surface with a conductive coating and damper). The capacitive characteristic of the detector, based on a thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz, eliminates the possibility of working with constant flow of radiation, which also affects at the frequency response of the detector, since the potential difference appearance in the piezoelectric plate depends on the direction of the forces relative to the axes X, Y, Z of the crystal. Therefore, a certain choice of orientation of the receiving element is necessary in accordance with the physical properties of crystalline quartz. In this paper, a calculation of the sensitivity and frequency characteristics of optical detectors based on the thermo elastic effect in crystalline quartz at the harmonic effects of electromagnetic radiation flux are reported.

  1. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  2. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass.

    PubMed

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T; Saive, Rebecca; Friedrich, Dennis; Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Faraon, Andrei; Atwater, Harry A

    2017-07-05

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnesses below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17  cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.

  3. Characterization of impurities present on Tihimatine (Hoggar) quartz, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas Boussaa, S.; Kheloufi, A.; Boutarek Zaourar, N.

    2017-11-01

    Many of today's advanced materials depend on quartz as a raw material. Quartz usually contains abundant inclusions, both solid and liquid, and due to the number of these inclusions and their small size, complete separation is most difficult. Typical properties of raw quartz that must be characterized are: Size and Chemical composition of inclusions, their spatial distribution, localization of isomorphic substitutional elements (e.g. Al, Fe). The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating some inclusions (impurities) present in the Tihimatine quartz from El Hoggar region deposits (southern Algeria) using X Ray Fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, optical Microscopy with reflected and transmitted lights, infra-red spectrometer, Raman spectrometer. Despite the high concentration of SiO2 in studied quartz reaching 98%, several harmful inclusions were found and identified as hematite, anatase, muscovite, graphite, it contains: Fe, Ti, Al, K, Ca. Some fluid inclusions were found. We detect the presence of carbon dioxide and water using raman spectroscopy. The repartition of solid impurities is aleatory and not homogeneous with maximum size of 10 μm. Concerning the fluid impurities, their diameter vary between 5 and 20 μm and their repartition is aleatory.

  4. TitaniQ in reverse: backing out the equilibrium solubility of titanium in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    There is close agreement among three of the four experimental studies that have 'calibrated' the P-T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility. New experiments were conducted to identify potential experimental disequilibrium, and determine which Ti-in-quartz solubility calibration is most accurate. Quartz and rutile were synthesized from SiO2- and TiO2saturated aqueous fluids in a forward-type experiment at 925°C and 10 kbar in a piston-cylinder apparatus. A range of crystal sizes was examined to determine if growth rate affected Ti incorporation in quartz. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images and electron microprobe measurements show that intercrystalline and intracrystalline variations in Ti concentrations are remarkably small regardless of crystal size. The average Ti-in-quartz concentration from the forward-type experiment is 392±1 ppm Ti, which is within 95% confidence interval of data from the 10 kbar isobar of Wark and Watson (2006) and Thomas et al. (2010). Quartz from the forward-type experiment was used as starting material for reversal-type experiments. The high-Ti quartz starting material was recrystallized at 925°C and 20 kbar to reduce the solubility of Ti in recrystallized quartz to the equilibrium solubility concentration of the reversed P-T condition. The 'dry' and 'wet' reversal experiments produced polycrystalline quartzites. Rutile occurs as inclusions in quartz, and as individual crystals dispersed along quartz/quartz grain boundaries. Quartz that recrystallized during the reversal-type experiment has substantially lower Ti concentrations than the quartz starting material because Ti solubility at 20 kbar is significantly lower than at 10 kbar. Dark cathodoluminescent quartz with low Ti concentrations shows that extensive quartz recrystallization occurred at the reversal P-T condition. The average Ti concentration in quartz from reversal experiments is 94±2 ppm Ti, which is within the 95% confidence interval of a linear fit to the 20 kbar data of

  5. Quantifying Silica Reactivity in Subsurface Environments: Reaction Affinity and Solute Matrix Controls on Quartz and SiO2 Glass Dissolution Kinetics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Patricia M. Dove

    2000-12-13

    During the three years of this project, Professor Dove's laboratory made tremendous progress in understanding controls on amorphous silica dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. Our findings have already received considerable attention. In hydrothermal and low temperature studies, the work focused on determining quantitative and mechanistic controls on the most abundant silica polymorphs in Earth environments--quartz and amorphous silica. Our studies achieved goals set forth in the original proposal to establish a new quantitative understanding of amorphous silica dissolution. This support has resulted in 10 journal, 12 abstracts and 2 thesis publications. The PI and students were also recognized with 6more » awards during this period. The 1998 EMSP conference in Chicago was an important meeting for our project. The symposium, enabled P.I. Dove to establish valuable contacts with ''users'' having specific needs for the findings of our EMSP project related to the urgency of problems in the Tanks Focus Area (TFA). Since that time, our working relations developed as Dove interacted with TFA scientists and engineers on the problems of waste glass properties. These interactions refined our experimental objectives to better meet their needs. Dove presented the results of EMSP research findings to a TFA subgroup at a Product Acceptance Workshop held in Salt Lake City during December 1998. The travel costs to attend this unanticipated opportunity were paid from EMSP project funds. In January 2000, Dove also attended a similar meeting in Atlanta with PNNL, SRL and BNF scientists/engineers to discuss new issues and make another level of decisions on the Product Acceptance goals. Our EMSP-funded research interfaced very well with the ongoing studies of Dr. Pete McGrail and colleagues in the Applied Geochemistry Group at PNNL. The value of our work to ''users'' was further demonstrated when Dove's EMSP-funded Postdoc, Dr. Jonathan Icenhower was hired by the same PNNL

  6. TitaniQ recrystallized: experimental confirmation of the original Ti-in-quartz calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jay B.; Watson, E. Bruce; Spear, Frank S.; Wark, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have reported the P- T dependencies of Ti-in-quartz solubility, and there is close agreement among three of the four experimental calibrations. New experiments were conducted in the present study to identify potential experimental disequilibrium, and to determine which Ti-in-quartz solubility calibration is most accurate. Crystals of quartz, rutile and zircon were grown from SiO2-, TiO2-, and ZrSiO4-saturated aqueous fluids in an initial synthesis experiment at 925 °C and 10 kbar in a piston-cylinder apparatus. A range of quartz crystal sizes was produced in this experiment; both large and small examples were analyzed by electron microprobe to determine whether Ti concentrations are correlated with crystal size. Cathodoluminescence images and EPMA measurements show that intercrystalline and intracrystalline variations in Ti concentrations are remarkably small regardless of crystal size. The average Ti-in-quartz concentration from the synthesis experiment is 392 ± 1 ppmw Ti, which is within 95 % confidence interval of data from the 10 kbar isobar of Wark and Watson (Contrib Mineral Petrol 152:743-754, 2006) and Thomas et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:743-759, 2010). As a cross-check on the Ti-in-quartz calibration, we also measured the concentration of Zr in rutile from the synthesis experiment. The average Zr-in-rutile concentration is 4337 ± 32 ppmw Zr, which is also within the 95 % confidence interval of the Zr-in-rutile solubility calibration of Ferry and Watson (Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:429-437, 2007). The P- T dependencies of Ti solubility in quartz and Zr solubility in rutile were applied as a thermobarometer to the experimental sample. The average Ti-in-quartz isopleth calculated from the calibration of Thomas et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:743-759, 2010) and the average Zr-in-rutile isopleth calculated from the calibration of Tomkins et al. (J Metamorph Geol 25:703-713, 2007) cross at 9.5 kbar and 920 °C, which is in excellent

