Quasi-elastic electron scattering from polarized 3He
H. J. Bulten; Ricardo Alarcon; Th. Bauer; D. Boersma; T. Botto; J. F. J. van den Brand; L. van Buuren; Rolf Ent; M. Ferro-Luzzi; D. Geurts; M. Harvey; Peter Heimberg; D. Highinbotham; Kees de Jager; Blaine Norum; I. Passchier; H. R. Poolman; M. van den Putte; E. Six; J. Steijger; D. Szczerba; H. de Vries
1997-08-01
Quasi-elastic electron scattering may provide precise information on the S and the D-wave parts of the {sup 3}He ground-state wave function, the neutron form factors, and the role of spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. An experiment is being performed at the AmPS storage ring at NIKHEF (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), where polarized electrons (up to 900 MeV) are used in combination with large acceptance electron and hadron detectors. Preliminary results from data at four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 0.15 GeV{sup 2} are presented.
Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering
Ye, Zhihong
2013-12-01
The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)^{2} for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1
Spin-Momentum Correlations in Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering from Deuterium
I. Passchier; L.D. van Buuren; D. Szczerba; R. Alarcon; Th.S. Bauer; D. Boersma; J.F.J. van den Brand; H.J. Bulten; R. Ent; M. Ferro-Luzzi; M. Harvey; P. Heimberg; D.W. Higinbotham; S. Klous; H. Kolster; J. Lang; B.L. Militsyn; D. Nikolenko; G.J.L. Nooren; B.E. Norum; H.R. Poolman; I. Rachek; M.C. Simani; E. Six; H. de Vries; K. Wang; Z.-L. Zhou
2002-02-25
We report on a measurement of spin-momentum correlations in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons with an energy of 720 MeV from vector-polarized deuterium. The spin correlation parameter A{sub ed}{sup V} was measured for the 2{rvec H}({rvec e},e{prime}p)n reaction for missing momenta up to 350 MeV/c at a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.21 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data give detailed information about the spin structure of the deuteron, and are in good agreement with the predictions of microscopic calculations based on realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials and including various spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. The experiment demonstrates in a most direct manner the effects of the D-state in the deuteron ground-state wave function and shows the importance of isobar configurations for this reaction.
Spin correlations in quasi-elastic electron scattering from a (3)He internal target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Six, R. Edward, III
The measurement of spin observables in the 3He-> (e->,e' ,d) and 3He-> (e->,e' ,p) reactions have been carried out at the Internal Target Facility of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, with a 720-MeV stored electron beam having a longitudinal polarization of 65% and an average current of 80 mA. This was the first measurement of the spin correlation parameters for the reaction 3He-> (e->,e' ,d) . The average target polarization was 45% with a thickness of 5 × 1014 atoms/cm2. The scattered electrons were detected in a large-acceptance, nonfocusing magnetic spectrometer located at a central angle of 40°. The knockout hadrons were detected in a non-magnetic detector located at a central angle of -56°. The central positions of the detectors correspond to quasi-elastic kinematics. The asymmetries A'x and A'x provide information on small components of the 3He ground-state wave function and on the isoscalar/isovector structure of the nuclear electromagnetic current. The results are compared with model calculations.
Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Rafat R.
The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics
Rorschach, H.E.
1993-05-25
Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.
Improved Optics For Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, Harry Michael
1995-01-01
Improved optical train devised for use in light-scattering measurements of quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and laser spectroscopy. Measurements performed on solutions, microemulsions, micellular solutions, and colloidal dispersions. Simultaneous measurements of total intensity and fluctuations in total intensity of light scattered from sample at various angles provides data used, in conjunction with diffusion coefficients, to compute sizes of particles in sample.
Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.
1992-01-01
The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.
Quasi-elastic X-ray scattering divergence analysis calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, John S.; Milne, Gordon J.
1989-08-01
A FORTRAN 77 program is described that enables a numerical investigation to be made of the variation of instrumental resolution corrections with apparatus configuration for quasi-elastic X-ray scattering. The program is useful for scattering from phonons, defects, low angle Comptom processes and all instances where the energy change on scattering is at most a small fraction of the incident energy. Account can be taken of an irregular incident beam distribution (in angle and in space), a sample crystal mosaic spread and a finite area detector. The numerical convolutions for each smearing effect are performed separately but cumulatively, allowing the effects of individual processes to be investigated or treated in variant fashion. The program provides a shell of organisation that could be adapted to related problems.
Desmin filaments studied by quasi-elastic light scattering.
Hohenadl, M; Storz, T; Kirpal, H; Kroy, K; Merkel, R
1999-01-01
We studied polymers of desmin, a muscle-specific type III intermediate filament protein, using quasi-elastic light scattering. Desmin was purified from chicken gizzard. Polymerization was induced either by 2 mM MgCl(2) or 150 mM NaCl. The polymer solutions were in the semidilute regime. We concluded that the persistence length of the filaments is between 0.1 and 1 microm. In all cases, we found a hydrodynamic diameter of desmin filaments of 16-18 nm. The filament dynamics exhibits a characteristic frequency in the sense that correlation functions measured on one sample but at different scattering vectors collapse onto a single master curve when time is normalized by the experimentally determined initial decay rate. PMID:10512839
Quasi-Elastic Scattering with Neutrinos in MINERvA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osta, Jyotsna; Hurtado, Kenyi; Minerva Collaboration
2014-09-01
MINERvA is a few GeV neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment designed to study low energy neutrino interactions both in support of neutrino oscillation experiments as well as a pure weak probe of the nuclear medium. The experiment uses a fine-grained, high resolution detector. The active region is composed of plastic scintillator with additional targets of helium, carbon, iron, lead and water placed upstream of the active region. We present preliminary results from the double differential cross section analysis that aims to study quasi-elastic scattering of neutrinos in the phase space of the muon transverse and longitudinal momenta. This analysis uses the low energy neutrino dataset recorded from November 2009 to April 2012.
Two Photon Exchange in Quasi-elastic and Deep-inelastic Scattering
Averett, Todd D.; Katich, Joseph; Zhao Bo
2011-10-24
In this paper, I present an overview and preliminary results from three experiments at Jefferson Lab that were recently completed using a {sup 3}He gas target with polarization oriented normal to the scattering plane of unpolarized incident electrons. A target single spin asymmetry was formed by periodically flipping the direction of the target spin. In the reaction {up_arrow}{sup 3}He(e,e'), the Born contribution is expected to be zero, giving direct sensitivity to two photon exchange. This asymmetry was measured in the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic regimes with 0.1 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. The asymmetry is predicted to decrease by two-orders of magnitude for deep-inelastic versus quasi-elastic scattering. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented.
Extracting the hexadecapole deformation from backward quasi-elastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, H. M.; Lin, C. J.; Yang, F.; Xu, X. X.; Zhang, H. Q.; Liu, Z. H.; Wu, Z. D.; Yang, L.; Ma, N. R.; Bao, P. F.; Sun, L. J.
2014-09-01
Background: The hexadecapole deformation β4 is usually difficult to determine experimentally, especially its sign. The rapidly accumulated knowledge of β2 inspires the desire of β4 for radioactive nuclei, but the current low-quality beam is a severe experimental challenge. Therefore, a simple but sensitive method to extract β4 in such a condition is urgently called for. Purpose: To study the feasibility of extracting β4 from the lower-energy backward quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering. Methods: The QEL scattering at sub-barrier energy region is sensitive to the coupled-channels (CC) effect and consequently may be used to extract β4. The QEL scattering excitation functions for O16+Sm152,Er170, and Yb174 were measured at a backward angle with small energy intervals at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Experimental fusion barrier distributions were also derived. The lower-energy data were analyzed to extract β4 with the help of the CC calculations. Results: The obtained β4 agrees with the available results reasonably well. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the QEL scattering at sub-barrier energies provides a feasible and sensitive method to extract the value of β4, which is essentially meaningful for the radioactive nucleus because of its low beam intensity.
Maximum likelihood techniques applied to quasi-elastic light scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Robert V.
1992-01-01
There is a necessity of having an automatic procedure for reliable estimation of the quality of the measurement of particle size from QELS (Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering). Getting the measurement itself, before any error estimates can be made, is a problem because it is obtained by a very indirect measurement of a signal derived from the motion of particles in the system and requires the solution of an inverse problem. The eigenvalue structure of the transform that generates the signal is such that an arbitrarily small amount of noise can obliterate parts of any practical inversion spectrum. This project uses the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) as a framework to generate a theory and a functioning set of software to oversee the measurement process and extract the particle size information, while at the same time providing error estimates for those measurements. The theory involved verifying a correct form of the covariance matrix for the noise on the measurement and then estimating particle size parameters using a modified histogram approach.
Rhodopsin photoactivation dynamics revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering
Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchithranga M.d.c.; ...
2015-01-27
Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision under dim light conditions. During rhodopsin photoactivation, the chromophore retinal undergoes cis-trans isomerization, and subsequently dissociates from the protein yielding the opsin apoprotein [1]. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the rhodopsin photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks the individual hydrogen atom motions in the protein molecules, because the neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen is much higher than other atoms [2-4]. We used protein (rhodopsin/opsin) samples with CHAPSmore » detergent hydrated with heavy water. The solvent signal is suppressed due to the heavy water, so that only the signals from proteins and detergents are detected. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by the mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. Our QENS experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate that the protein dynamic behavior increases with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin was longer compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which forms a band around the protein molecule in the micelle. Unlike the protein, the CHAPS detergent manifests localized motions that are the same as in the bulk empty micelles. Furthermore QENS provides unique understanding of the key dynamics involved in the activation of the GPCR involved in the visual process.« less
Rhodopsin photoactivation dynamics revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering
Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchithranga M.d.c.; Chawla, Udeep; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Michael F.; Chu, Xiang -Qiang
2015-01-27
Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision under dim light conditions. During rhodopsin photoactivation, the chromophore retinal undergoes cis-trans isomerization, and subsequently dissociates from the protein yielding the opsin apoprotein [1]. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the rhodopsin photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks the individual hydrogen atom motions in the protein molecules, because the neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen is much higher than other atoms [2-4]. We used protein (rhodopsin/opsin) samples with CHAPS detergent hydrated with heavy water. The solvent signal is suppressed due to the heavy water, so that only the signals from proteins and detergents are detected. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by the mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. Our QENS experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate that the protein dynamic behavior increases with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin was longer compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which forms a band around the protein molecule in the micelle. Unlike the protein, the CHAPS detergent manifests localized motions that are the same as in the bulk empty micelles. Furthermore QENS provides unique understanding of the key dynamics involved in the activation of the GPCR involved in the visual process.
Extraction of structure functions for lepton-nucleus scattering in the quasi-elastic region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, K. S.; Kim, Hungchong; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; So, W. Y.
2016-12-01
Within the framework of a relativistic single-particle model, we calculate inclusive electron-nucleus scattering by electromagnetic current, and neutrino-nucleus scattering by neutral and charged current in the quasi-elastic region. The longitudinal, the transverse, and the transverse-interference structure functions are extracted from the theoretical cross section by using the Rosenbluth separation method at fixed momentum transfer and scattering angle and then compared with each other from the viewpoint of these current interactions. The position of peak for the electron scattering shifts to higher energy transfer than that for the neutrino scattering. The axial and pseudoscalar terms turn out to play an important role in the neutrino-nucleus scattering.
Measuring Quasi-Elastic e-n and e-p Scattering from Deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsamo, Alexander; Sherman, Keegan; Gilfoyle, Gerard
2016-09-01
The main physics goal of Jefferson Lab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nuclei. We are developing algorithms to extract the relative amounts of electron-neutron (e-n) to electron-proton (e-p) scattering events from deuterium in quasi-elastic (QE) kinematics for an approved experiment with the CLAS12 detector. Our analysis focuses on neutrons detected in the CLAS12 calorimeters and protons measured with the CLAS12 toroidal magnetic field. Events were generated with the Quasi-Elastic Event Generator (QUEEG) and passed through the Monte Carlo code gemc to simulate the CLAS12 response. These simulated events were then reconstructed using CLAS12 Common Tools. We first match the solid angle for e-n and e-p events. The electron information is used to predict the trajectory of both a neutron and proton through CLAS12. If both particles would interact in the CLAS12 volume, we know the sample has the same solid angle for e-n and e-p events. We then select QE events by searching for a nucleon near the predicted position. The angle between the predicted 3-momentum of the nucleon and the measured value, θpq, reaches a peak near zero for QE events, but not for other inelastic events. A cut on θpq separates QE events from inelastic ones. Work supported by the University of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.
Huan Yao, Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration, E05-110 Collaboration
2012-04-01
In order to test the Coulomb sum rule in nuclei, a precision measurement of inclusive electron scattering cross sections in the quasi-elastic region was performed at Jefferson Lab. Incident electrons of energies ranging from 0.4 GeV/c to 4 GeV/c scattered off {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at four scattering angles (15deg., 60deg., 90deg., 120deg.) and scattered energies ranging from 0.1 GeV/c to 4 GeV/c. The Rosenbluth method with proper Coulomb corrections is used to extract the transverse and longitudinal response functions at three-momentum transfers 0.55 GeV/c {le} |q{yields}| {le} 1.0 GeV/c. The Coulomb Sum is determined in the same |q{yields}| range as mentioned above and will be compared to predictions. Analysis progress and preliminary results will be presented.
Fusion and quasi-elastic scattering in the Li6,7+Au197 systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palshetkar, C. S.; Thakur, Shital; Nanal, V.; Shrivastava, A.; Dokania, N.; Singh, V.; Parkar, V. V.; Rout, P. C.; Palit, R.; Pillay, R. G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Santra, S.; Ramachandran, K.; Singh, N. L.
2014-02-01
Fusion and quasi-elastic scattering measurements have been carried out for Li6,7+Au197 systems in the energy range E /Vb˜0.7 to 1.5. Coupled-channel calculations including coupling to inelastic states of the target and projectiles are able to explain an enhancement in measured fusion cross sections at energies below the barrier. At energies above the barrier the complete fusion cross sections are found to be suppressed compared to the coupled-channel predictions for both systems. A systematic comparison of fusion cross sections of the weakly bound stable nuclei Li6,7 and halo nuclei He6,8 on a Au197 target is presented. Barrier distributions from quasi-elastic scattering are seen to shift towards higher energies with respect to fusion after inclusion of the breakup-α channel for both Li6 and Li7.
Rhodopsin Photoactivation Dynamics Revealed by Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab; Perera, Suchhithranga M. C. D.; Chawla, Udeep; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Michael; Chu, Xiang-Qiang
2015-03-01
Rhodopsin is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for vision. During photoactivation, the chromophore retinal dissociates from protein yielding the opsin apoprotein. What are the changes in protein dynamics that occur during the photoactivation process? Here, we studied the microscopic dynamics of dark-state rhodopsin and the ligand-free opsin using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The QENS technique tracks individual hydrogen atom motion because of the much higher neutron scattering cross-section of hydrogen than other atoms. We used protein with CHAPS detergent hydrated with heavy water. The activation of proteins is confirmed at low temperatures up to 300 K by mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis. The QENS experiments at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 300 K clearly indicate an increase in protein dynamic behavior with temperature. The relaxation time for the ligand-bound protein rhodopsin is faster compared to opsin, which can be correlated with the photoactivation. Moreover, the protein dynamics are orders of magnitude slower than the accompanying CHAPS detergent, which unlike protein, manifests localized motions.
Rorschach, H.E.
1993-05-25
Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.
Dorman, Mark Edward
2008-04-01
The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.
Bousset, Luc; Brewee, Clémence; Melki, Ronald; Migliardo, Federica
2014-07-01
In the present paper, Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) results, gathered at different energy resolution values at the ISIS Facility (RAL, UK), on α-synuclein in soluble and fibrillar forms as a function of temperature and exchanged wave-vector Q are shown. The measurements reveal a different dynamic behavior of the soluble and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein as a function of thermal stress. In more detail, the dynamics of each protein form reflects its own complex conformational heterogeneity. Furthermore, the effect of a well known bioprotectant, trehalose, that influences α-synuclein fibrillation, on both soluble and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein is discussed.
Looking at hydrogen motions in confinement. The uniqueness of Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, J.; Tsapatsaris, N.; de Paula, E.; Bordallo, H. N.
2014-09-01
Why in a barren and hot desert, clays can contain a significant fraction of water? Why does concrete crack? How can we demonstrate that complexation of a drug does not alter its conformation in a way that affects its functionality? In this paper we present results on various studies using Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering aimed at clarifying these questions. To allow for a better understanding of neutron scattering, a brief introduction to the basics of its theory is presented. Following the theoretical part, experimental results dealing with the effects of confinement on the water dynamics caused by the interfaces in clays and the nano- and micro-pores of concrete are reviewed in detail. At the end, recent Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering investigations on the complexation of the local anesthetics Bupivacaine (BVC.HCl, C18H28N20.HCl.H2O) and Ropivacaine (RVC.HCl, C17H26N20.HCl.H2O) into the cyclic β-cyclodextrin oligosaccharide are presented. To conclude, the perspectives that the European Spallation Source brings to this subject are discussed.
A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubushkin, V.; Popov, B.; Kim, J. J.; Camilleri, L.; Levy, J.-M.; Mezzetto, M.; Naumov, D.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Kustov, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.
2009-10-01
We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ( ν μ n→ μ - p and bar{ν }_{μ}ptoμ+n ) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ ( bar{ν}_{μ} ) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are < σ_{qel}rangle_{ν_{μ}}=(0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 and <σ_{qel}rangle_{bar{ν}_{μ}}=(0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A =1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.
A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti)neutrino scattering in he NOMAD experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubushkin, Vladimir
2009-11-01
We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (vμn→μ-p and v¯μp→μ+n using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly Carbon) normalizing it to the total vμ (v¯μ) charged current cross-section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross-sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are <σqel>vμ = (0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))×10-38 cm2 and <σqel>v¯μ = (0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))×10-38 cm2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter MA was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross-section. The corresponding result is MA = 1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross-section and extracted from the pure Q2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of vμ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured MA is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of MA is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on MA, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.
Osti, Naresh C.; Mamontov, Eugene; Ramirez-cuesta, A.; ...
2015-12-10
Understanding the molecular behavior of water in spatially restricted environments is important to better understanding its role in many biological, chemical and geological processes. Here we examine the translational diffusion of water confined to a variety of substrates, from flat surfaces to nanoporous media, in the context of a recently proposed universal scaling law (Chiavazzo 2014) [1]. Using over a dozen previous neutron scattering results, we test the validity of this law, evaluating separately the influence of the hydration amount, and the effects of the size and morphology of the confining medium. Additionally, we investigate the effects of changing instrumentmore » resolutions and fitting models on the applicability of this law. Finally, we perform quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements on water confined inside nanoporous silica to further evaluate this predictive law, in the temperature range 250≤T≤290 K.« less
Swimming speed distributions of bull spermatozoa as determined by quasi-elastic light scattering.
Hallett, F R; Craig, T; Marsh, J
1978-01-01
88 semen samples from 39 bulls have been investigated by the quasi-elastic light scattering technique. Normal, defective, and dead cells each yielded characteristic autocorrelation functions. The form of these functions indicates that the swimming speed distribution of normal cells is a gamma distribution with two degrees of freedom while that for defective or circular swimmers is a gamma distribution with one degree of freedom. The resulting analysis of the experimental autocorrelation functions yields the fraction of the sample that is normal, the fraction that is defective, and the average speed of each group. The average helical swimming speed of normal cells was found to be 384 micron/s, while the average trajectory speed of the circular swimmers was found to be 103 micron/s. The overall quality of the semen samples as determined by light scattering is compared to quality determination on the same samples by technicians from the artificial insemination industry. PMID:630041
Telling, Mark T F; Neylon, Cameron; Kilcoyne, Susan H; Arrighi, Valeria
2008-09-04
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) has been used to study the deviation from Debye-law harmonic behavior in lyophilized and hydrated apoferritin, a naturally occurring, multisubunit protein. Whereas analysis of the measured mean squared displacement (msd) parameter reveals a hydration-dependent inflection above 240 K, characteristic of diffusive motion, a hydration-independent inflection is observed at 100 K. The mechanism responsible for this low-temperature anharmonic response is further investigated, via analysis of the elastic incoherent neutron scattering intensity, by applying models developed to describe side-group motion in glassy polymers. Our results suggest that the deviation from harmonic behavior is due to the onset of methyl group rotations which exhibit a broad distribution of activated processes ( E a,ave = 12.2 kJ.mol (-1), sigma = 5.0 kJ x mol (-1)). Our results are likened to those reported for other proteins.
Hydration of NaDNA by neutron quasi-elastic scattering.
Schreiner, L J; Pintar, M M; Dianoux, A J; Volino, F; Rupprecht, A
1988-01-01
Preliminary results of neutron quasi-elastic scattering experiments are reported for hydrated paracrystals of sodium deoxyribonucleic acid (NaDNA). The samples were investigated at two water contents: 3.5 +/- 1.0 and 9.5 +/- 1.5 mol H2O per mole nucleotide. The results of the scattering experiments were almost independent of whether the NaDNA fibers were oriented parallel or perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The data indicate that at the lower hydration the water molecules do not diffuse appreciably on the time scale of the neutron measurements (approximately 3 X 10(-10) s). At the higher hydration the water molecules diffuse isotropically in a sphere of 9 A in diameter with a diffusion coefficient of (5 +/- 2) X 10(-6) cm2 s-1. PMID:3342269
Fast proton hopping detection in ice I{sub h} by quasi-elastic neutron scattering.
Presiado, I.; Lal, J.; Mamontov, E.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Huppert, D.
2011-01-01
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering was employed on samples of HCl-doped polycrystalline ice I{sub h}. The analysis of the scattering signal provides the excess proton hopping time, {tau}{sub hop}, in the temperature range of 140-195 K. The hopping time strongly depends on the temperature of the sample, and the activation energy of a hopping step is 17 kJ/mol. The values of {tau}{sub hop} of the current experiment are in good agreement with calculated values derived from previous photochemical experiments, in which we found that the proton hopping time at T > 242 K is on the order of 200 fs, roughly 10 times shorter than in liquid water at room temperature.
Fast Proton Hopping Detection in Ice Ih by Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering
Presiado, Itay; Lal, Jyotsana; Mamontov, Eugene; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Huppert, Dan I
2011-01-01
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering was employed on samples of HCl-doped polycrystalline ice I{sub h}. The analysis of the scattering signal provides the excess proton hopping time, {tau}{sub hop}, in the temperature range of 140-195 K. The hopping time strongly depends on the temperature of the sample, and the activation energy of a hopping step is 17 kJ/mol. The values of {tau}{sub hop} of the current experiment are in good agreement with calculated values derived from previous photochemical experiments,(1) in which we found that the proton hopping time at T > 242 K is on the order of 200 fs, roughly 10 times shorter than in liquid water at room temperature.
Osti, Naresh C.; Mamontov, Eugene; Ramirez-cuesta, A.; Wesolowski, David J.; Diallo, S. O.
2015-12-10
Understanding the molecular behavior of water in spatially restricted environments is important to better understanding its role in many biological, chemical and geological processes. Here we examine the translational diffusion of water confined to a variety of substrates, from flat surfaces to nanoporous media, in the context of a recently proposed universal scaling law (Chiavazzo 2014) [1]. Using over a dozen previous neutron scattering results, we test the validity of this law, evaluating separately the influence of the hydration amount, and the effects of the size and morphology of the confining medium. Additionally, we investigate the effects of changing instrument resolutions and fitting models on the applicability of this law. Finally, we perform quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements on water confined inside nanoporous silica to further evaluate this predictive law, in the temperature range 250≤T≤290 K.
Quasi-elastic light scattering of platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles.
Wales, Christina H; Berger, Jacob; Blass, Samuel; Crooks, Richard M; Asherie, Neer
2011-04-05
Platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) containing an average 147 atoms were prepared within sixth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G6-OH). The hydrodynamic radii (R(h)) of the dendrimer/nanoparticle composites (DNCs) were determined by quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) at high (pH ∼10) and neutral pH for various salt concentrations and identities. At high pH, the size of the DNC (R(h) ∼4 nm) is close to that of the empty dendrimer. At neutral pH, the size of the DNC approximately doubles (R(h) ∼8 nm) whereas that of the empty dendrimer remains unchanged. Changes in ionic strength also alter the size of the DNCs. The increase in size of the DNC is likely due to electrostatic interactions involving the metal nanoparticle.
mQfit, a new program for analyzing quasi-elastic neutron scattering data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Nicolas; Natali, Francesca; Peters, Judith
2015-01-01
Analysis of Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) data of complex systems such as biological or soft matter samples in a comprehensive and explicit way often requires great efforts. Most popular software only allows to fit spectra originating from one single instrument and does not permit to extract parameters from a model that is fitted simultaneously to data taken at different instrumental resolutions. We present here a new program, mQfit (multiple QENS dataset fitting), that enables to fit QENS data taken at different spectrometers (with typical resolutions between 0.01 and 0.1 meV) and momentum transfer ranges. This allows drastically reducing the number of fitting parameters. The routine is implemented with a user friendly Graphical User's Interface (GUI), and freely available. As an example, we will present results obtained on E. coli bacterial pellets, and compare them to values published in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Shradha; Biswas, D. C.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Prajapati, G. K.; Joshi, B. N.; Danu, L. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; John, B. V.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Vind, R. P.
2016-12-01
Quasi-elastic scattering and transfer angular distributions for B,1110+232Th reactions have been measured simultaneously in a wide range of bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. The quasi-elastic angular distribution data are analyzed using the optical model code ecis with phenomenological Woods-Saxon potentials. The obtained potential parameters suggest the presence of usual threshold anomaly, confirming tightly bound characteristics for both the projectiles. The reaction cross sections are obtained from the fitting of quasi-elastic angular distribution data. The reduced cross sections at sub-barrier energies compared with Li,76+232Th systems show a systematic dependence on projectile breakup energy. The angular distribution of the transfer products show similar behavior for both the systems.
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2012-02-01
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.
Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin
Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-hsin H
2011-01-01
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.
Quasi-elastic light scattering determination of the size distribution of extruded vesicles.
Kölchens, S; Ramaswami, V; Birgenheier, J; Nett, L; O'Brien, D F
1993-04-01
The size distribution of phospholipid vesicles prepared by the freeze thaw-extrusion method were determined by the non-perturbing technique of quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and compared to latex particles of known size. Multiangle QELS experiments were performed to avoid errors due to the angular dependence of the scattering function of the particles. The experimentally determined autocorrelation function was analyzed by multiple mathematical procedures, i.e. single exponential, CUMULANT, exponential sampling, non-negatively constrained least square and CONTIN, in order to select suitable models for vesicle characterization. The most consistent results were obtained with CUMULANT, non-negatively constrained least square and CONTIN. In many instances single exponential analysis gave comparable results to these procedures, which indicates the vesicles have a narrow distribution of sizes. The influence of filter pore size, extrusion pressure and lipid concentration on the size and size distribution of extruded vesicles was determined. Extrusion through 100-, 200- and 400-nm pore size filters produced a unimodal distribution of vesicles, with somewhat smaller diameters as the extrusion pressure increased. The larger the filter pore size, the more dependent the vesicle size was on applied pressure. The observed vesicle size was independent of the lipid concentration between 0.1 and 10 mg ml-1.
Trantham, E C; Rorschach, H E; Clegg, J S; Hazlewood, C F; Nicklow, R M; Wakabayashi, N
1984-01-01
Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H2O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H2O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths gamma (Q2) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement [u2] as determined from the Q-dependence of the line areas were also obtained. PMID:6733243
Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data
Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.
2015-11-23
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulation due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.
Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data
Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.
2015-11-23
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulationmore » due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.« less
Ay0 Measurement from Quasi-Elastic 3He ↑ (e ,e' n) Scattering at Jefferson Lab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Elena; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration
2016-03-01
Due to the lack of free neutron targets, studies of the structure of the neutron are typically made by scattering electrons from either 2H or 3He targets. In order to extract useful neutron information from a 3He target, one must first understand how the neutron in a 3He system differs from a free neutron by taking into account nuclear effects such as final state interactions and meson exchange currents. The target single spin asymmetry Ay0 is an ideal probe of such effects, as any deviation from zero indicates effects beyond plane wave impulse approximation. When nuclear effects within the 3He wave function are taken into account, calculations show that this asymmetry can become large (> 50 %). New measurements of the target single spin asymmetry Ay0 were made at Jefferson Lab using the quasi-elastic 3He↑ (e ,e' n) reaction. The measured asymmetry decreases by over two orders of magnitude, from > 70 % at Q2 = 0 . 1 (GeV/c)2 to nearly zero at Q2 = 1 (GeV/c)2, providing evidence of the dominance and fall-off of nuclear effects when studying neutron structure by electron scattering from 3He. Details of the measurement will be presented.
Till, Ugo; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Hamon, Glenn; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Chassenieux, Christophe; Payré, Bruno; Goudounèche, Dominique; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Violleau, Frédéric
2014-12-01
Polymersomes formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, such as poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) or poly(ethyleneoxide-b-methylmethacrylate), were characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and refractive index detection, leading to the determination of their size, shape, and molecular weight. The method was cross-examined with more classical ones, like batch dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show good complementarities between all the techniques; asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation being the most pertinent one when the sample exhibits several different types of population.
Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering
Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.
1984-01-01
The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.
Study of quasi-elastic scattering in the NOνA near detector prototype
Betancourt, M.
2015-05-15
NOvA is a 14 kTon long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment currently being installed in the NuMI off-axis neutrino beam produced at Fermilab. A 222 Ton prototype NOνA detector was built and operated in the neutrino beam for over a year to understand the response of the detector and its construction. Muon neutrino interaction data collected in this test are being analyzed to identify quasi-elastic charged-current interactions and measure the behavior of the quasi-elastic muon neutrino cross section.
Study of the Quasi-Elastic Scattering in the NOvA Detector Prototype
Betancourt, Minerba
2013-06-01
NOvA is a 810 km long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment with two detectors (far 14 KTon and near detector 300 Ton) currently being installed in the NUMI o -axis neutrino beam produced at Fermilab. A 222 Ton prototype NOvA detector (NDOS) was built and operated in the neutrino beam for over a year to understand the response of the detector and its construction. The goal of this thesis is to study the muon neutrino interaction data collected in this test, specifically the identification of quasi-elastic charged-current interactions and measure the behavior of the quasi-elastic muon neutrino cross section.
Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\
Chvojka, Jesse John
2012-01-01
The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q^{2}, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakou, A.; Keeley, N.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Aslanoglou, X.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Grebosz, J.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Parascandolo, C.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trzcińska, A.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yamaguchi, H.
2015-07-01
Quasi-elastic scattering data were obtained for the radioactive nucleus 8Li on a 90Zr target at the near-barrier energy of 18.5MeV over the angular range to 80°. They were analyzed within the coupled channels and coupled reaction channels frameworks pointing to a strong coupling effect for single neutron stripping, in contrast to 6, 7 Li + 90 Zr elastic scattering at similar energies, a non-trivial result linked to detailed differences in the structure of these Li isotopes.
Garvey, G. T.; Harris, D. A.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Zeller, G. P.
2015-06-15
The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.
Results for quasi-elastic anti-neutrino scattering on scintillator from the MINERvA experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schellman, Heidi; Minerva Collaboration
2016-09-01
We present a new preliminary measurement of the charge-current quasi-elastic scattering cross section for anti-neutrinos on scintillator (CH) over the energy range 1.5-10 GeV. The data were taken with the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab and cover the energy range of interest for the proposed DUNE long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and of JLAB elastic scattering experiments. Of particular interest to the nuclear community are possible signatures for short range correlations and/or meson exchange currents in these data. We present comparisons to a range of nuclear models.
Effect of coupling in the 28Si+154Sm reaction studied by quasi-elastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Gurpreet; Behera, B. R.; Jhingan, A.; Nayak, B. K.; Dubey, R.; Sharma, Priya; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, Tathagata; Khushboo, Kumar, A.; Mandal, S.; Saxena, A.; Sugathan, P.; Rowley, N.
2016-09-01
The study of the coupling to collective states of the 28Si projectile and 154Sm target in fusion mechanism is reported. Understanding such couplings is important as they influence the barrier height and the formation probability of the compound nuclei, which in turn may be related to the synthesis of superheavy elements in heavier systems. In the present work, before performing the coupled-channel calculations, we wish to obtain an experimental signature of coupling to projectile and target excitation through barrier distribution (BD) study. To this end, the BDs of the 28Si+154Sm and 16O+154Sm systems have been compared using existing fusion data, scaled to compensate for the differences between the nominal Coulomb barriers and the respective coupling strengths. However, the large error bars on the high-energy side of the fusion BD prevent any definite identification of such signatures. We have, therefore, performed a quasi-elastic (QE) scattering experiment for the heavier 28Si+154Sm system and compared its results with existing QE data for the 16O projectile. Since QE BDs are precise at higher energies, the comparison has shown that the BD of 28Si+154Sm is similar to that of 16O+154Sm to a large extent except for a peaklike structure on the higher energy side. The similarity shows that the 154Sm deformation plays a major role in the fusion mechanism of 28Si+154Sm system. The peaklike structure is attributed to 28Si excitation. In contrast with previous studies, it is found that a coupled-channel calculation with vibrational coupling to the first 2+ state of 28Si reproduces this structure rather well. However, an almost identical result is found with the rotational coupling scheme if one considers the large positive hexadecapole deformation of the projectile. A value around that given by Möller and Nix (β4≈0.25 ) leads to a strong cancellation in the re-orientation term that couples the 2+ state back to itself, making that state look vibrational in this
Measurement of quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) scattering at high momentum transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mardor, Y.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, I.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.
1998-10-01
We measured the high-momentum transfer [Q2=4.8 and 6.2 (GeV/c)2] quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) reaction at θcm~=90 deg for 6 and 7.5 GeV/c incident protons. The momentum components of both outgoing protons and the missing energy and momentum of the proton in the nucleus were measured. We verified the validity of the quasi-elastic picture for ground state momenta up to about 0.5 GeV/c. Transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions of the target proton were measured. They have the same shape with a large momentum tail which is not consistent with independent particle models. We observed that the transverse distribution gets wider as the longitudinal component increases in the beam direction.
Luo, Man; Jiang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yao-Xiong; Xiao, Ming; Li, Bo; Zou, Guo-Lin
2004-04-01
Citral refined from Litsea cubeba oil has been found to have a strong influence on fungi, especially Aspergillus flavus. Multiplex microanalysis and quasi-elastic light scattering techniques were applied to study the effects of citral on Aspergillus flavus spores from the levels of membrane, organelle and intracellular macromolecule. It was found that citral injured the wall and the membrane of A. flavus spore, resulting in decrease of its elasticity. After entering the cell, citral not only influenced the genetic expression of mitochondrion reduplication and its morphology, but also changed the aggregation of protein-like macromolecules. As a result, cells, organelles and macromolecules lost their normal structures and functions, eventually leading to the loss of germination ability of A. flavus spores. Since Litsea cubeba oil as food additive and antifungal agent is safe and less poisonous, it is important to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of Litsea cubeba oil on the germination ability of A. flavus spore.
Hantz, E; Cao, A; Taillandier, E
1988-12-01
The gel-like liquid phase transition of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) large unilamellar vesicles prepared by reverse phase evaporation has been investigated in buffers containing ethanol by quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) and vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopy. With the QLS technique, the relative change in the vesicles area (which is related to the molecular cross-sectional area of lipid molecules) was followed versus both temperature and ethanol concentration. When the latter was low, the depression of the transition point was a linear function of the alcohol concentration, c, but the vesicles area was practically unmodified. At alcohol concentration 10% v/v, an abrupt change of the vesicles area was observed and for c greater than 10% the depression of the transition point was a non-linear function of c. The infrared and Raman spectra showed a perturbation of the hydrophobic regions, including the terminal methyl groups of the acyl tails.
Shrestha, Utsab R.; Perera, Suchithranga M. D. C.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Chawla, Udeep; Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Michael F.; Chu, Xiang -Qiang
2016-09-15
Light activation of the visual G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin leads to significant structural fluctuations of the protein embedded within the membrane yielding the activation of cognate G-protein (transducin), which initiates biological signaling. Here, we report a quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of the activation of rhodopsin as a GPCR prototype. Our results reveal a broadly distributed relaxation of hydrogen atom dynamics of rhodopsin on a picosecond–nanosecond time scale, crucial for protein function, as only observed for globular proteins previously. Interestingly, the results suggest significant differences in the intrinsic protein dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin versus the ligand-free apoprotein, opsin. These differences can be attributed to the influence of the covalently bound retinal ligand. Moreover, an idea of the generic free-energy landscape is used to explain the GPCR dynamics of ligand-binding and ligand-free protein conformations, which can be further applied to other GPCR systems.
Wolcott, Jeremy
2016-01-01
Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q^{2}. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE
Shrestha, Utsab R.; Perera, Suchithranga M. D. C.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; ...