  7. Silicon thin-film transistor backplanes on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattamis, Alexis Z.

    Flexible large area electronics, especially for displays, is a rapidly growing field. Since hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si:H TFTs) have become the industry standard for liquid crystal displays, it makes sense that they be used in any transition from glass substrates to flexible substrates. The goal of this thesis work was to implement a-Si:H backplane technology on stainless steel and clear plastic substrates, with minimal recipe changes to ensure high device quality. When fabricating TFTs on flexible substrates many new issues arise, from thin-film fracture to overlay alignment errors. Our approach was to maintain elevated deposition temperatures (˜300°C) and engineer methods to minimize these problems, rather than reducing deposition temperatures. The resulting TFTs exhibit more stable operation than their low temperature counterparts and are therefore similar to the TFTs produced on glass. Two display projects using a-Si:H TFTs will be discussed in detail. They are an active-matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) on stainless steel and an active-matrix electrophoretic display (AMEPD) on clear plastic, with TFTs deposited at 250°C-280°C. Achieving quality a-Si:H TFTs on these substrates required addressing a host of technical challenges, including surface roughness and feature misalignment. Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) was also implemented on a clear plastic substrate as a possible alternative to a-Si:H. nc-Si:H TFTs can be deposited using the same techniques as a-Si:H but yield carrier mobilities one order of magnitude greater. Their large mobilities could enable high resolution OLED displays and system-on-panel electronics.

  8. Room-temperature growth of thin films of niobium on strontium titanate (0 0 1) single-crystal substrates for superconducting joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Tonooka, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Furuse, Mitsuho; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    With the eventual aim of forming joints between superconducting wires of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO), thin films of Nb were grown at room-temperature on SrTiO3 (STO) (0 0 1), a single-crystal substrate that shows good lattice matching with YBCO. The crystallinity, surface morphology, and superconducting properties of the Nb thin films were investigated and compared with those of similar films grown on a silica glass substrate. The Nb thin films grew with an (hh0) orientation on both substrates. The crystallinity of the Nb thin films on the STO substrate was higher than that on the silica glass substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements and observation of the surface morphology by atomic-force microscopy indicated that Nb grew in the plane along the [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions of the STO substrate. This growth mode relaxes strain between Nb and STO, and is believed to lead to the high crystallinity observed. As a result, the Nb thin films on the STO substrates showed lower electric resistivity and a higher superconducting transition temperature than did those on the silica glass substrates. The results of this study should be useful in relation to the production of superconducting joints.

  9. Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoule was heated at 1000 °C for 2 h and then air quenched. In samples with ≥12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixturesmore » of KI, NaI, and Na2SO4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6I2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen and were verified with micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.« less

  10. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; ...

    2016-10-10

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. But, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. We designed devices with unique ring-type structures andmore » use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.« less

  11. Soil chemistry in lithologically diverse datasets: the quartz dilution effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.

    2009-01-01

    National- and continental-scale soil geochemical datasets are likely to move our understanding of broad soil geochemistry patterns forward significantly. Patterns of chemistry and mineralogy delineated from these datasets are strongly influenced by the composition of the soil parent material, which itself is largely a function of lithology and particle size sorting. Such controls present a challenge by obscuring subtler patterns arising from subsequent pedogenic processes. Here the effect of quartz concentration is examined in moist-climate soils from a pilot dataset of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Due to variable and high quartz contents (6.2–81.7 wt.%), and its residual and inert nature in soil, quartz is demonstrated to influence broad patterns in soil chemistry. A dilution effect is observed whereby concentrations of various elements are significantly and strongly negatively correlated with quartz. Quartz content drives artificial positive correlations between concentrations of some elements and obscures negative correlations between others. Unadjusted soil data show the highly mobile base cations Ca, Mg, and Na to be often strongly positively correlated with intermediately mobile Al or Fe, and generally uncorrelated with the relatively immobile high-field-strength elements (HFS) Ti and Nb. Both patterns are contrary to broad expectations for soils being weathered and leached. After transforming bulk soil chemistry to a quartz-free basis, the base cations are generally uncorrelated with Al and Fe, and negative correlations generally emerge with the HFS elements. Quartz-free element data may be a useful tool for elucidating patterns of weathering or parent-material chemistry in large soil datasets.

  12. Application of I-structure though-glass interconnect filled with submicron gold particles to a hermetic sealing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Okada, Akiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Ogashiwa, Toshinori; Mizuno, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We propose hermetic sealing of a glass-to-glass structure with an I-structure through-glass interconnect via (TGV) filled with submicron Au particles. The top and bottom bumps and the TGV were formed by a simple filling process with a bump-patterned dry film resist. The sealing devices consisting of two glass substrates were bonded via Au interlayers. Vacuum ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of oxygen gas (VUV/O3) pretreatment was used for low-temperature Au-Au bonding at 200 °C. The bonded samples showed He leakage rates of less than 1.3  ×  10-9 Pa m3 s-1. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated I-structure TGV showed perfect adhesion between the I-structure TGV and glass substrate. These results indicate that the proposed I-structure TGV is suitable for hermetic sealing devices.

  13. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Weathering patinas on the medieval (S. XIV) stained glass windows of the Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Aulinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Gimeno, Domingo; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose Luis; Ruggieri, Flavia; Pugès, Montserrat

    2009-06-01

    The first step in the restoration of a medieval stained glass window is the evaluation of its degree of degradation. This implies the study of the chemical composition of the stained glass as well as the new mineral phases developed on its surface (patinas). Patinas are clearly related to glass composition, time, environmental conditions, microenvironments developed in local zones, bioactivity, physical and chemical factors, etc. This study was carried out on patinas developed in selected Na-rich stained glass of the Santa Maria de Pedralbes Monastery (Barcelona, Spain). The location of this monument in the city (about 5 km from the shoreline and close to the Collserola hill flank) helped to determine the environmental conditions in which patinas developed. The aim of our study was to characterize the patinas formed on the surface of the selected glass of this monastery in order to understand the role of the chemical composition of the original glass (Na-rich) as well as the environmental conditions in which they developed. Powdered samples of two different color-type patinas (ochre-orange and brownish) were collected in the external and internal parts of the stained glass windows of the Prebystery and Chapter House of the Pedralbes Monastery by using a precision (odontological) drill. These patinas were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD analyses evidenced the presence of sulfates (gypsum and thenardite), calcite, Ca-oxalates (whewellite and weddellite), and quartz forming part of the patinas. Although these mineral phases can be found in both color-type patinas, whewellite and thenardite are more common in the ochre-orange patinas. The results obtained were validated by the FTIR measurements. It has been observed, when thenardite is present, that gypsum occurs as traces. Thenardite is in most of the cases associated with whewellite and mainly occurs in the internal parts of the glass. In

  15. Microchannel plate fabrication using glass capillary arrays with Atomic Layer Deposition films for resistance and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popecki, M. A.; Adams, B.; Craven, C. A.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M. R.; Lyashenko, A.; O'Mahony, A.; Minot, M. J.; Aviles, M.; Bond, J. L.; Stochaj, M. E.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J. W.; Mane, A. U.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Ertley, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Granoff, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Microchannel plates (MCPs) have been used for many years in space flight instrumentation as fast, lightweight electron multipliers. A new MCP fabrication method combines a glass substrate composed of hollow glass capillary arrays with thin film coatings to provide the resistive and secondary electron emissive properties. Using this technique, the gain, resistance, and glass properties may be chosen independently. Large-area MCPs are available at moderate cost. Secondary emission films of Al2O3 and MgO provide sustained high gain as charge is extracted from the MCP. Long lifetimes are possible, and a total extracted charge of 7 C/cm2 has been demonstrated. Background rates are low because the glass substrate has little radioactive potassium 40. Curved MCPs are easily fabricated with this technique to suit instrument symmetries, simplifying secondary electron steering and smoothing azimuthal efficiency.

  16. Effect of reactive and un-reactive substrates on photopolymerization of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of reactive (enamel) and un-reactive (glass) substrates on photo-polymerization of self-etching adhesives. Two commercial adhesives Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were applied onto prepared enamel and glass substrates using the same protocol. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) and the involved mechanism. DC of APLP was dramatically enhanced from ~9.4% to ~82.0% as when changing from glass to enamel, while DC of AEB on both substrates showed no difference. The DC distributions along the adhesive layers of the APLP and AEB on enamel showed descending and constant trends, respectively. Spectral analysis disclosed that the difference in chemical reaction of the two adhesives with enamel might be associated with the results. The chemical reaction of the adhesives with enamel significantly improved the DC of the strong APLP, but not that of the mild AEB. PMID:23719012

  17. Effect of reactive and un-reactive substrates on photopolymerization of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of reactive (enamel) and un-reactive (glass) substrates on photo-polymerization of self-etching adhesives. Two commercial adhesives Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were applied onto prepared enamel and glass substrates using the same protocol. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) and the involved mechanism. DC of APLP was dramatically enhanced from ~9.4% to ~82.0% as when changing from glass to enamel, while DC of AEB on both substrates showed no difference. The DC distributions along the adhesive layers of the APLP and AEB on enamel showed descending and constant trends, respectively. Spectral analysis disclosed that the difference in chemical reaction of the two adhesives with enamel might be associated with the results. The chemical reaction of the adhesives with enamel significantly improved the DC of the strong APLP, but not that of the mild AEB.

  18. Helium-hydrogen microplasma device (MPD) on postage-stamp-size plastic-quartz chips.

    PubMed

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2009-10-01

    A new design of a miniaturized, atmospheric-pressure, low-power (e.g., battery-operated), self-igniting, planar-geometry microplasma device (MPD) for use with liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive MPD was a hybrid, three-substrate quartz-plastic-plastic structure and it was formed on chips with area the size of a small postage stamp. The substrates were chosen for rapid prototyping and for speedy device-geometry testing and evaluation. The approximately 700-microm (diameter) and 7-mm (long) He-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Operating conditions were found to be critical in sustaining stable microplasma on plastic substrates. Spectral interference from the electrode materials was not observed. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for introduction of microliter volumes of liquids into the MPD. The microplasma was operated from an inexpensive power supply. And, operation from a 14.4-V battery has been demonstrated. Microplasma background emission in the spectral range between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer is reported. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. Element-dependent precision was between 10-25% (the average was 15%) and detection limits ranged between 1.5 and 350 ng. The system was used for the determination of Na in diluted bottled-water samples.

  19. Effect of substrate type on the electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Gotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihiko; Usami, Noritaka

    2018-06-01

    Electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive DC sputtering have been investigated on three different substrates: high resistivity (>1000 Ω cm) float zone Si(1 1 1), float zone Si(1 0 0) and alkali free glass. As-deposited TiO2 films on glass substrate showed extremely high resistivity of (∼5.5 × 103 Ω cm). In contrast, lower resistivities of ∼2 Ω cm and ∼5 Ω cm were obtained for films on Si(1 1 1) and Si(1 0 0), respectively. The as-deposited films were found to be oxygen-rich amorphous TiO2 for all the substrates as evidenced by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Subsequent annealing led to appearance of anatase TiO2 on Si but not on glass. The surface of as-deposited TiO2 on Si was found to be rougher than that on glass. These results suggest that the big difference of electrical resistivity of TiO2 would be related with existence of more anatase nuclei forming on crystalline substrates, which is consistent with the theory of charged clusters that smaller clusters tend to adopt the substrate structure.

  20. Treated and untreated rock dust: Quartz content and physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Chisholm, William P; Farcas, Daniel; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Harper, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Rock dusting is used to prevent secondary explosions in coal mines, but inhalation of rock dusts can be hazardous if the crystalline silica (e.g., quartz) content in the respirable fraction is high. The objective of this study is to assess the quartz content and physical characteristics of four selected rock dusts, consisting of limestone or marble in both treated (such as treatment with stearic acid or stearates) and untreated forms. Four selected rock dusts (an untreated and treated limestone and an untreated and treated marble) were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber. Respirable size-selective sampling was conducted along with particle size-segregated sampling using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to determine quartz mass and particle morphology, respectively. Quartz percentage in the respirable dust fraction of untreated and treated forms of the limestone dust was significantly higher than in bulk samples, but since the bulk percentage was low the enrichment factor would not have resulted in any major change to conclusions regarding the contribution of respirable rock dust to the overall airborne quartz concentration. The quartz percentage in the marble dust (untreated and treated) was very low and the respirable fractions showed no enrichment. The spectra from SEM-EDX analysis for all materials were predominantly from calcium carbonate, clay, and gypsum particles. No free quartz particles were observed. The four rock dusts used in this study are representative of those presented for use in rock dusting, but the conclusions may not be applicable to all available materials.

  1. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  2. Experimental and simulation study of growth of TiO2 films on different substrates and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghogare, Trupti T.; Kartha, Moses J.; Kendre, Subhash D.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2018-04-01

    Monte-Carlo Ballistic Deposition simulations have done on substrates with different initial roughness. The grown films were observed to be porous. The initial growths of the films with seed like initiations are observed for substrate with high initial roughness. In order to confirm this effect TiO2 films were deposited on different substrates using chemical bath deposition. The surface morphological and optical properties were measured using scanning electron microscopy and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Flower like porous structure are obtained on glass substrate and continuous porous morphology is formed on ITO substrate. The morphology of the surfaces was successfully reconstructed and the surface porosity was calculated after digitalising images and reconstructed the surfaces. The TiO2 film formed on ITO is observed to be 10% more porous than on the film formed on glass substrate. Diffusion Limited Aggregation simulations with multiple seeds confirms that the observed flower like structure formed are due to the screening effects of the diffusing ion by already deposited particles.

  3. Ion irradiation synthesis of Ag–Au bimetallic nanospheroids in SiO{sub 2} glass substrate with tunable surface plasmon resonance frequency

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Meng, Xuan; Yu, Ruixuan; Takayanagi, Shinya

    2013-08-07

    Ag–Au bimetallic nanospheroids with tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were synthesized by 100 keV Ar–ion irradiation of 30 nm Ag–Au bimetallic films deposited on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates. A shift of the LSPR peaks toward shorter wavelengths was observed up to an irradiation fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}, and then shifted toward the longer wavelength because of the increase of fragment volume under ion irradiation. Further control of LSPR frequency over a wider range was realized by modifying the chemical components. The resulting LSPR frequencies lie between that of the pure components, and an approximate linearmore » shift of the LSPR toward the longer wavelength with the Au concentration was achieved, which is in good agreement with the theoretical calculations based on Gans theory. In addition, the surface morphology and compositions were examined with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and microstructural characterizations were performed using a transmission electron microscope. The formation of isolated photosensitive Ag–Au nanospheroids with a FCC structure partially embedded in the SiO{sub 2} substrate was confirmed, which has a potential application in solid-state devices.« less