2016-09-15
Light activation of the visual G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin leads to significant structural fluctuations of the protein embedded within the membrane yielding the activation of cognate G-protein (transducin), which initiates biological signaling. Here, we report a quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of the activation of rhodopsin as a GPCR prototype. Our results reveal a broadly distributed relaxation of hydrogen atom dynamics of rhodopsin on a picosecond–nanosecond time scale, crucial for protein function, as only observed for globular proteins previously. Interestingly, the results suggest significant differences in the intrinsic protein dynamics of the dark-state rhodopsin versus the ligand-free apoprotein, opsin. These differencesmore » can be attributed to the influence of the covalently bound retinal ligand. Moreover, an idea of the generic free-energy landscape is used to explain the GPCR dynamics of ligand-binding and ligand-free protein conformations, which can be further applied to other GPCR systems.« less
Patrick, Cheryl
2016-01-01
Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patrick, Cheryl Elizabeth
Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various correlation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.
Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B
1979-01-01
The electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from normal swimming bull spermatozoa are shown to be dependent on the mean head rotation frequency and not on the translational speed of the cells, as previously believed. This result was obtained from numerical generation of functions in which spermatozoa were modeled as Rayleigh-Gans-Debye ellipsoids having semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometer, b = 2.3 micrometer, and c = 9.0 micrometer. The magnitude of c required to achieve agreement with the experimental data is larger than the half-length of the head region of the cell. This implies that the midpiece, which also lies along c, contributes to the scattering power. Details regarding swimming trajectory and head orientation are included in the model. Analyses of the calculated functions and comparisons with experimentally determined ones suggest that at a scattering angle of 15 degrees the electric field autocorrelation function can be fit a simple Lorentzian whose half-width is inversely proportional to the scattering vector and the mean head rotational frequency. PMID:262561
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haruki, Rie; Koshimizu, Masanori; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Shunji
2016-12-01
The dynamics of iodine ions in potassium iodide (KI) and lithium iodide (LiI) aqueous solutions have been studied through 127I nuclear resonant quasi-elastic scattering (NRQES). A newly developed Si (12 2 2) double crystal monochromator for 127I 57.6 keV excitation is used. Broadening due to a diffusive motion is measured in the energy spectra of the NRQES from the solutions.
Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B
1982-04-01
The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.
Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B
1982-01-01
The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed. PMID:7074199
Foglia, Fabrizia; Hazael, Rachael; Simeoni, Giovanna G.; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Trevor Forsyth, V.; Seydel, Tilo; Daniel, Isabelle; Meersman, Filip; McMillan, Paul F.
2016-01-01
Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is an ideal technique for studying water transport and relaxation dynamics at pico- to nanosecond timescales and at length scales relevant to cellular dimensions. Studies of high pressure dynamic effects in live organisms are needed to understand Earth’s deep biosphere and biotechnology applications. Here we applied QENS to study water transport in Shewanella oneidensis at ambient (0.1 MPa) and high (200 MPa) pressure using H/D isotopic contrast experiments for normal and perdeuterated bacteria and buffer solutions to distinguish intracellular and transmembrane processes. The results indicate that intracellular water dynamics are comparable with bulk diffusion rates in aqueous fluids at ambient conditions but a significant reduction occurs in high pressure mobility. We interpret this as due to enhanced interactions with macromolecules in the nanoconfined environment. Overall diffusion rates across the cell envelope also occur at similar rates but unexpected narrowing of the QENS signal appears between momentum transfer values Q = 0.7–1.1 Å−1 corresponding to real space dimensions of 6–9 Å. The relaxation time increase can be explained by correlated dynamics of molecules passing through Aquaporin water transport complexes located within the inner or outer membrane structures. PMID:26738409
Foglia, Fabrizia; Hazael, Rachael; Simeoni, Giovanna G; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Trevor Forsyth, V; Seydel, Tilo; Daniel, Isabelle; Meersman, Filip; McMillan, Paul F
2016-01-07
Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is an ideal technique for studying water transport and relaxation dynamics at pico- to nanosecond timescales and at length scales relevant to cellular dimensions. Studies of high pressure dynamic effects in live organisms are needed to understand Earth's deep biosphere and biotechnology applications. Here we applied QENS to study water transport in Shewanella oneidensis at ambient (0.1 MPa) and high (200 MPa) pressure using H/D isotopic contrast experiments for normal and perdeuterated bacteria and buffer solutions to distinguish intracellular and transmembrane processes. The results indicate that intracellular water dynamics are comparable with bulk diffusion rates in aqueous fluids at ambient conditions but a significant reduction occurs in high pressure mobility. We interpret this as due to enhanced interactions with macromolecules in the nanoconfined environment. Overall diffusion rates across the cell envelope also occur at similar rates but unexpected narrowing of the QENS signal appears between momentum transfer values Q = 0.7-1.1 Å(-1) corresponding to real space dimensions of 6-9 Å. The relaxation time increase can be explained by correlated dynamics of molecules passing through Aquaporin water transport complexes located within the inner or outer membrane structures.
Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA on Nanodiamond Surface Studied by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhindsa, Gurpreet; Mochalin, Vadym N.; O'Neill, Hugh; Gogotsi, Yury; Chu, Xiang Qiang
2014-03-01
Diamond is an outstanding material in many aspects, and nanodiamond (ND) inherits most of the superior properties of bulk diamond and delivers them at the nanoscale. ND has excellent properties that can be applied in biomedical field such as a good platform for drug delivery. In this study, we show that hydrated tRNA can be adsorbed on the surfaces of nanodiamonds and further demonstrate specific properties in its dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of the system by Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. The dynamics of hydrated tRNA on ND surfaces exhibits a logarithmic-like decay within the time range of 10 ps to 1 ns, which has also been observed in the freestanding proteins and other biopolymers. We further compare the dynamics of tRNA hydrated with D2O on ND surface with that of freestanding hydrated tRNA molecules. Our results show that the relaxational dynamics of tRNA on ND surface is much faster than that of the freestanding tRNA molecules. This gives the hint that the folded states of tRNA is modified by ND surfaces to engage faster dynamics. The difference in the dynamics of the hydration water modified by ND is another possible reason which causes the faster dynamics in tRNA on ND surface.
Coherent Dynamics of meta-Toluidine Investigated by QuasiElastic Neutron Scattering
Faraone, Antonio; Hong, Kunlun; Kneller, Larry; Ohl, Michael E; Copley, John R. D.
2012-01-01
The coherent dynamics of a typical fragile glass former, meta-toluidine, was investigated at the molecular level using quasielastic neutron scattering, with time-of-flight and neutron spin echo spectrometers. It is well known that the static structure factor of meta-toluidine shows a prepeak originating from clustering of the molecules through hydrogen bonding between the amine groups. The dynamics of meta-toluidine was measured for several values of the wavevector transfer Q, which is equivalent to an inverse length scale, in a range encompassing the prepeak and the structure factor peak. Data were collected in the temperature range corresponding to the liquid and supercooled states, down to the glass transition. At least two dynamical processes were identified. This paper focuses on the slowest relaxation process in the system, the {alpha}-relaxation, which was found to scale with the macroscopic shear viscosity at all the investigated Q values. No evidence of 'de Gennes' narrowing associated with the prepeak was observed, in contrast with what happens at the Q value corresponding to the interparticle distance. Moreover, using partially deuterated samples, the dynamics of the clusters was found to be correlated to the single-particle dynamics of the meta-toluidine molecules.
Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Philipp, Martine; Silvi, Luca; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Petry, Winfried; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Papadakis, Christine M
2016-05-26
The solvent dynamics of concentrated solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM, 25 wt %) in water/methanol mixtures (85:15 v/v) are measured with the aim of shedding light onto the cononsolvency effect. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) with contrast variation has been carried out at temperatures below and above the cloud point by using in the first set of experiments the mixture H2O:d-MeOD (d-MeOD denotes fully deuterated methanol) as a solvent and in the second set of experiments the mixture D2O:MeOH (MeOH denotes methanol). As a reference, bulk H2O, bulk MeOH and the mixtures H2O:d-MeOD and D2O:MeOH (both 85:15 v/v) have been investigated as well. In the PNIPAM solution in H2O:d-MeOD, two water populations are identified, namely strongly and less strongly arrested water. At the cloud point, the former is partially released from PNIPAM. The diffusion coefficient of the latter one is similar to the one in the water/methanol mixture, and its residence time decreases at the cloud point. The PNIPAM solution in D2O:MeOH reveals similar dynamics to the one in H2O:d-MeOD which may reflect that the dynamics of MeOH near the PNIPAM chain is similar to the one of H2O. The similarity may, however, partially be due to H/D exchange between D2O and MeOH. In both PNIPAM solutions, the mean-square displacement of the PNIPAM chain decreases gradually above the cloud point.
Li, Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Yi, Zhou; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2015-08-15
Cement is a widely used construction material in the world. The quality and durability of aged cement pastes have a strong relationship with the water contained in it. The translational and rotational dynamics of water in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes cured for 7, 14 and 30days were studied by analyzing Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) data. The effect of a new super-plasticizer (SP) additive was also studied by comparing the samples with and without the additive. By fitting the QENS spectra with the Jump-diffusion and Rotation-diffusion Model (JRM), six important parameters including the bound water index (BWI), the self-diffusion coefficient, D(t), the average residence time, τ0, the rotational diffusion constant, D(r), the rotational residence time, τ(r), and the mean squared displacement (MSD), 〈u(2)〉, were obtained. From these parameters, we can quantitatively follow the evolution of the bound water fraction (BWI). We can clearly see the different time ranges for the translational and rotational dynamics of water contained in the OPC pastes by τ0 and τ(r). From the MSD values compared with those of molecular dynamics simulation, we can distinguish between immobile water (mainly bound water) and mobile water, which includes confined water and ultraconfined water. Furthermore, by the fitted parameters' values and their change of slopes with increasing setting time for cement pastes with and without additive SP, it becomes clear that the effect of additive SP is to make the mobile water more confined and induce a more uniform the aging process during the evolution of the OPC pastes.
Study of Quasi-Elastic vμ (bar vμ ) Scattering in the Nomad Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, Jean-Michel
2011-10-01
The legacy of the NOMAD neutrino oscillation experiment is a unique data set with a large physics studies potential. We present here the results obtained for the quasi-elastic νμn → μ-p and bar vμ {p} -> μ ^ + {n} reactions.
Measurement of the nu(mu) Charged Current pi+ Production to Quasi-elastic Scattering Cross Section
Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.
2009-09-01
Using high statistics samples of charged current interactions, MiniBooNE reports a model independent measurement of the single charged pion production to quasi-elastic cross section ratio on mineral oil without corrections for pion re-interactions in the target nucleus [1]. The result is provided as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E < 2.4 GeV with 11% precision in the region of highest statistics.
Breakup coupling effects on near-barrier quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 6,7}Li on {sup 144}Sm
Otomar, D. R.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Monteiro, D. S.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Guimaraes, V.; Chamon, L. C.
2009-09-15
Excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering at backward angles have been measured for the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 144}Sm systems at near-barrier energies, and fusion barrier distributions have been extracted from the first derivatives of the experimental cross sections with respect to the bombarding energies. The data have been analyzed in the framework of continuum discretized coupled-channel calculations, and the results have been obtained in terms of the influence exerted by the inclusion of different reaction channels, with emphasis on the role played by the projectile breakup.
Al-Wahish, Amal; Armitage, D.; Hill, B.; Mills, R.; Santodonato, L.; Herwig, K. W.; Al-Binni, U.; Jalarvo, N.; Mandrus, D.
2015-09-15
A design for a sample cell system suitable for high temperature Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments is presented. The apparatus was developed at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab where it is currently in use. The design provides a special sample cell environment under controlled humid or dry gas flow over a wide range of temperature up to 950 °C. Using such a cell, chemical, dynamical, and physical changes can be studied in situ under various operating conditions. While the cell combined with portable automated gas environment system is especially useful for in situ studies of microscopic dynamics under operational conditions that are similar to those of solid oxide fuel cells, it can additionally be used to study a wide variety of materials, such as high temperature proton conductors. The cell can also be used in many different neutron experiments when a suitable sample holder material is selected. The sample cell system has recently been used to reveal fast dynamic processes in quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments, which standard probes (such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) could not detect. In this work, we outline the design of the sample cell system and present results demonstrating its abilities in high temperature QENS experiments.
Quasi-elastic pn scattering in 6LiD and 6LiH targets from 1.1 to 2.4 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lesquen, A.; Allgower, C. E.; Ball, J.; Beddo, M.; Bystrický, J.; Combet, M.; Demierre, Ph.; Durand, G.; Fontaine, J.-M.; Grosnick, D.; Hess, R.; Janout, Z.; Janout, Z. F.; Kalinnikov, V. A.; Kasprzyk, T. E.; Khachaturov, B. A.; Kunne, R.; Lehar, F.; Lopiano, D.; Matafonov, V. N.; Pisarev, I. L.; Popov, A. A.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Rapin, D.; Sans, J.-L.; Spinka, H. M.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Vuaridel, B.; Zhdanov, A. A.
1999-11-01
A polarized proton beam from SATURNE II, the Saclay polarized targets with ^6Li compounds, and an unpolarized CH_2 target were used to measure spin-dependent observables for protons scattered on bound nucleons. The beam and target polarizations were oriented vertically. The analyzing power A_{oono} and the depolarization D_{nono} were determined at seven energies between 1.1 and 2.4 GeV. The spin correlation parameter A_{oonn} was measured at only 1.1 and 1.6 GeV. Measurements with the CH_2 target at 1.1 GeV provided A_{oono} data for scattering of polarized protons on neutrons in carbon. The quasi-elastic observables are compared with previous elastic scattering measurements and at 1.1 GeV with predictions of phase shift analyses.
Quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valverde, M.; Nieves, J.; Amaro, J. E.
2006-05-01
The quasi-elastic contribution of the nuclear inclusive electron scattering model developed in [A. Gil, J. Nieves, and E. Oset: Nucl. Phys. A 627 (1997) 543] is extended to the study of electroweak charged current induced nuclear reactions at intermediate energies of interest for future neutrino oscillation experiments. The model accounts for long-range nuclear (RPA) correlations, final state interaction and Coulomb corrections. RPA correlations are shown to play a crucial role in the whole range of neutrino energies, up to 500 MeV, studied in this work. Predictions for inclusive muon capture for different nuclei, and for the reactions 12C(ν μ , μ -)X and 12C(ν e, e-)X near threshold are also given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaissier, Valerie; Sakai, Victoria Garcia; Li, Xiaoe; Cabral, João T.; Nelson, Jenny; Barnes, Piers R. F.
2016-12-01
Motions of molecules adsorbed to surfaces may control the rate of charge transport within monolayers in systems such as dye sensitized solar cells. We used quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) to evaluate the possible dynamics of two small dye moieties, isonicotinic acid (INA) and bis-isonicotinic acid (BINA), attached to TiO2 nanoparticles via carboxylate groups. The scattering data indicate that moieties are immobile and do not rotate around the anchoring groups on timescales between around 10 ps and a few ns (corresponding to the instrumental range). This gives an upper limit for the rate at which conformational fluctuations can assist charge transport between anchored molecules. Our observations suggest that if the conformation of larger dye molecules varies with time, it does so on longer timescales and/or in parts of the molecule which are not directly connected to the anchoring group. The QENS measurements also indicate that several layers of acetonitrile solvent molecules are immobilized at the interface with the TiO2 on the measurement time scale, in reasonable agreement with recent classical molecular dynamics results.
Vaissier, Valerie; Sakai, Victoria Garcia; Li, Xiaoe; Cabral, João T.; Nelson, Jenny; Barnes, Piers R. F.
2016-01-01
Motions of molecules adsorbed to surfaces may control the rate of charge transport within monolayers in systems such as dye sensitized solar cells. We used quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) to evaluate the possible dynamics of two small dye moieties, isonicotinic acid (INA) and bis-isonicotinic acid (BINA), attached to TiO2 nanoparticles via carboxylate groups. The scattering data indicate that moieties are immobile and do not rotate around the anchoring groups on timescales between around 10 ps and a few ns (corresponding to the instrumental range). This gives an upper limit for the rate at which conformational fluctuations can assist charge transport between anchored molecules. Our observations suggest that if the conformation of larger dye molecules varies with time, it does so on longer timescales and/or in parts of the molecule which are not directly connected to the anchoring group. The QENS measurements also indicate that several layers of acetonitrile solvent molecules are immobilized at the interface with the TiO2 on the measurement time scale, in reasonable agreement with recent classical molecular dynamics results. PMID:27991538
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Brodin, A.; Jacobsson, P.; Maurer, F. H. J.
2000-01-01
We have made a series of isotropic pressure-densified atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) glasses with densities ranging from 1.1823 g/cm3 to 1.1963 g/cm3, in order to investigate how the glassy dynamics, measured by Raman scattering in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, depends on the thermomechanical history of the glasses. In particular, we investigate whether there is a correlation between the strength of the fast relaxation dynamics and the free-volume characteristics, such as the average free-volume size and the free-volume fraction. The fast relaxation strength is deduced from the quasielastic light scattering (QES) intensity; the free-volume size is measured with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS); and the free-volume fraction is determined from pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data and the Simha-Somcynsky equation-of-state (EOS) theory. Our temperature-dependent Raman and PALS measurements show that both the QES intensity and the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime increase smoothly with the temperature. On the other hand, the relaxation strength of the densified glasses at room temperature is, within experimental error, independent of the density, whereas both the o-Ps lifetime from PALS and the free volume fraction from the PVT data decrease significantly with pressure densification. We therefore conclude that the fast relaxation intensity cannot be explained on the basis of free-volume quantities, contrary to a recently suggested correlation between the QES intensity and the free volume [V. N. Novikov et al., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1057 (1997)]. On the other hand, the observed behavior is consistent with another recently suggested model [V. N. Novikov, Phys. Rev. B 58, 8367 (1998)] which attributes the fast relaxations to vibration anharmonicity. Moreover, we show that the measured increase in the refractive index of the pressure-densified glasses fits the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and compares well to predictions of the relative change
Etampawala, Thusitha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Morgan, Brian; ...
2015-02-02
Our work reports on the detailed molecular dynamic behavior of miscible blends of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and their pure counterparts by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements (QENS). The study provides the measure of relaxation processes on pico-to-nanosecond time scales. A single relaxation process was observed in pure P3HT and PCBM while two relaxation processes, one fast and one slow, were observed in the blends. The fast process was attributed to the dynamics of P3HT while the slow process was correlated to the dynamics of PCBM. The results show that the relaxation process is a balance betweenmore » two opposing effects: increased mobility due to thermal activation of P3HT molecules and decrease mobility due to the presence of PCBM which is correlated to the percent crystallinity of P3HT and local packing density of PCBM in the amorphous phase. The threshold for the domination of the thermally activated relaxation is between 5 and 9 vol.% of PCBM loading. Two distinct spatial dependences of the relaxation processes, in which the crossover length scale depends neither on temperature nor composition, were observed for all the samples. They were attributed to the collective motions of the hexyl side chains and the rotational motions of the C-C single bonds of the side chains. Finally, these results provide an understanding of the effects of PCBM loading and temperature on the dynamics of the polymer-fullerene blends which provides a tool to optimize the efficiency of charge carrier and exciton transport within the organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layer to improve the high performance of organic solar cells.« less
Etampawala, Thusitha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Morgan, Brian; Diallo, Souleymane; Mamontov, Eugene; Dadmun, Mark
2015-02-02
Our work reports on the detailed molecular dynamic behavior of miscible blends of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and their pure counterparts by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements (QENS). The study provides the measure of relaxation processes on pico-to-nanosecond time scales. A single relaxation process was observed in pure P3HT and PCBM while two relaxation processes, one fast and one slow, were observed in the blends. The fast process was attributed to the dynamics of P3HT while the slow process was correlated to the dynamics of PCBM. The results show that the relaxation process is a balance between two opposing effects: increased mobility due to thermal activation of P3HT molecules and decrease mobility due to the presence of PCBM which is correlated to the percent crystallinity of P3HT and local packing density of PCBM in the amorphous phase. The threshold for the domination of the thermally activated relaxation is between 5 and 9 vol.% of PCBM loading. Two distinct spatial dependences of the relaxation processes, in which the crossover length scale depends neither on temperature nor composition, were observed for all the samples. They were attributed to the collective motions of the hexyl side chains and the rotational motions of the C-C single bonds of the side chains. Finally, these results provide an understanding of the effects of PCBM loading and temperature on the dynamics of the polymer-fullerene blends which provides a tool to optimize the efficiency of charge carrier and exciton transport within the organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layer to improve the high performance of organic solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Zhou; Deng, Pei-Na; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Hua
2016-10-01
The dynamic behaviors of water contained in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel with different water content values from 10% to 30% (by weight), are studied by using an empirical diffusion model (EDM) to analyze the experimental data of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra at measured temperatures ranging from 230 K to 280 K. In the study, the experimental QENS spectra with the whole Q-range are considered. Several important parameters including the bound/immobile water elastic coefficient A, the bound water index BWI, the Lorentzian with a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) Γ 1(Q) and Γ 2(Q), the self-diffusion coefficients D t1 and D t2 of water molecules, the average residence times τ 01 and τ 02, and the proton mean squared displacement (MSD) are obtained. The results show that the QENS spectra can be fitted very well not only for small Q (≤ 1 Å-1) but also for large Q. The bound/immobile water fraction in a C-S-H gel sample can be shown by the fitted BWI. The distinction between bound/immobile and mobile water, which includes confined water and ultra-confined water, can be seen by the fitted MSD. All the MSD tend to be the smallest value below 0.25 Å2 (the MSD of bound/immobile water) as the Q increases to 1.9 Å-1, no matter what the temperature and water content are. Furthermore, by the abrupt changes of the fitted values of D t1, τ 01, and Γ 1(Q), a crossover temperature at 250 K, namely the liquid-to-crystal-like transition temperature, can be identified for confined water in large gel pores (LGPs) and/or small gel pores (SGPs) contained in the C-S-H gel sample with 30% water content.
Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk
2000-10-01
We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.
Studying neutrino oscillations using quasi-elastic events in MINOS
Kumaratunga, Sujeewa Terasita
2008-02-01
MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to search for neutrino oscillations using two detectors at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, IL (Near Detector) and Soudan, MN (Far Detector). It will study v_{μ} → v_{τ} oscillations and make a measurement on the oscillation parameters, Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin^{2} 2θ_{23}, via a v_{μ} beam made at Fermilab. Charge current neutrino interactions in the MINOS detectors are of three types: quasi-elastic scattering (QEL), resonance scattering (RES) and deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Of these, quasi-elastic scattering leaves the cleanest signal with just one μ and one proton in the final state, thus rendering the reconstruction of the neutrino energy more accurate. This thesis will outline a method to separate QEL events from the others in the two detectors and perform a calculation of Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin^{2} 2θ_{23} using those events. The period under consideration was May 2005 to February 2006. The number of observed quasi-elastic events with energies below 10 GeV was 29, where the expected number was 60 ± 3. A fit to the energy distribution of these events gives Δm$2\\atop{23}$ = 2.91$+0.49\\atop{-0.53}$(stat)$+0.08\\atop{-0.09}$(sys) x 10^{-3} eV^{2} and sin^{2} 2θ_{23} = 0.990_{-0.180}(stat)_{-0.030}(sys).
Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei
Fomin, Nadia
2007-10-26
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.
Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jae
2006-04-01
The measurement of the weak mixing angle is the goal, using the data collected in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. Studying the neutrino induced Quasi-Elastic (QE) scattering, in which neutrino hits neutron and results in a muon and a proton, would enhance our understanding of the `higher-twist effect' -- an effect that parameterizes the weak mixing angle. Toward this, I developed a likelihood probability density function that enabled me to eliminate a significant portion of the background, resonance and deep inelastic scattering events. As the Monte Carlo (MC) is only reliable to a precision not better than 15 -- 20 percent, I developed several techniques to make sure that MC and DATA agreed around 5 percent. The axial mass and QE cross section can then be calculated. Techniques and the preliminary results relevant to the calculation will be presented.
How well do we understand quasi-elastic reactions at energies close to the barrier
Rehm, K.E.
1988-01-01
In collisions between too heavy nuclei a wide spectrum of different reaction modes is observed covering the range from simple processes like elastic scattering to complicated multistep transfers and fusion. On the theoretical side heavy ion reactions are usually analyzed using models that were developed first for light ion induced reactions: the optical model for elastic scattering and the DWBA for more inelastic processes like transfer and inelastic scattering. Some of the assumptions going into these approximations, however, are not valid for heavy ion induced reactions. The region between fusion and quasi-elastic reactions is not well understood theoretically. This region is associated with deep inelastic collisions, which are complex multiparticle reactions involving transfer of several protons and neutrons. In this paper, the author discusses to what extent experiments in the field of quasi-elastic scattering are understood within the framework of various theoretical models and in what areas more work is needed.
Charged current quasi-elastic neutrino analysis at MINERνA
Fiorentini, G. A.
2015-05-15
MINERνA (Main INjector Experiment for ν-A) is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI high-intensity neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. MINERvA was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). We present the current status of the charged current quasi-elastic scattering in plastic scintillator.
Charged current quasi-elastic neutrino analysis at MINERνA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorentini, G. A.
2015-05-01
MINERνA (Main INjector Experiment for ν-A) is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI high-intensity neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. MINERvA was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). We present the current status of the charged current quasi-elastic scattering in plastic scintillator.
Color Transparency in Quasi-Elastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenberg, William Ross
The role of Color Transparency (CT) in high momentum transfer knockout reactions is explored. The main focus of this study is the escape process of the ejectile from the nucleus. We use a hadronic basis to describe the struck proton as a wavepacket of physical baryon resonances. The ideas of CT are embedded into the usual Glauber treatment. We first ignore the effects of spin and consider the resulting ejectile-nucleus scattering cross sections. We assume two representative forms for the ejectile-nucleon interaction. Explicit forms for the distorted waves are presented in the context of a multiple scattering formalism. New approximation techniques are developed and applied to predict the production of nucleons and N^*'s in (e,e^' p) experiments. The consequences of the non-zero size of the wavepacket are examined. Next, we replace the assumption of a specific form for the interaction with the ansatz that a zero-size wavepacket does not interact. As the wavepacket expands, the nuclear interactions grow. Exact solutions to the scattering equation are obtained. The resulting sum rules are rendered semi-realistic by demanding consistency with pp and pd data. We also use the sum rule method to analyze double scattering events from ^3He. These events are of particular interest since the effects of CT may be easier to see experimentally. Finally, we upgrade our model and consider the full effects of photon and proton spin and polarization. The polarization of the ejected proton is interesting because, due to general symmetry principles, it must vanish in the limit of full CT. These are the first calculations of the spin observables to include CT. Several new effects, due exclusively to the relativistic Dirac structure, are described. Explicit forms for the distorted waves are presented. We apply these wavefunctions to predict total cross sections, normal polarizations and other differential distributions. We also examine the effects of non-zero wavepacket size and of
Measurement of Neutrino Induced Exclusive Quasi-Elastic Cross Section in NOMAD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jae
2007-04-01
The measurement of neutrino induced charged current Quasi-Elastic (QE) cross section using the NOMAD data will be presented. The signature of the νμ QE interaction is an outgoing -circ and a proton. I developed a likelihood probability density function to separate QE from background - two track resonance and deep inelastic scattering events. Data themselves were used to help constrain the background estimate. By kinematic comparison to the measured QE data, the axial mass was also measured. This preliminary result is among the most precise measurements of the QE process.
SCRIT electron scattering facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukada, Kyo
2014-09-01
Electron scattering is the most powerful and reliable tool to investigate the nuclear structure because this reaction has the great advantage that the electron is structureless particle and its interaction is well described by the quantum electrodynamics. As is well known, the charge density distributions of many stable nuclei were determined by elastic electron scattering. Recently, many efforts for studies of unstable nuclei have been made, and the precise information of the structure of unstabe nuclei have been strongly desired. However, due to the difficulty of preparing a short-lived unstable nuclear target, there is no electron scattering on unstable nuclei with a few important exceptions, such as on 3H, 14C and so on. Under these circumstances, we have established a completely new target-forming technique, namely SCRIT (Self-Confining Radioactive isotope Ion Target) which makes electron scattering on unstable nuclei possible. A Dedicated electron scattering facility at RIKEN consists of an electron accelerator with the SCRIT system, an ERIS (Electron-beam-driven RI separator for SCRIT), and a WiSES (Window-frame Spectrometer for Electron Scattering). Feasibility test of the SCRIT and ERIS system have been successfully carried out using the stable nuclei, and more than 1026 [cm-2s-1] luminosity was already achieved. Furthermore, 132Sn, which is one of the important target at the beginning of this project, was also successfully separated in the ERIS. The WiSES with momentum resolution of Δp/p ~ 10-3 consisting of the wide acceptance dipole magnet, two set of drift chambers together with trigger scintillation hodoscope is under construction. Electron scattering on unstable nuclei will start within a year. In this talk, the introduction of our project and the progress of the preparation status will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Mahesh Kumar
We have studied the 12C(e,e'X) reaction with an incident electron energy of 705 MeV and electron scattering angle of 34.4o. A large solid angle detector, the LAMPF BGO ball, was used to detect protons, pions, deuterons, photons, and neutrons in coincidence with the electron. The electron energy loss was varied from 40 to 450 MeV, thus covering kinematical regions from quasi-elastic scattering to the Δ(1232) resonance. The main focus of the thesis is a study of the Δ region with one or two protons in coincidence with the electron. A simulation program, ENIGMA, was used to model various reactions leading to emission of one or more protons plus neutrons or pions. We found that only two channels were required to reproduce the energy spectra and angular distributions of the (e,e' p) final state: (e,e' p/pi) and (e,e' pnn). The two nucleon final state (e,e' pn) was less than 10% of the cross section. The peak of the Δ(1232) resonance for various coincidences was found to be close to the position of the inclusive spectrum, except for the (e,e' pp) reaction where it increases to the highest measured values in energy loss, in contrast to proton induced reactions. The cross section for (e,e' pp) was found to be small and does not appear to result from direct two nucleon decay of the Δ(1232) resonance. In the quasi-elastic region we found that the kinetic energy spectrum of the proton could be reproduced by a combination of 80% (e,e' p) and 20% (e,e' pn). We were not able to determine whether or not the pn final state was due to final state interactions or two nucleon absorption.
Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Wong, Eric W. (Inventor); von Allmen, Paul (Inventor); Oyafuso, Fabiano A. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
Methods and devices for spectroscopic identification of molecules using nanoscale wires are disclosed. According to one of the methods, nanoscale wires are provided, electrons are injected into the nanoscale wire; and inelastic electron scattering is measured via excitation of low-lying vibrational energy levels of molecules bound to the nanoscale wire.
Nanowire Electron Scattering Spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Brian; Bronikowsky, Michael; Wong, Eric; VonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fablano
2009-01-01
Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy (NESS) has been proposed as the basis of a class of ultra-small, ultralow-power sensors that could be used to detect and identify chemical compounds present in extremely small quantities. State-of-the-art nanowire chemical sensors have already been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of compounds in femtomolar quantities. However, to date, chemically specific sensing of molecules using these sensors has required the use of chemically functionalized nanowires with receptors tailored to individual molecules of interest. While potentially effective, this functionalization requires labor-intensive treatment of many nanowires to sense a broad spectrum of molecules. In contrast, NESS would eliminate the need for chemical functionalization of nanowires and would enable the use of the same sensor to detect and identify multiple compounds. NESS is analogous to Raman spectroscopy, the main difference being that in NESS, one would utilize inelastic scattering of electrons instead of photons to determine molecular vibrational energy levels. More specifically, in NESS, one would exploit inelastic scattering of electrons by low-lying vibrational quantum states of molecules attached to a nanowire or nanotube.
Transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic reactions
Rehm, K.E.
1986-01-01
Heavy ion induced transfer reactions are usually considered to fall into two categories. Quasi-elastic processes, on one hand, are characterized by small energy transfers, with one-nucleon transfer reactions being a typical example. These processes are dominant for grazing collisions, and are generally described within simple one-step DWBA calculations. Deep inelastic reactions, on the other hand, occur for more central collisions where the interaction time is longer and subsequently more energy and particles can be exchanged. Quasi-elastic collisions dominate transfer reactions induced by light heavy ions (e.g., /sup 16/O) at energies not too high above the barrier, while deep inelastic collisions are observed mainly in reactions induced by heavier projectiles (Kr, Xe). In this contribution, we discuss the transition between these two processes for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb. /sup 48/Ti is located between light (/sup 16/O) and heavy (Kr) projectiles and should be well suited for a study of the interrelation between quasi- and deep-inelastic reactions. The experiments were performed with a 300 MeV /sup 48/Ti beam obtained from the Argonne National Laboratory superconducting linac. The outgoing particles were momentum analyzed in a split pole magnetic spectrograph and detected in the focal plane by a position sensitive ionization chamber. The specific energy loss, the magnetic rigidity and the total energy of the outgoing particles were measured enabling mass and Z-identification. The energy resolution was about 3 MeV, determined by the thickness of the /sup 208/Pb target, and thus excluded study of transfer reactions to discrete final states. Angular distributions were measured in the range theta/sub lab/ = 20/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ in steps of 5/sup 0/. 8 refs.
Study of the deuteron structure in quasi-elastic breakup reaction pd --> ppn at 1 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleshin, N. P.; Belostotski, S. L.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Gordeev, V. A.; Komarov, E. N.; Kochenda, L. M.; Lasarev, V. I.; Manayenkov, S. I.; Miklukho, O. V.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Nikulin, V. N.; Prokofiev, O. E.; Sulimov, V. V.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Boudard, A.; Laget, J.-M.
1994-02-01
Quasi-elastic deuteron break-up reactions pd → pp( n) and pd → pn( p) have been studied in complete kinematics at 1 GeV. Two outgoing nucleons were detected in coincidence by means of a two-arm spectrometer. After a correction to the impulse approximation for double scattering and Δ-excitation effects, a good agreement with data is found using a momentum distribution of nucleons in the deuteron computed from nucleon-nucleon potentials. This good agreement is obtained up to 0.5 GeV/ c.
Concept of a multichannel spin-resolving electron analyzer based on Mott scattering
Strocov, Vladimir N.; Petrov, Vladimir N.; Dil, J. Hugo
2015-01-01
The concept of a multichannel electron spin detector based on optical imaging principles and Mott scattering (iMott) is presented. A multichannel electron image produced by a standard angle-resolving (photo) electron analyzer or microscope is re-imaged by an electrostatic lens at an accelerating voltage of 40 kV onto the Au target. Quasi-elastic electrons bearing spin asymmetry of the Mott scattering are imaged by magnetic lenses onto position-sensitive electron CCDs whose differential signals yield the multichannel spin asymmetry image. Fundamental advantages of this concept include acceptance of inherently divergent electron sources from the electron analyzer or microscope focal plane as well as small aberrations achieved by virtue of high accelerating voltages, as demonstrated by extensive ray-tracing analysis. The efficiency gain compared with the single-channel Mott detector can be a factor of more than 104 which opens new prospects of spin-resolved spectroscopies in application not only to standard bulk and surface systems (Rashba effect, topological insulators, etc.) but also to buried heterostructures. The simultaneous spin detection combined with fast CCD readout enables efficient use of the iMott detectors at X-ray free-electron laser facilities. PMID:25931087
A sub-GeV charged-current quasi-elastic $\
Walding, Joseph James
2009-12-01
Neutrino-nucleus charged-current quasi-elastic scattering is the signal interaction used by many neutrino oscillation experiments. For muon disappearance studies the signal mode is ν_{μ}n → μp. Modern oscillation experiments, such as T2K, produce neutrino beams with peak beam energies of order a few-GeV. It is therefore vitally important to have accurate measurements of the charged-current quasi-elastic crosssection for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few-GeV region are not well understood, with the main uncertainties coming from understanding of the neutrino beam flux and the final state interactions within nuclei. SciBooNE is a sub-GeV neutrino-nucleus cross-section experiment based at Fermilab, Batavia, USA, with the goal to measure neutrino cross-sections with precision of order 5%. SciBooNE took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in total 0.99×10^{20} and 1.53×10^{20} protons on target were collected in neutrino and anti-neutrino mode, respectively. In this thesis a ν_{μ} charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section contained within the SciBar sub-detector is presented. A method to tag muons in SciBar was developed and three samples were isolated. An excess in backwards tracks in the one-track sample is observed. A Poisson maximum likelihood is used to extract the CCQE cross-section. The fit was applied using a basic fit parameter model, successfully used to obtain the cross-section in the SciBar-MRD matched CCQE analysis. This method was found to be insufficient in describing the data for the SciBarcontained CCQE analysis. By adding two migration parameters the cross-section was calculated to be 1.004 ± 0.031 (stat)^{+0.101} _{-0.150}(sys) × 10^{-38} cm^{2}/neutron, excluding backwards tracks with a χ^{2} = 203.8/76 d.o.f. and 1.083 ± 0.030(stat)^{+0.115} _{-0.177}(sys) × 10^{-38} cm^{2 }
Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trower, W. P.; Ficenec, J. R.