  4. Highly evolved rhyolitic glass compositions from the Toba Caldera, Sumatra

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chesner, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The quartz latite to rhyolitic ash flow tuffs erupted form the Toba Caldera, perhaps the largest caldera on earth (100 by 30 kms), provide the unique opportunity to study a highly differentiated liquid in equilibrium with numerous mineral phases. Not only are the rocks very crystal rich (30-50%), but at present a minimum of 15 co-existing mineral phases have been identified. Both whole-rock and glass analyses were made by XRF techniques providing data on both major and trace elements. Whole rock chemistry of individual pumices from the youngest eruption at Toba (75,000 years ago), are suggestive of the eruption ofmore » two magma compositions across a boundary layer in the magma chamber. Glass chemistry of the pumices also show two distinct liquid compositions. The more silicic pumices, which have the most evolved glass compositions, are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the few aplitic pumices and cognate granitic xenoliths that were collected. This highly evolved composition resulted from the removal of up to 15 mineral phases and may be a fractionation buffered, univariant composition. The glasses from the less silicic pumices are similar to the whole rock chemistry of the more silicic pumice, thus falling nicely on a fractionation trend towards the univariant composition for these rocks. This set of glass compositions allows an independent test for the origin of distal ashes thought to have erupted from Toba and deposited in Malaysia, the Indian Ocean, and as far away as India.« less

  5. Cell-free protein synthesis in PDMS-glass hybrid microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo; Nojima, Takahiko; Hong, Jong W.; Endo, Isao

    2000-08-01

    A living cell has numerous kinds of proteins while only thousands of that have been identified as of now. In order to discover and produce various proteins that are applicable to biotechnological, pharmaceutical and medical applications, cell-free protein synthesis is one of the most useful and promising techniques. In this study, we developed an inexpensive microreactor with temperature control capability for protein synthesis. The microreactor consists of a sandwich of glass-based chip and PDMS(polydimethylsiloxane) chip. The thermo control system, which is composed of a heater and a temperature sensor, is fabricated with an ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) resistive material on a glass substrate by ordinary microfabrication method based on photolithography and etching techniques. The reactor chamber and flow channels are fabricated by injection micromolding of PDMS. Since one can use thermo control system on a glass substrate repeatedly by replacing only the easily-fabricated and low-cost PDMS reactor chamber, this microreactor is quite cost effective. As a demonstration, a DNA template of a GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) is transcribed and translated using cell-free extract prepared from Escherichia coli. As a result, GFP was successfully synthesized in the present microreactor.

  6. Control of Silver Diffusion in Low-Temperature Co-Fired Diopside Glass-Ceramic Microwave Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Chia; Chang, Chun-Yao; Chen, Guang-Yu; Feng, Kuei-Chih; Tsao, Chung-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Electrode material for low-temperature co-fired diopside glass-ceramic used for microwave dielectrics was investigated in the present work. Diffusion of silver from the electrode to diopside glass-ceramics degrades the performance of the microwave dielectrics. Two approaches were adopted to resolve the problem of silver diffusion. Firstly, silicon-oxide (SiO2) powder was employed and secondly crystalline phases were chosen to modify the sintering behavior and inhibit silver ions diffusion. Nanoscale amorphous SiO2 powder turns to the quartz phase uniformly in dielectric material during the sintering process, and prevents the silver from diffusion. The chosen crystalline phase mixing into the glass-ceramics enhances crystallinity of the material and inhibits silver diffusion as well. The result provides a method to decrease the diffusivity of silver ions by adding the appropriate amount of SiO2 and appropriate crystalline ceramics in diopside glass-ceramic dielectric materials. Finally, we used IEEE 802.11a 5.8 GHz as target specification to manufacture LTCC antenna and the results show that a good broadband antenna was made using CaMgSi2O6 with 4 wt % silicon oxide. PMID:29286330

  7. Metallic glass coating on metals plate by adjusted explosive welding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. D.; Liu, K. X.; Chen, Q. Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yan, H. H.; Li, X. J.

    2009-09-01

    Using an adjusted explosive welding technique, an aluminum plate has been coated by a Fe-based metallic glass foil in this work. Scanning electronic micrographs reveal a defect-free metallurgical bonding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate. Experimental evidence indicates that the Fe-based metallic glass foil almost retains its amorphous state and mechanical properties after the explosive welding process. Additionally, the detailed explosive welding process has been simulated by a self-developed hydro-code and the bonding mechanism has been investigated by numerical analysis. The successful welding between the Fe-based metallic glass foil and the aluminum plate provides a new way to obtain amorphous coating on general metal substrates.

  8. Low emissivity Ag/Ta/glass multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Park, Sun Ho; Lee, Kee Sun; Green Home Energy Technology Center, Cheonan City

    Ta is deposited on a glass substrate as an interlayer for the two-dimensional growth of Ag thin films because Ta has good thermal stability and can induce a negative surface-energy change in Ag/glass. From the transmission electron microscopy results, we concluded that the Ag crystals in the bottom layer (seemingly on Ag/Ta) were flattened; this was rarely observed in the three-dimensional growth mode. Comparing Ag/Ta/glass with Ag/glass, we found that the Ta interlayer was effective in reducing both the resistance and the emissivity, accompanied by the relatively high transmittance in the visible region. In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showedmore » 0.08 of the emissivity, including {approx}61% of the transmittance in the visible region (wavelength: 550 nm).« less

  9. Elastic moduli of rock glasses under pressure to 8 kilobars and geophysical implications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, R.; Robertson, E.C.; Werke, R.W.; Raspet, R.

    1980-01-01

    Shear and longitudinal velocities were measured by the ultrasonic phase comparison method as a function of pressure to 8 kbar on synthetic glasses of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, and quartz composition and on natural obsidian. Velocities of most of the glasses decrease anomalously with pressure, but increasingly more-normal behavior occurs with decrease in SiO2 content. The pressure derivatives of rigidity and bulk modulus increase linearly, from -3.39 to -0.26 and from -5.91 to +2.09, respectively, with decrease in SiO2 content from 100 to 49%. The change from negative to positive in the pressure derivatives of both moduli and observed at Poisson's ratio of about 0.25 is consitent with the Smyth model for the anomalous elastic behavior of glass. If the temperature in the upper mantle is about 1500oC, tholeiitic basalt would be molten in accordance with the partial melt explanation for the low-velocity zone; at 1300oC and below, basalt would be in the glassy state, especially if more felsic than tholeiite. -Authors

  10. Iodine solubility in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass at 1000°C

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; ...

    2014-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoules were heated at 1000 °C for 2h, and then air quenched. In samples with ≥12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixtures ofmore » KI, NaI, and Na 2SO 4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6I 2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen as determined by micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.« less

  11. Shock-induced microdeformations in quartz and other mineralogical indications of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the boundary clay is important for the determination of the timing and processes involved in the impact event and in the assignment and interpretation of geochemical signatures. Multiple sets of shock-induced microdeformations (planar features) in quartz grains separated from KT boundary clays provide compelling evidence of an impact event. This mineralogical manifestation of shock metamorphism is associated worldwide with a large positive anomaly of iridium in these boundary clays, which has also been considered indicative of the impact of a large extraterrestrial body. Global distributions of maximum sizes of shocked quartz grains from the boundary clays and the mineralogy of the ejecta components favor an impact on or near the North American continent. Spinel crystals (magnesioferrite) occur in the boundary clays as micrometer-sized octahedra or skeletal forms. Their composition differs from that of spinels found in terrestrial oceanic basalts. Magnesioferrite crystals are restricted to the high-angle ejecta layer of the boundary clays and their small size and skeletal morphology suggest that they are condensation products of a vaporized bolide. Hollow spherules ranging up to 1 mm in size are ubiquitously associated with the boundary clays. In nonmarine

  12. Scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback.

    PubMed

    Dede, M; Urkmen, K; Girişen, O; Atabak, M; Oral, A; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D

    2008-02-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains with high spatial and magnetic field resolution of approximately 50 nm and 7 mG/Hz(1/2) at room temperature. In the SHPM technique, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) feedback is used to keep the Hall sensor in close proximity of the sample surface. However, STM tracking SHPM requires conductive samples; therefore the insulating substrates have to be coated with a thin layer of gold. This constraint can be eliminated with the AFM feedback using sophisticated Hall probes that are integrated with AFM cantilevers. However it is very difficult to micro fabricate these sensors. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The Hall sensor chip is simply glued at the end of a 32.768 kHz or 100 kHz Quartz crystal, which is used as force sensor. An LT-SHPM system is used to scan the samples. The sensor assembly is dithered at the resonance frequency using a digital Phase Locked Loop circuit and frequency shifts are used for AFM tracking. SHPM electronics is modified to detect AFM topography and the frequency shift, along with the magnetic field image. Magnetic domains and topography of an Iron Garnet thin film crystal, NdFeB demagnetised magnet and hard disk samples are presented at room temperature. The performance is found to be comparable with the SHPM using STM feedback.

  13. Oxygen-aided synthesis of polycrystalline graphene on silicon dioxide substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyi; Wen, Yugeng; Guo, Yunlong; Wu, Bin; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Geng, Dechao; Wang, Dong; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi

    2011-11-09

    We report the metal-catalyst-free synthesis of high-quality polycrystalline graphene on dielectric substrates [silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) or quartz] using an oxygen-aided chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The growth was carried out using a CVD system at atmospheric pressure. After high-temperature activation of the growth substrates in air, high-quality polycrystalline graphene is subsequently grown on SiO(2) by utilizing the oxygen-based nucleation sites. The growth mechanism is analogous to that of growth for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Graphene-modified SiO(2) substrates can be directly used in transparent conducting films and field-effect devices. The carrier mobilities are about 531 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in air and 472 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in N(2), which are close to that of metal-catalyzed polycrystalline graphene. The method avoids the need for either a metal catalyst or a complicated and skilled postgrowth transfer process and is compatible with current silicon processing techniques.

  14. Spotting optimization for oligo microarrays on aldehyde-glass.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Erica D; Reppert, Amy E; Rowlen, Kathy L; Kuck, Laura R

    2005-06-15

    Low-density microarrays that utilize short oligos (<100 nt) for capture are highly attractive for use in diagnostic applications, yet these experiments require strict quality control and meticulous reproducibility. However, a survey of current literature indicates vast inconsistencies in the spotting and processing procedures. In this study, spotting and processing protocols were optimized for aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates. Figures of merit were developed for quantitative comparison of spot quality and reproducibility. Experimental variables examined included oligo concentration in the spotting buffer, composition of the spotting buffer, postspotting "curing" conditions, and postspotting wash conditions. Optimized conditions included the use of 3-4 microM oligo in a 3x standard saline citrate/0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate/0.001% (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonia]-1-propane sulfonate) spotting buffer, 24-h postspotting reaction at 100% relative humidity, and a four-step wash procedure. Evaluation of six types of aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates indicated that those manufactured by CEL Associates, Inc. yield the highest oligo coverage.

  15. Volume gratings and welding of glass/plastic by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    Femtosecond laser direct writing is used to fabricate diffractive optical elements in three dimensions and to weld glass and/or plastic. In this paper, we review volume gratings in plastics and welding of glass/plastic by femtosecond laser direct writing. Volume gratings were embedded inside polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by femtosecond laser pulses. The diffraction efficiency of the gratings increased after fabrication and reached the maximum. After an initial slow decrease within first several days after the fabrication, the efficiency increased again. This phenomena was called regeneration of the grating. We also demonstrate welding of PMMA by dendrite pattern using femtosecond laser pulses. Laser pulses are focused at the interface of two PMMA substrates with an air gap and melted materials in laser-irradiated region spread within a gap of the substrates and dendrite morphology of melted PMMA was observed outside the laser irradiated area. Finally, we show welding of glass/plastic and metal.

  16. Synchrotron generated X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) from Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina; Finch, Adrian; Robinson, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Quartz is the preferred mineral for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, due to its well constrained behaviour as a radiation dosimeter. However, despite the plethora of successful quartz OSL applications, no solution has been found to the problem that some quartz luminesce more brightly than others, which has limited the application of OSL in certain settings. This has been addressed through examination of the luminescence emission using a variety of excitation techniques and emission spectroscopy. X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) is luminescence excited by x-rays produced by a synchrotron. XEOL analyses were conducted upon a suite of quartz samples at Diamond, Great Britain, which had previously been analysed with Ionoluminescence (IL), at Sussex University. The samples were selected to include quartz of both poor and excellent OSL sensitivities. Therefore, two Scottish glacial outwash samples prepared at St Andrews, and a calibration quartz sample, prepared at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark were analysed for these properties respectively. The XEOL emission spectra comprised three major emissions at 3.32, 3.81 and 4.05 eV, and one weaker emission at 1.94 eV in all samples. The calibration quartz sample had the most intense emission by an order of magnitude. Throughout increased exposure to x-rays, the intensity of the UV emission reduced, and an increase in the red (1.94 eV) emission was recorded. The derived XEOL spectra complement the IL spectra obtained previously. The IL spectra were dominated by only two broad emissions at 3.2-3.1 eV and 1.8-1.7 eV. However, throughout the IL experiments a dose dependent effect was also observed, whereby the UV emission was depleted to the benefit of the red with increasing exposure. Furthermore the gradient of the power law relationship between the UV and red emission change with dose is similar for both the IL and XEOL data: at -1.15 and -1.05 respectively for calibration quartz, when plotted

  17. Stabilization of gold nanoparticle films on glass by thermal embedding.

    PubMed

    Karakouz, Tanya; Maoz, Ben M; Lando, Gilad; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2011-04-01

    The poor adhesion of gold nanoparticles (NPs) to glass has been a known obstacle to studies and applications of NP-based systems, such as glass/Au-NP optical devices. Here we present a simple scheme for obtaining stable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) transducers based on Au NP films immobilized on silanized glass and annealed. The procedure includes high-temperature annealing of the Au NP film, leading to partial embedding in the glass substrate and stabilization of the morphology and optical properties. The method is demonstrated using citrate-stabilized Au NPs, 20 and 63 nm mean diameter, immobilized electrostatically on glass microscope cover slides precoated with an aminosilane monolayer. Partial thermal embedding of the Au NPs in the glass occurs at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of the substrate. Upon annealing in air the Au NPs gradually settle into the glass and become encircled by a glass rim. In situ transmission UV-vis spectroscopy carried out during the annealing in a specially designed optical oven shows three regions: The most pronounced change of the surface plasmon (SP) band shape occurs in the first ca. 15 min of annealing; this is followed by a blue-shift of the SP band maximum (up to ca. 5 h), after which a steady red-shift of the SP band is observed (up to ca. 70 h, when the experiment was terminated). The development of the SP extinction spectrum was correlated to changes in the system structure, including thermal modification of the NP film morphology and embedding in the glass. The partially embedded Au NP films pass successfully the adhesive-tape test, while their morphology and optical response are stable toward immersion in solvents, drying, and thiol self-assembly. The enhanced adhesion is attributed to the metal NP embedding and rim formation. The stabilized NP films display a refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of 34-48 nm/RIU and 0.1-0.4 abs.u./RIU in SP band shift and extinction change

  18. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass

    DOE PAGES

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T.; Saive, Rebecca; ...