1971-01-01
Presents information about the nucleus gained by studies of electron scattering. Discusses what can be implied about the shape of the charge distribution, the nucleus positions, the vibrational modes of the nucleus, the momentum of the nucleus, and the granularity and core structures of the nucleus. (DS)
Parity Violation in Electron Scattering
Beise, Elizabeth
2007-10-26
About thirty years ago, electron scattering from nucleons was used [1] to identify, and then measure, the properties of the weak interaction, the only force of nature known to violate the symmetry parity. The basic technique has not fundamentally changed, which is to look for a small asymmetry in count rate from scattering a polarized electron beam from an unpolarized target. Since then, parity-violating (PV) electron scattering has developed substantially, a result of significant improvements in polarized electron beams, accelerator advancements, and developments in cryogenic targets that make it possible to carry out experiments with much higher statistical precision. In the last decade PV experiments have focused on using the complementary electron-quark flavor coupling of the weak interaction to identify and place limits on contributions of strange quark-antiquark pairs to the charge and magnetism of the proton. This observable provides a unique window into the structure of the proton since strange quark contributions can arise only from the sea of quarks and gluons that are responsible for the vast majority of the nucleon's mass. This paper will report on recent results aimed at this goal, along with a brief overview of future directions.
Electron Scattering from Silicon 30.
1983-01-01
COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFIT/CI/NR 83-3 T___ __ _ . 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ElectrogScattering from Silicon 30 THESIS/P AA~7Aj1AN 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( s ...spectrometers. The machines used in the 1950’ s allowed electron scattering with a resolution of 4p/p f5xlO- and with currents of a few tenths of a micro
Inclusive nucleon emission induced by quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.; Vicente-Vacas, M. J.
2006-05-01
A previous model on inclusive charged-current quasi-elastic nuclear reactions [J. Nieves, J.E. Amaro and M. Valverde, Phys. Rev. C 70 (2004) 055503] is extended to include neutral- and charged-current nucleon emission reactions. The problem of outgoing nucleon propagation is treated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation.
Electron scattering from polarized tritium
Jones, C.E.
1993-11-01
the recent development of high-intensity gaseous targets of polarized hydrogen and deuterium raises the interesting possibility of developing a polarized tritium target that can operate in relatively high current electron beams. Here I discuss the feasibility of a measurement of the helicity-dependent asymmetry in {sup 3}{rvec H}({rvec e},e{prime}) inclusive quasielastic scattering with such a target.
Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
2004-01-01
Scattering by single-electron systems is always of interest because the wave function of the target is known exactly. Various approximations have been employed to take into account distortion produced in the target. Among them are the method of polarized orbitals and the close coupling approximation. Recently, e-H and e-He+ S-wave scattering in the elastic region has been studied using the Feshbach projection operator formalism. In this approach, the usual Hartree-Fock and exchange potentials are augmented by an optical potential and the resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds. Now this method is being applied to the e-H P-wave scattering in the elastic region. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the 1,3 P phase shifts is 84 and the resulting phase shifts (preliminary) are given. The results have been given up to five digits because to that accuracy they are rigorous lower bounds. They are in general agreement with the variational (VAR) results of Armstead, and those obtained from the intermediate energy R-matrix method (RM) of Scholz et al., and the finite element method (FEM) of Botero and Shertzer. The later two methods do not provide any bounds on phase shifts.
Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Baymuratov, Anvar S; Premaratne, Malin
2011-08-01
We develop a low-temperature theory of quasi-elastic secondary emission from a semiconductor quantum dot, the electronic subsystem of which is resonant with the confined longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon modes. Our theory employs a generalized model for renormalization of the quantum dot's energy spectrum, which is induced by the polar electron-phonon interaction. The model takes into account the degeneration of electronic states and allows for several LO-phonon modes to be involved in the vibrational resonance. We give solutions to three fundamental problems of energy-spectrum renormalization--arising if one, two, or three LO-phonon modes resonantly couple a pair of electronic states--and discuss the most general problem of this kind that admits an analytical solution. With these results, we solve the generalized master equation for the reduced density matrix, in order to derive an expression for the differential cross section of secondary emission from a single quantum dot. The obtained expression is then analyzed to establish the basics of optical spectroscopy for measuring fundamental parameters of the quantum dot's polaron-like states.
Single scatter electron Monte Carlo
Svatos, M.M.
1997-03-01
A single scatter electron Monte Carlo code (SSMC), CREEP, has been written which bridges the gap between existing transport methods and modeling real physical processes. CREEP simulates ionization, elastic and bremsstrahlung events individually. Excitation events are treated with an excitation-only stopping power. The detailed nature of these simulations allows for calculation of backscatter and transmission coefficients, backscattered energy spectra, stopping powers, energy deposits, depth dose, and a variety of other associated quantities. Although computationally intense, the code relies on relatively few mathematical assumptions, unlike other charged particle Monte Carlo methods such as the commonly-used condensed history method. CREEP relies on sampling the Lawrence Livermore Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL) which has data for all elements with an atomic number between 1 and 100, over an energy range from approximately several eV (or the binding energy of the material) to 100 GeV. Compounds and mixtures may also be used by combining the appropriate element data via Bragg additivity.
Positronium and Electron Scattering on Helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiRienzi, Joseph
2011-01-01
A recent work [1] establishes experimentally that Positronium scattering by atoms of various elements is surprisingly close in total cross-section to that of an isolated electron of the same velocity. In this work we will look at the scattering of Ps on Helium and compare it to a determination of the scattering of an e- with the same element. For both the Ps scattering and the e- scattering on He, we assume the symmetrization of the e- with the closed shell He electrons is the dominant interaction. A local effective potential employed in [2] and [3] is used to model the electron exchange and cross- sections are determined for a set of partial waves. For the Ps scattering we include as a secondary effect the Van der Waals interaction. For single e- scattering of He, we also employ a short range Coulomb potential and dispersion as contributing effects. Results of the cross-sections determined in each case are then compared
Rutherford scattering of electron vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Boxem, Ruben; Partoens, Bart; Verbeeck, Johan
2014-03-01
By considering a cylindrically symmetric generalization of a plane wave, the first-order Born approximation of screened Coulomb scattering unfolds two new dimensions in the scattering problem: transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum of the incoming beam. In this paper, the elastic Coulomb scattering amplitude is calculated analytically for incoming Bessel beams. This reveals novel features occurring for wide-angle scattering and quantitative insights for small-angle vortex scattering. The result successfully generalizes the well-known Rutherford formula, incorporating transverse and orbital angular momentum into the formalism.
Gate dependent electronic Raman scattering in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccardi, E.; Méasson, M.-A.; Kazayous, M.; Sacuto, A.; Gallais, Y.; Spectroscopy Of Quasi-Particles (Squap) Team
We report the direct observation of polarization resolved electronic Raman scattering in a gated monolayer graphene device. The evolution of the electronic Raman scattering spectra with gate voltage and its polarization dependence are in full agreement with theoretical expectations for non-resonant Raman processes involving interband electron-hole excitations across the Dirac cone. We further show that the spectral dependence of the electronic Raman scattering signal can be simply described by the dynamical polarizability of graphene in the long wavelength limit. The possibility to directly observe Dirac fermion excitations in graphene opens the way to promising Raman investigations of electronic properties of graphene and other 2D materials.
Gate dependent electronic Raman scattering in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccardi, E.; Méasson, M.-A.; Kazayous, M.; Sacuto, A.; Gallais, Y.; Spectroscopy Of Quasi-Particles (Squap) Team
We report the direct observation of polarization resolved electronic Raman scattering in a gated monolayer graphene device. The evolution of the electronic Raman scattering spectra with gate voltage and its polarization dependence are in full agreement with theoretical expectations for non-resonant Raman processes involving interband electron-hole excitations across the Dirac cone [1]. We further show that the spectral dependence of the electronic Raman scattering signal can be simply described by the dynamical polarizability of graphene in the long wavelength limit [2]. The possibility to directly observe Dirac fermion excitations in graphene opens the way to promising Raman investigations of electronic properties of graphene and other 2D materials.
Spectroscopic study of sub-barrier quasi-elastic nuclear reactions
Pass, C.N.; Evans, P.M.; Smith, A.E.; Stuttge, L.; Betts, R.R.; Lilley, J.S.; Connell, K.A.; Simpson, J.; Smith, J.R.; James, A.N.
1988-01-01
The technique developed in this paper is particularly well suited to the detailed spectroscopic study of low energy quasi-elastic nuclear reactions and by overcoming the limitations of conventional procedure, the prospect of detailed studies of inclusive reaction mechanism may be realised. With only limited statistics we find evidence for strong multistep character in the transfer of a single nucleon from spherical vibrational target to spherical projectile nuclei. The suggestive measurements reported here may be made definitive through extended runs based on this technique and experiments planned for the future offer the real prospect of developing a quantified interpretation of the reaction process. 9 refs. 5 figs.
Xu, Wang
2002-06-01
Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities in describing the underlying electromagnetic structure of nucleons. While proton electromagnetic form factors have been determined with good precision, neutron form factors are known poorly, largely due to the lack of free neutron targets. Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E95-001, a ''precise measurement of the transverse asymmetry A_{T}' from the quasielastic ^{3}He(e, e') process,'' was therefore designed to determine precisely the neutron magnetic form factor, G$n\\atop{M}$ at low momentum transfer values and was successfully completed in Spring 1999. High precision A_{T}'data in the quasi-elastic region at Q^{2} values of 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)^{2} were obtained using a high-pressure spin-exchange optically-pumped polarized ^{3}He gas target with an average polarization of 30%, a longitudinally polarized e^{-} beam, and two High Resolution Spectrometers: HRSe and HRSh. HRSe was employed to detect scattered electrons from the quasi-elastic kinematic region, and HRSh was employed as a elastic polarimetry to monitor the product of the beam and target polarizations. The extraction of form factors is usually model-dependent. Significant constraints on theoretical calculations are provided bu additional high precision quasi-elastic asymmetry data at Q^{2} values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)^{2} in ^{3}He breakup region, where effects of final state interactions (FSI) and meson exchange currents (MEC) are expected to be large [71]. G$n\\atop{M}$ is extracted from a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both FSI and MEC at Q^{2} values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)^{2}. The uncertainties of G$n\\atop{M}$ at these Q^{2} values are comparable to those of recent experiments with deuterium targets [58]. At the higher Q^{2} values from this experiment, G$n\\atop{M}$ is extracted from Plane-Wave Impulsive
[Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces]. [Progress report
Not Available
1993-10-01
This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned.
Local orbitals in electron scattering calculations*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winstead, Carl L.; McKoy, Vincent
2016-05-01
We examine the use of local orbitals to improve the scaling of calculations that incorporate target polarization in a description of low-energy electron-molecule scattering. After discussing the improved scaling that results, we consider the results of a test calculation that treats scattering from a two-molecule system using both local and delocalized orbitals. Initial results are promising. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Yamada, Takeshi; Yonamine, Ryo; Yamada, Teppei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Nagao, Michihiro; Yamamuro, Osamu
2011-11-24
We have investigated the mechanism of the first order transition and proton conductivity in copper rubeanate hydrates from microscopic and dynamical points of view. Three different types of neutron spectrometer-time-of-flight, backscattering, and neutron spin echo-were used to cover a wide dynamic range (1 ps to 100 ns). We found that the water molecules adsorbed in the pore are divided into "free water" having diffusion coefficients similar to those of bulk water at room temperature and "condensed water" which is about 10 times slower than bulk water owing to the interaction with the pore wall. The hydrogen atoms in the pore wall exhibited no relaxation within the measured time scales. The free water has, in the framework of the jump-diffusion model, smaller activation energy, longer residence time, and longer jump distance than bulk water. The neutron spin echo measurement revealed that the first order transition is a kind of liquid-liquid transition at which the free water is condensed on the pore surface in the low temperature phase. On cooling the condensed water, the relaxation time starts to deviate from the VFT equation around 200 K as previously observed in the water confined in nanoporous silicates. The free water plays an important role as the proton carrier but the proton conductivity is mainly governed by the number of protons provided into the adsorbed water from the pore wall.
Stimulated Electronic X-Ray Raman Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weninger, Clemens; Purvis, Michael; Ryan, Duncan; London, Richard A.; Bozek, John D.; Bostedt, Christoph; Graf, Alexander; Brown, Gregory; Rocca, Jorge J.; Rohringer, Nina
2013-12-01
We demonstrate strong stimulated inelastic x-ray scattering by resonantly exciting a dense gas target of neon with femtosecond, high-intensity x-ray pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). A small number of lower energy XFEL seed photons drive an avalanche of stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering processes that amplify the Raman scattering signal by several orders of magnitude until it reaches saturation. Despite the large overall spectral width, the internal spiky structure of the XFEL spectrum determines the energy resolution of the scattering process in a statistical sense. This is demonstrated by observing a stochastic line shift of the inelastically scattered x-ray radiation. In conjunction with statistical methods, XFELs can be used for stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, with spectral resolution smaller than the natural width of the core-excited, intermediate state.
Search for neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment by using quasi-elastic interactions
Piteira, Rodolphe
2005-09-29
The enthusiasm of the scientific community for studying oscillations of neutrinos is equaled only by the mass of their detectors. The MINOS experiment determines and compares the near spectrum of muonic neutrinos from the NUMI beam to the far one, in order to measure two oscillation parameters: Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin^{2} (2θ_{23}). The spectra are obtained by analyzing the charged current interactions which difficulty lies in identifying the interactions products (e.g. muons). An alternative method identifying the traces of muons, bent by the magnetic field of the detectors, and determining their energies is presented in this manuscript. The sensitivity of the detectors is optimal for the quasi-elastic interactions, for which a selection method is proposed, to study their oscillation. Even though it reduces the statistics, such a study introduces fewer systematic errors, constituting the ideal method on the long range.
THEORY OF COMPTON SCATTERING BY ANISOTROPIC ELECTRONS
Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek E-mail: indrek.vurm@oulu.f
2010-08-15
Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, relativistic jets, and clusters of galaxies, as well as the early universe. In most of the calculations, it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or where there is anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation or an anisotropic source of seed soft photons. Here we develop an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can significantly simplify the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second-order polynomial over the cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropies), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describing Compton scattering of photons with arbitrary angular distribution by anisotropic electrons. The analytical expressions for the corresponding photon scattering cross section on such electrons, as well as the mean energy of scattered photons, its dispersion, and radiation pressure force are also derived. We apply the developed formalism to the accurate calculations of the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects for arbitrary electron distributions.
Pygmy resonances probed with electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertulani, C. A.
2007-05-01
Pygmy resonances in light nuclei excited in electron scattering are discussed. These collective modes will be explored in future electron-ion colliders such as ELISe/FAIR (spokesperson: Haik Simon - GSI). Response functions for direct breakup are explored with few-body and hydrodynamical models, including the dependence upon final state interactions.
Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering
Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.
1983-10-01
A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.
Pygmy Resonances Probed with Electron Scattering
Bertulani, Carlos A
2007-05-01
Pygmy resonances in light nuclei excited in electron scattering are discussed. These collective modes will be explored in future electron-ion colliders such as ELISe/FAIR (spokesperson: Haik Simon - GSI). Response functions for direct breakup are explored with few-body and hydrodynamical models, including the dependence upon final-state interactions.
Electron scattering in tantalum monoarsenide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng-Long; Yuan, Zhujun; Jiang, Qing-Dong; Tong, Bingbing; Zhang, Chi; Xie, X. C.; Jia, Shuang
2017-02-01
We report comprehensive studies of the single crystal growth and electrical transport properties for various samples of TaAs, the first experimentally confirmed inversion symmetry-breaking Weyl semimetal. The transport parameters for different samples are obtained through the fitting of the two-band model and the analysis of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. We find that the ratio factor of transport lifetime to quantum lifetime is intensively enhanced when the Fermi level approaches the Weyl node. This result is consistent with the side-jump interpretation derived from a chirality-protected shift in the scattering process for a Weyl semimetal.
Measurements of Parity Violation in Electron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paschke, Kent
2016-09-01
The measurement of the violation of parity symmetry in electron scattering has proven to be a powerful technique for exploring nuclear matter and for the search for new fundamental forces. A successful history with the experimental technique has set the stage for a series of high precision measurements to be made over the next decade. Scattering from heavy, spinless targets will measure the neutron skin of heavy nuclei, providing a valuable calibration for the equation-of-state in neutron-rich nuclear systems. Searches for new neutral-current interactions will be performed in ultra-high precision measurements of scattering from protons and electrons at very low momentum transfer Q2 . In the DIS regime, scattering from deuterium will extend this search for new physics while also providing a unique window on nucleon partonic structure. The physics implications of recent results and development of the next generation of experiments will be reviewed.
Recent progress in electron scattering at SLAC
Arnold, R.G.
1984-09-01
A new experiment on ep elastic scattering at large momentum transfer, Experiment E136, has recently completed data taking. A new measurement of deep inelastic electron scattering from nuclear targets, Experiment E139, has been completed and preliminary results are available. A new program of experiments has begun, called Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS), that will use a new injector on the SLAC linac to provide high intensity beams in the energy range from 0.5 to 6 GeV.
Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces
Tong, S.Y. ); Mills, D.L. )
1991-01-01
This report contains highlights of accomplishments of the past year, for the University of California, Irvine and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee collaboration on surface excitations, and their interactions with low energy electrons. In addition, we present a summary of future research to be carried out in the coming grant year.
Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hackl, Rudi
2007-01-01
Inelastic light scattering is an intensively used tool in the study of electronic properties of solids. Triggered by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and by new developments in instrumentation, light scattering in both the visible (Raman effect) and x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum has become a method complementary to optical (infrared) spectroscopy while providing additional and relevant information. The main purpose of the review is to position Raman scattering with regard to single-particle methods like angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and other transport and thermodynamic measurements in correlated materials. Particular focus will be placed on photon polarizations and the role of symmetry to elucidate the dynamics of electrons in different regions of the Brillouin zone. This advantage over conventional transport (usually measuring averaged properties) provides new insights into anisotropic and complex many-body behavior of electrons in various systems. Recent developments in the theory of electronic Raman scattering in correlated systems and experimental results in paradigmatic materials such as the A15 superconductors, magnetic and paramagnetic insulators, compounds with competing orders, as well as the cuprates with high superconducting transition temperatures are reviewed. An overview of the manifestations of complexity in the Raman response due to the impact of correlations and developing competing orders is presented. In a variety of materials, observations which may be understood and a summary of important open questions that pave the way to a detailed understanding of correlated electron systems, are discussed.
Low Energy Electron Scattering from Fuels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, M. Cristina A.
2012-06-01
We report an investigation of processes that occur during the ignition of the plasma and its consequences in post-discharge time for an internal combustion engine, in order to find the appropriate parameters to be used in cars that operate with lean mixtures air-fuel. The relevance of this theme has attracted much attention, and has been one of the subjects of collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. We have produced some basic information necessary to modeling spark ignition in alcohol- fuelled engines. Total cross sections of electron scattering by methanol and ethanol molecules were obtained, using the linear transmission method based on the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering were also obtained, for scattering angles of 5 --130 . The measurements were taken using the relative flow method with an aperture source, and calculations using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons. Additionally to these, computer simulation studies of electronic discharge in mixtures of ethanol were performed, using a Zero-Dimensional Plasma Kinetic solver. Previous reported models for combustion of ethanol and cross sections data for momentum transfer of electron collisions with ethanol were used. The time evolutions of the main species densities are reported and the ignition time delay discussed.
Electron scattering by molecules. II - Experimental methods and data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Register, D. F.
1983-01-01
Experimental techniques for measuring electron-molecule collision cross sections are briefly summarized. A survey of the available experimental cross section data is presented. The emphasis here is on elastic scattering, rotational, vibrational and electronic excitations, total electron scattering, and momentum transfer in the few eV to few hundred eV impact energy range. Reference is made to works concerned with high energy electron scattering, innershell and multi-electron excitations, conicidence methods and electron scattering in laser fields.
Antineutrino-induced charge current quasi-elastic neutral hyperon production in ArgoNeuT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farooq, Saima
This dissertation presents the first topological study of the charge current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutral hyperon production induced by antineutrinos in the ArgoNeuT detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) at Fermilab, using 1.20 x 1020 protons-on- target (POT), in the NuMI beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The total cross section for the CCQE neutral hyperon production is reported at the mean production energy of 3.42 GeV. The event yield in data is consistent with the predicted cross section, sigma = 2.7 x 10-40 cm2: sigma(CCQELambda0+Sigma0 ) = 3.7 +/- 1.9(stat.) +/- 1.5 (sys.) x 10 -40 cm2. The study sets a 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit on the total cross section of CCQE neutral hyperon production: sigma(CCQE Lambda0+Sigma0) < 7.3 x10-40 cm 2 at 90% C.L.
Modulated Electron Emission by Scattering-Interference of Primary Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valeri, Sergio; di Bona, Alessandro
We review the effects of scattering-interference of the primary, exciting beam on the electron emission from ordered atomic arrays. The yield of elastically and inelastically backscattered electrons, Auger electrons and secondary electrons shows a marked dependence on the incidence angle of primary electrons. Both the similarity and the relative importance of processes experienced by incident and excident electrons are discussed. We also present recent studies of electron focusing and defocusing along atomic chains. The interplay between these two processes determines the in-depth profile of the primary electron intensity anisotropy. Finally, the potential for surface-structural studies and limits for quantitative analysis are discussed, in comparison with the Auger electron diffraction (AED) and photoelectron diffraction (PD) techniques.
Low Energy Electron Scattering from Fuels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopes, M. C. A.; Silva, D. G. M.; Bettega, M. H. F.; da Costa, R. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Khakoo, M. A.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2012-11-01
In order to understand and optimize processes occurring during the ignition of plasma and its consequences in post-discharge for an internal combustion engine, especially considering the spark plug, we have produced in this work some basic information necessary to modeling spark ignition in alcohol- fuelled engines. Total cross sections of electron scattering by methanol and ethanol molecules in the energy range from 60 to 500 eV are reported, using the linear transmission method based on the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Aditionally to that, measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering were also discussed, for impact energies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV and for scattering angles of 5°-130°. The measurements were obtained using the relative flow method with an aperture source, and calculations using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons.
Mayer, Nathan Samuel
2011-12-05
The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector, long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The MINOS near detector is an ironscintillator tracking/sampling calorimeter and has recorded the world’s largest data set of neutrino interactions in the 0-5 GeV region. This high statistics data set is used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross-sections on iron. The Q^{2} dependence in charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering probes the axial and vector structure (form factor) of the nucleon/nuclear target, and nuclear effects in neutrino scattering. Presented here is a study of the MINOS Data that will introduce a method that improves the existing MINOS CCQE analysis. This analysis uses an additional CCQE dominated sub-sample from a different kinematic region to reduce correlations between fit parameters in the existing MINOS CCQE analysis. The measured value of the axial-vector mass is M^{QE} _{A} = 1.312^{+0.037} _{-0.038}(fit)^{+0.123} _{-0.265}(syst.) GeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Sunil
Measurements have been made for the quasi-elastic scattering of ^{28}Si on ^{208}Pb at 280 and 420 MeV, and of ^{37}Cl on ^{208}Pb at 190, 330 and 433 MeV incident projectile energies. The elastic and inelastic scattering data, along with existing data at 152, 162, 166, 210, and 225 MeV, for the ^ {28}Si + ^{208} Pb system, and existing data at 250 MeV for the ^{37}Cl + ^ {208}Pb system have been analyzed using a collective model CCBA formalism. The data are well reproduced within this model at the higher energies. However, the ^{208}Pb(3_1 ^-) state predictions require an additional rotational quadrupole reorientation term at the lower energies which exhibit a striking energy dependence in the extracted effective quadrupole moment, the nuclear deformations, and the ratio (M_{rm N} /M_{rm P}) of the neutron to proton multipole matrix elements. These results suggest the possibility of threshold anomalies in the reorientation channel, highlighting the inadequacy of the collective model in describing the inelastic excitation process for heavy-ion reactions near the Coulomb barrier, at least for this state. The transfer data show large quasi-elastic yields for the one-neutron pickup channel, contributing between 50%-87% and 55%-71% of the total neutron transfer cross section as a function of decreasing projectile energy for the ^{28}Si,^ {37}Cl + ^{208} Pb reactions, respectively. The one nucleon transfer data has been analyzed using the finite range DWBA with optical-model parameters deduced from CCBA analysis and spectroscopic factors obtained from the literature. These transfer processes display a strong dependence on the ground state reaction Q-value, projectile mass, and charge. At the higher energies there is a strong deep-inelastic component (Q <= -30 MeV). This corresponds to angular distributions that are predominantly exponential for charged particle transfer greater than two. Finally, the recently observed "slope anomaly" between the one- and two
A measurement of neutrino induced quasi-elastic cross section in NOMAD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jae
NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) is a short baseline neutrino experiment at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle physics) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) with a neutrino beam provided by the super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerator [98]. In this dissertation, we present a measurement of the muon-neutrino induced quasi-elastic (QEL), nu mu + n → mu- + p, cross-section off an isoscalar target in the NOMAD detector. The incident neutrino energy in NOMAD experiment spans from 2.5 to 300 GeV. The measurement of the cross-section is conducted in a two-track topology where both a muon and a proton are fully reconstructed, and a one-track topology where only a muon is reconstructed. The QEL cross-section as a function of the incoming neutrino energy is consistent for the two different topologies, and within errors, constant as a function of the neutrino energy. We determine the energy-averaged cross-section, sigma = 0:908 +/- 0:012 (stat) +/-0:035 (syst) 10-38cm2, where the first is the averaged energy-dependent error (statistical error is dominant one), and the second is the energy-independent, or overall, error. From the shape-comparisons of kinematics of QEL events, the axial mass parameter is determined. It is in good agreement with the result from the measurement of QEL cross-section. Using the chi2 of the shapes of four independent kinematic variables between data and MC, we determine MA = 1:03 +/- 0:05 GeV. The cross-section and the axial mass presented in this thesis have the best precision to date.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
W. Melnitchouk
2000-09-01
Quark-hadron duality addresses some of the most fundamental issues in strong interaction physics, in particular the nature of the transition from the perturbative to non-perturbative regions of QCD. I summarize recent developments in quark-hadron duality in lepton-hadron scattering, and outline how duality can be studied at future high-luminosity facilities such as Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV, or an electron-hadron collider such as EPIC.
Electron scattering in intrananotube quantum dots.
Buchs, G; Bercioux, D; Ruffieux, P; Gröning, P; Grabert, H; Gröning, O
2009-06-19
Intratube quantum dots showing particle-in-a-box-like states with level spacings up to 200 meV are realized in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes by means of low dose medium energy Ar(+) irradiation. Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy compared to results of a Fabry-Perot electron resonator model yields clear signatures for inter- and intravalley scattering of electrons confined between consecutive irradiation-induced defects (interdefects distance
Inelastic Scattering Of Electrons By Protons
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Cone, A. A.; Chen, K. W.; Dunning, J. R. Jr.; Hartwig, G.; Ramsey, N. F.; Walker, J. K.; Wilson, R.
1966-12-01
The inelastic scattering of electrons by protons has been measured at incident electron energies up to 5 BeV/c and momentum transfers q{sup 2}=4(BeV/c){sup 2}. Excitation of known nucleon resonances at M=1238, 1512, 1688 and possibly 1920 MeV have been observed. The calculations for the resonance at M=1238 MeV have been compared with calculations by Adler based on the dispersion theory of Chew, Goldberger, Low and Nambu. The agreement is good. Qualitative models are discussed for the other resonances.
Proton radius from electron scattering data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higinbotham, Douglas W.; Kabir, Al Amin; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad
2016-05-01
Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon, and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Padé (N =M =1 ) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2) =(1+Q2/0.66 GeV2) -2 . Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation of the extremely-low-Q2 data or by use of the Padé approximant for extrapolation using a larger
Proton radius from electron scattering data
Higinbotham, Douglas W.; Kabir, Al Amin; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad
2016-05-01
Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon, and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Padé (N=M=1) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2)=(1+Q2/0.66GeV2)−2. Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation of the extremely-low-Q2 data or by use of the Padé approximant for extrapolation using a larger range of
Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction
Hall, Ernest; Stemmer, Susanne; Zheng, Haimei; Zhu, Yimei; Maracas, George
2014-02-25
The ability to correlate the atomic- and nanoscale-structure of condensed matter with physical properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, catalytic, and optical) and functionality forms the core of many disciplines. Directing and controlling materials at the quantum-, atomic-, and molecular-levels creates enormous challenges and opportunities across a wide spectrum of critical technologies, including those involving the generation and use of energy. The workshop identified next generation electron scattering and diffraction instruments that are uniquely positioned to address these grand challenges. The workshop participants identified four key areas where the next generation of such instrumentation would have major impact: A – Multidimensional Visualization of Real Materials B – Atomic-scale Molecular Processes C – Photonic Control of Emergence in Quantum Materials D – Evolving Interfaces, Nucleation, and Mass Transport Real materials are comprised of complex three-dimensional arrangements of atoms and defects that directly determine their potential for energy applications. Understanding real materials requires new capabilities for three-dimensional atomic scale tomography and spectroscopy of atomic and electronic structures with unprecedented sensitivity, and with simultaneous spatial and energy resolution. Many molecules are able to selectively and efficiently convert sunlight into other forms of energy, like heat and electric current, or store it in altered chemical bonds. Understanding and controlling such process at the atomic scale require unprecedented time resolution. One of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics is to understand, and ultimately control, emergent phenomena in novel quantum materials that necessitate developing a new generation of instruments that probe the interplay among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom with intrinsic time- and length-scale resolutions. Molecules and soft matter require imaging and
Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon
Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.
2015-04-21
The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.
Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.
2011-11-15
Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a{sub 0}). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Recent Progress in Electron-Atom Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lower, Julian
2007-06-01
The application of multi-parameter data collection techniques to electron-atom collision-experiments allows statistically significant results to be obtained for weak physical effects [1]. In addition to improved count rates, if the spin projection of the primary electron is determined, the roles of electron exchange and relativity in the scattering process can be highlighted. Examples of recent measurements from our laboratories will be discussed in the context of work from other groups. These will include benchmark measurements on the electronic excitation of helium employing the time-of-flight technique [2]. The technique allows inelastic cross sections to be accurately placed on an absolute scale by normalization to well-established elastic cross sections. Measurements on the (e,2e) ionization/excitation of helium through the application of energy-dispersive toroidal-analyzers will also be discussed [3]. The results provide a stringent test to theory and indicate the strengths and limitations of state-of-the art calculations in describing the Coulomb 4-body problem. Finally I will describe results from (e,2e) measurements on argon [4] and xenon [5] targets performed with spin polarized electrons which probe the many-body nature of electron exchange-scattering. [1] J. Ullrich et al, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66 (2003) 1463. [2] M. Lange et al, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 (2006) 4179. [3] S. Bellm, J. Lower and K. Bartschat, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 223201 (2006). [4] S. Bellm, J. Lower, Marco Kampp and Colm T. Whelan, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 (2006) 4759. [5] R. Panajotovic, J. Lower, E. Weigold A. Prideaux and D. H. Madison, Phys. Rev. A 73, 52701, (2006).
SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam
Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.
2010-10-15
We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.
Relativistic Electron Beams, Forward Thomson Scattering, and ``Raman'' Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, A.
1999-11-01
Experiments at LLE (see abstract by D. Hicks at this meeting) show that surprisingly high potentials (+0.5 to 2.0 MV) develop in plasmas irradiated by high-energy lasers. The highly conducting plasma will be a near equipotential and should attract return-current electrons in a radial beam-like distribution, especially in the outer low-density regions. This will initiate the BOT instability, creating large plasma waves with phase velocities close to c. Coherent Thomson scattering of the interaction beam from these waves must occur primarily in the forward direction. This will appear to be ``backward SRS'' upon reflection from a critical surface. We will show that the resulting spectrum is fairly broad and at short wavelengths. Collisional absorption of the scattered EM wave limits the reflectivity to low values (depending on the density scale length). Thus, a distinct difference exists between the spectrum for thick targets (nc surface present) and thin targets (gasbags, etc., from which primarily a narrow absolute-SRS backward emission occurs, at the peak density). The thick-target, reflected-wave angular distribution will be concentrated in the backward direction. The corresponding plasma-wave k-vector will be a fraction of k_0. The variation of the spectrum with potential and angle will be discussed. Comparison will be made with recent results at LLE and LLNL. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, UR, and NYSERDA.
Advances in positron and electron scattering*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Krishnakumar, E.; Petrović, Zoran; Sullivan, James; Tanuma, Hajime
2016-10-01
The topical issue on Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering" combines contributions from POSMOL 2015 together with others devoted to celebrate the unprecedented scientific careers of our loyal colleagues and trusted friends Steve Buckman (Australian National University, Australia) and Michael Allan (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) on the occasion of their retirements. POSMOL 2015, the XVIII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XIX International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, from 17-20 July 2015. The international workshop and symposium allowed to achieve a very privileged forum of sharing and developing our scientific expertise on current aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and related topics, as well as electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent developments in the study of swarms are also fully addressed.
P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhtia, Anand
2012-01-01
A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.
Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon
Kuhn, S.E.; Griffioen, K.
1994-04-01
The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).
New Results from MiniBooNE Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Anti-Neutrino Data
Grange, Joseph
2011-07-01
MiniBooNE anti-neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) data is compared to model predictions. The main background of neutrino-induced events is examined first, where three independent techniques are employed. Results indicate the neutrino flux is consistent with a uniform reduction of {approx}20% relative to the largely uncertain prediction. After background subtraction, the Q{sup 2} shape of {bar v}{sub {mu}} CCQE events is consistent with the model parameter MA = 1.35 GeV determined from MiniBooNE v{sub {mu}} CCQE data, while the normalization is {approx} 20% high compared to the same prediction.
Future studies on electron scattering; a renaissance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Nigel J.
2014-12-01
2014 is the centenary of the first announcement of the Franck-Hertz experiment [1], now regarded as one of the pivotal experiments of modern physics. The Franck-Hertz experiment is widely regarded as an experiment that provided validation of the Bohr theory of atomic structure, itself only published in 2013, however it should also be viewed as the first quantitative experiment in electron scattering and the birth of scientific study of atomic and molecular phenomena by collisions. Today we recognize that electron-atom and electron- molecule collisions are prevalent across nature, describing disparate phenomena whilst the exploitation of such collisions underpins many of the technologies upon which modern society relies. The centenary of the Franck-Hertz experiment is thus a suitable opportunity to review both our current knowledge of electron interactions and to consider the directions of future research. In this article I therefore aim to both review our current state of knowledge and look forward, proposing that recent advances are providing something of a renaissance to the field and are vital for emerging technologies as well as answering some of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century.
Low-energy electron scattering from cyanamide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kedong; Guo, Shuangcheng; Meng, Ju; Huang, Xiaotian; Wang, Yongfeng
2016-09-01
The low-energy electron collisions with cyanamide molecule are investigated by using the UK molecular R -matrix codes for electron energies ranging from 0.01 eV to 10 eV. Three models including static-exchange, static-exchange plus polarization, and close-coupling (CC) approximations are employed to reveal the dynamic interaction. Elastic (integrated and differential), momentum-transfer, and excitation cross sections from the ground state to the three low-lying electron excited states have been presented. Two shape resonances, two core-excited resonances, and two Feshbach resonances are detected in the CC approximation. The role of active space in the target and scattering problem including the resonances is discussed. The precise resonance parameters are found to be sensitive to the treatment of polarization effects employed. These resonances may be responsible for the fragments observed in a recent experiment of the dissociative electron attachments to cyanamide. Since the cyanamide molecule has a large permanent dipole moment, a Born closure procedure is used to account for the contribution of partial waves higher than l =4 to obtain converged cross sections.
Electron scattering and mobility in a quantum well heterolayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Vijay K.; Naeem, Athar
1984-11-01
The theory of electron-lattice scattering is analyzed for a quantum-well heterolayer under the conditions that the de Broglie wavelength of an electron is comparable to or larger than the width of the layer, and donor impurities are removed in an adjacent nonconducting layer. The mobility due to isotropic scattering by acoustic phonons, point defects, and alloy scattering is found to increase whereas that due to polar-optic phon scattering is found to decrease with increasing thickness.
A light-scattering characterization of membrane vesicles.
Selser, J C; Yeh, Y; Baskin, R J
1976-01-01
A technique has been developed in this paper which enables quasi-elastic laser light scattering to be used to accurately and quantitatively measure the average vesicle diffusion coefficient and the relative dispersion in the diffusion coefficient about this average for dilute polydisperse vesicle suspensions. This technique relies on a theoretical analysis of a modified form of the Z-averaged diffusion coefficient. This modified Z-averaged diffusion coefficient explicitly incorporates vesicle size, structure, and polydispersity in a description of the scattered light autocorrelation spectrum. Light-scattering experiments were performed on a dilute, lobster sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicle suspension and the measured average diffusion coefficient and the diffusion coefficient relative dispersion about this average were determined with accuracies of 2 and 10%, respectively. A comparison of vesicle size inferred from light-scattering results was made with size results from electron microscopic analysis of the same sample. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:1252585
Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi Paolo
2016-01-01
The MINERvA Experiment (Main Injector Experiment v ₋ A interaction) [1] is a highly segmented detector of neutrinos, able to record events with high precision (over than thirteen million event in a four year run), using the NuMI Beam (Neutrino Main Injector) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [2]. This thesis presents a measurement of the Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Like1 vμ interaction on polystyrene scintillator (CH) in the MINERvA experiment with neutrino energies between 1.5 and 10 GeV. We use data taken between2 March 2010 and April 2012. The interactions were selected by requiring a negative muon, a reconstructed and identified proton, no michel electrons in the final state (in order to get rid of soft pions decaying) and a low calorimetric recoil energy away from the interaction vertex. The analysis is performed on 66,214 quasi-elastic like event candidates in the detectors tracker region with an estimated purity of 74%. The final measurement reported is a double differential cross sections in terms of the muon longitudinal and transversal momentum observables.