    2017-07-05

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnessesmore » below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17 cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2V -1s -1. Therefore, due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.« less

  19. Fabrication of Single Crystal Gallium Phosphide Thin Films on Glass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Emmer, Hal; Chen, Christopher T.; Saive, Rebecca

    Due to its high refractive index and low absorption coefficient, gallium phosphide is an ideal material for photonic structures targeted at the visible wavelengths. However, these properties are only realized with high quality epitaxial growth, which limits substrate choice and thus possible photonic applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of single crystal gallium phosphide thin films on transparent glass substrates via transfer bonding. GaP thin films on Si (001) and (112) grown by MOCVD are bonded to glass, and then the growth substrate is removed with a XeF 2 vapor etch. The resulting GaP films have surface roughnessesmore » below 1 nm RMS and exhibit room temperature band edge photoluminescence. Magnesium doping yielded p-type films with a carrier density of 1.6 × 10 17 cm -3 that exhibited mobilities as high as 16 cm 2V -1s -1. Therefore, due to their unique optical properties, these films hold much promise for use in advanced optical devices.« less

  20. Effects of ion and nanosecond-pulsed laser co-irradiation on the surface nanostructure of Au thin films on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, Ruixuan; Meng, Xuan; Takayanagi, Shinya

    2014-04-14

    Ion irradiation and short-pulsed laser irradiation can be used to form nanostructures on the surfaces of substrates. This work investigates the synergistic effects of ion and nanosecond-pulsed laser co-irradiation on surface nanostructuring of Au thin films deposited under vacuum on SiO{sub 2} glass substrates. Gold nanoparticles are randomly formed on the surface of the substrate after nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation under vacuum at a wavelength of 532 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz and laser energy density of 0.124 kJ/m{sup 2}. Gold nanoparticles are also randomly formed on the substrate after 100-keV Ar{sup +} ion irradiation at doses of upmore » to 3.8 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, and nearly all of these nanoparticles are fully embedded in the substrate. With increasing ion irradiation dose (number of incident laser pulses), the mean diameter of the Au nanoparticles decreases (increases). However, Au nanoparticles are only formed in a periodic surface arrangement after co-irradiation with 6000 laser pulses and 3.8 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The periodic distance is ∼540 nm, which is close to the wavelength of the nanosecond-pulsed laser, and the mean diameter of the Au nanoparticles remains at ∼20 nm with a relatively narrow distribution. The photoabsorption peaks of the ion- or nanosecond-pulsed laser-irradiated samples clearly correspond to the mean diameter of Au nanoparticles. Conversely, the photoabsorption peaks for the co-irradiated samples do not depend on the mean nanoparticle diameter. This lack of dependence is likely caused by the periodic nanostructure formed on the surface by the synergistic effects of co-irradiation.« less

  1. APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.

    1987-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

  2. Phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamp

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Kang; Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Qinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: A large proportion of the output of quartz infrared heat lamps is emitted as infrared radiation (IR). Retinal damage induced by IR-A and visible light on arc welders has been reported. However, case reports of retinal damage caused by quartz infrared heat lamps are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of phototoxic maculopathy induced by quartz infrared heat lamps. Patient concerns: We report a female with a 1-month history of progressive blurred vision and dysmorphopsia in her right eye after improper staring at the tubes of a quartz infrared heater. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/32. Optical coherence tomography revealed a defect from the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch's complex layer with a diameter of 360mmat its widest. P1 amplitudes in the two central concentric rings were reduced as assessed by multifocal electroretinography. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with phototoxic maculopathy. Interventions: The patient was advised to cease all exposure to the infrared heater and was treated with peribulbar injections of methylprednisolone, oral Pancreatic Kininogenase, and oral Mecobalamin. Outcomes: Ten months later, her BCVA improved to 20/20. All examination results returned to normal except for a small residual defect in the interdigitation zone and RPE/Bruch's complex layer in her optical coherence tomography. Lessons: Light emitted by quartz infrared heat lamps may cause damage to the retina through photothermal and photochemical means. The public is insufficiently aware of the hazard potential of infrared heat lamps and other IR-A sources on human retina. PMID:28099337

  3. Impact of Substrate Types on Structure and Emission of ZnO Nanocrystalline Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballardo Rodriguez, I. Ch.; El Filali, B.; Díaz Cano, A. I.; Torchynska, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were simultaneously synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method on p-type Si (100), silicon carbide polytype [6H-SiC (0001)], porous 6H-SiC and amorphous glass substrates with the aim of studying the impact of substrate types on the structure and emission of ZnO nanocrystalline films. Porous silicon carbide (P-SiC) was prepared by the electrochemical anodization method at a constant potential of 20 V and etching time of 12 min. ZnO films grown on the SiC and P-SiC substrates are characterized by a wurtzite crystal structure with preferential growth along the (002) direction and with grain sizes of 90-180 and 70-160 nm, respectively. ZnO films grown on the Si substrate have just some small irregular hexagonal islands. The amorphous glass substrate did not promote the formation of any regular crystal forms. The obtained x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) results have shown that the better ZnO film crystallinity and high PL intensity of near-band edge emissions were achieved in the films grown on the porous SiC and SiC substrates. The preferential growth and crystalline nature of ZnO films on the SiC substrate have been discussed from the point of view of the lattice parameter compatibility between ZnO and SiC crystals.

  4. The effect of spark plasma sintering on lithium disilicate glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Al Mansour, Fatima; Karpukhina, Natalia; Grasso, Salvatore; Wilson, Rory M; Reece, Mike J; Cattell, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of spark plasma sintering (SPS) on the microstructure of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. IPS e.max CAD glass-ceramic samples were processed using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventionally sintered (CS) as a comparison. Specimens were sintered at varying temperatures (T1: 840°C, T2: 820°C, T3: 800°C), heating rates (HR1: 150°C/min, HR2: 300°C/min, HR3: 500°C/min) and pressures (P1: 15MPa, P2: 50MPa, P3: 70MPa). IPS e.max Press glass powder samples were densified at 750 and 800°C (50 or 200MPa pressure). Samples were characterized using XRD, HTXRD, and SEM and quantitative image analysis. There was a significant increase in median crystal size (MCS) between the CS and the SPS T1 groups. A statistical difference (p>0.05) in MCS between SPS T1 and SPS T2 groups was observed. The SPS HR3 sample produced a smaller MCS than the CS, SPS HR1 and HR2 groups (p<0.05). The SPS P3 sample had a reduction in MCS compared with the CS group (p<0.05). XRD of the SPS samples revealed major lithium disilicate/lithium metasilicate phases and minor lithium orthophosphate and cristobalite/quartz phases. Densified IPS e.max Press glass samples resulted in fine fibrils or graduated lithium disilicate crystals. The effects of SPS were used to refine the microstructure of IPS e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. Densification by SPS of IPS e.max Press glass resulted in textured and fine nano-crystalline microstructures. SPS generated glass-ceramic microstructures may have unique properties and could be useful in the production of CAD/CAM materials for dentistry. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineralogy, morphology, and textural relationships in coatings on quartz grains in sediments in a quartz-sand aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Shouliang; Kent, Douglas B.; Elbert, David C.; Shi, Zhi; Davis, James A.; Veblen, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of coatings on quartz grains and bulk sediments from an aquifer on Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA were carried out using a variety of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Previous studies demonstrated that coatings on quartz grains control the adsorption properties of these sediments. Samples for TEM characterization were made by a gentle mechanical grinding method and focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The former method can make abundant electron-transparent coating assemblages for comprehensive and quantitative X-ray analysis and the latter technique protects the coating texture from being destroyed. Characterization of the samples from both a pristine area and an area heavily impacted by wastewater discharge shows similar coating textures and chemical compositions. Major constituents of the coating include Al-substituted goethite and illite/chlorite clays. Goethite is aggregated into well-crystallized domains through oriented attachment resulting in increased porosity. Illite/chlorite clays with various chemical compositions were observed to be mixed with goethite aggregates and aligned sub-parallel to the associated quartz surface. The uniform spatial distribution of wastewater-derived phosphorus throughout the coating from the wastewater-contaminated site suggests that all of the coating constituents, including those adjacent to the quartz surface, are accessible to groundwater solutes. Both TEM characterization and chemical extraction results indicate there is a significantly greater amount of amorphous iron oxide in samples from wastewater discharge area compared to those from the pristine region, which might reflect the impact of redox cycling of iron under the wastewater-discharge area. Coating compositions are consistent with the moderate metal and oxy-metalloid adsorption capacities, low but significant cation exchange capacities, and control of iron(III) solubility by goethite observed in reactive transport

  6. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guang-Hui; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2008-10-29

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 µm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9°. Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  7. Monticello - A glass-rich howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Dod, Bruce D.; Schmitt, Roman A.; Sipiera, Paul P.

    1987-01-01

    Monticello is a new howardite similar to Malvern in that it contains abundant (15 percent) glass fragments, which show a range of compositions from olivine-normative to quartz-normative. Like Kapoeta, it contains pyroxene grains that range up to highly magnesian compositions, Fs16. Because their pyroxenes are more magnesian than those occurring in diogenites, Monticello and Kapoeta are exceptions to the simple two-component mixing model in which howardites are considered to be mechanical mixtures of fragmented eucrites and diogenites. Monticello also contains clasts of what appear to be a cumulate eucrite and a noncumulate eucrite, as well as a radiating pyroxene chondrule from a chondrite. Monticello is a regolith breccia containing more evolved components than are usually considered in eucrite-diogenite genesis models. As such, it supports those models that involve reworking of a complex parent body crust rather than straightforward partial melting of primitive chondritic parent material.

  8. Descriptions of crack growth behaviors in glass-ZrO2 bilayers under thermal residual stresses.

    PubMed

    Belli, Renan; Wendler, Michael; Zorzin, José I; Petschelt, Anselm; Tanaka, Carina B; Meira, Josete; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    This study was intended to separate residual stresses arising from the mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion between glass and zirconia (ZrO2) from those stresses arising solely from the cooling process. Slow crack growth experimentes were undertaken to demonstrate how cracks grow in different residual stress fields. Aluminosilicate glass discs were sintered onto ZrO2 to form glass-ZrO2 bilayers. Glass discs were allowed to bond to the ZrO2 substrate during sintering or prevented from bonding by means of coating the ZrO2 with a thin boron nitrade coating. Residual stress gradients on "bonded" and "unbonded" bilayers were assessed using birefringence measurements. Unbonded glass discs were further tested under biaxial flexure in dynamic fatigue conditions in order to evaluate the effect of residual stress on the slow crack growth behavior. When fast-ccoling was induced, residual tensile stresses on the glass increased significantly on the side toward the ZrO2 substrate. By allowing the bond between glass and ZrO2, those tensile stresses observed in unbonded specimens are overwhelmed by the contraction mismatch stresses between the ZrO2 substrate and the glassy overlayer. Specimens containing residual tensile stresses on the bending surface showed a time-dependent strength increase in relation to stress-free annealed samples in the dynamic biaxial bending test, with this effect being dependent on the magnitude of the residual tensile stress. The phenomenon observed is explained here on the basis of the water toughening effect, in which water diffuses into the glass promoting local swelling. An additional residual tensile stress at the crack tip adds an applied-stress-independent (Kres) term to the total tip stress intensity factor (Ktip), increasing the stress-enhanced diffusion and the shielding of the crack tip through swelling of the crack faces. Residual stresses in the glass influence the crack growth behavior of veneered-ZrO2 bilayered dental prostheses

  9. Fluid inclusion studies on the mineralized quartz-rich hydrothermal breccias and quartz veins of the Kay Tanda epithermal gold deposit, Lobo, Batangas, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, S. M. P.; Takahashi, R.; Imai, A.; Blamey, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Kay Tanda epithermal deposit in Lobo, Batangas, Philippines is mainly hosted in quartz-rich hydrothermal breccia and quartz veins. These contain varying gold grades with some reaching bonanza gold grades as high as 200 ppm Au. They also contain varying amounts of base metal sulfides such as sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite whose abundances increase with depth. Petrographic analysis of the samples revealed different quartz textures such as colloform textures in quartz veins at shallow levels and feathery, flamboyant and mosaic textures in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias at deeper levels. These textures are indicative of boiling conditions. To elucidate the fluid conditions, fluid source, composition and processes during the formation of the deposit, fluid inclusion microthermometry, quantitative fluid inclusion gas analysis and laser Raman spectroscopy were conducted. Doubly polished thin wafers prepared from the quartz veins and quartz crystals in the matrix of hydrothermal breccias. Microthermometric analysis of primary fluid inclusions included measurements of the freezing temperature Tf, the temperature of ice melting Tm, and the homogenization temperature of the fluid phase by disappearance of vapor Th. Liquid-to-vapor (L-V) ratios are variable, thus, liquid-rich liquid-vapor inclusions and vapor-rich liquid-vapor inclusions coexist in some samples. The sizes of the primary fluid inclusions may reach 100 micrometers. The homogenization temperatures range 200 °C to 380 °C, with the mode around 250 °C to 280 °C. Salinities range from 2 to 7 wt% NaCl equivalent, with the mode around 4 to 5 wt% NaCl equivalent. Trends of the distribution of fluid inclusion populations based on their homogenization temperature and salinity suggest boiling which is consistent with the variable liquid to vapor ratios, i.e. coexistence of liquid-rich inclusions and vapor-rich inclusions.

  10. Geochemical features of glass beads excavated from the Iron Age archaeological sites, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2016-12-01

    The uses of metallic artifacts began 2500-2000 years ago in Taiwan; in the meanwhile glass beads have also been as a common ornament by the prehistoric people. Glass, as the earliest artificial ornament, is made by a mixture of quartz sands and flux which were heated to more than one thousand Celsius degrees. Therefore, the production processes, raw material provenance and exchange systems could be revealed by the chemical compositions of glass artifacts. The chemical composition of glass beads studies from four archaeological sites (PL, PN, CHL and TL sites) in early Iron Age are reported in this study. By the producing in drawn method and limited ranges of colors with various hue, all the studied glass beads here should be classified as Indo-Pacific glass beads. As these ancient glass beads are unique and precious, a non-destructive analytical method is always considered at the initial stage. Therefore, we use the best known and most widely-used of the surface analytical techniques SEM/EDX to get the surface and quantitative elemental information of glass beads. According to the analytical results, the PL and PN glass beads all belong to potassium silica glass and those coexisting with so-called Kueishan sherds excavated from CHL and TL sites should be classified as sodium-calcium glass which is the most general composition of Indo-Pacific glass beads. Not only the different flux using between potassium and sodium glass, the variation in the aluminum contents between potassium and sodium glass also exhibits different provenances of glass-making raw materials. As lack of glass-making remains in Taiwan, these ancient glass beads were considered as a precious and trading artifact to Taiwan from overseas and introduced into prehistoric societies via various sources and paths. Although the trading/exchange routes of ancient glass beads are still debatable, we find that compositional analyses can help answer such questions as what types of glass were used for their

  11. Metal substrates with nanometer scale surface roughness for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Lam; Kim, Kisoo

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we present a novel way in fabricating a metal substrate with nanometer scale in surface roughness (Ra < 1 nm) using a surface roughness transfer method without any polishing or planarization process. Ag film (8 inch, Ra = 0.57 nm) and an INVAR (Invariable alloy) one (20 cm × 20 cm, Ra = 1.40 nm) were demonstrated. The INVAR film was used as a substrate for fabricating organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photovoltaic (OPV). The optical and electrical characteristics of OLEDs and OPVs using the INVAR were comparable to those using a conventional ITO glass substrate.