Compton scattering of blackbody photons by relativistic electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Pjanka, Patryk
2013-12-01
We present simple and accurate analytical formulas for the rates of Compton scattering by relativistic electrons integrated over the energy distribution of blackbody seed photons. Both anisotropic scattering, in which blackbody photons arriving from one direction are scattered by an anisotropic electron distribution into another direction, and scattering of isotropic seed photons are considered. Compton scattering by relativistic electrons off blackbody photons from either stars or cosmic microwave background takes place, in particular, in microquasars, colliding-wind binaries, supernova remnants, interstellar medium and the vicinity of the Sun.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel
2004-08-01
The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.
Inelastic electron scattering from 48Ca
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wise, J. E.; McCarthy, J. S.; Altemus, R.; Norum, B. E.; Whitney, R. R.; Heisenberg, J.; Dawson, J.; Schwentker, O.
1985-05-01
Inelastic electron scattering from 48Ca has been performed over a momentum transfer range from 0.6 to 3.0 fm-1 in both forward and backward directions. Form factors have been obtained for 25 levels up to 10 MeV excitation. Charge and current densities for 11 low lying electric transitions and current densities for two magnetic transitions have been reconstructed in Fourier Bessel analysis. Three high spin states observed in the region of 9 MeV excitation are found to have the dominant configuration ν(1g9/2,1f-17/2)8 - but with a total strength of only 36% predicted for the first 8- in a random-phase-approximation calculation. This is interpreted as evidence for particle-phonon coupling. Comparisons of the extracted densities are made with random-phase-approximation calculations using a zero-range, density-dependent Migdal interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jay-Gerin, J.-P.; Plenkiewicz, B.; Plenkiewicz, P.; Perluzzo, G.; Sanche, L.
1985-09-01
Recently, Plenkiewicz et al. developed a theoretical model for analyzing the current I t transmitted by a thin dielectric film as a function of incident electron energy E. The purpose of this paper is to apply this model to the analysis of recent I t( E) results for solid methane. The analysis permits the determination of both the electron mean free path as a function of energy and the electronic conduction-band density-of-states in the quasi-elastic scattering region. The differences between our results and Kunz's solid methane band structure calculations are also discussed.
Two-photon exchange in electron-trinucleon elastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobushkin, A. P.; Timoshenko, Ju. V.
2013-10-01
We discuss two-photon exchange (TPE) in elastic electron scattering off the trinucleon systems, 3He and 3H. The calculations are done in the semirelativistic approximation with the trinucleon wave functions obtained with the Paris and CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potentials. An applicability area of the model is wide enough and includes the main part of kinematical domain where experimental data exist. All three TPE amplitudes (generalized form factors) for electron 3He elastic scattering are calculated. We find that the TPE amplitudes are a few times more significant in the scattering of electrons off 3He then in the electron-proton scattering.
No surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering.
Lentzen, M
2014-01-01
In a recent article it is argued that the far-field expansion of electron scattering, a pillar of electron diffraction theory, is wrong (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012). It is further argued that in the first Born approximation of electron scattering the intensity of the electron wave is not conserved to first order in the scattering potential. Thus a "mystery of the missing phase" is investigated, and the supposed flaw in scattering theory is seeked to be resolved by postulating a standing spherical electron wave (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012). In this work we show, however, that these theses are wrong. A review of the essential parts of scattering theory with careful checks of the underlying assumptions and limitations for high-energy electron scattering yields: (1) the traditional form of the far-field expansion, comprising a propagating spherical wave, is correct; (2) there is no room for a missing phase; (3) in the first Born approximation the intensity of the scattered wave is conserved to first order in the scattering potential. The various features of high-energy electron scattering are illustrated by wave-mechanical calculations for an explicit target model, a Gaussian phase object, and for a Si atom, considering the geometric conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żywicka, B.; Możejko, P.
2013-10-01
Cross section for electron impact ionization of carboplatin, C6H12N2O4Pt, and oxaliplatin, C8H14N2O4Pt, have been calculated within binary-encounter-Bethe model for energies from the ionization threshold up to 5000 eV. Cross section for elastic electron scattering from carboplatin and oxaliplatin molecules have also been derived using independent atom method (IAM) and additivity rule for collision energies ranging from 50 eV to 3000 eV. Obtained cross sections have been compared with relevant cross sections for cisplatin molecules.
Gate-Dependent Electronic Raman Scattering in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccardi, E.; Méasson, M.-A.; Cazayous, M.; Sacuto, A.; Gallais, Y.
2016-02-01
We report the direct observation of polarization resolved electronic Raman scattering in a gated monolayer graphene device. The evolution of the electronic Raman scattering spectra with gate voltage and its polarization dependence are in full agreement with theoretical expectations for nonresonant Raman processes involving interband electron-hole excitations across the Dirac cone. We further show that the spectral dependence of the electronic Raman scattering signal can be simply described by the dynamical polarizability of graphene in the long wavelength limit. The possibility to directly observe Dirac fermion excitations in graphene opens the way to promising Raman investigations of electronic properties of graphene and other 2D crystals.
Electron Scattering by biomass molecular fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Marco
2015-09-01
The replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels from renewable sources may not be a definite answer for greenhouse gas emissions problems, but it is a good step towards a sustainable energy strategy. Few per cent of ethanol is being mixed to gasoline in many countries and in some of them, like Brazil, a very aggressive program has been developed, using, in large scale, flex fuel engines that can run with any mixture of gasoline and ethanol, including 100% ethanol. Important points are how to produce ethanol in a sustainable way and with which technology? Biomass is a good candidate to enhance the first generation (produced from Corn in USA and from sugarcane in Brazil) production towards the so-called second-generation ethanol, since it has cellulose and hemicellulose as source of sugars. In order to liberate these sugars for fermentation, it is important to learn how to separate the main components. Chemical routes (acid treatment) and biological routes (enzymatic hydrolysis) are combined and used for these purposes. Atmospheric plasmas can be useful for attacking the biomass in a controlled manner and low energy electrons may have an important role in the process. Recently, we have been studying the interaction of electrons with lignin subunits (phenol, guaiacol, p-coumaryl alcohol), cellulose components, β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1-4) linked glucose dimer) and hemicellulose components [2] (β-D-xylose). We also obtained results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1-4) linked glucose dimer). Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical-chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production. In order to describe a more realistic system (where molecules are ``wet''), we have obtained the shape resonance spectra of phenol-water clusters, as obtained previously from elastic electron scattering calculations. Our results, obtained in a simple
Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).
Polarized electron scattering, new physics and dark parity violation
Marciano, William J.
2013-11-07
'New Physics' sensitivities of polarized electron scattering asymmetries, atomic parity violation, m{sub W} and sin{sup 2} θ{sub W} (Z pole measurements) are compared. The utility of low Q{sup 2} polarized electron scattering for probing parity violating 'dark boson' effects is discussed. A possible determination of the weak charge Q{sub w}({sup 12}C) to about ±0.3% via elastic e-Carbon scattering is advocated.
Uncontained νμ charged-current quasi-elastic events at the NOvA far detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepulveda-Quiroz, Jose; NOvA Collaboration
2017-01-01
NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses an upgraded neutrino beam from Fermilab and two highly active, segmented, liquid scintillator off-axis detectors that offer a remarkable capability in event identification. In its first and second analysis results, NOvA has used only events with an interaction vertex and all secondary particles fully contained in the detectors. I will present studies of the potential sensitivity improvement of the sin2 2θ23 and Δm322 neutrino oscillation parameters from the νμ-disappearance measurement when including uncontained events in the sample. In particular, this study focuses on incorporating νμ charged current quasi-elastic interactions of the type νμ + n -> μ + p where the muon is uncontained but the proton is contained.
Theory of scattering of crystal electrons at magnons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haag, Michael; Illg, Christian; Fähnle, Manfred
2013-06-01
Electron-magnon scatterings are very important for many effects in spintronics and therefore an ab initio treatment of these processes is highly desirable. Based on the spin-density functional electron theory, an operator for the electron-magnon scattering is constructed in a second-quantization formalism for crystal electron states which are represented by linear-muffin-tin-orbital basis functions. An outlook is given as to how this operator can be used to investigate the possible contribution of these scattering processes to the ultrafast demagnetization of films after exposure to a fs optical laser pulse.
Schwinger-Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yuehua
2016-03-01
Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger-Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.
Collisionless pitch-angle scattering of runaway electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian; Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong
2016-06-01
It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a toroidicity induced broadening of the pitch-angle distribution of runaway electrons. This collisionless pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.
Precision electroweak studies using parity violation in electron scattering
Paschke, Kent D,
2013-11-01
The nature of new neutral-current interactions can be revealed at the low-energy precision frontier, where studies of parity-violation in electron scattering will complement the energy-frontier studies at the LHC. Measurements of the parity-violating observable APV - the cross-section asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized target - are sensitive to possible contact interactions from new physics at multi-TeV mass scales. The 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and a new, high-intensity beam at Mainz offer opportunities for significant improvements in measurements of electron-electron and electron-quark parity-violating interactions.
McIntosh, G.; Meyer, J.; Yazhou, Z.
1986-10-01
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a CO/sub 2/ laser(lambda/sub 0/ -- 10.6 ..mu..m) produced plasma has been studied experimentally. The enhanced electron plasma wave (epw) fluctuations observed with ruby laser Thomson scattering have been compared with the scattered infrared (IR) spectra and the high-energy (near 100 keV) electrons. No scattered IR light in the range 1.5lambda/sub 0/
Study of Intrabeam Scattering in Low Energy Electron Rings
Venturini, Marco
2002-08-08
The paper contains a study of intrabeam scattering in a low energy electron storage ring to be used as part of a Compton back-scattering x-ray source. We discuss time evolution of emittance and dependence of IBS growth rates on lattice parameters.
Dephasing and resonance electronic Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koningstein, J. A.
1988-05-01
The intensity of the resonance electronic Raman spectrum of terbium aluminum garnet is discussed in terms of radiative, non-radiative and pure electronic dephasing processes which govern the width of the resonating excited electronic state. As a result of fast electronic dephasing in comparison to the other processes, the enhancement of the intensity of the electronic Raman band of the terbium ion is suppressed.
Relativistic effects in elastic scattering of electrons in TEM.
Rother, Axel; Scheerschmidt, Kurt
2009-01-01
Transmission electron microscopy typically works with highly accelerated thus relativistic electrons. Consequently the scattering process is described within a relativistic formalism. In the following, we will examine three different relativistic formalisms for elastic electron scattering: Dirac, Klein-Gordon and approximated Klein-Gordon, the standard approach. This corresponds to a different consideration of spin effects and a different coupling to electromagnetic potentials. A detailed comparison is conducted by means of explicit numerical calculations. For this purpose two different formalisms have been applied to the approaches above: a numerical integration with predefined boundary conditions and the multislice algorithm, a standard procedure for such simulations. The results show a negligibly small difference between the different relativistic equations in the vicinity of electromagnetic potentials, prevailing in the electron microscope. The differences between the two numeric approaches are found to be small for small-angle scattering but eventually grow large for large-angle scattering, recorded for instance in high-angle annular dark field.
Electron Gyro-Harmonic Effects on Ionospheric Stimulated Brillouin Scatter
2014-08-21
power high-frequency (HF) radio waves may now produce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the ionospheric plasma. The sensitivity of the...distribution is unlimited. Electron gyro-harmonic effects on ionospheric stimulated Brillouin scatter The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Inter American University of Puerto Rico - Bayamon P.O. Box 363255 San Juan, PR 00936 -3255 ABSTRACT Electron gyro-harmonic effects on ionospheric
Multiple scattering of electrons in the reflex triode
Creedon, J.M. )
1990-12-01
Analytical theories and Monte Carlo calculations are used to treat the scattering and energy loss of electrons in the anode of a reflex triode. The solution of this scattering problem is combined with the equations for particle flow in vacuum to give a quantitative theory of triode operation. It is now possible to calculate several important properties of this device. These include the operating voltage in the constant voltage mode, the ratio of ion-to-electron current and the ion transit time.
A discrete variable representation for electron-hydrogen atom scattering
Gaucher, Lionel Francis
1994-08-01
A discrete variable representation (DVR) suitable for treating the quantum scattering of a low energy electron from a hydrogen atom is presented. The benefits of DVR techniques (e.g. the removal of the requirement of calculating multidimensional potential energy matrix elements and the availability of iterative sparse matrix diagonalization/inversion algorithms) have for many years been applied successfully to studies of quantum molecular scattering. Unfortunately, the presence of a Coulomb singularity at the electrically unshielded center of a hydrogen atom requires high radial grid point densities in this region of the scattering coordinate, while the presence of finite kinetic energy in the asymptotic scattering electron also requires a sufficiently large radial grid point density at moderate distances from the nucleus. The constraints imposed by these two length scales have made application of current DVR methods to this scattering event difficult.
Spin relaxation in bilayer graphene: the role of electron-electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katiyar, Saurabh; Ghosh, Bahniman; Salimath, Akshay Kumar
2016-02-01
This paper investigates the influence of electron-electron scattering on spin relaxation length in bilayer graphene using semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation. Both D'yakonov-P'erel and Elliot-Yafet mechanisms are considered for spin relaxation. It is shown that spin relaxation length decreases by 17 % at 300 K on including electron-electron scattering. The reason of this variation in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision, and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate which causes change in spin transport profile.
Chirally-sensitive electron-molecule interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiling, J. M.; Gay, T. J.
2015-09-01
All molecular forms of life have chemically-specific handedness. However, the origin of these asymmetries is not understood. A possible explanation was suggested by Vester and Ulbricht immediately following the discovery of parity violation in 1957: chiral beta radiation in cosmic rays may have preferentially destroyed one enantiomeric form of various biological precursors. In the experiments reported here, we observed chiral specificity in two electron- molecule interactions: quasi-elastic scattering and dissociative electron attachment. Using low- energy longitudinally spin-polarized (chiral) electrons as substitutes for beta rays, we found that chiral bromocamphor molecules exhibited both a transmission and dissociative electron attachment rate that depended on their handedness for a given direction of incident electron spin. Consequently, these results, especially those with dissociative electron attachment, connect the universal chiral asymmetry of the weak force with a molecular breakup process, thereby demonstrating the viability of the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis.
Watabe, Masaki
2010-05-01
MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the avor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high- Δm^{2} values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low- m^{2} values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 10^{20} POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 ± 13.17 (syst:) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with disappearance via oscillation with m^{2} = 2:10 0.37 (stat:) ± 0.24 (syst:) eV^{2} and the maximal mixing angle.
Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, Xu; Feng, Feng; Ying-Jun, Li
2016-05-01
As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374360, 11405266, and 11505285) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01504).
Surface roughness scattering of electrons in bulk mosfets
Zuverink, Amanda Renee
2015-11-01
Surface-roughness scattering of electrons at the Si-SiO_{2} interface is a very important consideration when analyzing Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Scattering reduces the mobility of the electrons and degrades the device performance. 250-nm and 50-nm bulk MOSFETs were simulated with varying device parameters and mesh sizes in order to compare the effects of surface-roughness scattering in multiple devices. The simulation framework includes the ensemble Monte Carlo method used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with a successive over-relaxation method used to solve the two-dimensional Poisson's equation. Four methods for simulating the surface-roughness scattering of electrons were implemented on both devices and compared: the constant specularity parameter, the momentum-dependent specularity parameter, and the real-space-roughness method with both uniform and varying electric fields. The specularity parameter is the probability of an electron scattering speculariy from a rough surface. It can be chosen as a constant, characterizing partially diffuse scattering of all electrons from the surface the same way, or it can be momentum dependent, where the size of rms roughness and the normal component of the electron wave number determine the probability of electron-momentum randomization. The real-space rough surface method uses the rms roughness height and correlation length of an actual MOSFET to simulate a rough interface. Due to their charge, electrons scatter from the electric field and not directly from the surface. If the electric field is kept uniform, the electrons do not perceive the roughness and scatter as if from a at surface. However, if the field is allowed to vary, the electrons scatter from the varying electric field as they would in a MOSFET. These methods were implemented for both the 50-nm and 250-nm MOSFETs, and using the rms roughness heights and correlation lengths for real devices. The
Elastic scattering of electrons from Rb, Cs and Fr atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangwar, R. K.; Tripathi, A. N.; Sharma, L.; Srivastava, R.
2010-04-01
Differential, integrated elastic, momentum-transfer and total cross sections as well as differential S, T and U spin parameters for scattering of electrons from rubidium, caesium and francium atoms in the incident energy range up to 300 eV are calculated using a relativistic Dirac equation. The projectile electron-target atom interaction is represented by both real and complex parameter-free optical potentials for obtaining the solution of a Dirac equation for scattered electrons. The Dirac-Fock wavefunctions have been used to represent the Rb, Cs and Fr target atoms. The results of differential cross sections and spin asymmetry parameter S for e-Rb and e-Cs have been compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. Detailed results are reported for the elastic scattering of electrons from the ground states of a francium atom for the first time in the wide range of incident electron energies. The results of electron-Fr elastic scattering show the similar features to those obtained in the case of e-Rb and e-Cs elastic scattering.
Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.
2008-07-01
We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.
Mott scattering of polarized electrons in a strong laser field
Manaut, B.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.
2005-04-01
We present analytical and numerical results of the relativistic calculation of the transition matrix element S{sub fi} and differential cross sections for Mott scattering of initially polarized Dirac particles (electrons) in the presence of a strong laser field with linear polarization. We use exact Dirac-Volkov wave functions to describe the dressed electrons and the collision process is treated in the first Born approximation. The influence of the laser field on the degree of polarization of the scattered electron is reported.
Lobato, I; Van Dyck, D
2015-08-01
The steadily improving experimental possibilities in instrumental resolution as in sensitivity and quantization of the data recording put increasingly higher demands on the precision of the scattering factors, which are the key ingredients for electron diffraction or high-resolution imaging simulation. In the present study, we will systematically investigate the accuracy of fitting of the main parameterizations of the electron scattering factor for the calculation of electron diffraction intensities. It is shown that the main parameterizations of the electron scattering factor are consistent to calculate electron diffraction intensities for thin specimens and low angle scattering. Parameterizations of the electron scattering factor with the correct asymptotic behavior (Lobato and Dyck [5], Kirkland [4], and Weickenmeier and Kohl [2]) produce similar results for both the undisplaced lattice model and the frozen phonon model, except for certain thicknesses and reflections.
Neutrino-electron scattering. Progress report
White, D.H.
1982-01-01
We present here a progress report on an experiment to measure the cross section for nu/sub ..mu../e scattering at the Brookhaven AGS. A wide band focussing horn is used with a neutrino beam energy centered at 1.5 GeV. We have in hand measurements with nu/sub ..mu../ and anti nu/sub ..mu../ beams but we present preliminary data on the nu/sub ..mu../ beam running only. We also measure the reactions: nu/sub ..mu../ + n ..-->.. ..mu../sup -/ + p and nu/sub e/ + n ..-->.. e/sup -/ + p which will be used in normalization and in background estimation.
Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering.
Lee, Z; Hambach, R; Kaiser, U; Rose, H
2016-11-21
Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering.
Elastic electron scattering from formic acid
Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Orel, Ann E.; Rescigno, Thomas N.
2006-07-31
Following our earlier study on the dynamics of low energy electron attachment to formic acid, we report the results of elastic low-energy electron collisions with formic acid. Momentum transfer and angular differential cross sections were obtained by performing fixed-nuclei calculations employing the complex Kohn variational method. We make a brief description of the technique used to account for the polar nature of this polyatomic target and compare our results with available experimental data.
Complete solution of electronic excitation and ionization in electron-hydrogen molecule scattering
Zammit, Mark C.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; ...
2016-06-08
The convergent close-coupling method has been used to solve the electron-hydrogen molecule scattering problem in the fixed-nuclei approximation. Excellent agreement with experiment is found for the grand total, elastic, electronic-excitation, and total ionization cross sections from the very low to the very high energies. This shows that for the electronic degrees of freedom the method provides a complete treatment of electron scattering on molecules as it does for atoms.
Jacob's ladder of approximations to paraxial dynamic electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubk, A.; Rusz, J.
2015-12-01
Dynamical scattering theory describes the dominant scattering process of beam electrons at targets in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Hence, practically every quantitative TEM study has to consider its ramifications, typically by some approximate modeling. Here, we elaborate on a hierarchy within the various approximations focusing on the two principal approaches used in practice, Bloch wave and multislice. We reveal characteristic differences in the capability of these methods to reproduce the correct local propagation of the wave function, while convergent results are obtained over larger propagation distances. We investigate the dependency of local variations of the wave function on the atomic number of the atomic scatterers and discuss their significance for, e.g., inelastic scattering.
Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.
2016-02-01
We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.
Generalized Levinson theorem: Applications to electron-atom scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Leonard; Spruch, Larry
1996-12-01
A recent formulation provides an absolute definition of the zero-energy phase shift δ for multiparticle single-channel scattering of a particle by a neutral compound target in a given partial wave l. This formulation, along with the minimum principle for the scattering length, leads to a determination of δ that represents a generalization of Levinson's theorem. In its original form that theorem is applicable only to potential scattering of a particle and relates δ/π to the number of bound states of that l. The generalized Levinson theorem relates δ/π for scattering in a state of given angular momentum to the number of composite bound states of that angular momentum plus a calculable number that, for a system described in the Hartree-Fock approximation, is the number of states of that angular momentum excluded by the Pauli principle. Thus, for example, for electron scattering by Na, with its (1s)2(2s)2(2p)63s configuration and with one L=0 singlet composite bound state, δ would be π+2π for s-wave singlet scattering, 0+3π for s-wave triplet scattering, and 0+π for both triplet and singlet p-wave scattering; the Pauli contribution has been listed first. The method is applicable to a number of e+/--atom and nucleon-nucleus scattering processes, but only applications of the former type are described here. We obtain the absolute zero-energy phase shifts for e--H and e--He scattering and, in the Hartree-Fock approximation for the target, for atoms that include the noble gases, the alkali-metal atoms, and, as examples, B, C, N, O, and F, which have one, two, three, four, and five p electrons, respectively, outside of closed shells. In all cases, the applications provide results in agreement with expectations.
Scattering of electrons on metal clusters and fullerenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerchikov, Leonid G.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Connerade, Jean-Patrick; Greiner, Walter
1997-09-01
It is shown that the main contribution to the elastic cross section of fast electrons on metal clusters and fullerenes results from scattering on the frozen cluster potential, which is determined by the electron density distribution of the ground state of the target cluster. The specific shape of the electron distribution in fullerenes and metal clusters manifests itself in the diffraction behaviour of the elastic differential cross section. The analysis of the total elastic cross section dependence upon projectile velocity, the number of atoms in the cluster and its size is provided. The cross section of elastic scattering on a cluster surpasses the sum of the individual scattering cross sections on the equivalent number of isolated atoms. This occurs because of the coherent interaction of the projectile electron with electrons delocalized in the cluster volume. We have demonstrated that collective electron excitations sensitive to the many-electron correlations dominate inelastic scattering. The surface plasmon resonances can be observed in the differential cross section for inelastic scattering. We found a condition for the quadrupole and higher multipole plasmon excitations to contribute relatively little to the electron energy loss spectrum. The results obtained have been compared with experimental data for the electron - fullerene 0953-4075/30/18/013/img7 collision. Reasonable agreement between theoretical and experimental results is reported. We have also demonstrated that plasmon excitations provide the main contribution to the total inelastic cross section over a wide energy range. We have calculated the dependence of the total inelastic cross section on collision energy and compared the result obtained with the experimental data available, giving an interpretation for the plateau region in the cross section as caused by plasmon excitations rather than the cluster fragmentation process. We have shown that the single-particle jellium approximation fails to
Low-energy scattering of electrons and positrons in liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrader, D. M.
1990-01-01
The scattering of low energy electrons and positrons is described for the liquid phase and compared and contrasted with that for the gas phase. Similarities as well as differences are noted. The loci of scattering sites, called spurs in the liquid phase, are considered in detail. In particular, their temporal and spatial evolution is considered from the point of view of scattering. Two emphases are made: one upon the stochastic calculation of the distribution of distances required for slowing down to thermal velocities, and the other upon the calculation of cross sections for energy loss by means of quantum mechanics.
Total Electron Scattering Cross Sections for Simple Perfluorocarbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Keisuke
2003-05-01
Total electron scattering cross sections for CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 have been measured in the energy range between 1.25 eV and 3000 eV using a compact linear transmission apparatus. Electrons scattered into a narrow forward angular range that should be counted in the scattered one were estimated utilizing measured quantities. The present results for CF4 agree well with available data at low and high energies, while some discrepancies were seen at intermediate energies. Measured results for C2F6 and C3F8 were shown at high energies for the first time. Upper bound of the elastic cross sections for these molecules were estimated at electron energies higher than 20 eV.
Comparison of electron scattering algorithms in Geant4.
Sawkey, D; Constantin, M; Svatos, M
2012-06-07
Electron scattering algorithms in Geant4 versions 9.4 and 9.5 were benchmarked by comparing scattered distributions against previously measured values at 13 and 20 MeV, for low, intermediate, and high atomic number materials. Several scattering models were used: Versions 93 and 95 of the Urban model, with different step size limits near boundaries; Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple scattering; and single scattering. The Urban93 and Urban95 models with a large step size limit (as in the Option 0 physics list) were found to give results most closely matching the experimental results. Scattered distributions using the Urban models were all narrower than measured by up to 6%, consistent with previous published simulations using EGSnrc. This is suggestive of a systematic difference between simulations and measurement. The magnitudes of the differences were similar to previously published results using Geant4, although there were differences in detail. In particular, the current results were typically 2% narrower than values. Results with the more restrictive step size limit in Option 3 were even more narrow, and close to those with single scattering. The Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple scattering model produced distributions up to 15% different from measured in Geant4 version 9.5 and up to 45% different in Geant4 version 9.4.
Electron- and positron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS
Weinstein, L. B.
2009-09-02
There is a significant disagreement between measurements of the proton electric form factor, G{sup p}{sub E}, using Rosenbluth separations and polarization transfer. This disagreement, if not explained, could pose a fundamental challenge to our understanding of electron scattering or proton structure. Two-photon exchange (TPE) processes, although not fully calculable, are the most likely explanation of this disagreement. We will definitively test this assertion by comparing the electron-proton and positron-proton elastic scattering cross section in the Jefferson Lab CLAS. We will make a mixed identical electron and positron tertiary beam by passing a 5.5 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to make a photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a converter to make electron-positron pairs. Measuring the elastic cross sections simultaneously using identical lepton beams should significantly reduce systematic uncertainties.
Electron- and positron-proton elastic scattering in CLAS
L.B. Weinstein
2009-08-01
There is a significant disagreement between measurements of the proton electric form factor, G{sup p}{sub E}, using Rosenbluth separations and polarization transfer. This disagreement, if not explained, could pose a fundamental challenge to our understanding of electron scattering or proton structure. Two-photon exchange (TPE) processes, although not fully calculable, are the most likely explanation of this disagreement. We will definitively test this assertion by comparing the electron-proton and positron-proton elastic scattering cross section in the Jefferson Lab CLAS. We will make a mixed identical electron and positron tertiary beam by passing a 5.5 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to make a photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a converter to make electron-positron pairs. Measuring the elastic cross sections simultaneously using identical lepton beams should significantly reduce systematic uncertainties.
Electron Scattering from Pyrazine compared with Pyrimidine and Benzene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palihawadana, P. D.; Sullivan, J. P.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.
2012-10-01
Pyrazine (C4H4N2) is a model molecule for studying electron interactions with nucleases. Also pyrazine is an ideal target, due to its high symmetry (D2h), for theoreticians to investigate electron collisions with complex DNA/RNA bases. In this work we present absolute elastic differential cross sections and elastic excitation functions for scattering of low-energy electrons by pyrazine measured using a crossed electron-target beam apparatus at the Australian National University. A comparison is also made between pyrazine cross sections with previously measured pyrimidine and benzene cross sections. Since all those molecules are similar in structure and considered as analogues to nucleobases, we intend to discuss similarities and differences in electron scattering results between three molecules.
Precision electroweak studies using parity violation in electron scattering
Paschke, K. D.
2013-11-07
The nature of new neutral-current interactions can be revealed at the low-energy precision frontier, where studies of parity-violation in electron scattering will complement the energy-frontier studies at the LHC. Measurements of the parity-violating observable A{sub PV} - the cross-section asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized target - are sensitive to possible contact interactions from new physics at multi-TeV mass scales. The 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and a new, high-intensity beam at Mainz offer opportunities for significant improvements in measurements of electron-electron and electron-quark parity-violating interactions.
Partial Wave Dispersion Relations: Application to Electron-Atom Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temkin, A.; Drachman, Richard J.
1999-01-01
In this Letter we propose the use of partial wave dispersion relations (DR's) as the way of solving the long-standing problem of correctly incorporating exchange in a valid DR for electron-atom scattering. In particular a method is given for effectively calculating the contribution of the discontinuity and/or poles of the partial wave amplitude which occur in the negative E plane. The method is successfully tested in three cases: (i) the analytically solvable exponential potential, (ii) the Hartree potential, and (iii) the S-wave exchange approximation for electron-hydrogen scattering.
Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergou, J.; Ehlotzky, F.
1986-05-01
Potential scattering of electrons in a strong laser field is reconsidered. The laser beam is described by a quantized single-mode plane-wave field with a finite number of quanta in the mode. The scattering amplitude is expanded in powers of the potential, and the first two Born terms are considered. It is shown that in the limit of an infinite number of field quanta, the Kroll-Watson approximation is recovered. Additional insight is gained into the validity of this low-frequency theorem. The approach rests on the introduction of electron-dressed quantized-field states. Relations to earlier work are indicated.
Hybrid Theory of Electron-Hydrogenic Systems Elastic Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
2007-01-01
Accurate electron-hydrogen and electron-hydrogenic cross sections are required to interpret fusion experiments, laboratory plasma physics and properties of the solar and astrophysical plasmas. We have developed a method in which the short-range and long-range correlations can be included at the same time in the scattering equations. The phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the scattering lengths have rigorous upper bounds. The phase shifts in the resonance region can be used to calculate very accurately the resonance parameters.
Multiple scattering theory of electron diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendry, J. B.
1994-01-01
In the early 1960's surface science set itself some fundamental goals: to make a quantitative science out of surface crystallography; to understand the nature of electronic structure and bonding at surfaces; and to enhance the tools available for study of surfaces. The effort has very much been a collective one, reflected in the wide authorship of the present volume. Here I contribute to the picture my personal perspective on developments in the past 30 years of surface science, and describe some of the highlights in my own research and that of my close colleagues.
Theory of neutron scattering by electrons in magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovesey, S. W.
2015-10-01
A theory of neutron scattering by magnetic materials is reviewed with emphasis on the use of electronic multipoles that have universal appeal, because they are amenable to calculation and appear in theories of many other experimental techniques. The conventional theory of magnetic neutron scattering, which dates back to Schwinger (1937 Phys. Rev. 51 544) and Trammell (1953 Phys. Rev. 92 1387), yields an approximation for the scattering amplitude in terms of magnetic dipoles formed with the spin (S) and orbital angular momentum (L) of valence electrons. The so-called dipole-approximation has been widely adopted by researchers during the past few decades that has seen neutron scattering develop to its present status as the method of choice for investigations of magnetic structure and excitations. Looking beyond the dipole-approximation, however, reveals a wealth of additional information about electronic degrees of freedom conveniently encapsulated in magnetic multipoles. In this language, the dipole-approximation retains electronic axial dipoles, S and L. At the same level of approximation are polar dipoles—called anapoles or toroidal dipoles—allowed in the absence of a centre of inversion symmetry. Anapoles are examples of magneto-electric multipoles, time-odd and parity-odd irreducible tensors, that have come to the fore as signatures of electronic complexity in materials.
Energy measurement of electron beams by Compton scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keppel, Cynthia
1995-01-01
A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.
Very Low Energy Electron Scattering from Ozone and Chlorine Dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulley, R. J.; Field, T. A.; Steer, W. A.; Mason, N. J.; Ziesel, J. P.; Lunt, S. L.; Field, D.
1998-10-01
Total cross-sections are reported for the scattering of electrons from ozone (O_3) and chlorine dioxide (OClO) for energies in the range of 9 meV to 10 eV. The measurements were made in transmission experiments using a synchrotron photoionization apparatus with an energy resolution in the incident electron beam of ~ 3.5 meV (FWHM). The cross section for O3 shows strong rotational scattering at low energy, through the presence of the permanent dipole moment of O_3. Superposed on this strong scattering signal, there is evidence of a weak structure around 50 meV associated with dissociative attachment. A shape resonance, known from earlier work at ~ 4 meV, is also observed. Electron scattering from OClO is dominated by rotationally inelastic scattering decreasing from a peak at essentially zero eV to an energy of 40 meV, where p-wave attachment becomes more important, peaking at 50--60 meV and extending to several hundred meV.
Characteristics of scattered electron beams shaped with a multileaf collimator.
Moran, J M; Martel, M K; Bruinvis, I A; Fraass, B A
1997-09-01
Characteristics of dual-foil scattered electron beams shaped with a multileaf collimator (MLC) (instead of an applicator system) were studied. The electron beams, with energies between 10 and 25 MeV, were produced by a racetrack microtron using a dual-foil scattering system. For a range of field sizes, depth dose curves, profiles, penumbra width, angular spread in air, and effective and virtual source positions were compared. Measurements were made when the MLC alone provided collimation and when an applicator provided collimation. Identical penumbra widths were obtained at a source-to-surface distance of 85 cm for the MLC and 110 cm for the applicator. The MLC-shaped beams had characteristics similar to other machines which use trimmers or applicators to collimate scanned or scattered electron beams. Values of the effective source position and the angular spread parameter for the MLC beams were similar to those of the dual-foil scattered beams of the Varian Clinac 2100 CD and the scanned beams of the Sagittaire linear accelerators. A model, based on Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, was adapted and applied successfully to predict penumbra width as a function of collimator-surface distance.
Electron scattering in HCl: An improved nonlocal resonance model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedor, J.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.; Čížek, M.; Houfek, K.; Kolorenč, P.; Horáček, J.
2010-04-01
We present an improved nonlocal resonance model for electron-HCl collisions. The short-range part of the model is fitted to ab initio electron-scattering eigenphase sums calculated using the Schwinger multichannel method, while the long-range part is based on the ab initio potential-energy curve of the bound anion HCl-. This model significantly improves the agreement of nonlocal resonance calculations with recent absolute experimental data on dissociative electron attachment cross sections for HCl and DCl. It also partly resolves an inconsistency in the temperature effect in dissociative electron attachment to HCl present in the literature. Finally, the present model reproduces all qualitative structures observed previously in elastic scattering and vibrational-excitation cross sections.
Electroweak charge density distributions with parity-violating electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian; Ren, Zhongzhou; Xu, Chang; Xu, Renli
2013-11-01
Parity-violating electron scattering (PVS) is an accurate and model-independent way to investigate the weak-charge density distributions of nuclei. In this paper, we study parity-violating electron scattering with the Helm model where the effects of spin-orbit currents on nuclear weak skins are taken into account. The conditions of two PVS measurements to constrain the surface thickness σW of Helm weak-charge densities are investigated. According to the plane wave Born approximation, Apv is expressed in terms of parameters of the corresponding Helm charge and weak-charge densities. After fitting the results of Apv calculated from the phase-shift analysis method where the Coulomb distortion effects are incorporated, an empirical formula in terms of Helm model parameters for calculating Apv is obtained. If two PVS measurements with different scattering angles are carried out, the modeled weak-charge density distributions with two parameters could be extracted from this empirical formula.
Longitudinal and Transverse Inelastic Electron Scattering from 56Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altemus, R.; Cafolla, A.; Day, D.; McCarthy, J. S.; Whitney, R. R.; Wise, J. E.
1980-04-01
Inelastic-electron-scattering cross sections for 56Fe have been measured in the continuum region. The longitudinal and transverse inelastic response functions have been determined for vector momentum transfers, q, from 210-410 MeV/c and for energy losses 0<ω<=220 MeV.
Applying a Trochoidal Electron Monochromator in Dissociative Electron Attachment Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arreola, Esmeralda
2016-03-01
Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.
Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution
Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo
2014-01-01
On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power-law spectrum, and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles; the degree of polarization caused by thermal electrons is about half of that caused by power-law electrons. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft γ-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around π/4. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV; this is valid for both the thermal and power-law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.
Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.
2016-12-01
We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4-200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L = 2-6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV-1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.
Linden, Steven K.
2011-01-01
Charged current single pion production (CCπ^{+}) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ^{+} to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH_{2}) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E_{ν} < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ^{+} events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ^{+} and CCQE measurements.
Goeppert-Mayer Award Recipient: Electron Scattering and Nucleon Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beise, Elizabeth
1998-04-01
Electron scattering from hydrogen and light nuclear targets has long been recognized as one of the best tools for understanding the electromagnetic structure of protons, neutrons and few-nucleon systems. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the field through advances in polarized beams and polarized targets. Improvements in polarized electron sources has made it feasible to also study the structure of the nucleon through parity-violating electron scattering, where the nucleon's neutral weak structure is probed. In this talk, a summary of the present experimental status of the nucleon's electroweak structure will be presented, with an emphasis on recent results from the MIT-Bates and Jefferson Laboratories.
Precise polarization measurements via detection of compton scattered electrons
Tvaskis, Vladas; Dutta, Dipangkar; Gaskell, David J.; Narayan, Amrendra
2014-01-01
The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam off a proton target. One of the dominant experimental systematic uncertainties in Qweak will result from determining the beam polarization. A new Compton polarimeter was installed in the fall of 2010 to provide a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the electron beam polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Compton-scattered electrons are detected in four planes of diamond micro-strip detectors. We have achieved the design goals of <1% statistical uncertainty per hour and expect to achieve <1% systematic uncertainty.
Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals
Williams, G.M.
1988-11-10
The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.
Electron scattering by laser-excited barium atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Jensen, S. W.; Poe, R. T.
1978-01-01
Inelastic and superelastic scattering of 30- and 100-eV electrons by laser-excited 6s 6p 1P and subsequent cascade-populated 6s 6p 3P, 6s 5d 1D, and 6s 5d 3D Ba atoms have been observed. Absolute differential cross sections for the singlet and relative scattering intensities for the triplet species have been determined in the 5 to 20 deg angular region. Under the present conditions excitations dominate over deexcitations.
Electron-Scattering Measurements using a Magneto-Optical Trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, Thad
1996-05-01
Optically trapped atoms are in many ways ideal replacements for atomic beams for scattering experiments. In a typical such experiment, a particle beam ejects atoms from the trap at a rate Γ=σ φ, where φ is the particle flux density and σ the scattering cross section. Γ is easily measured from trap decay transients. Since the trapped atoms have neV kinetic energies, the method is sensitive to extremely small momentum transfers. Since the beam flux is measured, the absolute target density is not required, removing an important source of error for most atomic beam experiments. At Wisconsin(Collaborators on this work have been R. S. Schappe, C.C. Lin, L. W. Anderson, P. Feng, and G. Piech. The research is supported by the NSF and the Packard Foundation.) we have integrated an electron beam with a magneto-optical trap and performed electron scattering experiments on Rb atoms in the range of 10-1000 eV. In the first experiment we measured total cross sections for scattering from the 5s state by lowering the capture velocity of the trap below the recoil velocity of the scattered atoms. In the second experiment we isolated the total ionization cross section by operating the trap such that virtually all elastically and inelastically scattered atoms were captured by the trap. These experimental results will test new theoretical methods for calculating total and ionization cross sections. Straightforward extensions of these methods should allow similar measurements using excited-state atoms (5p, 5d) as well. The techniques should also be readily adaptable to the important case of the metastable noble gases.
Electron scattering measurements from molecules of technological relevance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Darryl
2014-10-01
Biomass represents a significant opportunity to provide renewable and sustainable biofuels. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas provide an opportunity to efficiently breakdown the naturally-resilient biomass into its useful subunits. Free electrons produced in the plasma may assist in this process by inducing fragmentation though dissociative excitation, ionization or attachment processes. To assist in understanding and refining this process, we have performed electron energy loss experiments from phenol (C6H5OH), a key structural building block of biomass. This enables a quantitative assessment of the excited electronic states of phenol. Differential cross sections for the electron-driven excitation of phenol have also been obtained for incident electron energies in the 20--250 eV range and over 3--90° scattering angles. DBJ acknowledges financial support provided by an Australian Research Council DECRA.
Kinetic Enhancement of Raman Backscatter, and Electron Acoustic Thomson Scatter
Strozzi, D J; Williams, E A; Langdon, A B; Bers, A
2006-09-01
1-D Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are presented which show kinetic enhancement of stimulated Raman backscatter (SRBS) due to electron trapping in regimes of heavy linear Landau damping. The conventional Raman Langmuir wave is transformed into a set of beam acoustic modes [L. Yin et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 025401 (2006)]. For the first time, a low phase velocity electron acoustic wave (EAW) is seen developing from the self-consistent Raman physics. Backscatter of the pump laser off the EAW fluctuations is reported and referred to as electron acoustic Thomson scatter. This light is similar in wavelength to, although much lower in amplitude than, the reflected light between the pump and SRBS wavelengths observed in single hot spot experiments, and previously interpreted as stimulated electron acoustic scatter [D. S. Montgomery et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001)]. The EAW observed in our simulations is strongest well below the phase-matched frequency for electron acoustic scatter, and therefore the EAW is not produced by it. The beating of different beam acoustic modes is proposed as the EAW excitation mechanism, and is called beam acoustic decay. Supporting evidence for this process, including bispectral analysis, is presented. The linear electrostatic modes, found by projecting the numerical distribution function onto a Gauss-Hermite basis, include beam acoustic modes (some of which are unstable even without parametric coupling to light waves) and a strongly-damped EAW similar to the observed one. This linear EAW results from non-Maxwellian features in the electron distribution, rather than nonlinearity due to electron trapping.
Magnetic field contribution to the last electron-photon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2010-11-01
When the cosmic microwave photons scatter electrons just prior to the decoupling of matter and radiation, magnetic fields do contribute to the Stokes matrix as well as to the scalar, vector and tensor components of the transport equations for the brightness perturbations. The magnetized electron-photon scattering is hereby discussed in general terms by including, for the first time, the contribution of magnetic fields with arbitrary direction and in the presence of the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the geometry. The propagation of relic vectors and relic gravitons is discussed for a varying magnetic field orientation and for different photon directions. The source terms of the transport equations in the presence of the relativistic fluctuations of the geometry are also explicitly averaged over the magnetic field orientations and the problem of a consistent account of the small-scale and large-scale magnetic field is briefly outlined.
Angular distribution of electrons elastically scattered from water vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shyn, T. W.; Grafe, Alan
1992-10-01
The angular distributions of electrons elastically scattered from H2O have been measured by electron impact using a modulated crossed-beam method. The energy and angular range measured were from 30 to 200 eV and 12° to 156°, respectively. The present results show a high backward scattering for low incident energies, but this falls off for high incident energies. The present results are in qualitative agreement with the measurements of Danjo and Nishimura [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 54, 1224 (1985)] and in quantitative agreement with the measurements of Katase et al. [J. Phys. B 19, 2715 (1986)]. Agreement between the present results and the calculation of Jain, Tripathi, and Jain [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2893 (1988)] is good except at 200-eV impact.
Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering
Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman,; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.
2016-06-10
Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently, a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based ν_{μ} beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI ν_{μ} flux from 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.
Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering
Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; ...
2016-06-10
Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently, a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9%more » to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less
Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.
1964-10-01
The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.
Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration
2016-06-01
Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.
Calculation of electron scattering from the ground state of ytterbium
Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2011-05-15
We report on the application of the convergent close-coupling method, in both relativistic and nonrelativistic formulations, to electron scattering from ytterbium. Angle-differential and integrated cross sections are presented for elastic scattering and excitation of the states (6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}, (6s6p){sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup o}, (6s7p){sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup o}, and (6s5d){sup 1}D{sub 2}{sup e} for a range of incident electron energies. We also present calculations of the total cross section, and angle-differential Stokes parameters for excitation of the (6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 1}{sup o} state from the ground state. A comparison is made with the relativistic distorted-wave method and experiments.
Electron-phonon coupling in perovskites studied by Raman Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathe, V. G.; Tyagi, S.; Sharma, G.
2016-10-01
Raman scattering is an unique technique for characterization and quantification of electron-phonon, spin-phonon and spin-lattice coupling in many of the currently prominent compounds like multiferroics and manganites. In manganites, it is understood now that a phase separated landscape with coexisting metallic and insulating regions exist in most of the compounds and application of small external perturbation causes an alteration in this landscape. In such scenario, local metallic regions grow suddenly at the expense of insulating regions below the magnetic ordering temperature. Such regions can be characterized effectively using Raman scattering measurements where delocalized electrons couple with the adjacent phonon peaks giving a Fano resonance in the form of asymmetric line shape.
Total electron scattering cross sections. I - He, Ne, Ar, Xe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nickel, J. C.; Imre, K.; Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.
1985-01-01
The apparatus and experimental procedures used to obtain total electron scattering cross sections are described, and results are presented for He, Ne, Ar and Xe in the 4-300 eV incident energy range, together with statistical errors. The results are generally found to be in good agreement with previous data except at low impact energies. Serious discrepancies remain in Xe below 20 eV impact energy.
Short Range Correlations, Inclusive Electron-Nucleus Scattering, and Scaling
Day, Donal
2008-10-13
The presence of high momentum components in the nuclear wavefunction has been of great interest for many years. Unfortunately high momentum components, associated with the short range correlations (SRC), have been difficult to isolate unambiquously. Inclusive electron scattering cross sections in the quasielastic region have been measured over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers from very light to very heavy nuclei and the scaling analyses of these data can provide useful information on the presence of SRCs and more.
Electron Scattering on a Magnetic Skyrmion in the Nonadiabatic Approximation.
Denisov, K S; Rozhansky, I V; Averkiev, N S; Lähderanta, E
2016-07-08
We present a theory of electron scattering on a magnetic Skyrmion for the case when the exchange interaction is moderate so that the adiabatic approximation and the Berry phase approach are not applicable. The theory explains the appearance of a topological Hall current in the systems with magnetic Skyrmions, the special importance of which is its applicability to dilute magnetic semiconductors with a weak exchange interaction.
Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles
Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra
2015-01-07
In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, H.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.
2013-09-01
Results of secondary radiation, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based high-power radio waves are reported. These results obtained at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility specifically considered the generation of Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter (SIBS) lines in the SEE spectrum when the transmitter frequency is near harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The heater antenna beam angle effect was investigated on MSBS in detail and shows a new spectral line postulated to be generated near the upper hybrid resonance region due to ion acoustic wave interaction. Frequency sweeping experiments near the electron gyroharmonics show for the first time the transition from MSBS to SIBS lines as the heater pump frequency approaches the gyroharmonic. Significantly far from the gyroharmonic, MSBS lines dominate, while close to the gyroharmonic, SIBS lines strengthen while MSBS lines weaken. New possibilities for diagnostic information are discussed in light of these new observations.
Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams.
Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R
2005-03-07
The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly
Interpretation of low-energy electron-CO2 scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanroose, W.; McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.
2002-09-01
Recent ab initio calculations of low-energy electron-CO2 scattering [Rescigno et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 032716 (2002)] are interpreted using an analytically solvable model. The model, which treats two partial-wave Hamiltonians with different l values coupled by a long-range (d/r2) interaction, is a generalization of similar single-channel models that have previously been used to interpret the low-energy behavior of electron scattering by polar diatomic molecules. The present model is used to track the pole trajectories of both resonances and virtual states, both of which figure prominently in low-energy electron-CO2 scattering, in the plane of complex momentum. The connection between resonant and virtual states is found to display a different topology in the case of a polyatomic molecule than it does in diatomic molecules. In a polyatomic molecule, these states may have a conical intersection and consequently acquire a Berry phase along closed paths in two-dimensional vibrational motion. The analytic behavior of the S matrix is further modified by the presence of a geometry-dependent dipole moment.
Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.
2006-01-01
The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.
Landau retardation on the occurrence scattering time in quantum electron-hole plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae
2016-03-01
The Landau damping effects on the occurrence scattering time in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Shukla-Stenflo-Bingham effective potential model is employed to obtain the occurrence scattering time in a quantum electron-hole plasma. The result shows that the influence of Landau damping produces the imaginary term in the scattering amplitude. It is then found that the Landau damping generates the retardation effect on the occurrence scattering time. It is found that the occurrence scattering time increases in forward scattering domains and decreases in backward scattering domains with an increase of the Landau parameter. It is also found that the occurrence scattering time decreases with increasing collision energy. In addition, it is found that the quantum shielding effect enhances the occurrence scattering time in the forward scattering and, however, suppresses the occurrence scattering time in the backward scattering.
Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.
2008-12-01
A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.
Electron and Positron Scattering from C3H6 Isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makochekanwa, Casten; Sueoka, Osamu; Kimura, Mineo; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kitajima, Masashi; Tanaka, Hiroshi
2004-09-01
Hydrocarbons play an important role in high temperature plasmas in Tokamak fusion devices in plasma processing and many other fields [1]. In this paper we report experiments for 0.4-1000 eV electron and 0.2-1000 eV positron total cross sections (TCS) measured using a linear time-of-flight apparatus [2], and electron differential cross sections (DCS) for elastic, vibrational and electronic excitations covering the ranges 1.5 to 100 eV and 15 deg to 130 deg, measured using the crossed beam and relative flow method [3]. The continuum multiple scattering (CMS) [4] calculations have also been performed for the theoretical analysis of the observed features in our cross sections. We observe the isomer effect in both electron and positron TCSs and DCSs. The presence of a dipole moment in propene molecules shows up in enhanced forward scattering in DCSs, leading to larger TCSs and integral cross sections compared to cyclopropane at energies less than 20 eV. However, both electron and positron TCSs for these two molecules nearly equal each other above 100 eV, i.e. the molecular size effect. [1] W. L. Moragn, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 79 (2000). [2] O. Sueoka, S. Mori and A. Hamada, J. Phys. B 27, 1453 (1994). [3] H. Tanaka, L. Boesten, D. Matsunaga and T. Kudo, J. Phys. B 21, 1255 (1988). [4] M. Kimura and H. Sato, Comments At. Mol. Phys. 26, 333 (1991).
Long-range effects in electron scattering by polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabrikant, Ilya I.
2016-11-01
We review long-range effects in electron collisions with polar molecules, starting with elastic scattering. We then go to rotationally and vibrationally inelastic processes and dissociative electron attachment. The last two are strongly affected by vibrational Feshbach resonances which have been observed and described theoretically in many systems from simple diatomic molecules to more complex polyatomics, biologically relevant molecules, and van der Waals clusters. We then review environmental effects which include electron interaction with molecules adsorbed on surfaces and molecules in cluster environments. We concentrate on physics rather than on listing results of ab initio calculations. With increasing complexity of targets and processes model approaches become more relevant. We demonstrate their success in the theoretical description of electron attachment to polyatomic molecules and to molecules in complex environments.
Study of the (e,e'p) quasi-elastic reaction in complex nuclei: theory and experiment
Herraiz, Joaquin Lopez
2010-03-01
Experimental coincidence cross section and transverse-longitudinal asymmetry _{ATL} have been obtained for the quasielastic (e,e'p) reaction in ^{16}O, ^{12}C, and {sup 208}Pb in constant q-ω kinematics in the missing momentum range -350 < p_{miss} < 350 MeV/c. In these experiments, performed in experimental Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB), the beam energy and the momentum and angle of the scattered electrons were kept fixed, while the angle between the proton momentum and the momentum transfer q was varied in order to map out the missing momentum distribution. The experimental cross section and A_{TL} asymmetry have been compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations with both relativistic and non-relativistic spinor structure. The spectroscopic factors obtained for both models are in agreement with previous experimental values, while A_{TL} measurements favor the relativistic DWIA calculation. This thesis describes the details of the experimental setup, the calibration of the spectrometers, the techniques used in the data analysis to derive the final cross sections and the A_{TL}, the ingredients of the theoretical calculations employed and the comparison of the results with the simulations based on these theoretical models.
Return Current Electron Beams and Their Generation of "Raman" Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, A.
1998-11-01
For some years, we(A. Simon and R. W. Short, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53), 1912 (1984). have proposed that the only reasonable explanation for many of the observations of "Raman" scattering is the presence of an electron beam in the plasma. (The beam creates a bump-on-tail instability.) Two major objections to this picture have been observation of Raman when no n_c/4 surface was present, with no likely source for the electron beam, and the necessity for the initially outward directed beam to bounce once to create the proper waves. Now new observations on LLE's OMEGA(R. Petrasso et al), this conference. and at LULI(C. Labaune et al)., Phys. Plasma 5, 234 (1998). have suggested a new origin for the electron beam. This new scenario answers the previous objections, maintains electron beams as the explanation of the older experiments, and may clear up puzzling observations that have remained unexplained. The new scenario is based on two assumptions: (1) High positive potentials develop in target plasmas during their creation. (2) A high-intensity laser beam initiates spark discharges from nearby surfaces to the target plasma. The resulting return current of electrons should be much more delta-like, is initially inwardly directed, and no longer requires the continued presence of a n_c/4 surface. Scattering of the interaction beam from the BOT waves yields the observed Raman signal. Experimental observations that support this picture will be cited. ``Pulsation'' of the scattering and broadband ``flashes'' are a natural part of this scenario. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Abdullah; Horowitz, W. A.
2017-01-01
We calculate the elastic scattering cross section for an electron off of a classical point source in weak-coupling perturbative quantum electrodynamics at next-to-leading order accuracy in the renormalization scheme. Since we use the \\overline {MS} renormalization scheme, our result is valid up to arbitrary large momentum transfers between the source and the scattered electron.
Parity Violation in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
Miller, IV, Grady Wilson
2001-01-01
We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from the proton at Jefferson Laboratory. The kinematic point (θ_{lab} = 12.3 deg. and (Q^{2}) = 0.48 (GeV/c)^{2}) is chosen to provide sensitivity to the strange electric form factor G^{s}_{E}. A 3.36 GeV beam of longitudinally polarized electrons was scattered from protons in a liquid hydrogen target. The scattered flux was detected by a pair of spectrometers which focussed the elastically-scattered electrons onto total-absorption detectors. The detector signals were integrated and digitized by a custom data acquisition system. A feedback system reduced systematic errors by controlling helicity-correlated beam intensity differences at the sub-ppm (part per million) level. The experimental result, A = 14.5 +/- 2.0 (stat) ± 1.1 (syst) ppm, is consistent with the electroweak Standard Model with no additional contributions from strange quarks. In particular, the measurement implies G^{S}_{E} + 0.39 G^{s}_{M} = 0.023 ± 0.040 ± 0.026 (ζG^{n}_{E}), where the last uncertainty is due to the estimated uncertainty in the neutron electric form factor G^{n}_{E} . This result represents the first experimental constraint of the strange electric form factor.
Elastic scattering of slow electrons by n-pentanol alcohol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Eliane M.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.
2014-03-01
We report elastic integral (ICS), differential (DCS) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCS) for low-energy electron scattering by n-pentanol alcohol in the gas phase. The Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials was employed in the calculations. The DCSs were computed for energies from 1 to 50 eV and the ICS and MTCS from 1 to 100 eV. Due to the significant value of the electric dipole moment, the DCSs are dominated by strong forward scattering. Despite this fact, the DCS around 10 eV displays a behavior related to a f-wave scattering pattern at intermediate angles which may be associated with shape resonances. This result is consistent with the ICS and the MTCS since they show a pronounced peak near this energy. For energies below 1 eV, the MTCS obtained in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation does not increase, as expected for polar molecules, suggesting that a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum could be present. This finding motivated us to revisit the previously studied methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol molecules and to perform new calculations for impact energies below 1 eV (not addressed before). With the inclusion of polarization effects, the MTCS for the five alcohols suggest a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum coming from the negative to the positive scattering energies. To the best of our knowledge, there are neither experimental nor calculated cross sections for comparison with the present results.
Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby
2017-03-01
Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.
A Guide to Electronic Multipoles in Photon Scattering and Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovesey, Stephen William; Balcar, Ewald
2013-02-01
The practice of replacing matrix elements in atomic calculations by those of convenient operators with strong physical appeal has a long history, and in condensed matter physics it is perhaps best known through use of operator equivalents in electron resonance by Elliott and Stevens. Likewise, electronic multipoles, created with irreducible spherical-tensors, to represent charge-like and magnetic-like quantities are widespread in modern physics. Examples in recent headlines include a magnetic charge (a monopole), an anapole (a dipole) and a triakontadipole (a magnetic-like atomic multipole of rank 5). In this communication, we aim to guide the reader through use of atomic, spherical multipoles in photon scattering, and resonant Bragg diffraction and dichroic signals in particular. Applications to copper oxide CuO and neptunium dioxide (NpO2) are described. In keeping with it being a simple guide, there is sparse use in the communication of algebra and expressions are gathered from the published literature and not derived, even when central to the exposition. An exception is a thorough grounding, contained in an Appendix, for an appropriate version of the photon scattering length based on quantum electrodynamics. A theme of the guide is application of symmetry in scattering, in particular constraints imposed on results by symmetry in crystals. To this end, a second Appendix catalogues constraints on multipoles imposed by symmetry in crystal point-groups.
Interrelation of Resistivity and Inelastic Electron-Phonon Scattering Rate in Impure NbC Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Il'in, K. S.; Ptitsina, N. G.; Sergeev, A. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Gershenzon, E. M.; Karasik, B. S.; Pechen, E. V.; Krasnosvobodtsev, S. I.
1998-01-01
A complex study of the electron-phonon interaction in thin NbC films with electron mean free path l=2-13 nm gives strong evidence that electron scattering is significantly modified due to the interference between electron-phonon and elastic electron scattering from impurities.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The need to increase the use of low valued co-products derived from the processing of sugar beets has prompted the investigation of the structure of the pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp. The characterization of sugar beet pectin is essential as it has the potential to be used in the production ...
Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures
Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y.; Smet, J. H.; Arima, T.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.
2015-08-24
The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.
A coherent analysis of elastic electron-proton scattering data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernauer, Jan
2016-09-01
The extraction of form factors and radii from scattering data is a treacherous business, and it is easy to bias the result with the choice of an unsuitable fit function. In the first part of the talk, I will present our analysis of the Mainz and world data sets, and the checks we have made to ensure that the results are accurate and unbiased. Recently, several authors have reanalyzed the Mainz and world data sets on electron-proton scattering, with the aim to extract the proton charge radius. The results fall into two groups: radii around 0.88 fm and around 0.84 fm, respectively. We find that the latter group typically is affected by various problems, discussed in the second part of the talk.
Parity-Violating Electron Scattering: New Results and Future Prospects
Krishna S. Kumar
2006-11-01
We discuss the status and prospects of an experimental program of parity-violating asymmetry measurements in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized fixed targets. One thrust is the measurements of nucleon neutral weak form factors at intermediate four-momentum transfer (0.1 < Q2 < 1) (GeV/c)2 which provide information about the role of virtual strange quarks on the charge and current distributions inside nucleons. A new topic is the elastic neutral weak amplitude from scattering off a heavy spinless nucleus, which is sensitive to the presence of a neutron skin. Finally, we discuss the neutral current elastic amplitude at very low Q2, which allows precision measurements of the weak mixing angle at low energy and is thus sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale. The physics implications of recent results, potential measurements from experiments under construction as well as new ideas at future facilities are discussed.
Parity-Violating Electron Scattering: New Results and Future Prospects
Kumar, Krishna S.
2006-11-17
We discuss the status and prospects of an experimental program of parity-violating asymmetry measurements in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized fixed targets. One thrust is the measurements of nucleon neutral weak form factors at intermediate four-momentum transfer (0.1 < Q2 < 1) (GeV/c)2 which provide information about the role of virtual strange quarks on the charge and current distributions inside nucleons. A new topic is the elastic neutral weak amplitude from scattering off a heavy spinless nucleus, which is sensitive to the presence of a neutron skin. Finally, we discuss the neutral current elastic amplitude at very low Q2, which allows precision measurements of the weak mixing angle at low energy and is thus sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale. The physics implications of recent results, potential measurements from experiments under construction as well as new ideas at future facilities are discussed.
Electron shell ionization of atoms with classical, relativistic scattering.
Ekanayake, N; Luo, S; Grugan, P D; Crosby, W B; Camilo, A D; McCowan, C V; Scalzi, R; Tramontozzi, A; Howard, L E; Wells, S J; Mancuso, C; Stanev, T; Decamp, M F; Walker, B C
2013-05-17
We investigate forward scattering of ionization from neon, argon, and xenon in ultrahigh intensities of 2 × 10(19) W/cm(2). Comparisons between the gases reveal the energy of the outgoing photoelectron determines its momentum, which can be scattered as far forward as 45° from the laser wave vector k(laser) for energies greater than 1 MeV. The shell structure in the atom manifests itself as modulations in the photoelectron yield and the width of the angular distributions. We arrive at an agreement with theory by using an independent electron model for the atom, a dipole approximation for the bound state interaction, and a relativistic, three-dimensional, classical radiation field including the laser magnetic field. The studies provide the atomic physics within plasmas, radiation, and particle acceleration in ultrastrong fields.
Hot electron dynamics and impurity scattering on gold nanoshell surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfgang, John Adam
2000-10-01
Recent ultrafast pump-probe experiments studying the relaxation rate of an optically excited hot electron distribution on Au/Au2S gold nanoshells indicate that this relaxation rate can be modified by the chemical environment surrounding the shell. This work will begin a theoretical investigation of the effect of chemical adsorbates---solvents and impurities---upon nanoshell hot electron dynamics. The effects of water, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sulfur, p-aminobenzoic acid, p-mercaptobenzoic acid and propylamine adsorbates are examined for their electronic interaction with a noble metal surface. p-Aminobenzoic acid is found to have a very large dipole moment when adsorbed to the metal surface, in contrast to p-mercaptobenzoic acid, propylamine and water. This correlates well to the experimentally observed results where nanoshells dispersed in an aqueous soulution with p-aminobenzoic acid display a faster relaxation rate compared to nanoshells dispersed in a pure water, aqueous propylamine or aqueous p-mercaptobenzoic acid environments. This thesis will also introduce a non-equilibrium Green's function approach, based on the formalism developed by Baym and Kadanoff, to model the dynamics of a hot electron distribution. The model will be discussed in terms of a simple potential scattering mechanism, which may in later work be expanded to include more complex electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. Lastly acoustic oscillation modes are calculated for solid gold spheres and gold-silicon nanoshells. These modes describe an effect of electron-phonon coupling between the hot electron distribution and the nanoshell lattice, whereby the electronic energy is converted into mechanical energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Vijay; Subramanian, K. P.; Krishnakumar, E.
1987-01-01
Absolute electron-helium and electron-neon scattering cross sections have been measured at low electron energies using the powerful technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurements have been carried out at 17 electron energies varying from 0.7 to 10 eV with an accuracy of + or - 2.7 percent. The results obtained in the present work have been compared with other recent measurement and calculations.
Electron Scattering at Surfaces and Interfaces of Transition Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Pengyuan
The effect of surfaces on the electron transport at reduced scales is attracting continuous interest due to its broad impact on both the understanding of materials properties and their application for nanoelectronics. The size dependence of for conductor's electrical resistivity rho due to electron surface scattering is most commonly described within the framework of Fuchs and Sondheimer (FS) and their various extensions, which uses a phenomenological scattering parameter p to define the probability of electrons being elastically (i.e. specularly) scattered by the surface without causing an increase of rho at reduced size. However, a basic understanding of what surface chemistry and structure parameters determine the specularity p is still lacking. In addition, the assumption of a spherical Fermi surface in the FS model is too simple for transition metals to give accurate account of the actual surface scattering effect. The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of the physics governing electron surface/interface scattering in transition metals and to study the significance of their Fermi surface shape on surface scattering. The advancement of the scientific knowledge in electron surface and interface scattering of transition metals can provide insights into how to design high-conductivity nanowires that will facilitate the viable development of advanced integrated circuits, thermoelectric power generation and spintronics. Sequential in situ and ex situ transport measurements as a function of surface chemistry demonstrate that electron surface/interface scattering can be engineered by surface doping, causing a decrease in the rho. For instance, the rho of 9.3-nm-thick epitaxial and polycrystalline Cu is reduced by 11--13% when coated with 0.75 nm Ni. This is due to electron surface scattering which exhibits a specularity p = 0.7 for the Cu-vacuum interface that transitions to completely diffuse (p = 0) when exposed to air. In contrast, Ni-coated surfaces
Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves Through Scattering by Thermal Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C. E.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, B.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.
2014-12-01
Nonlinear interactions involving whistler wave turbulence are important contributors to radiation belt dynamics, including the acceleration and loss of trapped electrons. Given sufficient whistler energy density, nonlinear scattering from thermal electrons can substantially change the wave normal angle, while inducing a small frequency shift [Ganguli et al., 2010]. This nonlinear process is being studied in the NRL Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC) in scaled magnetospheric conditions. The plasma response as a function of transmitted lower hybrid wave amplitude is monitored with magnetic loop antennas. Measurements of the magnetic field vectors for the pump and daughter waves allow for the determination of wave distribution functions, which indicate the power distribution as a function of wave-normal angle and azimuthal angle. The wave distribution functions measured in the experiment demonstrate a dramatic change in propagation direction when the launched wave amplitude exceeds a small threshold (δB / B ~ 4 × 10-7). The experimental results support the theory of electromagnetic whistler wave generation through nonlinear scattering of electrostatic lower hybrid waves by thermal electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere [Crabtree et al, 2012].
Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.
1990-01-01
Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.
Measurement of parity violation in electron-quark scattering.
2014-02-06
Symmetry permeates nature and is fundamental to all laws of physics. One example is parity (mirror) symmetry, which implies that flipping left and right does not change the laws of physics. Laws for electromagnetism, gravity and the subatomic strong force respect parity symmetry, but the subatomic weak force does not. Historically, parity violation in electron scattering has been important in establishing (and now testing) the standard model of particle physics. One particular set of quantities accessible through measurements of parity-violating electron scattering are the effective weak couplings C2q, sensitive to the quarks' chirality preference when participating in the weak force, which have been measured directly only once in the past 40 years. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-quark scattering, which yields a determination of 2C2u - C2d (where u and d denote up and down quarks, respectively) with a precision increased by a factor of five relative to the earlier result. These results provide evidence with greater than 95 per cent confidence that the C2q couplings are non-zero, as predicted by the electroweak theory. They lead to constraints on new parity-violating interactions beyond the standard model, particularly those due to quark chirality. Whereas contemporary particle physics research is focused on high-energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, our results provide specific chirality information on electroweak theory that is difficult to obtain at high energies. Our measurement is relatively free of ambiguity in its interpretation, and opens the door to even more precise measurements in the future.
Constraints on dark photon from neutrino-electron scattering experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilmiş, S.; Turan, I.; Aliev, T. M.; Deniz, M.; Singh, L.; Wong, H. T.
2015-08-01
A possible manifestation of an additional light gauge boson A', named a dark photon, associated with a group U (1 )B -L , is studied in neutrino-electron scattering experiments. The exclusion plot on the coupling constant gB -L and the dark photon mass MA' is obtained. It is shown that the contributions of interference terms between the dark photon and the Standard Model are important. The interference effects are studied and compared with data sets from TEXONO, GEMMA, BOREXINO, and LSND, as well as CHARM II experiments. Our results provide more stringent bounds to some regions of parameter space.
Elastic Scattering of Low-Energy Electrons byTetrahydrofuran
Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Orel, Ann E.; Rescigno, Thomas N.
2006-05-09
We present the results of ab initio calculations for elasticelectron scattering by tetrahydrofuran (THF) using the complex Kohnvariational method. We carried out fixed-nuclei calculations at theequilibrium geometry of the target molecule for incident electronenergies up to 20 eV. The calculated momentum transfer cross sectionsclearly reveal the presence of broad shape resonance behavior in the 8-10eV energy range, in agreement with recent experiments. The calculateddifferential cross sections at 20 eV, which include the effects of thelong-range electron-dipole interaction, are alsofound to be in agreementwith the most recent experimental findings.
Transition probability functions for applications of inelastic electron scattering.
Löffler, Stefan; Schattschneider, Peter
2012-09-01
In this work, the transition matrix elements for inelastic electron scattering are investigated which are the central quantity for interpreting experiments. The angular part is given by spherical harmonics. For the weighted radial wave function overlap, analytic expressions are derived in the Slater-type and the hydrogen-like orbital models. These expressions are shown to be composed of a finite sum of polynomials and elementary trigonometric functions. Hence, they are easy to use, require little computation time, and are significantly more accurate than commonly used approximations.
Thomas double scattering in electron capture from oriented molecular hydrogen
Alston, S.; Brennan, T.; Bannon, F.
1995-11-01
Electron capture from hydrogen molecules by protons is treated using the second-order Born approximation. Differential cross sections in an adiabatic-nuclei approximation for specific molecular orientations and for an equally weighted averaging over all orientations are presented for incident energies of 2.5 and 10 MeV. A Hartree-Fock molecular wave function and linearized-propagator approximation are employed to evaluate the amplitude. An approximate factoring of the amplitude into double scattering and diffraction (arising from the two target nuclei) components is shown to give a poor description of high-velocity molecular capture.
Unambiguous ionization amplitudes for electron-hydrogen scattering
Bartlett, P. L.; Bray, I.; Jones, S.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Bartschat, K.; Ver Steeg, G. L.; Scott, M. P.; Burke, P. G.
2003-08-01
According to quantum collision theory, scattering amplitudes are complex numbers, which are completely defined by their magnitude and phase. Although the phase information is generally not determined entirely in collision experiments, the phases are well defined and can be used to check computational models. We use four state-of-the-art approaches to calculate the magnitude and phase of the electron-hydrogen ionization amplitude in the Temkin-Poet S-wave model. We demonstrate that the correct phase can be extracted for each method by using the appropriate final-state continuum functions.
Deep inelastic electron scattering from iron 56 and other tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altemus, R. M.
1980-03-01
Deep inelastic electron scattering data on iron 56 are presented for angles of 160 degrees, 140 degrees and 90 degrees and at incident energies ranging from 372 MeV to 100 MeV. Radiative contributions from real target bremsstrahlung and from the continuum are included. The data were separated into longitudinal, Sl(q, omega) and transverse, ST(q, omega) response functions. A Coulomb sum rule for constant q is formulated and compared with an independent particle model (Fermi gas). Short range correlations, finite size effects, effective momentum transfer and final state interactions are considered in an attempt to explain the observed discrepancies.
Scattered electron beams shaped by a multileaf collimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moran, Jean Marie
Recent developments in conformal radiation therapy have focused primarily on applying computer-controlled equipment and techniques to photon beams. Despite favorable characteristics of the dose fall-off with depth for electron beams, their application to conformal therapy has been limited. Factors such as geometrically limiting applicator systems, lack of automatic field shaping, and dose calculation model limitations must be addressed before routine clinical use of electron beams for conformal radiotherapy becomes common. This work evaluates dose characteristics and modeling of dose distributions and output factors for a system specifically designed for computer-controlled collimation of dual-foil scattered and scanned electron beams. Dose characteristics determined from measured depth dose curves and profiles were evaluated for multileaf- collimated and applicator-collimated beams produced by the dual-foil scattered gantry of a two-gantry racetrack microtron system. The resulting dose distributions and characteristics were used to evaluate and modify the existing 3-D electron pencil beam algorithm in UMPlan, the University of Michigan treatment planning system, to predict relative dose distributions for MLC-shaped fields. Output factors (dose of a field relative to that of a reference field) were measured, analyzed, and modeled for MLC-collimated rectangular and shaped fields. For output factor calculations, two models were evaluated: a pencil beam-derived model and an empirical edge model originally developed for photon dose calculations. The current work shows that the dosimetric characteristics of MLC and applicator-collimated beams of the racetrack microtron are similar once the collimation geometry is accounted for. The dosimetric characteristics are also consistent with those for other dual-foil scattered machines with applicator systems and earlier generation scanned beams collimated with trimmer bars. By accounting for collimation geometry, electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretiak, Sergei
2014-03-01
The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, the electronic excitations in the molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph. The exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas the exciton scattering on the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized ``particle in a box'' problems on the graph that represents the molecule. All parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations of small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. The exciton scattering properties of molecular vertices can be further described by tight-binding or equivalently lattice models. The on-site energies and hopping constants are obtained from the exciton dispersion and scattering matrices. Such tight-binding model approach is particularly useful to describe the exciton-phonon coupling, energetic disorder and incoherent energy transfer in large branched conjugated molecules. Overall the ES applications accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.
Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gary, S. P.
2015-12-01
The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.
Radiative corrections to polarization observables in electron-proton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisyuk, Dmitry; Kobushkin, Alexander
2014-08-01
We consider radiative corrections to polarization observables in elastic electron-proton scattering, in particular, for the polarization transfer measurements of the proton form factor ratio μGE/GM. The corrections are of two types: two-photon exchange (TPE) and bremsstrahlung (BS); in the present work we pay special attention to the latter. Assuming small missing energy or missing mass cutoff, the correction can be represented in a model-independent form, with both electron and proton radiation taken into account. Numerical calculations show that the contribution of the proton radiation is not negligible. Overall, at high Q2 and energies, the total correction to μGE/GM grows, but is dominated by TPE. At low energies both TPE and BS may be significant; the latter amounts to ˜0.01 for some reasonable cut-off choices.
Electron scattering by highly polar molecules. I - KI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudge, M. R. H.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.
1976-01-01
Electron-impact energy-loss spectra of KI were studied experimentally in the 15- to 130-deg angular range at impact energies of 6.7, 15.7, and 60 eV. The spectra reveal a number of excitation features which have not been detected previously and indicate that KI is a strong photon absorber in the vacuum-UV region. From the spectra, differential and integral electronically elastic and inelastic cross sections have been obtained by normalizing the experimental data to theoretical results at low scattering angles. Rotational excitation cross sections corresponding to delta j = 0, plus or minus 1, have been calculated using a dipole-plus-repulsive-core interaction potential and the distorted-wave approximation. For comparison, the rotational excitation cross sections have also been calculated in the Born point-dipole approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signorini, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Molini, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, C.; Manea, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Di Meo, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Boiano, A.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Sandoli, M.; Soramel, F.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Veronese, F.