  12. Shock temperatures in silica glass - Implications for modes of shock-induced deformation, phase transformation, and melting with pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of shock-induced radiative thermal emissions are used to determine the gray body temperatures and emittances of silica glass under shock compression between 10 and 30 GPa. The results suggest that fused quartz deforms heterogeneously in this shock pressure range. It is shown that the 10-16 GPa range coincides with the permanent densification region, while the 16-30 GPa range coincides with the inferred mixed phase region along the silica glass Hugoniot. Low emittances in the mixed phase region are thought to represent the melting temperature of the high-pressure phase, stishovite. Also, consideration is given to the effects of pressure on melting relations for the system SiO2-Mg2SiO4.

  13. Enhanced Light Extraction from OLEDs Fabricated on Patterned Plastic Substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hippola, Chamika; Kaudal, Rajiv; Manna, Eeshita

    A key scientific and technological challenge in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is enhancing the light outcoupling factor η out, which is typically <20%. This paper reports experimental and modeling results of a promising approach to strongly increase η out by fabricating OLEDs on novel flexible nanopatterned substrates that result in a >2× enhancement in green phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) fabricated on corrugated polycarbonate (PC). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) reaches 50% (meaning ηout ≥50%); it increases 2.6x relative to a glass/ITO device and 2× relative to devices on glass/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or flat PC/PEDOT:PSS. A significant enhancement is also observed formore » blue PhOLEDs with EQE 1.7× relative to flat PC. The corrugated PC substrates are fabricated efficiently and cost-effectively by direct room-temperature molding. These substrates successfully reduce photon losses due to trapping/waveguiding in the organic+anode layers and possibly substrate, and losses to plasmons at the metal cathode. Focused ion beam gauged the conformality of the OLEDs. Dome-shaped convex nanopatterns with height of ~280–400 nm and pitch ~750–800 nm were found to be optimal. Lastly, substrate design and layer thickness simulations, reported first for patterned devices, agree with the experimental results that present a promising method to mitigate photon loss paths in OLEDs.« less

  14. Enhanced Light Extraction from OLEDs Fabricated on Patterned Plastic Substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Hippola, Chamika; Kaudal, Rajiv; Manna, Eeshita; ...

    2018-02-19

    A key scientific and technological challenge in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is enhancing the light outcoupling factor η out, which is typically <20%. This paper reports experimental and modeling results of a promising approach to strongly increase η out by fabricating OLEDs on novel flexible nanopatterned substrates that result in a >2× enhancement in green phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs) fabricated on corrugated polycarbonate (PC). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) reaches 50% (meaning ηout ≥50%); it increases 2.6x relative to a glass/ITO device and 2× relative to devices on glass/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or flat PC/PEDOT:PSS. A significant enhancement is also observed formore » blue PhOLEDs with EQE 1.7× relative to flat PC. The corrugated PC substrates are fabricated efficiently and cost-effectively by direct room-temperature molding. These substrates successfully reduce photon losses due to trapping/waveguiding in the organic+anode layers and possibly substrate, and losses to plasmons at the metal cathode. Focused ion beam gauged the conformality of the OLEDs. Dome-shaped convex nanopatterns with height of ~280–400 nm and pitch ~750–800 nm were found to be optimal. Lastly, substrate design and layer thickness simulations, reported first for patterned devices, agree with the experimental results that present a promising method to mitigate photon loss paths in OLEDs.« less

  15. Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2011-08-01

    The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

  16. Trace elements in hydrothermal quartz: Relationships to cathodoluminescent textures and insights into vein formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusk, B.G.; Lowers, H.A.; Reed, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution electron microprobe maps show the distribution of Ti, Al, Ca, K, and Fe among quartz growth zones revealed by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) from 12 hydrothermal ore deposits formed between ???100 and e1750 ??C. The maps clearly show the relationships between trace elements and CL intensity in quartz. Among all samples, no single trace element consistently correlates with variations in CL intensity. However in vein quartz from five porphyry-Cu (Mo-Au) deposits, CL intensity always correlates positively with Ti concentrations, suggesting that Ti is a CL activator in quartz formed at >400 ??C. Ti concentrations in most rutile-bearing vein quartz from porphyry copper deposits indicate reasonable formation temperatures of 2000 ppm, but in high-temperature quartz, Al concentrations are consistently in the range of several hundred ppm. Aluminum concentrations in quartz refl ect the Al solubility in hydrothermal fluids, which is strongly dependent on pH. Aluminum concentrations in quartz therefore reflect fluctuations in pH that may drive metal-sulfide precipitation in hydrothermal systems. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gomez, Jaritza [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Gujral, Ankit [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Huang, Chengbin [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Bishop, Camille [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Yu, Lian [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Ediger, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

    2017-02-01

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition.Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ~105 times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  18. Highly effective carbon sphere counter electrodes based on different substrates for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qianji; Wang, Hongrui; Liu, Yali; Yan, Yajing; Wu, Mingxing

    2017-11-15

    A monodisperse carbon sphere with high uniformity, high catalytic activity and conductivity are successfully synthesized. Versatile counter electrodes using this carbon sphere catalyst on different substrates of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, indium-doped tin oxide polyethylenena phthalate (ITO-PEN), and Ti foil are fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). The impacts of substrates on the catalytic activities of the carbon sphere counter electrodes have been also evaluated by electrochemical analysis technologies, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization curves. With cobalt electrolyte, the DSC using carbon sphere counter electrodes based on FTO glass, ITO-PEN, and Ti substrates yield high power conversion efficiency values of 8.57%, 6.66%, and 9.10%, respectively. The catalytic activities of the prepared carbon sphere counter electrodes on different substrates are determined by the apparent activation energy for the cobalt redox couple regeneration on these electrodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of macrophage mediators in respirable quartz-elicited inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Berlo, D.; Albrecht, C.; Knaapen, A. M.; van Schooten, F. J.; Schins, R. P. F.

    2009-02-01

    The instigation and persistence of an inflammatory response is widely considered to be critically important in quartz-induced lung cancer and fibrosis. Macrophages have been long recognised as a crucial player in pulmonary inflammation, but evidence for the role of type II epithelial cells is accumulating. Investigations were performed in the rat lung type II cell line RLE and the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 using Western blotting, NF-κB immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR of the pro-inflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2, as well as the cellular stress gene HO-1. The direct effect of quartz on pro-inflammatory signalling cascades and gene expression in RLE cells was compared to the effect of conditioned media derived from quartz-treated NR8383 cells. Conditioned media activated the NF-κB signalling pathway and induced a far stronger upregulation of iNOS mRNA than quartz itself. Quartz elicited a stronger, progressive induction of COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA. Our results suggest a differentially mediated inflammatory response, in which reactive particles themselves induce oxidative stress and activation of COX-2, while mediators released from particle-activated macrophages trigger NF-κB activation and iNOS expression in type II cells.

  20. Historical review of quartz crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    The history of quartz crystal growth is reviewed from the origin to the industrialization. The developing process of growth techniques is divided into the following three stages: (1) The fundamental work based on the mineralogical genetic view point, which was performed in Italy during the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. (2) The works to attempt the industrial application made in Germany and in England during World War II. (3) The industrialization of quartz growth after World War II. These were initiated in England, in USA and independently in Russia. The highest mass production process was developed in Japan. The historical flow is traced by the interview of several persons based on the original references.