2013-03-01
The quasi elastic scattering of a 17O projectile from a 58Ni target has been studied at beam energies ranging from 42.5 to 55.0 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The total reaction cross sections were derived from the measured angular distributions by using an optical model fit within the coupled-channel code FRESCO. These cross sections are very similar to those measured for 17F (loosely bound by 0.6 MeV), mirror nucleus of 17O (tightly bound by 4.14 MeV). This outcome points out that, in this energy range, the small binding energy of the 17F valence proton has negligible influence onto the reactivity of such a loosely bound projectile, contrary to simple expectations, and to what observed for other loosely bound nuclei. The reaction dynamics seems to be influenced mainly by the Coulomb interaction which is similar for both mirror projectiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazuhiro, Tanaka; Wolfgang, Bentz; Akito, Arima
1990-11-01
The quasi-elastic Coulomb response function of finite nuclei including vacuum polarization effects is investigated in the relativistic σ-ω model. For the consistent elimination of the Landau ghost in meson propagators, the description of the ground state and the response function of the system is formulated utilizing the effective action method, and the effects of the ghost elimination on the nuclear matter response function are discussed. Finite system calculations are performed for 12C (|q|= 300, 400, 550 MeV) and 40Ca (|q|= 410, 500, 550 MeV) , in which particle-hole continuum states are fully taken into account by the method of continuum RPA, while the vacuum polarization effects are included by the local density approximation. The effects of the particle-hole effective interaction and the medium modified single-nucleon form factor on the response function are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimham, V. L.; Ramachandran, A. S.; Warke, C. S.
1981-02-01
The exchange correction to the differential scattering cross section for the electron-hydrogen-molecule scattering is derived. In the independent scattering center and Glauber approximation our expressions do not agree with those used in the published literature. The overall agreement between the calculated and the measured cross sections improves at higher angles and lower incident electron energies, where the exchange contribution is important.
Review of two-photon exchange in electron scattering
J. Arrington, P. G. Blunden, W. Melnitchouk
2011-10-01
We review the role of two-photon exchange (TPE) in electron-hadron scattering, focusing in particular on hadronic frameworks suitable for describing the low and moderate Q^2 region relevant to most experimental studies. We discuss the effects of TPE on the extraction of nucleon form factors and their role in the resolution of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio puzzle. The implications of TPE on various other observables, including neutron form factors, electroproduction of resonances and pions, and nuclear form factors, are summarized. Measurements seeking to directly identify TPE effects, such as through the angular dependence of polarization measurements, nonlinear epsilon contributions to the cross sections, and via e+p to e-p cross section ratios, are also outlined. In the weak sector, we describe the role of TPE and gamma-Z interference in parity-violating electron scattering, and assess their impact on the extraction of the strange form factors of the nucleon and the weak charge of the proton.
Total electron scattering cross section of Fluorocarbons at intermediate electron energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe
2008-10-01
Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) have been measured using the linear transmission technique for impact energies 0.10 -- 4.00 keV. These TCS are compared to existing experimental and theoretical TCS in the literature. Based on the present measurements, an empirical formula is developed to predict the TCS of fluorocarbons as a function of incident electron energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhmann, H.; Predel, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gurzhi, R. N.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Yanovsky, A. V.
2001-10-01
Experimentally electron-beam injection and detection via quantum point-contacts is used to investigate the scattering of a non-equilibrium electron distribution in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of a GaAs/(Ga,Al)As heterostructure. The energy dependence of electron-electron scattering processes has been studied in a weak magnetic field by investigating the detector signal. Assuming electron beams with a narrow opening angle a magnetic field B perpendicular to the 2DEG plane causes only electrons which are scattered in a point O at an angle α to reach the detector. Thus, it is possible to measure directly the energy dependence of the angular electron distribution after scattering. The experimental data give a clear evidence for the importance of small angle scattering processes in two-dimensional systems, as predicted theoretically.
Electron Scattering at Surfaces of Epitaxial Metal Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawla, Jasmeet Singh
In the field of electron transport in metal films and wires, the 'size effect' refers to the increase in the resistivity of the films and wires as their critical dimensions (thickness of film, width and height of wires) approach or become less than the electron mean free path lambda, which is, for example, 39 nm for bulk copper at room temperature. This size-effect is currently of great concern to the semiconductor industry because the continued downscaling of feature sizes has already lead to Cu interconnect wires in this size effect regime, with a reported 2.5 times higher resistivity for 40 nm wide Cu wires than for bulk Cu. Silver is a possible alternate material for interconnect wires and titanium nitride is proposed as a gate metal in novel field-effect-transistors. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of how the growth, the surface morphology, and the microstructure of ultrathin (few nanometers) Cu, Ag and TiN layers affect their electrical properties. This dissertation aims to advance the scientific knowledge of electron scattering at surfaces (external surfaces and grain boundaries), that are, the primary reasons for the size-effect in metal conductors. The effect of surface and grain boundary scattering on the resistivity of Cu thin films and nanowires is separately quantified using (i) in situ transport measurements on single-crystal, atomically smooth Cu(001) layers, (ii) textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers and patterned wires with independently varying grain size, thickness and line width, and (iii) in situ grown interfaces including Cu-Ta, Cu-MgO, Cu-vacuum and Cu-oxygen. In addition, the electron surface scattering is also measured in situ for single-crystal Ag(001), (111) twinned epitaxial Ag(001), and single-crystal TiN(001) layers. Cu(001), Ag(001), and TiN(001) layers with a minimum continuous thickness of 4, 3.5 and 1.8 nm, respectively, are grown by ultra-high vacuum magnetron sputter deposition on MgO(001) substrates with
Lee, Young S.
2015-02-12
The research accomplishments during the award involved experimental studies of correlated electron systems and quantum magnetism. The techniques of crystal growth, neutron scattering, x-ray scattering, and thermodynamic & transport measurements were employed, and graduate students and postdoctoral research associates were trained in these techniques.
Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio
2012-06-01
The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.
Relativistic electron beam acceleration by Compton scattering of extraordinary waves
Sugaya, R.
2006-05-15
Relativistic transport equations, which demonstrate that relativistic and nonrelativistic particle acceleration along and across a magnetic field and the generation of an electric field transverse to the magnetic field, are induced by nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of almost perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic waves in a relativistic magnetized plasma were derived from the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The relativistic transport equations show that electromagnetic waves can accelerate particles in the k{sup ''} direction (k{sup ''}=k-k{sup '}). Simultaneously, an intense cross-field electric field, E{sub 0}=B{sub 0}xv{sub d}/c, is generated via the dynamo effect owing to perpendicular particle drift to satisfy the generalized Ohm's law, which means that this cross-field particle drift is identical to the ExB drift. On the basis of these equations, acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam due to nonlinear wave-particle scattering of electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma were investigated theoretically and numerically. Two electromagnetic waves interact nonlinearly with the relativistic electron beam, satisfying the resonance condition of {omega}{sub k}-{omega}{sub k{sup '}}-(k{sub perpendicular}-k{sub perpendicula=} r{sup '})v{sub d}-(k{sub parallel}-k{sub parallel}{sup '})v{sub b}{approx_equal}m{omega}{sub ce}, where v{sub b} and v{sub d} are the parallel and perpendicular velocities of the relativistic electron beam, respectively, and {omega}{sub ce} is the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The relativistic transport equations using the relativistic drifted Maxwellian momentum distribution function of the relativistic electron beam were derived and analyzed. It was verified numerically that extraordinary waves can accelerate the highly relativistic electron beam efficiently with {beta}m{sub e}c{sup 2} < or approx. 1 GeV, where {beta}=(1-v{sub b}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}){sup -1/2}.
Low-energy elastic electron scattering from furan
Khakoo, M. A.; Muse, J.; Ralphs, K.; Costa, R. F.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.
2010-06-15
We report normalized experimental and theoretical differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering by C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O (furan) molecules from a collaborative project between several Brazilian theoretical groups and an experimental group at California State Fullerton, USA. The measurements are obtained by using the relative flow method with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture target gas collimating source. The relative flow method is applied without the restriction imposed by the relative flow pressure condition on helium and the unknown gas. The experimental data were taken at incident electron energies of 1, 1.5, 1.73, 2, 2.7, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 50 eV and covered the angular range between 10 deg. and 130 deg. The measurements verify observed {pi}* shape resonances at 1.65{+-}0.05eV and 3.10{+-}0.05 eV scattering energies, in good agreement with the transmission electron data of Modelli and Burrow [J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5721 (2004)]. Furthermore, the present results also indicated both resonances dominantly in the d-wave channel. The differential cross sections are integrated in the standard way to obtain integral elastic cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections. The calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were performed in the static-exchange and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The calculated integral and momentum transfer cross sections clearly revealed the presence of two shape resonances located at 1.95 and 3.56 eV and ascribed to the B{sub 1} and A{sub 2} symmetries of the C{sub 2v} point group, respectively, in very good agreement with the experimental findings. Overall agreement between theory and experiment regarding the differential, momentum transfer, and integral cross sections is very good, especially for energies below 10 eV.
Klosowski, Lukasz; Piwinski, Mariusz; Dziczek, Dariusz; Pleskacz, Katarzyna; Chwirot, Stanislaw
2009-12-15
Electron impact coherence parameters for inelastic e-He scattering have been measured for the excitation to the 2 {sup 1}P{sub 1} state at collision energy of 100 eV. The experiment was conducted using angular correlation electron-photon coincidence technique with a magnetic angle changer allowing measurements in full range of scattering angles. The results are compared with other experimental data and theoretical predictions available for this collisional system.
Electron Scattering From a High-Momentum Neutron in Deuterium
Klimenko, Alexei
2004-05-01
The deuterium nucleus is a system of two nucleons (proton and neutron) bound together. The configuration of the system is described by a quantum-mechanical wave function and the state of the nucleons at a given time is not know a priori. However, by detecting a backward going proton of moderate momentum in coincidence with a reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred if we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction. This method, known as spectator tagging, was used to study the electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV polarized electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CLAS detector. The accumulated data cover a wide kinematic range, reaching values of the invariant mass of the unobserved final state W* up to 3 GeV. A data sample of approximately 5 - 10^{5} events, with protons detected at large scattering angles (as high as 136 degrees) in coincidence with the forward electrons, was selected. The product of the neutron structure function with the initial nucleon momentum distribution F_{2n}. S was extracted for different values of W*, backward proton momenta p_{s} and momentum transfer Q^{2}. The data were compared to a calculation based on the spectator approximation and using the free nucleon form factors and structure functions. A strong enhancement in the data, not reproduced by the model, was observed at cos(theta_{pq}) > -0.3 (where theta{sub pq} is the proton scattering angle relative to the direction of the momentum transfer) and can be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. The bound nucleon structure function F_{2n} was studied in the region cos(theta_{pq}) < -0.3 as a function of W* and scaling variable x*. At high spectator proton momenta the struck neutron is far
Electron scattering from and photoionization of open- shell atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Dong
1999-09-01
The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) approach, developed by Dr. H. P. Saha et al, has been proved to be extremely successful in the past few years in reproducing experimental results at a very high level of accuracy. The research projects we are interested consist of two areas. In the first area we performed ab initio calculations on elastic scattering of electrons from open-shell sulfur atoms. In the second area, in order to understand the electronic dynamics in photoionization of atoms, we carried out accurate calculations on valence and K-shell photoionization of three-electron systems from lithium through neon for photon energies from threshold to very high energies; to further identify the autoionization resonances which were observed near threshold and to understand the dynamics, we modifies the MCHF method to include relativistic effects and performed calculation on partial photoionization cross section, resonance structure and effect of spin-orbit interaction in photoionization of atomic bromine. The calculated results obtained in each of these investigations are compared with available experimental and theoretical data and are found to be in very good agreement. The research contribution made for the fulfillment of the degree, we understand, will be a valuable addition towards a better understanding of the open-shell systems.
[Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces]. [Annual] progress report
Not Available
1993-10-01
This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things.
Low-energy electron scattering by cellulose and hemicellulose components.
de Oliveira, Eliane M; da Costa, Romarly F; Sanchez, Sergio d'A; Natalense, Alexandra P P; Bettega, Márcio H F; Lima, Marco A P; Varella, Márcio T do N
2013-02-07
We report elastic integral, differential and momentum transfer cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by the cellulose components β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1 → 4) linked glucose dimer), and the hemicellulose component β-D-xylose. For comparison with the β forms, we also obtain results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1 → 4) linked glucose dimer). The integral cross sections show double peaked broad structures between 8 eV and 20 eV similar to previously reported results for tetrahydrofuran and 2-deoxyribose, suggesting a general feature of molecules containing furanose and pyranose rings. These broad structures would reflect OH, CO and/or CC σ* resonances, where inspection of low-lying virtual orbitals suggests significant contribution from anion states. Though we do not examine dissociation pathways, these anion states could play a role in dissociative electron attachment mechanisms, in case they were coupled to the long-lived π* anions found in lignin subunits [de Oliveira et al., Phys. Rev. A, 2012, 86, 020701(R)]. Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical-chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production.
Reactive scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with molecules
Mestdagh, J.M.; Balko, B.A.; Covinsky, M.H.; Weiss, P.S.; Vernon, M.F.; Schmidt, H.; Lee, Y.T.
1987-06-01
Representative families of excited alkali atom reactions have been studied using a crossed beam apparatus. For those alkali-molecule systems in which reactions are also known for ground state alkali and involve an early electron transfer step, no large differences are observed in the reactivity as Na is excited. More interesting are the reactions with hydrogen halides (HCl): it was found that adding electronic energy into Na changes the reaction mechanism. Early electron transfer is responsible of Na(5S, 4D) reactions, but not of Na(3P) reactions. Moreover, the NaCl product scattering is dominated by the HCl/sup -/ repulsion in Na(5S, 4D) reactions, and by the NaCl-H repulsion in the case of Na(3P). The reaction of Na with O/sub 2/ is of particular interest since it was found to be state specific. Only Na(4D) reacts, and the reaction requires restrictive constraints on the impact parameter and the reactants' relative orientation. The reaction with NO/sub 2/ is even more complex since Na(4D) leads to the formation of NaO by two different pathways. It must be mentioned however, that the identification of NaO as product in these reactions has yet to be confirmed.
Signals of strong electronic correlation in ion scattering processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetto, F.; Gonzalez, C.; Goldberg, E. C.
2016-05-01
Previous measurements of neutral atom fractions for S r+ scattered by gold polycrystalline surfaces show a singular dependence with the target temperature. There is still not a theoretical model that can properly describe the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the neutralization probabilities found. Here, we applied a first-principles quantum-mechanical theoretical formalism to describe the time-dependent scattering process. Three different electronic correlation approaches consistent with the system analyzed are used: (i) the spinless approach, where two charge channels are considered (S r0 and S r+ ) and the spin degeneration is neglected; (ii) the infinite-U approach, with the same charge channels (S r0 and S r+ ) but considering the spin degeneration; and (iii) the finite-U approach, where the first ionization and second ionization energy levels are considered very, but finitely, separated. Neutral fraction magnitudes and temperature dependence are better described by the finite-U approach, indicating that e -correlation plays a significant role in charge-transfer processes. However, none of them is able to explain the nonmonotonous temperature dependence experimentally obtained. Here, we suggest that small changes in the surface work function introduced by the target heating, and possibly not detected by experimental standard methods, could be responsible for that singular behavior. Additionally, we apply the same theoretical model using the infinite-U approximation for the Mg-Au system, obtaining an excellent description of the experimental neutral fractions measured.
High Resolution Inelastic Electron Scattering from LEAD-208.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connelly, James Patrick
Inclusive electron scattering differential cross sections from ^{208}Pb have been measured with energy resolutions better than 20 keV for over 120 discrete states with excitation energies less than 7.3 MeV. The momentum-transfer dependence of these cross sections has been mapped over a range of 0.5 to 2.8 fm^{-1} in the forward direction and 1.0 to 2.9 fm^{ -1} in the backward scattering direction. Over fifty excitations have been analyzed in the Distorted Wave Born Approximation to yield transition charge, current and magnetization densities. The nuclear structure of discrete excitations are interpreted in the framework of 1p-1h transition. The nuclear structure of levels in the excitation region below 4.8 MeV is studied in detail. Above 4.8 MeV, multiplets from single particle-hole configurations coupling to high spin states (J >=q 7) are investigated. Experimental transition densities are compared to Tamm-Dancoff calculations from a correlated ground state.
Electron-deuteron scattering in a relativistic theory of hadrons
Phillips, D.
1998-11-01
The author reviews a three-dimensional formalism that provides a systematic way to include relativistic effects including relativistic kinematics, the effects of negative-energy states, and the boosts of the two-body system in calculations of two-body bound-states. He then explains how to construct a conserved current within this relativistic three-dimensional approach. This general theoretical framework is specifically applied to electron-deuteron scattering both in impulse approximation and when the {rho}{pi}{gamma} meson-exchange current is included. The experimentally-measured quantities A, B, and T{sub 20} are calculated over the kinematic range that is probed in Jefferson Lab experiments. The role of both negative-energy states and meson retardation appears to be small in the region of interest.
Parity Violating Electron Scattering and Strangeness in the Nucleon
Maas, Frank E.
2008-10-13
A measurement of the weak form factor of the proton allows a flavor separation of the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors. The weak form factor is accessed experimentally by the measurement of a parity violating (PV) asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons on unpolarized protons. An extended experimental program to measure these parity violating asymmetries has been performed and is going on at different accelerators. After the first round of experiments allowing a separation of the strangeness form factors G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at a Q{sup 2}-value of 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, new, preliminary results have been achieved at 0.23 (GeV/c){sup 2}.
The Empowerment of Plasma Modeling by Fundamental Electron Scattering Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushner, Mark J.
2015-09-01
Modeling of low temperature plasmas addresses at least 3 goals - investigation of fundamental processes, analysis and optimization of current technologies, and prediction of performance of as yet unbuilt systems for new applications. The former modeling may be performed on somewhat idealized systems in simple gases, while the latter will likely address geometrically and electromagnetically intricate systems with complex gas mixtures, and now gases in contact with liquids. The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering data (FSD) required for these activities increases from the former to the latter, while the accuracy required of that data probably decreases. In each case, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSD. Modeling is, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSD in plasma modeling will be discussed from each of these three perspectives using results from multidimensional and global models. The fundamental studies will focus on modeling of inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Ar/Cl2 where the electron scattering from feed gases and their fragments ultimately determine gas temperatures. Examples of the optimization of current technologies will focus on modeling of remote plasma etching of Si and Si3N4 in Ar/NF3/N2/O2 mixtures. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids Work was supported by the US Dept. of Energy (DE-SC0001939), National Science Foundation (CHE-124752), and the Semiconductor Research Corp.
Lee, E.Y.; Turner, B.R.; Schowalter, L.J.
1993-07-01
Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) of Au/Si(001) n type was done to study whether elastic scattering in the Au overlayer is dominant. It was found that there is no dependence of the BEEM current on the relative gradient of the Au surface with respect to the Si interface, and this demonstrates that significant elastic scattering must occur in the Au overlayer. Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES) was also done, and, rather than using the conventional direct-current BEES, alternating-current (ac) BEES was done on Au/Si and also on Au/PtSi/Si(001) n type. The technique of ac BEES was found to give linear threshold for the Schottky barrier, and it also clearly showed the onset of electron-hole pair creation and other inelastic scattering events. The study of device quality PtSi in Au/PtSi/Si(001) yielded an attenuation length of 4 nm for electrons of energy 1 eV above the PtSi Fermi energy. 20 refs., 5 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betancourt-Riera, Ri.; Betancourt-Riera, Re.; Ferrer-Moreno, L. A.; Jalil, J. M. Nieto
2017-04-01
In this work we determine and show the expressions of the electron states of a step-quantum well with the presence of an external electric field, developed in a GaAs / AlGaAs matrix. The electron states are obtained using the envelope function approximation. In this work it is only necessary to consider a single conduction band, which due to the confinement is divided into a subband system, with T = 0K . Expressions for the electron states and the differential cross-section for an intraband electron Raman scattering process of are presented, the net Raman gain is also calculated. In addition, the interpretation of the singularities found in the emission or excitation spectra is given, since several dispersion configurations are discussed. Furthermore, the effects of an electric field on the electron states and on the differential cross section are studied.
Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov-Bohm potential
Khalilov, V.R.; Ho, C.-L.
2008-05-15
The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov-Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3 + 1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.
Phase-operation for conduction electron by atomic-scale scattering via single point-defect
Nagaoka, Katsumi Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu
2014-03-17
In order to propose a phase-operation technique for conduction electrons in solid, we have investigated, using scanning tunneling microscopy, an atomic-scale electron-scattering phenomenon on a 2D subband state formed in Si. Particularly, we have noticed a single surface point-defect around which a standing-wave pattern created, and a dispersion of scattering phase-shifts by the defect-potential against electron-energy has been measured. The behavior is well-explained with appropriate scattering parameters: the potential height and radius. This result experimentally proves that the atomic-scale potential scattering via the point defect enables phase-operation for conduction electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkrtchyan, Masis M.
2000-12-01
Scattering with angular limitation projection electron lithography (SCALPEL) is a unique charged-particle projection imaging technique that employs a scattering mask with the pattern segmented between supporting struts. An aperture installed in the back-focal plane of the projection lens filters out the electrons scattered at large angles in the patterned area of the mask producing a high contrast aerial image. Various scattering phenomena involved with the energetic (100 keV) electrons carrying the mask pattern information to the wafer through the projection optics are responsible for the aerial image formation in SCALPEL@. These phenomena can be grouped into three major categories: (i) electron elastic scattering in the mask responsible for the aerial image intensity and contrast; (ii) electron inelastic scattering in the mask-membrane that might have negative effects, such as membrane charging, beam chromatic blur generation, mask heating, etc.; (iii) Coulomb interactions of electrons in the beam (space charge effect) generating a beam blur that links the system throughput and resolution. Analytical models developed to describe and quantitatively evaluate these phenomena are briefly reviewed. The implication of these models to the design and optimization of the electron projection lithography systems are discussed.
Resonant scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in the strong field of a pulsed laser wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebed', A. A.; Padusenko, E. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.
2016-02-01
Electron-electron scattering in a strong field of a pulsed laser wave is studied theoretically. Resonant scattering kinematics at the small polar angles for electron ultrarelativistic energy is studied in detail. Compact analytical expressions for the amplitude and the differential cross section for wave elliptical polarization are obtained under resonant conditions. The resonant cross section of electron-electron scattering is shown to decrease sharply with increasing the electron ultrarelativistic energies for weak and moderately strong fields. It was demonstrated that the resonant cross section of electron-electron scattering at wave circular polarization is four times greater than the corresponding cross section at linear polarization. The resonant cross section may exceed the corresponding cross section of a field-free process: by 5-6 orders of magnitude for electron MeV-energy and petawatt optical lasers (PHELIX, Vulcan); and 8-9 orders for multipetawatt laser fields within the femtosecond range (Vulcan10, ELI).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, D. B.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.
2016-04-01
We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20-250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron-furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.
Zheng, Changlin; Zhu, Ye; Lazar, Sorin; Etheridge, Joanne
2014-04-25
We introduce off-axis chromatic scanning confocal electron microscopy, a technique for fast mapping of inelastically scattered electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope without a spectrometer. The off-axis confocal mode enables the inelastically scattered electrons to be chromatically dispersed both parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis. This enables electrons with different energy losses to be separated and detected in the image plane, enabling efficient energy filtering in a confocal mode with an integrating detector. We describe the experimental configuration and demonstrate the method with nanoscale core-loss chemical mapping of silver (M4,5) in an aluminium-silver alloy and atomic scale imaging of the low intensity core-loss La (M4,5@840 eV) signal in LaB6. Scan rates up to 2 orders of magnitude faster than conventional methods were used, enabling a corresponding reduction in radiation dose and increase in the field of view. If coupled with the enhanced depth and lateral resolution of the incoherent confocal configuration, this offers an approach for nanoscale three-dimensional chemical mapping.
eMOL Evaluating electron-water scattering data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Nigel
2013-09-01
The eMOL (electron molecule) project has been established to establish the process by which such data will be reviewed, validated and recommended data sets published. In particular eMOL seeks to suggest whether any particular data set be used as a primary or secondary source of data for the wider community. Primary would mean that is judged to the best representation of that particular interaction/cross section and therefore be used as a ``recommended'' value for users. The first target to be reviewed by eMOL was water with 8 members of the eMOL board meeting in Vienna in May 2013. The Board used the most recent review of electron-water scattering (Itikawa and Mason J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 34 1-22 (2005)) as its reference point. Over 80 papers (collected and disseminated by eMOL's bibliometrician Dr D Jaksch) that had been published subsequent to this review were reviewed and recommendations made as to whether such data should replace recommendations in the earlier review. The Meeting also identified areas (cross sections) for future research, data inconsistencies and reviewed the allocation of uncertainty estimates for complete datasets (assembled from a combination of both experimental and theoretical data). In this presentation I will therefore both present the findings of this review and discuss this study as an exemplar of the wider eMOL programme which will review some 15 electron-molecule datasets in 2013-15 including many of interest to the GEC (plasma) community.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Fineman, M. A.; Poe, R. T.; Csanak, G.; Jensen, S. W.
1983-01-01
Differential (in angle) electron scattering experiments on laser-excited Ba-138 1P were carried out at 30- and 100-eV impact energies. The laser light was linearly polarized and located in the scattering plane. The superelastic scattering signal was measured as a function of polarization direction of the laser light with respect to the scattering plane. It was found at low electron scattering angles that the superelastic scattering signal was asymmetric to reflection of the polarization vector with respect to the scattering plane. This is in contradiction with theoretical predictions. An attempt was made to pinpoint the reason for this observation, and a detailed investigation of the influence of experimental conditions on the superelastic scattering was undertaken. No explanation for the asymmetry has as yet been found.
An efficient method for electron-atom scattering using ab-initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2017-02-01
We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.
Study of Low Energy Electron Inelastic Scattering Mechanisms Using Spin Sensitive Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hongbing
1995-01-01
Spin sensitive electron spectroscopies were used to study low energy electron inelastic scattering from metal surfaces and thin films. In these experiments, a beam of spin polarized electrons from a GaAs source is directed on the sample surface, and the spin polarization and intensity are measured as a function of energy loss and scattering angle by a Mott electron polarimeter coupled with a concentric hemispherical energy analyzer. Systematic studies of the angular dependence of inelastically scattered electrons were conducted on a Cu(100) surface, and Mo/Cu(100), non-magnetized Fe/Cu(100), and Co/Cu(100) films. The polarization and intensity of scattered electrons were measured as function of energy loss and scattering angle. Further studies were also conducted on Ag(100) surface and amorphous Cu/Ag(100) films. From the experimental results, the angular distributions of dipole and impact scattered electrons can be determined individually and both are found to peak in the specular scattering direction. Preliminary studies were conducted on magnetized Co/Cu(100) films. The spin dependent scattering intensity asymmetry was measured, with a clearly observable peak at energy loss of ~1 eV, which coincides with the band splitting. The polarizations of secondary electrons produced by an unpolarized primary beam were also measured. The polarizations can be related to the band polarization of magnetized cobalt films.
Electron Scattering From High-Momentum Neutrons in Deuterium
A.V. Klimenko; S.E. Kuhn
2005-10-12
We report results from an experiment measuring the semi-inclusive reaction D(e,e'p{sub s}) where the proton p{sub s} is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CLAS detector. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final-state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum {rvec p}{sub s} and momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. The data are compared to a simple PWIA spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. A ''bound neutron structure function'' F{sub 2n}{sup eff} was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p{sub s} > 400 MeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F{sub 2n}{sup eff} in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A modification of the bound neutron structure function is one of possible effects that can cause the observed deviation.
Two-Boson Exchange in Electron-Nucleon Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashworth, Jesse; Melnitchouk, Wally; Blunden, Peter
2016-09-01
Researchers are working to determine in-depth information about the proton's substructure. This includes the charge and current distributions of the proton, described by electromagnetic form factors. These quantities can be determined by computing electron-proton scattering cross sections, which have been calculated to first-order expansion in the fine structure constant, α. Experimental discrepancies in the proton's electric-to-magnetic form factor ratio have prompted a need to compute cross sections to second-order expansion in α, involving two-boson exchange (TBE) interactions. Two methods exist for computing TBE contributions: one based on hadronic degrees of freedom (suitable at low Q2) and the other on partonic degrees of freedom (applicable at high Q2). Both methods have been claimed to help account for the form factor discrepancy, but ambiguities exist in the separation of the soft and hard parts of the partonic cross sections. This work aims to resolve such ambiguities and pave the way toward a unified description of TBE effects at all Q2 values. Achieving this goal will further pin down the nature of the proton's interior, and the results in turn can be used to better understand the substructure of the neutron and other hadrons. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility; Old Dominion University; National Science Foundation.
Irradiation effects in close binaries in an electron scattering medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varghese, B. A.; Srinivasa Rao, M.
2016-03-01
In a close binary system, the effects of irradiation are studied from an extended surface of the secondary component on the atmosphere of the primary. Primary and the secondary components are assumed to have equal radii and the thickness of the atmosphere is assumed to be twice that of the stellar radius of the primary component. Self radiation of the primary component (Ss) is calculated through a numerical solution of line transfer equation in the comoving frame with Compton broadening due to electron scattering. The solution is developed through discrete space theory to deal with different velocities in a spherically expanding medium. The irradiation from the secondary (SI) is calculated using one dimensional rod model. It is assumed to be one, five and ten times the self radiation. The total source function (S=Ss+SI) is the sum of the source functions due to self radiation and that due to irradiation. The line fluxes are computed along the line of sight by using the above source functions. Line profiles are also computed for different line center optical depths along the line of sight of the observer at infinity.
Strange vector form factors from parity-violating electron scattering
Kent Paschke, Anthony Thomas, Robert Michaels, David Armstrong
2011-06-01
The simplest models might describe the nucleon as 3 light quarks, but this description would be incomplete without inclusion of the sea of glue and qbar q pairs which binds it. Early indications of a particularly large contribution from strange quarks in this sea to the spin and mass of the nucleon motivated an experimental program examining the role of these strange quarks in the nucleon vector form factors. The strangeness form factors can be extracted from the well-studied electromagnetic structure of the nucleon using parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering to isolate the effect of the weak interaction. With high luminosity and polarization, and a very stable beam due to its superconducting RF cavities, CEBAF at Jefferson Lab is a precision instrument uniquely well suited to the challenge of measurements of the small parity-violating asymmetries. The techniques and results of the two major Jefferson Lab experimental efforts in parity-violation studies, HAPPEX and G0, as well as efforts to describe the strange form factors in QCD, will be reviewed.
Zhang, Yawei
2013-10-01
A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.
A Study of the Quasi-elastic (e,e'p) Reaction on {sup 12}C, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 197}Au
D. Dutta; D. van Westrum; et al
2003-12-09
We report the results from a systematic study of the quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reaction on {sup 12}C, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 197}Au performed at Jefferson Lab. We have measured nuclear transparency and extracted spectral functions (corrected for radiation) over a Q{sup 2} range of 0.64 - 3.25 (GeV/c){sup 2} for all three nuclei. In addition we have extracted separated longitudinal and transverse spectral functions at Q{sup 2} of 0.64 and 1.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} for these three nuclei (except for {sup 197}Au at the higher Q{sup 2}). The spectral functions are compared to a number of theoretical calculations. The measured spectral functions differ in detail but not in overall shape from most of the theoretical models. In all three targets the measured spectral functions show considerable excess transverse strength at Q{sup 2} = 0.64 (GeV/c){sup 2}, which is much reduced at 1.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}.
Mihovilovic, Miha
2012-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to a study of a spin-isospin structure of the polarized ^{3}He. First, an introduction to the spin structure of ^{3}He is given, followed by a brief overview of past experiments. The main focus of the thesis is the E05-102 experiment at Jefferson Lab, in which the reactions ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' d)$ and ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' p)$ in the quasi-elastic region were studied. The purpose of this experiment was to better understand the effects of the S'- and D-state contributions to the ^{3}He ground-state wave-functions by a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries A_{x} and A_{z} in the range of recoil momenta from 0 to about 300 MeV/c. The experimental equipment utilized in these measurements is described, with special attention devoted to the calibration of the hadron spectrometer, BigBite. Results on the measured asymmetries are presented, together with first attempts at their comparison to the state-of-the art Faddeev calculations. The remaining open problems and challenges for future work are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parkins, G. R.; Lawrence, W. E.; Christy, R. W.
1981-01-01
The frequency and temperature dependence of the intraband optical conductivity of the noble metals Cu, Ag and Au is measured and contributions of electron-electron scattering are assessed. Optical measurements were performed at temperatures of 77, 295 and 425 K to obtain values of the Drude electron scattering rate with a linear dependence on temperature which may be attributed to electron-phonon scattering, and a quadratic dependence on photon energy, which is suggestive of electron-electron scattering but is a factor of two to three times greater than would be expected. Comparison of the optical data with dc electrical and thermal resistivity data which also show behavior attributed to electron-electron scattering reveals discrepancies of up to an order of magnitude. Other possible mechanisms for the frequency dependence, including absorptance, electron-surface plasmon interactions, a two-carrier model, and a structure dependence are considered, and it is concluded that the frequency dependence in the Drude scattering rates of the noble metals is not yet quantitatively understood
Construction of the SCRIT electron scattering facility at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakasugi, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Wang, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Amagai, T.; Enokizono, A.; Enomoto, A.; Haraguchi, Y.; Hara, M.; Hori, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kitazawa, R.; Koizumi, K.; Kurita, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ogawara, R.; Shimakura, Y.; Takehara, H.; Tamae, T.; Tamaki, S.; Togasaki, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagi, K.; Suda, T.
2013-12-01
The SCRIT electron scattering facility, aiming at electron scattering off short-lived unstable nuclei, has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This facility consists of a racetrack microtron (RTM), an electron storage ring (SR2) equipped with the SCRIT system, and a low-energy RI separator (ERIS). SCRIT (self-confining radioactive isotope ion targeting) is a novel technique to form internal targets in an electron storage ring. Experiments for evaluating performance of the SCRIT system have been carried out using the stable 133Cs1+ beam and the 132Xe1+ beam supplied from ERIS. Target ions were successfully trapped in the SCRIT system with 90% efficiency at a 250 mA electron beam current, and luminosity exceeding 1026/(cm2 s) was maintained for more than 1 s. Electrons elastically scattered from the target ions were successfully measured. Applicability of the SCRIT system to electron scattering for unstable nuclei has been established in experiments.
Bounce resonance scattering of radiation belt electrons by H+ band EMIC waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Bortnik, Jacob; Tao, Xin; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Lou, Yuequn; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Shi, Run; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi
2017-02-01
We perform a detailed analysis of bounce-resonant pitch angle scattering of radiation belt electrons due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that EMIC waves can resonate with near-equatorially mirroring electrons over a wide range of L shells and energies. H+ band EMIC waves efficiently scatter radiation belt electrons of energy >100 keV from near 90° pitch angles to lower pitch angles where the cyclotron resonance mechanism can take over to further diffuse electrons into the loss cone. Bounce-resonant electron pitch angle scattering rates show a strong dependence on L shell, wave normal angle distribution, and wave spectral properties. We find distinct quantitative differences between EMIC wave-induced bounce-resonant and cyclotron-resonant diffusion coefficients. Cyclotron-resonant electron scattering by EMIC waves has been well studied and found to be a potentially crucial electron scattering mechanism. The new investigation here demonstrates that bounce-resonant electron scattering may also be very important. We conclude that bounce resonance scattering by EMIC waves should be incorporated into future modeling efforts of radiation belt electron dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H.
2016-11-01
Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 1021 cm-3, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, Mariya A.; Klopov, Nicolay V.; Lebedev, Andrei D.; Noskin, Leonid A.; Noskin, Valentin A.; Pavlov, Michail Y.
1997-05-01
We discuss the use of the QELS method for screening of population groups for verified pathologies. For mathematical analysis of experimental data the regularization procedure have been used. This allows us to determine the histograms of particle size distribution of blood plasma samples. For the interpretation of the histogram data the special program of the mathematical processing - 'semiotic classifier' - have been created. The main idea of the 'semiotic classifier' is based on the fact, that formation of the pathological trace in human organism depends not only on concrete disease nature but also on the interaction between the organism sanogenetic mechanisms. We separate five pathological symptomatic complexes of organism status: allergic diseases, intoxications, organism catabolic shifts, auto-immune diseases and degenerative-dystrophy processes. The use of this 'semiotic classifier' in the system of monitoring investigations allows to solve the next problems: (1) to separate the persons with the expressed initial level of pathological processes to the risk groups for the special clinical investigations, (2) to set up the predisposition of the concrete individual towards definite pathologies at the preclinical stage, (3) under the conditions of expressed clinical pathology to study the dynamics of pathology processes.
Electron scattering as a tool to study zero-point kinetic energies of atoms in molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreh, R.; Finkelstein, Y.; Vos, M.
2015-07-01
High resolution electron compton scattering (ECS) is being used to study the atomic momentum distributions and hence the zero-point kinetic energies (ZPKE) of the scattering atoms. Such studies have shown that the scattering is from a single atom of the scattering sample. For an electron beam with a well defined incident energy, the scattered electron energy at any angle from each atomic species is Doppler broadened. The broadening reflects the atomic momentum distribution contributed by both the internal and external motions of the molecular system. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the scattered electron lines it was possible to determine the kinetic energy of the scattering atom including that of its zero-point motion. Thus, the atomic kinetic energies in gases such as H2, D2, HD, CH4 and in H2O, D2O and NH3 were measured and compared with those calculated semi-empirically using the measured optical infra red (IR) and Raman frequencies of the internal vibrations of the molecules. In general, good agreement between the measured and calculated values was found. Electron scattering was also used to study the ratio of e-scattering intensities from the H- and O-atoms in water (H2O), where some anomalies were reported to exist.
An electron beam polarimeter based on scattering from a windowless, polarized hydrogen gas target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernauer, Jan; Milner, Richard
2013-11-01
Here we present the idea to develop a precision polarimeter for low energy, intense polarized electron beams using a windowless polarized hydrogen gas cell fed by an atomic beam source. This technique would use proven technology used successfully in both the electron scattering experiments: HERMES with 27 GeV electron and positron beams at DESY, and BLAST with 850 MeV electron beams at MIT-Bates. At 100 MeV beam energy, both spin-dependent Mo/ller and elastic electron-proton scattering processes have a high cross section and sizable spin asymmetries. The concept is described and estimates for realistic rates for elastic electron-proton scattering and Mo/ller scattering are presented. A number of important issues which affect the ultimate systematic uncertainty are identified.
An electron beam polarimeter based on scattering from a windowless, polarized hydrogen gas target
Bernauer, Jan; Milner, Richard
2013-11-07
Here we present the idea to develop a precision polarimeter for low energy, intense polarized electron beams using a windowless polarized hydrogen gas cell fed by an atomic beam source. This technique would use proven technology used successfully in both the electron scattering experiments: HERMES with 27 GeV electron and positron beams at DESY, and BLAST with 850 MeV electron beams at MIT-Bates. At 100 MeV beam energy, both spin-dependent Mo/ller and elastic electron-proton scattering processes have a high cross section and sizable spin asymmetries. The concept is described and estimates for realistic rates for elastic electron-proton scattering and Mo/ller scattering are presented. A number of important issues which affect the ultimate systematic uncertainty are identified.
Quantum spin correlations in Møller scattering of relativistic electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Włodarczyk, Marta; Caban, Paweł; Ciborowski, Jacek; DrÄ gowski, Michał; Rembieliński, Jakub
2017-02-01
The relativistic spin correlation function was calculated for a pair of electrons originating from Møller scattering of two polarized electron beams. The results were discussed in view of a possible measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities. The special case of scattering off a stationary target (both polarized and unpolarized) was also analyzed. It was shown that the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality may be violated in the relativistic energy range when both scattering electrons are highly polarized.
Parametric interference effect in electron-nucleus scattering in the field of two pulsed laser waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshchupkin, S. P.; Lebed', A. A.
2014-09-01
Electron scattering on a nucleus in a field of two unidirectional pulsed laser waves is considered. The parametric interference effect is studied, which manifests in electron scattering within the plane formed by both the direction of laser-wave propagation and the initial electron momentum (the interference region). In this kinematics the electron emits and absorbs photons of both waves in a correlated manner. The distribution of the differential cross section of the final-electron energy for the process of electron-nucleus scattering in the field of two pulsed waves is considered. This distribution in the interference region differs qualitatively and quantitatively from the corresponding distribution in any other geometry. The appearance of the parametric interference effect may be experimentally verified by measuring the energy spectrum of final electrons in the framework of modern research projects, which use sources of pulsed laser radiation (XFEL, ELI, PHELIX).
Theory of time-resolved nonresonant x-ray scattering for imaging ultrafast coherent electron motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Gopal; Slowik, Jan Malte; Santra, Robin
2014-04-01
Future ultrafast x-ray light sources might image ultrafast coherent electron motion in real space and in real time. For a rigorous understanding of such an imaging experiment, we extend the theory of nonresonant x-ray scattering to the time domain. The role of energy resolution of the scattering detector is investigated in detail. We show that time-resolved nonresonant x-ray scattering with no energy resolution offers an opportunity to study time-dependent electronic correlations in nonequilibrium quantum systems. Furthermore, our theory presents a unified description of ultrafast x-ray scattering from electronic wave packets and the dynamical imaging of ultrafast dynamics using inelastic x-ray scattering by Abbamonte and co-workers. We examine closely the relation of the scattering signal and the linear density response of electronic wave packets. Finally, we demonstrate that time-resolved x-ray scattering from a crystal consisting of identical electronic wave packets recovers the instantaneous electron density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybicki, G. B.; Hummer, D. G.
1994-10-01
Since the mass of the electron is very small relative to atomic masses, Thomson scattering of low-energy photons (hν<
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winge, David O.; Franckie, Martin; Verozzi, Claudio; Wacker, Andreas; Pereira, Mauro F.
2016-10-01
Regardless of all the success of Mid Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), they still do not operate at room temperature in the THz range. The main temperature degrading mechanism for THz QCLs is not known in time of writing this abstract and it is still a topic of debate by the community [S. Khanal et al, J. Opt. 16 094001, 2014]. This is a challenge to theory and it is crucial to treat all possible scattering channels with the same mathematical footing. A summary of different methods for simulating these structures is found in [C. Jirauschek et al, Appl. Phys. Rev. 1 011307, 2014]. In this work we include and study the effects of electron-electron scattering via the Single Plasmon Pole Approximation (SPPA). In this approximation we capture both the static limit as well as dynamic effects. This gives an energy dependent (non-local in time) interaction beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. This has been studied in a similar model with promising results [T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, 2009], and with this work we want to adapt the idea into the model described in Ref. [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, 2013]. We start by summarizing the theory underlying the SPPA and we show how it is implemented in the context of our formalism, by showing good agreement with the results for a four well quantum cascade laser [M. Amanti et al, New J. Phys. 11 125022, 2009].
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherford, Charles A.
1993-01-01
One version of the multichannel theory for electron-target scattering based on the Schwinger variational principle, the SMC method, requires the introduction of a projection parameter. The role of the projection parameter a is investigated and it is shown that the principal-value operator in the SMC equation is Hermitian regardless of the value of a as long as it is real and nonzero. In a basis that is properly orthonormalizable, the matrix representation of this operator is also Hermitian. The use of such basis is consistent with the Schwinger variational principle because the Lippmann-Schwinger equation automatically builds in the correct boundary conditions. Otherwise, an auxiliary condition needs to be introduced, and Takatsuka and McKoy's original value of a is one of the three possible ways to achieve Hermiticity. In all cases but one, a can be uncoupled from the Hermiticity condition and becomes a free parameter. An equation for a based on the variational stability of the scattering amplitude is derived; its solution has an interesting property that the scattering amplitude from a converged SMC calculation is independent of the choice of a even though the SMC operator itself is a-dependent. This property provides a sensitive test of the convergence of the calculation. For a static-exchange calculation, the convergence requirement only depends on the completeness of the one-electron basis, but for a general multichannel case, the a-invariance in the scattering amplitude requires both the one-electron basis and the N plus 1-electron basis to be complete. The role of a in the SMC equation and the convergence property are illustrated using two examples: e-CO elastic scattering in the static-exchange approximation, and a two-state treatment of the e-H2 Chi(sup 1)Sigma(sub g)(+) yields b(sup 3)Sigma(sub u)(+) excitation.
Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.
2012-01-01
We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…
Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Chiari, L.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Ingolfsson, O.
2014-07-21
Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.
Resonant scattering of energetic electrons by unusual low-frequency hiss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig A.; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.; Bernard Blake, J.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Claudepierre, Seth G.
2014-03-01
We quantify the resonant scattering effects of the unusual low-frequency dawnside plasmaspheric hiss observed on 30 September 2012 by the Van Allen Probes. In contrast to normal (~100-2000 Hz) hiss emissions, this unusual hiss event contained most of its wave power at ~20-200 Hz. Compared to the scattering by normal hiss, the unusual hiss scattering speeds up the loss of ~50-200 keV electrons and produces more pronounced pancake distributions of ~50-100 keV electrons. It is demonstrated that such unusual low-frequency hiss, even with a duration of a couple of hours, plays a particularly important role in the decay and loss process of energetic electrons, resulting in shorter electron lifetimes for ~50-400 keV electrons than normal hiss, and should be carefully incorporated into global modeling of radiation belt electron dynamics during periods of intense injections.
A measurement of two-photon exchange in unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurov, Mikhail
2016-03-01
Jefferson Lab experiment E05-017 was designed to study 2-photon exchange contributions to elastic electron-proton scattering over a wide kinematic range. By detecting the scattered proton instead of the electron these measurements will be very sensitive to the ɛ dependence of the cross section and consequently the ratio GE/GM. The goals of the experiment, the experimental technique and the kinematic range will be presented. The analysis sequence and results of the early steps will be outlined.
Proton radius from electron-proton scattering and chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horbatsch, Marko; Hessels, Eric A.; Pineda, Antonio
2017-03-01
We determine the root-mean-square proton charge radius, Rp, from a fit to low-Q2 electron-proton elastic-scattering cross-section data with the higher moments fixed (within uncertainties) to the values predicted by chiral perturbation theory. We obtain Rp=0.855 (11 ) fm. This number falls between the value obtained from muonic hydrogen analyses and the CODATA value (based upon atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron-proton scattering determinations).
Design of a Paraxial Inverse Compton Scattering Diagnostic for an Intense Relativistic Electron Beam
2013-06-01
DESIGN OF A PARAXIAL INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING DIAGNOSTIC FOR AN INTENSE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM ∗ J.E. Colemanξ, J.A. Oertel, C.A. Ekdahl...supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under ξ email: jecoleman@lanl.gov Abstract An inverse Compton ...ray range by the relativistic electrons. The diverging, scattered photons are diffracted onto an X-ray framing camera by an X-ray crystal
Electron-Phonon Scattering in Atomically Thin 2D Perovskites.
Guo, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Huang, Libai
2016-11-22
Two-dimensional (2D) atomically thin perovskites with strongly bound excitons are highly promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the nature of nonradiative processes that limit the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency remains elusive. Here, we present time-resolved and temperature-dependent PL studies to systematically address the intrinsic exciton relaxation pathways in layered (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3) structures. Our results show that scatterings via deformation potential by acoustic and homopolar optical phonons are the main scattering mechanisms for excitons in ultrathin single exfoliated flakes, exhibiting a T(γ) (γ = 1.3 to 1.9) temperature dependence for scattering rates. We attribute the absence of polar optical phonon and defect scattering to efficient screening of Coulomb potential, similar to what has been observed in 3D perovskites. These results establish an understanding of the origins of nonradiative pathways and provide guidelines for optimizing PL efficiencies of atomically thin 2D perovskites.
Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.
2009-02-13
A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carey, Ralph; Lucchese, Robert R.; Gianturco, F. A.
2013-05-01
We present scattering calculations of electron collisions with the platinum-containing compound cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), commonly known as cisplatin, between 0.5 eV and 6 eV, and the corresponding isolated Pt atom from 0.1 eV to 10 eV. We find evidence of resonances in e--CDDP scattering, using an ab initio description of the target. We computed scattering matrix elements from equations incorporating exchange and polarization effects through the use of the static-exchange plus density functional correlation potential. Additionally, we made use of a purely local adiabatic model potential that allows Siegert eigenstates to be calculated, thereby allowing inspection of the possible resonant scattering wave functions. The total cross section for electron scattering from (5d10) 1S Pt displays a large magnitude, monotonic decay from the initial collision energies, with no apparent resonance scattering features in any scattering symmetry. By contrast, the e--CDDP scattering cross section shows a small feature near 3.8 eV, which results from a narrow, well localized resonance of b2 symmetry. These findings are then related to the possible electron-mediated mechanism of the action of CDDP on DNA replication as suggested by recent experiments.
Elastic electron scattering from ortho-, meta-, and paraxylenes, C8H10
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaamini, A.; Khakoo, S. M.; Hargreaves, L.; Khakoo, M. A.; Pastega, D. F.; Bettega, M. H. F.
2017-02-01
Ab initio calculations and normalized experimental measurements of the differential, momentum transfer and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene are presented. The calculated cross sections are obtained using the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The differential cross sections are measured at incident energies from 1 to 30 eV and scattering angles from 10∘ to 130∘. These cross sections are compared to experimental results for toluene. The comparisons illuminate the role of molecular structure in determining the integral cross sections and the angular distributions of resonantly scattered electrons.
Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER
Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas; Strintzi, Dafni
2009-11-15
The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.
Scattering of Light by Electron Wave Packets: Size Doesn't Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John; Glasgow, Scott; Acosta, Sebastian; Ware, Michael; Peatross, Justin
2011-05-01
In support of a current experiment, we investigate light scattering by individual free electrons in an intense laser focus using full second quantization. This addresses the question of whether emission from a large electron packet will be suppressed owing to interference between different parts of the packet. Textbook treatments of Compton scattering generally use exact momentum states, but packets necessarily superpose many momentum states with the possibility of quantum interference (see J. Peatross, C. Muller, K. Hatsagortsyan, and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 153601, 2008). We investigate the details of this interference for both single- photon and coherent-state scattering. Kinematic constraints eliminate interference in the case of unidirectional stimulation, whether the scattering is single- or multi-photon in nature. To all orders of perturbation theory, the scattering exhibits no dependence on the relative phases of constituent momenta, and thus no dependence on wave packet size.
Scattering of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons by a circular potential barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Fogler, Michael M.
2014-12-01
We calculate the differential, total, and transport cross-sections for scattering of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons by a circular barrier. For scatterer of a small radius, the cross-sections are dominated by quantum effects such as resonant scattering that can be computed using the partial-wave series. Scattering by larger size barriers is better described within the classical picture of reflection and refraction of rays, which leads to phenomena of caustics, rainbow, and critical scattering. Refraction can be negative if the potential of the scatterer is repulsive, so that a p -n junction forms at its boundary. Qualitative differences of this case from the n -N doping case are examined. Quantum interference effects beyond the classical ray picture are also considered, such as normal and anomalous diffraction, and also whispering-gallery resonances. Implications of these results for transport and scanned-probe experiments in graphene and topological insulators are discussed.
Low-energy Auger electron diffraction: influence of multiple scattering and angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chassé, A.; Niebergall, L.; Kucherenko, Yu.
2002-04-01
The angular dependence of Auger electrons excited from single-crystal surfaces is treated theoretically within a multiple-scattering cluster model taking into account the full Auger transition matrix elements. In particular the model has been used to discuss the influence of multiple scattering and angular momentum of the Auger electron wave on Auger electron diffraction (AED) patterns in the region of low kinetic energies. Theoretical results of AED patterns are shown and discussed in detail for Cu(0 0 1) and Ni(0 0 1) surfaces, respectively. Even though Cu and Ni are very similar in their electronic and scattering properties recently strong differences have been found in AED patterns measured in the low-energy region. It is shown that the differences may be caused to superposition of different electron diffraction effects in an energy-integrated experiment. A good agreement between available experimental and theoretical results has been achieved.
Scattering of intense laser radiation by a single-electron wave packet
Corson, John P.; Peatross, Justin; Mueller, Carsten; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.
2011-11-15
A quantum theoretical description of photoemission by a single laser-driven electron wave packet is presented. Energy-momentum conservation ensures that the partial emissions from individual momentum components of the electron wave packet do not interfere when the driving field is unidirectional. In other words, light scattering by an electron packet is independent of the phases of the pure momentum states comprising the packet; the size of the electron wave packet does not matter. This result holds also in the case of high-intensity multiphoton scattering. Our analysis is first presented in the QED framework. Since QED permits the second-quantized entangled electron-photon final state to be projected onto pure plane-wave states, the Born probability interpretation requires these projections to be first squared and then summed to find an overall probability of a scattering event. The QED treatment indicates how a semiclassical framework can be developed to recover the key features of the correct result.
Scattering of intense laser radiation by a single-electron wave packet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John P.; Peatross, Justin; Müller, Carsten; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.
2011-11-01
A quantum theoretical description of photoemission by a single laser-driven electron wave packet is presented. Energy-momentum conservation ensures that the partial emissions from individual momentum components of the electron wave packet do not interfere when the driving field is unidirectional. In other words, light scattering by an electron packet is independent of the phases of the pure momentum states comprising the packet; the size of the electron wave packet does not matter. This result holds also in the case of high-intensity multiphoton scattering. Our analysis is first presented in the QED framework. Since QED permits the second-quantized entangled electron-photon final state to be projected onto pure plane-wave states, the Born probability interpretation requires these projections to be first squared and then summed to find an overall probability of a scattering event. The QED treatment indicates how a semiclassical framework can be developed to recover the key features of the correct result.
Brooks, R.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.
1985-08-01
High energy electrons in plasmas have been attributed to various causes including trapping by electron plasma waves created by stimulated Raman scattering. A theory, consistent with experimental results, based on the acceleration of trapped electrons by such electron plasma waves as they propagate in the presence of a density gradient away from the region where they are created is presented. Single particle simulations show accelerating voltages as high as 20 GV/m.
Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray free electron lasers
Holl, A; Bornath, T; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Laarmann, T; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Toleikis, S; Truong, N X; Tschentscher, T; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U
2006-11-21
We propose a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) which aims to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g. in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnostic of such plasmas is a longstanding issue. The collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) is revealed in a pump-probe scattering experiment using the high-brilliant radiation to probe the plasma. The distinctive scattering features allow to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature is determined from scattering off the plasmon mode.
Resonance estimates for single spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering
Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-07-01
We discuss the target and beam normal spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering which depend on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon. We express this imaginary part as a phase space integral over the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor on the nucleon. We use unitarity to model the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor in the resonance region in terms of {gamma}* N {yields} {pi} N electroabsorption amplitudes. Taking those amplitudes from a phenomenological analysis of pion electroproduction observables, we present results for beam and target normal single spin asymmetries for elastic electron-nucleon scattering for beam energies below 1 GeV and in the 1-3 GeV region, where several experiments are performed or are in progress.
Multislice theory of fast electron scattering incorporating atomic inner-shell ionization.
Dwyer, C
2005-09-01
It is demonstrated how atomic inner-shell ionization can be incorporated into a multislice theory of fast electron scattering. The resulting theory therefore accounts for both inelastic scattering due to inner-shell ionization and dynamical elastic scattering. The theory uses a description of the ionization process based on the angular momentum representation for both the initial and final states of the atomic electron. For energy losses near threshold, only a small number of independent states of the ejected atomic electron need to be considered, reducing demands on computing time, and eliminating the need for tabulated inelastic scattering factors. The theory is used to investigate the influence of the collection aperture size on the spatial origin of the silicon K-shell EELS signal generated by a STEM probe. The validity of a so-called local approximation is also considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.
2013-12-01
Adopting several realistic models for the wave distribution and ambient plasmaspheric density, we perform a comprehensive analysis to evaluate hiss-induced scattering coefficients, the relative role of each resonant harmonic, and the overall effect of hiss scattering on the pitch angle evolution and associated decay (loss) processes of relativistic electrons. The results show that scattering by the equatorial, highly oblique component of the hiss emission is negligible. A quasi-parallel propagating wave model of hiss emissions provides a good approximation for evaluation of scattering rates of ≤ 2 MeV electrons. However, realistic wave propagation angles as a function of latitude along the field line must be taken into account to accurately quantify the rates of hiss scattering above 2 MeV. Ambient plasma density is also a critical parameter that can influence hiss scattering rates and resultant pitch angle evolution of electron flux. While the first order cyclotron and the Landau resonances are dominant for hiss-induced scattering of less than 2 MeV electrons, higher order resonances become important and even dominant at intermediate equatorial pitch angles for ultra-relativistic (≥ 3 MeV) electrons. Hiss induced electron pitch angle evolution consistently shows a relatively rapid initial transport of electrons from high to lower pitch angles, with a gradual approach towards an equilibrium shape, and a final state where the entire distribution decays exponentially with time. Although hiss scattering rates near the loss cone control the pitch angle evolution and the ultimate loss of ultra-relativistic electrons, the presence of a scattering bottleneck (a pronounced drop in diffusion rate at intermediate pitch angles) significantly affects the loss rate and leads to characteristic top hat shaped pitch angle distributions at energies below ~1 MeV. Decay timescales are determined to be on the order of a few days, tens of days, and > 100 days for 500 keV, 2 Me
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargsian, Misak; Cosyn, Wim; Weiss, Christian
2015-10-01
For the past several years there have been an intensive research and development for the possible electron-ion collider that will be able to probe deep inelastic processes at unprecedentedly high energies in eA channel. One of the important advantages of the collider kinematics in DIS processes is the possibility for an unambiguous separation of hadrons emerging from DIS and hadrons fragmenting from the target nucleus. This creates a unique possibility for tagging the interacting nucleon with the recoil slow fragments in the DIS process. The situation is most clean for the deuteron target in which case the recoil particle is a nucleon. In addition, the possibility of having polarized deuteron beams will create unprecedented opportunities in probing polarization degrees of freedom for parton distributions in the interacting bound nucleon. In this work we develop a theoretical framework for the polarized electron-polarized deuteron deep inelastic scattering in which the recoil nucleon is detected in the target fragmentation region. Two main contributions for which theoretical models are developed are the plane-wave impulse approximation, in which no reinteractions are taking place between the final state products of DIS and the recoil nucleon.
Total electron scattering cross-sections and negative ion states of halogenated methanes
Underwood-Lemons, T.; Winkler, D.C.; Moore, J.H.; Tossell, J.A.
1993-12-01
The interaction of low energy electrons with halogenated methanes plays an important role in both their atmospheric and plasma processing chemistry. In this work, the total electron scattering cross-sections of mixed fluorohalomethanes (CF{sub n}X{sub 4-n}) were measured for incident electrons in the energy range of 0.2-12 eV using electron transmission spectroscopy. Resonances in the scattering cross-sections may be interpreted as the capture of low energy electrons into unoccupied molecular orbitals. To aid in the assignments of the resulting negative ion states, the authors performed quantum mechanical calculations of the electron attachment energies and measured the dissociative attachment cross-sections. The effect of halogen substitution on the orbitals participating in electron capture are examined.
Enhanced stabilisation of trapped electron modes by collisional energy scattering in tokamaks
Manas, P.; Camenen, Y.; Benkadda, S.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.
2015-06-15
The collisional stabilisation via energy scattering and pitch-angle scattering of micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations with a special emphasis on the often neglected energy scattering operator. It is shown that in the linear regime energy scattering has a negligible effect on Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes but enhances the stabilisation of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) in presence of nonzero ion temperature and density gradients. This stabilisation is sensitive to the model used for the energy restoring term in the collision operator. The contributions of parallel and drift motion to the total growth rate in velocity space are used to characterize the complex stabilisation mechanisms behind pitch-angle and energy scattering for a range of relevant parameters such as the magnetic shear, the collisionality, the logarithmic density gradient, and the logarithmic ion temperature gradient. It is shown that depending on these parameters, energy scattering stabilisation of TEM can be either due to a decrease of the contribution from drifting trapped electrons or to an increase of the contribution from the parallel motion of passing electrons. Finally, for a standard ITG/TEM case, the effect of energy scattering on the nonlinear heat and particle fluxes is investigated.
Electron Scattering Resonances and Dissociative Attachment in Polyatomic Molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olthoff, James Kenneth
The electronic structure and bonding character of a molecule may be understood from the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. Photoelectron spectroscopy has produced a wealth of information about the occupied molecular orbitals, but the unoccupied molecular orbitals have, until recently, been largely ignored. A relatively new technique, electron transmission spectroscopy, is now being used to investigate the unoccupied valence molecular orbitals of many chemical compounds. Electron transmission spectroscopy measures the energy of negative ion states which arise from electron capture into unoccupied molecular orbitals. Additional information about the unoccupied orbitals may be obtained if the negative ion decays by way of dissociation. Determination of the identity, kinetic energy, and production rates of stable ion fragments supplies information about the shape and position of the potential energy curves which describe the electronic states of the molecule and the anion. Used together, photoelectron, electron transmission, and dissociation data can produce a complete picture of a molecule's valence electronic structure. For this work a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been attached to an electron transmission spectrometer to observe negative ion fragments due to dissociative attachment. The mass spectrometer measures the identity and kinetic energy of stable negative ions as a function of incident electron energy. Electron transmission spectra and ion production data have been acquired for many compounds in four chemical categories. Halogen-substituted unsaturated hydrocarbons have been studied to determine the relation between (pi)* anion states and stable ion production. Halogen substituted methanes were examined to determine how (sigma) bonding affects dissociative attachment. Spectra for a series of boron trihalides were obtained to determine correlations between electron transmission data and Lewis acidity. Lastly, substituted metal carbonyls were
A Measurement of Inclusive Quasielastic Electron Cross Sections at X > 1 and High Q^{2}
Petitjean, Thomas
2002-07-04
Experiment E89-008 measured inclusive electron scattering cross sections from different nuclei in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. Cross sections on the low energy loss side of the quasi-elastic peak (x_{Bj} > 1) are extracted for carbon, aluminum, iron and gold. The data cover four-momentum transfers squared of 0.97 to 5.73 GeV ^{2} =c ^{2} . The measured cross sections are compared to cross sections calculated using a microscopic spectral function. The cross section results are also analyzed in terms of the two scaling functions F (y) and f(Ψ'). For both the data is found to be independent of the momentum transfer (scaling of the first kind). For f(Ψ') the data is in addition independent of the mass number A (scaling of the second kind) and thus exhibits superscaling properties.
Cross sections for ultra-low-energy electron scattering from atoms and molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitajima, M.; Shigemura, K.; Hosaka, K.; Odagiri, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.
2016-12-01
Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe at very low electron energies obtained using the technique employing the threshold-photoelectron source are presented. Comparison of the measured cross section for noble gas atoms with those of theoretical results are made.
Use of single scatter electron monte carlo transport for medical radiation sciences
Svatos, Michelle M.
2001-01-01
The single scatter Monte Carlo code CREEP models precise microscopic interactions of electrons with matter to enhance physical understanding of radiation sciences. It is designed to simulate electrons in any medium, including materials important for biological studies. It simulates each interaction individually by sampling from a library which contains accurate information over a broad range of energies.
Electron muon scattering in the exotic Z(0)' pole
Diaz, H.; Ravinez, O.; Romero, D.; Reyes, J.
2009-04-30
The search for new physics in the future Internacional Linear Collider ILC, implies the existence of new particles, among them, the Z(0)' particle. In this regard, we calculate the e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} scattering cross section near the Z(0)' pole, whitin the contex of the SU(3){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} weak model, which contains exotic leptons, quarks, and bosons (E,J,U,V) with the finality of obtain constraints in the parameters of the model.
Imaging Near-Earth Electron Densities Using Thomson Scattering
2009-01-15
the solar corona . The technique used is “white light” imaging of the visible portion of the solar radiative flux as it undergoes Thomson scattering...toward the ecliptic pole. We also examined the output from the Koutchmy-Lamy model of the solar F- corona (Koutchmy and Lamy 1985), which is another...designation of the zodiacal light used in solar physics. Figure 9 shows the bright- ness of the F- corona as a function of radial distance from the Sun in
Angular distribution of electrons elastically scattered from hydrogen atoms
Shyn, T. W.; Cho, S. Y.
1989-08-01
Absolute elastic differential cross sections of atomic hydrogen have been measured by a modulated crossed-beam method. The energy and angular range covered were from 5 to 30 eV and from 12/degree/ to 156/degree/, respectively. The present results agree with the previous measurements within the experimental uncertainty below 15 eV, but it is found that the present results show stronger backward scattering (/gt/120/degree/) than the previous measurement and theoretical results by more than a factor of 2 above 20 eV.
Projections for Measuring the Size of the Solar Core with Neutrino-Electron Scattering.
Davis, Jonathan H
2016-11-18
We quantify the amount of data needed in order to measure the size and position of the ^{8}B neutrino production region within the solar core, for experiments looking at elastic scattering between electrons and solar neutrinos. The directions of the electrons immediately after scattering are strongly correlated with the incident directions of the neutrinos; however, this is degraded significantly by the subsequent scattering of these electrons in the detector medium. We generate distributions of such electrons for different neutrino production profiles, and use a maximum likelihood analysis to make projections for future experimental sensitivity. We find that with approximately 20 years worth of data the Super Kamiokande experiment could constrain the central radius of the shell in which ^{8}B neutrinos are produced to be less than 0.22 of the total solar radius at 95% confidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Čársky, Petr; Čurík, Roman
2016-05-01
In this paper we present calculations of the static polarizability and its derivatives for the adamantane molecule carried out at the density functional theory level using the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and Sadlej's polarized valence triple zeta basis set. It is shown that the polarizability tensor is necessary to correct long-range behavior of DFT functionals used in electron-molecule scattering calculations. The impact of such a long-range correction is demonstrated on elastic and vibrationally inelastic electron collisions with adamantane, a molecule representing a large polyatomic target for electron scattering calculations. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chutjian, A.
1979-01-01
Geometries and focal properties are given for two types of electron-lens system commonly needed in electron scattering. One is an electron gun that focuses electrons from a thermionic emitter onto a fixed point (target) over a wide range of final energies. The other is an electron analyzer system that focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position (e.g., the entrance plane of an analyzer) at fixed energy with a zero final beam angle. Analyzer-system focusing properties are given for superelastically, elastically, and inelastically scattered electrons. Computer calculations incorporating recent accurate tube-lens focal properties are used to compute lens voltages, locations and diameters of all pupils and windows, filling factors, and asymptotic rays throughout each lens system. Focus voltages as a function of electron energy and energy change are given, and limits of operation of each system discussed. Both lens systems have been in routine use for several years, and good agreement has been consistently found between calculated and operating lens voltages.
Diffusion of water in bentonite clay: Neutron scattering study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, V. K.; Prabhudesai, S. A.; Dessai, R. Raut; Erwin Desa, J. A.; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R.
2013-02-01
Diffusion of water confined in natural bentonite clay is studied using the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. X-ray diffraction shows a well-defined crystalline structure of the clay with an interlayer spacing of 13 Å. The QENS experiment has been carried out on hydrated as well as dehydrated clay at 300 K. Significant quasi-elastic broadening was observed in case of hydrated bentonite clay whereas dehydrated clay did not show any broadening over the instrument resolution. Analysis of QENS data reveals that diffusion of water occurs through jump diffusion characterized by random distribution of jump lengths. Diffusion of water in clay is found to be hindered vis a vis bulk water.
EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar) Electron Density Studies.
1987-09-08
lists the corresponding measurements of electron content made by HILAT and calculated from SPI03 measurements for each of the 7 coincident runs. The...TEC measured by HILAT and TEC calculated from EISCAT measurements, the HILAT values being always larger than those from EISCAT. The measurements...HILAT results could be due to several factors. The EISCAT value was calculated by integrating electron density over the range gates 184 km to 746.5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.
2012-04-01
In the scattering of relativistic spin-polarized electrons from point nuclei, two types of polarization correlations are compared: those of a left- or right-circular bremsstrahlung photon at the short-wavelength limit (when the outgoing electron is not observed) and those of an elastically scattered, left- or right-handed electron. Bremsstrahlung is calculated from the Dirac-Sommerfeld-Maue model, and elastic electron scattering is obtained from a partial-wave analysis. By considering a gold target and electron energies Ei up to 20 MeV, a striking similarity of the respective polarization correlations is found to develop when the collision energy is increased beyond 5 MeV. From analytical Born results for light targets it is shown that only for a longitudinally spin-polarized electron do the respective polarization correlations agree in the limit Ei→∞. In the general case, a very high nuclear charge is needed in addition, leading to a sum rule for bremsstrahlung well known from elastic electron scattering.
Scattering of a photon by an electron of the atom continuous spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khopersky, A. N.; Nadolinsky, A. M.; Koneev, R. V.; Yavna, V. A.
2015-08-01
The quantum effect of anomalous inelastic scattering of an X-ray photon by an ɛ p-electron of the 1 s → ɛ p continuous spectrum of the state of atom photoionization is predicted theoretically. It is established that, in the region of elastic photon scattering by an electron of the continuous spectrum, together with the known contribution of the Thomson component ( l = 0), there appears a contribution of the infinite (and countable) number of scattering harmonics l ∈ [1;∞]. As an object of the investigation, the Be atom is taken. The absolute values and shape of the triple differential cross section of the elastic, normal, and anomalous Compton scattering have been obtained.
Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV
Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.
2010-01-15
Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.
Effect of the third π ∗ resonance on the angular distributions for electron-pyrimidine scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D.
2016-07-01
We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the well known third π∗ resonance on the angular behaviour of the elastic cross section in electron scattering from pyrimidine. This resonance, occurring approximately at 4.7 eV, is of mixed shape and core-excited character. Experimental and theoretical results show the presence of a peak/dip behaviour in this energy range, that is absent for other resonances. Our investigations show that the cause of the peak/dip is an interference of background p-wave to p-wave scattering amplitudes with the amplitudes for resonant scattering. The equivalent resonance in pyrazine shows the same behaviour and the effect is therefore likely to appear in other benzene-like molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Effect of an electron scattering cloud on X-ray oscillations produced by beaming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brainerd, J.; Lamb, F. K.
1987-01-01
The effect of a scattering cloud on the amplitude of oscillations produced by a rotating beam of X-rays is investigated using analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The scattering cloud was modeled as a uniform density sphere, and the source was represented as an anistropic distribution of radiation emerging from a point at the center of the scattering cloud. The intensity distribution produced by the source beam is examined as a function of optical depth. The relation between electron scattering optical depth and the forward-backward ratio is studied. It is observed that the scattering in a central corona of various optical depths reduces the amplitude of the oscillation. The data suggest that the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray intensities of some luminous low-mass X-ray binaries are caused by oscillations in the luminosity of the X-ray star.
Electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries in thin Au films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henriquez, Ricardo; Flores, Marcos; Moraga, Luis; Kremer, German; González-Fuentes, Claudio; Munoz, Raul C.
2013-05-01
The electron scattering at surfaces and grain boundaries is investigated using polycrystalline Au films deposited onto mica substrates. We vary the three length scales associated with: (i) electron scattering in the bulk, that at temperature T is characterized by the electronic mean free path in the bulk ℓ0(T); (ii) electron-surface scattering, that is characterized by the film thickness t; (iii) electron-grain boundary scattering, that is characterized by the mean grain diameter D. We varied independently the film thickness from approximately 50 nm to about 100 nm, and the typical grain size making up the samples from 12 nm to 160 nm. We also varied the scale of length associated with electron scattering in the bulk by measuring the resistivity of each specimen at temperatures T, 4 K < T < 300 K. Cooling the samples to 4 K increases ℓ0(T) by approximately 2 orders of magnitude. Detailed measurements of the grain size distribution as well as surface roughness of each sample were performed with a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). We compare, for the first time, theoretical predictions with resistivity data employing the two theories available that incorporate the effect of both electron-surface as well as electron-grain boundary scattering acting simultaneously: the theory of A.F. Mayadas and M. Shatzkes, Phys. Rev. 1 1382 (1970) (MS), and that of G. Palasantzas, Phys. Rev. B 58 9685 (1998). We eliminate adjustable parameters from the resistivity data analysis, by using as input the grain size distribution as well as the surface roughness measured with the STM on each sample. The outcome is that both theories provide a fair representation of both the temperature as well as the thickness dependence of the resistivity data, but yet there are marked differences between the resistivity predicted by these theories. In the case of the MS theory, when the average grain diameter D is significantly smaller than ℓ0(300) = 37 nm, the electron mean free path in the
Rotational excitation of physisorbed H2 by low-energy electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berlinsky, A. J.
1982-07-01
The inelastic-scattering spectrum for pure rotational transitions (J, m)=(0, 0)-->(2, m) by low-energy electrons (2
Electron-ion collision-frequency for x-ray Thomson scattering in dense plasmas
Faussurier, Gérald Blancard, Christophe
2016-01-15
Two methods are presented to calculate the electron-ion collision-frequency in dense plasmas using an average-atom model. The first one is based on the Kubo-Greenwood approach. The second one uses the Born and Lenard-Balescu approximations. The two methods are used to calculate x-ray Thomson scattering spectra. Illustrations are shown for dense beryllium and aluminum plasmas. Comparisons with experiment are presented in the case of an x-ray Thomson scattering spectrum.
Electron-ion collision-frequency for x-ray Thomson scattering in dense plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe
2016-01-01
Two methods are presented to calculate the electron-ion collision-frequency in dense plasmas using an average-atom model. The first one is based on the Kubo-Greenwood approach. The second one uses the Born and Lenard-Balescu approximations. The two methods are used to calculate x-ray Thomson scattering spectra. Illustrations are shown for dense beryllium and aluminum plasmas. Comparisons with experiment are presented in the case of an x-ray Thomson scattering spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomalak, O.; Vanderhaeghen, M.
2016-01-01
We evaluate the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering at small momentum transfer Q2 . We account for the inelastic intermediate states approximating the double virtual Compton scattering by the unpolarized forward virtual Compton scattering. The unpolarized proton structure functions are used as input for the numerical evaluation of the inelastic contribution. Our calculation reproduces the leading terms in the Q2 expansion of the TPE correction and goes beyond this approximation by keeping the full Q2 dependence of the proton structure functions. In the range of small momentum transfer, our result is in good agreement with the empirical TPE fit to existing data.
Andrei V. Afanasev; Stanley J. Brodsky; Carl E. Carlson; Yu-Chun Chen; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2005-01-01
We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer by using a quark-parton representation of virtual Compton scattering. We thus can relate the two-photon exchange amplitude to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that the interference of one- and two-photon exchange contribution is able to substantially resolve the difference between electric form factor measurements from Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments.
Effective field theory for large logarithms in radiative corrections to electron proton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Richard J.
2017-01-01
Radiative corrections to elastic electron proton scattering are analyzed in effective field theory. A new factorization formula identifies all sources of large logarithms in the limit of large momentum transfer, Q2≫me2. Explicit matching calculations are performed through two-loop order. A renormalization analysis in soft-collinear effective theory is performed to systematically compute and resum large logarithms. Implications for the extraction of charge radii and other observables from scattering data are discussed. The formalism may be applied to other lepton-nucleon scattering and e+e- annihilation processes.
Dorset; Dumas; Cartier; Lotz
1999-09-01
Strong violations of Friedel symmetry are observed in hk0 electron diffraction patterns from lamellar crystals of poly(tert-butylethylene sulfide) obtained at 120 kV. These deviations are largely explained by a multislice dynamical scattering calculation based on the crystal structure model. Further improvement is found when a secondary scattering component is added, in keeping with a perfect crystallite thickness less than that of the lamellar thickness. Despite the multiple-scattering perturbations, the frustrated chain packing can still be determined by direct methods followed by Fourier refinement. However, the Friedel-related intensities must be averaged before calculation of normalized structure factors.
Electronic transport and scattering times in tungsten-decorated graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elias, Jamie A.; Henriksen, Erik A.
2017-02-01
The electronic transport properties of a monolayer graphene device have been studied before and after the deposition of a dilute coating of tungsten adatoms on the surface. For coverages up to 2.5% of a monolayer, we find tungsten adatoms simultaneously donate electrons to graphene and reduce the carrier mobility, impacting the zero- and finite-field transport properties. Two independent transport analyses suggest the adatoms lie nearly 1 nm above the surface. The presence of adatoms is also seen to impact the low-field magnetoresistance, altering the signatures of weak localization.
Laser Thomson scattering measurements of electron temperature and density in a hall-effect plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Washeleski, Robert L.
Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) are compact electric propulsion devices with high specific impulse used for a variety of space propulsion applications. HET technology is well developed but the electron properties in the discharge are not completely understood, mainly due to the difficulty involved in performing accurate measurements in the discharge. Measurements of electron temperature and density have been performed using electrostatic probes, but presence of the probes can significantly disrupt thruster operation, and thus alter the electron temperature and density. While fast-probe studies have expanded understanding of HET discharges, a non-invasive method of measuring the electron temperature and density in the plasma is highly desirable. An alternative to electrostatic probes is a non-perturbing laser diagnostic technique that measures Thomson scattering from the plasma. Thomson scattering is the process by which photons are elastically scattered from the free electrons in a plasma. Since the electrons have thermal energy their motion causes a Doppler shift in the scattered photons that is proportional to their velocity. Like electrostatic probes, laser Thomson scattering (LTS) can be used to determine the temperature and density of free electrons in the plasma. Since Thomson scattering measures the electron velocity distribution function directly no assumptions of the plasma conditions are required, allowing accurate measurements in anisotropic and non-Maxwellian plasmas. LTS requires a complicated measurement apparatus, but has the potential to provide accurate, non-perturbing measurements of electron temperature and density in HET discharges. In order to assess the feasibility of LTS diagnostics on HETs non-invasive measurements of electron temperature and density in the near-field plume of a Hall thruster were performed using a custom built laser Thomson scattering diagnostic. Laser measurements were processed using a maximum likelihood estimation method
Two-stage electron acceleration by simultaneous stimulated Raman backward and forward scattering
Bertrand, P.; Ghizzo, A.; Karttunen, S.J.; Paettikangas, T.J.H.; Salomaa, R.R.E.; Shoucri, M.
1995-08-01
The coexistence of stimulated Raman forward and backward scattering of intense electromagnetic radiation, which can occur, for instance, in laser fusion plasmas, is investigated. The simultaneous Raman forward and backward scattering is shown to create an electrostatic field structure which is exceptionally efficient in producing highly relativistic electrons. The mechanism of the electron acceleration is analyzed both by Vlasov--Maxwell simulations with self-consistent fields and by test particle calculations with prescribed electrostatic fields. The Vlasov--Maxwell simulations reveal that the two plasma waves generated by the backward and forward scattering are spatially separated, and thus form a two-stage electron ``accelerator.`` {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Electron-atomic-hydrogen ``elastic" scattering in the presence of a laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.-M.; Chen, J.; Zhou, Z.-F.
2002-05-01
Laser-assisted electron-atomic-hydrogen “elastic" scattering is studied in the first Born approximation. The initial and final states of projectile electron are described by the Volkov wavefunctions; the dressed state of target described by a time-dependent perturbative wavefunction in soft photon approximation. The laser modified cross-sections are calculated in two distinct geometries for laser polarization either parallel or perpendicular to the incident direction of electron. The numerical results shows that the multiphoton cross-sections oscillate by a few orders over the whole scattering angular region. The results for a parallel geometry oscillate more frequently in the intermediate angles; while the results for a perpendicular geometry oscillate more frequently in the forward and backward angles. At large scattering angles, the sum rule of Kroll and Watson is noticeably violated. The laser modification on summed total cross-section increases with field strength, but decreases with field frequency and polarization deviation from the incident direction.
Scattering of twisted electron wave packets by atoms in the Born approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karlovets, D. V.; Kotkin, G. L.; Serbo, V. G.; Surzhykov, A.
2017-03-01
The potential scattering of electrons carrying nonzero quanta of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is studied in a framework of the generalized Born approximation, developed in our recent paper [D. V. Karlovets, G. L. Kotkin, and V. G. Serbo, Phys. Rev. A 92, 052703 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.052703]. We treat these so-called twisted electrons as spatially localized wave packets. The simple and convenient expressions are derived for a number of scattering events in collision of such a vortex electron with a single potential, located at a given impact parameter with respect to the wave packet's axis. The more realistic scenarios are also considered with either localized (mesoscopic) targets or infinitely wide (macroscopic) ones that consist of randomly distributed atoms. Dependence of the electron-scattering pattern on the size and on the relative position of the target is studied in detail for all three scenarios of the single-potential, mesoscopic, and macroscopic targets made of hydrogen in the ground 1 s state. The results demonstrate that the angular distribution of the outgoing electrons can be very sensitive to the OAM and to kinematic parameters of the focused twisted beams, as well as to composition of the target. Scattering of vortex electrons by atoms can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool for diagnostics of such beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavraud, B.; Zhang, Y. C.; Vernisse, Y.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Cassak, P. A.; Dargent, J.; Pollock, C.; Giles, B.; Aunai, N.; Argall, M.; Avanov, L.; Barrie, A.; Burch, J.; Chandler, M.; Chen, L.-J.; Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Coffey, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Egedal, J.; Eriksson, S.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Génot, V.; Graham, D.; Grigorenko, E.; Hasegawa, H.; Jacquey, C.; Kacem, I.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; MacDonald, E.; Magnes, W.; Marchaudon, A.; Mauk, B.; Moore, T. E.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Paterson, W.; Penou, E.; Phan, T. D.; Rager, A.; Retino, A.; Rong, Z. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Schwartz, S. J.; Shen, C.; Smith, S.; Strangeway, R.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Torbert, R.; Turner, D. L.; Wang, S.; Yokota, S.
2016-04-01
Based on high-resolution measurements from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we present the dynamics of electrons associated with current systems observed near the diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause. Using pitch angle distributions (PAD) and magnetic curvature analysis, we demonstrate the occurrence of electron scattering in the curved magnetic field of the diffusion region down to energies of 20 eV. We show that scattering occurs closer to the current sheet as the electron energy decreases. The scattering of inflowing electrons, associated with field-aligned electrostatic potentials and Hall currents, produces a new population of scattered electrons with broader PAD which bounce back and forth in the exhaust. Except at the center of the diffusion region the two populations are collocated and appear to behave adiabatically: the inflowing electron PAD focuses inward (toward lower magnetic field), while the bouncing population PAD gradually peaks at 90° away from the center (where it mirrors owing to higher magnetic field and probable field-aligned potentials).
Spin correlation tensor for measurement of quantum entanglement in electron–electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsurikov, D. E.; Samarin, S. N.; Williams, J. F.; Artamonov, O. M.
2017-04-01
We consider the problem of correct measurement of a quantum entanglement in the two-body electron–electron scattering. An expression is derived for a spin correlation tensor of a pure two-electron state. A geometric measure of a quantum entanglement as the distance between two forms of this tensor in entangled and separable cases is presented. Due to such definition, one does not need to look for the closest separable state to the analyzed state. We prove that introduced measure satisfies properties of a valid entanglement measure: nonnegativity, discriminance, normalization, non-growth under local operations and classical communication. This measure is calculated for a problem of electron–electron scattering. We prove that it does not depend on the azimuthal rotation angle of the second electron spin relative to the first electron spin before scattering. We specify how to find a spin correlation tensor and the related measure of a quantum entanglement in an experiment with electron–electron scattering. Finally, the introduced measure is extended to the mixed states.
Scattering-induced quantum correlation in electronic waveguides with static magnetic impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbari-Adivi, E.; Soltani, M.; Alami, Z.; Sheikhali, M.
2016-10-01
Entanglement generation due to low-energy scattering of the transporting electrons in an electronic waveguide by a quantum dot magnetic impurity is theoretically investigated. The transverse confining potential of the waveguide is considered as a two-dimensional harmonic potential, and the interaction of the electron with the impurity is described by a zero-range pseudopotential modulated by an Ising or a Heisenberg spin interaction. Our calculation shows that the scattering process leads to creation of a considerable amount of entanglement in the state of the reflected and transmitted electrons. The situation is extended to the scattering of the electrons by two well-separated magnetic impurities localized on the nanowire axis. It is shown that the scattering process causes the magnetic impurities embedded in the nanowire to share their quantum information; subsequently, they can be entangled by spin interaction with the injected electron. The created entanglement between the impurities is calculated and discussed. It is shown that the exact three-dimensional problem can be approximated as a one-dimensional problem under certain circumstances. The approximate results are compared to exact calculations and discussed.
Positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine: Shape resonances and methylation effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, Fernanda B.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Sanchez, Sergio d'Almeida
2016-12-01
We report integral cross sections (ICSs) for both positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine amino acids. These molecules differ only by a methyl group. We computed the scattering cross sections using the Schwinger multichannel method for both glycine and alanine in different levels of approximation for both projectiles. The alanine ICSs are greater in magnitude than the glycine ICSs for both positron and electron scattering, probably due to the larger size of the molecule. In electron scattering calculations, we found two resonances for each molecule. Glycine presents one at 1.8 eV, and another centered at around 8.5 eV, in the static-exchange plus polarization (SEP) approximation. The ICS for alanine shows one resonance at 2.5 eV and another at around 9.5 eV, also in SEP approximation. The results are in good agreement with most of the data present in the literature. The comparison of the electron scattering ICSs for both molecules indicates that the methylation of glycine destabilizes the resonances, shifting them to higher energies.
Raman scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas: Boltzmann equation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishchenko, E. G.
1999-06-01
The inelastic light scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas is studied theoretically using the Boltzmann equation techniques. Electron-hole excitations produce the Raman spectrum essentially different from the one predicted for the 3D case. In the clean limit it has the form of a strong nonsymmetric resonance due to the square-root singularity at the electron-hole frequency ω=vk, while in the opposite dirty limit the usual Lorentzian shape of the cross section is reestablished. The effects of electromagnetic field are considered self-consistently, and the contribution from collective plasmon modes is found. It is shown that unlike 3D metals where plasmon excitations are unobservable (because of very large required transferred frequencies), the two-dimensional electron system gives rise to a low-frequency (ω~k1/2) plasmon peak. A measurement of the width of this peak can provide data on the magnitude of the electron-scattering rate.
Observation of the second harmonic in Thomson scattering from relativistic electrons.
Babzien, Marcus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kusche, Karl; Pavlishin, Igor V; Pogorelsky, Igor V; Siddons, David P; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Cline, David; Zhou, Feng; Hirose, Tachishige; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kumita, Tetsuro; Omori, Tsunehiko; Urakawa, Junji; Yokoya, Kaoru
2006-02-10
A free relativistic electron in an electromagnetic field is a pure case of a light-matter interaction. In the laboratory environment, this interaction can be realized by colliding laser pulses with electron beams produced from particle accelerators. The process of single photon absorption and reemission by the electron, so-called linear Thomson scattering, results in radiation that is Doppler shifted into the x-ray and gamma-ray regions. At elevated laser intensity, nonlinear effects should come into play when the transverse motion of the electrons induced by the laser beam is relativistic. In the present experiment, we achieved this condition and characterized the second harmonic of Thomson x-ray scattering using the counterpropagation of a 60 MeV electron beam and a subterawatt CO2 laser beam.
Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babzien, Marcus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kusche, Karl; Pavlishin, Igor V.; Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Siddons, David P.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Cline, David; Zhou, Feng; Hirose, Tachishige; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kumita, Tetsuro; Omori, Tsunehiko; Urakawa, Junji; Yokoya, Kaoru
2006-02-01
A free relativistic electron in an electromagnetic field is a pure case of a light-matter interaction. In the laboratory environment, this interaction can be realized by colliding laser pulses with electron beams produced from particle accelerators. The process of single photon absorption and reemission by the electron, so-called linear Thomson scattering, results in radiation that is Doppler shifted into the x-ray and γ-ray regions. At elevated laser intensity, nonlinear effects should come into play when the transverse motion of the electrons induced by the laser beam is relativistic. In the present experiment, we achieved this condition and characterized the second harmonic of Thomson x-ray scattering using the counterpropagation of a 60 MeV electron beam and a subterawatt CO2 laser beam.
A split-electrode for clearing scattered electrons in the RHIC e-lens
Gu X.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.; Fischer, W.; Hock, J.; Hamdi, K.; Gassner,D.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.
2012-05-20
We are designing two electron lenses that will be installed at RHIC IR10 to compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect. To clear accumulated scattered electrons from 100 GeV proton-electron head-on collisions in the e-lens, a clearing split electrode may be constructed. The feasibility of this proposed electrode was demonstrated via the CST Particle Studio and Opera program simulations. By splitting one of the drift tubes in the e-lens and applying {approx} 380 V across the two parts, the scattered electrons can be cleared out within several hundred micro-seconds. At the same time we can restrict the unwanted shift of the primary electron-beam that already passed the 2-m interaction region in e-lens, to less than 15um.
Electron-phonon interaction and Raman scattering in nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimin, S. N.; Pokatilov, E. P.; Fomin, V. M.; Devreese, J. T.; Gladilin, V. N.; Balaban, S. N.
1997-03-01
The vibrational eigenmodes of a nanocrystal are derived by diagonalization of the equations of motion for the ionic displacement taking into account a non-parabolic dispersion with electrostatic and mechanical boundary conditions. A finite width of the Brillouin zone leads automatically to a finite basis of vibrational modes. The developed method can be applicable to nanostructures of an arbitrary geometry. For a spherical nanocrystal, a dispersion equation contains the effective multimode dielectric function. The resulting eigenmodes are mixed bulk-like and interface waves, especially in the short-wavelength region. Using the obtained Hamiltonian, the one-phonon and two-phonon resonant Raman scattering spectra are calculated for a spherical CdSe nanocrystal in the borosilicate glass. The valence band mixing dramatically enhances relative intensities of the two-phonon peaks and makes the adiabatic approximation inapplicable. Hence, the Huang-Rhys parameter is not an adequate characteristic of the optical spectra. Using a direct expansion of the evolution operator, a good agreement has been achieved between the calculated and the experimentally observed [1] Raman spectra. [1] M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
X-ray and electron scattering intensities of molecules calculated using density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Garry T.; Tripathi, Awadh N.; Smith, Vedene H.
1999-05-01
The elastic and total intensities for x-ray and high-energy electron scattering from the ten-electron hydride series has been calculated from Kohn-Sham orbitals using the BLYP, B3LYP and LSDA functionals, and compared to the previous Hartree-Fock and singles and doubles configuration interaction (SDCI) results of Wang [J. Wang, A. N. Tripathi, and V. H. Smith, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4842 (1994)] in the same basis. In those cases where density functional theory (DFT) provides a significantly better electron density than Hartree-Fock, the pair density and hence total scattering intensity for x-rays is also better reproduced, especially in the low s region. The asymptotic behavior of the scattering curves from the DFT methods is poorer than Hartree-Fock due to the inability of DFT to reliably predict the density at the nucleus, the electron-electron distribution at zero-electron separation, and the second moment of the electron-electron distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, O. V.; Kazinski, P. O.
2015-02-01
The problem of scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons by a strong plane electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization is solved in the semiclassical approximation, when the electron wave packet size is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic wave. The exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered are found using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at small angles to the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momentum. The momentum component parallel to the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined solely by the laser beam diameter measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part lose the energy, but remain relativistic. A reflection law that relates the incident and reflection angles and is independent of any parameters is found.
Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krämer, J. M.; Budde, M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensen, J. P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.
2016-09-01
The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.
Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetries in Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
Armstrong, D. S.; Averett, T.; Bailey, S. L.; Finn, J. M.; Griffioen, K. A.; Moffit, B.; Phillips, S. K.; Secrest, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Arvieux, J.; Bimbot, L.; Guler, H.; Lenoble, J.; Marchand, D.; Morlet, M.; Ong, S.; Van de Wiele, J.
2007-08-31
We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q{sup 2}=0.15, 0.25 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A{sub n} provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the 2{gamma} exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.
Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux
Park, Jaewon
2013-01-01
Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\
Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV
Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.
2014-03-05
The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].
Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma
Dzhumagulova, K. N. Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.
2015-08-15
Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer–Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.
Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.
2015-08-01
Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer-Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.
Xu, Tong; Chen, Min Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie
2014-01-06
We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90° Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of the scattered radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahcivan, H.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Tsunoda, R. T.
2006-07-01
This article investigates the combined electron heating and streaming effects of low-frequency parallel electric fields on the incoherent scatter measurements of the high-latitude E region. The electric fields distort the electron distribution function, inducing changes on the amplitude and frequency of the ion-acoustic line in the measured incoherent scatter spectrum. If one assumes Maxwellian electrons, the measurements of electron and ion temperatures and electron density are subject to significant percentage errors during geomagnetically active conditions.
Multiple scattering calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorissen, K.; Rehr, J. J.; Verbeeck, J.
2010-04-01
A generalization of the real-space Green’s-function approach is presented for ab initio calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra (EELS) which are particularly important in anisotropic materials. The approach incorporates relativistic effects in terms of the transition tensor within the dipole-selection rule. In particular, the method accounts for relativistic corrections to the magic angle in orientation resolved EELS experiments. The approach is validated by a study of the graphite CK edge, for which we present an accurate magic angle measurement consistent with the predicted value.
Development of a Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter for Precision Parity-Violating Electron Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, Valerie M.
2013-10-01
Parity-violating electron scattering experiments allow for testing the Standard Model at low energy accelerators. Future parity-violating electron scattering experiments, like the P2 experiment at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, and the MOLLER and SoLID experiments at Jefferson Lab will measure observables predicted by the Standard Model to high precision. In order to make these measurements, we will need to determine the polarization of the electron beam to sub-percent precision. The present way of measuring the polarization, with Møller scattering in iron foils or using Compton laser backscattering, will not easily be able to reach this precision. The novel Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter presents a non-invasive way to measure the electron polarization by scattering the electron beam off of atomic hydrogen gas polarized in a 7 Tesla solenoidal magnetic trap. This apparatus is expected to be operational by 2016 in Mainz. Currently, simulations of the polarimeter are used to develop the detection system at College of William & Mary, while the hydrogen trap and superconducting solenoid magnet are being developed at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz. I will discuss the progress of the design and development of this novel polarimeter system. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1206053.
Determination of the Proton's Weak Charge via Parity Violating Electron Scattering
Hoskins, Joshua Russell
2015-08-01
The Qweak experiment, which completed running in May of 2012 at Jefferson Laboratory, has measured the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at four-momentum transfer Q^{2}=0.025 (GeV/c)^{2} in order to provide the first direct measurement of the proton's weak charge, Qpw. The Standard Model makes firm predictions for the weak charge; deviations from the predicted value would provide strong evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Using an 89% polarized electron beam at 145 microA scattering from a 34.4 cm long liquid hydrogen target, scattered electrons were detected using an array of eight fused-silica detectors placed symmetric about the beam axis. The parity-violating asymmetry was then measured by reversing the helicity of the incoming electrons and measuring the normalized difference in rate seen in the detectors. The low Q^{2} enables a theoretically clean measurement; the higher order hadronic corrections are constrained using previous parity-violating electron scattering world data. The experimental method will be discussed, with recent results constituting 4% of our total data and projections of our proposed uncertainties on the full data set.
Investigation of the clinical potential of scattering foil free electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C.-M. Charlie
2014-02-01
Electron beam therapy has been an important radiation therapy modality for many decades. Studies have been conducted recently for more efficient and advanced delivery of electron beam radiation therapy. X-ray contamination is a common problem that exists with all of the advanced electron beam therapy techniques such as Bolus Electron conformal therapy, segmented electron conformal therapy, and modulated electron arc therapy. X-ray contamination could add some limitations to the advancement and clinical utility of those electron modalities. It was previously shown in the literature that the scattering foil is one of the major accelerator parts contributing to the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. Thus, in this work we investigate the dosimetric characteristics of scattering foil free (SFF) electron beams and the feasibility of using those beams for breast cancer boosts. The SFF electron beams were modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo method. CT scans of six previously treated breast patients were used for the treatment plan generation utilizing our in-house Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system. Electron boost plans with conventional beams and the SFF beams were generated, respectively, for all patients. A significant reduction of the photon component was observed with the removal of the primary scattering foil for beam energies higher than 12 MeV. Flatness was greatly affected but the difference in flatness between conventional and SFF beams was much reduced for small cone sizes, which were often used clinically for breast boosts. It was found that the SFF electron beams could deliver high-quality dose distributions as conventional electron beams for boost treatments of the breast with an added advantage of a further reduced dose to the lung and the heart.
Investigation of the clinical potential of scattering foil free electron beams.
Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C-M Charlie
2014-02-21
Electron beam therapy has been an important radiation therapy modality for many decades. Studies have been conducted recently for more efficient and advanced delivery of electron beam radiation therapy. X-ray contamination is a common problem that exists with all of the advanced electron beam therapy techniques such as Bolus Electron conformal therapy, segmented electron conformal therapy, and modulated electron arc therapy. X-ray contamination could add some limitations to the advancement and clinical utility of those electron modalities. It was previously shown in the literature that the scattering foil is one of the major accelerator parts contributing to the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. Thus, in this work we investigate the dosimetric characteristics of scattering foil free (SFF) electron beams and the feasibility of using those beams for breast cancer boosts. The SFF electron beams were modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo method. CT scans of six previously treated breast patients were used for the treatment plan generation utilizing our in-house Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system. Electron boost plans with conventional beams and the SFF beams were generated, respectively, for all patients. A significant reduction of the photon component was observed with the removal of the primary scattering foil for beam energies higher than 12 MeV. Flatness was greatly affected but the difference in flatness between conventional and SFF beams was much reduced for small cone sizes, which were often used clinically for breast boosts. It was found that the SFF electron beams could deliver high-quality dose distributions as conventional electron beams for boost treatments of the breast with an added advantage of a further reduced dose to the lung and the heart.
Vos, M; Moreh, R; Tokési, K
2011-07-14
The momentum distributions of C atoms in polycrystalline diamond (produced by chemical vapor deposition) and in highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) are studied by scattering of 40 keV electrons at 135°. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the energy of the elastically scattered electrons, we resolve a Compton profile of the motion of the C atoms. The aim of the present work is to resolve long-standing disagreements between the calculated kinetic energies of carbon atoms in HOPG and in diamond films and the measured ones, obtained both by neutron Compton scattering (NCS) and by nuclear resonance photon scattering (NRPS). The anisotropy of the momentum distribution in HOPG was measured by rotating the HOPG sample relative to the electron beam. The obtained kinetic energies for the motion component along, and perpendicular to, the graphite planes were somewhat higher than those obtained from the most recent NCS data of HOPG. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that multiple scattering adds about 2% to the obtained kinetic energies. The presence of different isotopes in carbon affects the measurement at a 1% level. After correcting for these contributions, the kinetic energies are 3%-6% larger than the most recent NCS results for HOPG, but 15%-25% smaller than the NRPS results. For diamond, the corrected direction-averaged kinetic energy is ≈ 6% larger than the calculated value. This compares favorably to the ≈25% discrepancy between theory and both the NCS and NRPS results for diamond.
Detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of low-energy electron-N2 scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weiguo; Morrison, Michael A.; Isaacs, William A.; Trail, Wayne K.; Alle, Dean T.; Gulley, R. J.; Brennan, Michael J.; Buckman, Stephen J.
1995-08-01
We have carried out a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of electron scattering from molecular nitrogen at energies below 10.0 eV. In the theoretical component of this project we have generated differential and integral cross sections for elastic scattering and vibrational excitation in converged vibrational close-coupling calculations. In the experiments, we have measured differential cross sections for these processes at scattering angles from 20° to 130° in a crossed-beam experiment at a large number of energies between 0.55 and 10 eV and, in a complementary time-of-flight experiment, total cross sections at energies between 0.08 and 10.0 eV. The measured angular distributions have been extrapolated to 0° and 180° using a procedure based on a nonlinear least-squares fit constrained by known physical properties of the e-N2 scattering matrix; numerical integration of the resulting extrapolated distributions yields integrated cross sections with almost no error beyond that inherent in the measured angular data. We find generally good agreement between the present experimental and theoretical cross section, particularly at energies near the Πg resonance near 2.39 eV. In previous studies of scattering in this region, such comparisons have been made problematical by the difficulty of ascertaining the appropriate theoretical scattering energy. We recommend here a protocol for resolving this problem for both elastic scattering and vibrational excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaduwela, Ajith P.
We apply a new separable-Green's-function matrix method due to Rehr and Albers (Phys. Rev. B4l (1990) 8139) to a multiple scattering treatment of photoelectron diffraction and Auger electron diffraction. This cluster -based method permits building up successive orders of scattering and judging the approach to convergence in a convenient and time-saving way. We include multiple scattering up to tenth order and can treat photoelectron emission form any initial state (s, p, d, or f) with full final-state interference. This new approach is used to simulate emission from linear and bent chains of atoms, from epitaxial overlayers and multilayer substrates and from atomic and molecular adsorbates, and various conclusions are drawn concerning the range of utility of the method and the geometric structures for which multiple scattering effects must be considered.
Enhanced charge excitations in electron-doped cuprates by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tohyama, Takami; Tsutsui, Kenji; Mori, Michiyasu; Sota, Shigetoshi; Yunoki, Seiji
2015-07-01
Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) tuned for the Cu L edge is a possible tool to detect charge excitations in cuprate superconductors. We theoretically investigate the possibility for observing a collective charge excitation by the RIXS. The RIXS process via the intermediate state inevitably makes the spectral weight of charge excitation stronger in electron doping than in hole doping. Electron-hole asymmetry also appears in the dynamical charge structure factor, showing a new enhanced small-momentum low-energy mode in electron doping. These facts indicate a possibility of detecting the new charge mode by RIXS in electron-doped systems.
Wave-wave interactions due to scattering by electrons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.
1971-01-01
The kinetic wave equation which describes the nonlinear wave-particle interaction in a plasma is considered, and a method which uses the picture of quantized plasmons interacting with particles for the description of nonlinear wave-particle interactions is briefly described. In this method an assumption is made of the Markoffian character of the equation. It is shown that the Markoffian assumption can be justified at least for the case when the plasma is close to a stable stationary state. The diagram method developed by Nishikawa (1966) is used to derive an explicit expression for the kinetic equation. The application of the result to the case of interaction between an electron-wave and an ion-wave is discussed.
Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.
2005-02-01
Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.
Born Hartree Bethe approximation in the theory of inelastic electron molecule scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kretinin, I. Yu; Krisilov, A. V.; Zon, B. A.
2008-11-01
We propose a new approximation in the theory of inelastic electron atom and electron molecule scattering. Taking into account the completeness property of atomic and molecular wavefunctions, considered in the Hartree approximation, and using Bethe's parametrization for electronic excitations during inelastic collisions via the mean excitation energy, we show that the calculation of the inelastic total integral cross-sections (TICS), in the framework of the first Born approximation, involves only the ground-state wavefunction. The final analytical formula obtained for the TICS, i.e. for the sum of elastic and inelastic ones, contains no adjusting parameters. Calculated TICS for electron scattering by light atoms and molecules (He, Ne, and H2) are in good agreement within the experimental data; results show asymptotic coincidence for heavier ones (Ar, Kr, Xe and N2).
Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Fekete, Paula; Zhemchuzhna, Liubov
2014-03-31
A two-dimensional periodic array of scatterers has been introduced to a single layer of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer. The eigenvalue equation for such a system has been solved numerically to display the structure of split Landau subbands as functions of both wave number and magnetic flux. The effects of pseudo-spin coupling and Landau subbands mixing by a strong scattering potential have been demonstrated. Additionally, we investigated the square barrier tunneling problem when magnetic field is present, as well as demonstrate the crucial difference in the modulated band structure between graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas. The low-magnetic field regime is particularly interesting for Dirac fermions and has been discussed. Tunneling of Dirac electrons through a magnetic potential barrier has been investigated to complement the reported results on electrostatic potential scattering in the presence of an ambient magnetic field.
Murguia, Gabriela; Moreno, Matias; Torres, Manuel
2009-04-20
A well known example in quantum electrodynamics (QED) shows that Coulomb scattering of unpolarized electrons, calculated to lowest order in perturbation theory, yields a results that exactly coincides (in the non-relativistic limit) with the Rutherford formula. We examine an analogous example, the classical and perturbative quantum scattering of an electron by a magnetic field confined in an infinite solenoid of finite radius. The results obtained for the classical and the quantum differential cross sections display marked differences. While this may not be a complete surprise, one should expect to recover the classical expression by applying the classical limit to the quantum result. This turn not to be the case. Surprisingly enough, it is shown that the classical result can not be recuperated even if higher order corrections are included. To recover the classic correspondence of the quantum scattering problem a suitable non-perturbative methodology should be applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Suvam; Naghma, Rahla; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby
2016-07-01
The total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by benzene, halobenzenes, toluene, aniline, and phenol are reported over a wide energy domain. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential method has been employed to find the total elastic and inelastic cross sections. The total ionization cross section is estimated from total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionization contribution method. In the present article, the first theoretical calculations for electron impact total and ionization cross section have been performed for most of the targets having numerous practical applications. A reasonable agreement is obtained compared to existing experimental observations for all the targets reported here, especially for the total cross section.
Ab initio electron scattering cross-sections and transport in liquid xenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyle, G. J.; McEachran, R. P.; Cocks, D. G.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.
2016-09-01
Ab initio fully differential cross-sections for electron scattering in liquid xenon are developed from a solution of the Dirac-Fock scattering equations, using a recently developed framework (Boyle et al 2015 J. Chem. Phys. 142 154507) which considers multipole polarizabilities, a non-local treatment of exchange, and screening and coherent scattering effects. A multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation accounting for the full anisotropic nature of the differential cross-section is used to calculate transport properties of excess electrons in liquid xenon. The results were found to agree to within 25% of the measured mobilities and characteristic energies over the reduced field range of 10-4-1 Td. The accuracies are comparable to those achieved in the gas phase. A simple model, informed by highly accurate gas-phase cross-sections, is presented to improve the liquid cross-sections, which was found to enhance the accuracy of the transport coefficient calculations.
Scattering of strong electromagnetic wave by relativistic electrons: Thomson and Compton regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.
2017-04-01
The processes of the nonlinear Compton and the nonlinear Thomson scattering in a field of intense plane electromagnetic wave in terms of photon yield have been considered. The quantum consideration of the Compton scattering process allows us to calculate the probability of a few successive collisions k of an electron with laser photons accompanied by the absorption of n photons (nonlinear regime) when the number of collisions and the number of absorbed photons are of random quantities. The photon spectrum of the nonlinear Thomson scattering process was obtained from the classical formula for intensity using the Planck's law. The conditions for which the difference between the classical and the quantum regimes is manifested was obtained. Such a condition is determined by a discrete quantum radiation mechanism, namely, by the mean number of photons k bar emitted by an electron passing through the laser pulse.
Scattering of Low Energy Electrons and Positrons from Hydrogenic Systems and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, Anand K.
2007-01-01
While the electron scatters from the target, the target no longer stays in its original form. One of the first methods to take into account the distortion of the target at low incident energies is the method of polarized orbitals. In this method the wave function for the process is written using the first-order perturbation theory and the equation for the scattering function is derived from the Schradinger equation. This method has been very successful in calculating the phase shifts and therefore the cross sections at various energies. The total wave function can be used to calculate photoionization cross sections. The disadvantage of this approach is that the method is not variational and therefore does not provide bounds on the phase shifts. These difficulties can be overcome by using the Feshbach projection operator formalism. This approach has been employed for the scattering of electrons and positrons from targets. Results of various calculations will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Kakuta; Morimoto, Yuya; Kanya, Reika; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2017-02-01
Multiphoton free-free transitions were observed in laser-assisted elastic electron scattering (LAES) by Xe atoms in a femtosecond near-infrared intense laser field. The distinct peak structures at the energy shifts of n -photons (n =+1 ,+2 ,+3 ,+4 ,+5 , and +6 ) were identified in the observed energy spectrum, and the energy and angular distributions of the LAES signals were in good agreement with those obtained by numerical simulations based on the Kroll-Watson theory. The LAES signal intensities at the scattering angles at 9.1° and 11.8° exhibited a clear plateau structure as a function of the harmonic order n , and the mechanism of these nonperturbative LAES processes was interpreted by a classical mechanical description.
Entangled Valence Electron-Hole Dynamics Revealed by Stimulated Attosecond X-ray Raman Scattering
Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan
2012-01-01
We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by stimulated resonant Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction. PMID:23755318
Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering
Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul
2012-09-06
We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.
Parity conservation in electron-phonon scattering in zigzag graphene nanoribbon
Chu, Yanbiao; Gautreau, Pierre; Basaran, Cemal
2014-09-15
In contrast with carbon nanotubes, the absence of translational symmetry (or periodical boundary condition) in the restricted direction of zigzag graphene nanoribbon removes the selection rule of subband number conservation. However, zigzag graphene nanoribbons with even dimers do have the inversion symmetry. We, therefore, propose a selection rule of parity conservation for electron-phonon interactions. The electron-phonon scattering matrix in zigzag graphene nanoribbons is developed using the tight-binging model within the deformation potential approximation.
Parity conservation in electron-phonon scattering in zigzag graphene nanoribbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Yanbiao; Gautreau, Pierre; Basaran, Cemal
2014-09-01
In contrast with carbon nanotubes, the absence of translational symmetry (or periodical boundary condition) in the restricted direction of zigzag graphene nanoribbon removes the selection rule of subband number conservation. However, zigzag graphene nanoribbons with even dimers do have the inversion symmetry. We, therefore, propose a selection rule of parity conservation for electron-phonon interactions. The electron-phonon scattering matrix in zigzag graphene nanoribbons is developed using the tight-binging model within the deformation potential approximation.
Identical particle states and operators and the case of two-electron scattering
Ferrell, W.R.; Ritchie, R.H.; Ferrell, T.L.
1984-10-01
A simplified notation is introduced for dealing with systems of indistinguishable fermions and bosons. The second-quantized form of system operators is obtained in a simpler manner than is offered ordinarily in textbooks. Details of the calculation of the nonrelativistic Mapprox. =ller cross section for scattering of two electrons are given as an example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, R. E.; Fadin, V. S.
2015-01-01
An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirnov, V. V.; Brower, D. L.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Parke, E.
2014-11-01
At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = Te/mec2 model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ2-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.
Constrained {gamma}Z correction to parity-violating electron scattering
Hall, Nathan Luk; Blunden, Peter Gwithian; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.
2013-11-01
We update the calculation of {gamma}Z interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton. We show how constraints from parton distributions, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, significantly reduce the uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates.
Constrained γZ correction to parity-violating electron scattering
Hall, N. L.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.; Blunden, P. G.; Melnitchouk, W.
2013-11-07
We update the calculation of γZ interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton. We show how constraints from parton distributions, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, significantly reduce the uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates.
Gerasimov, R. E. Fadin, V. S.
2015-01-15
An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.
Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
Jones, Donald C.
2015-10-01
The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton Q^{p}_{W} via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be ^{p}_{W} = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of ^{p}_{W}(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].
Ultrahigh thermoelectric performance by electron and phonon critical scattering in Cu2 Se1-x Ix.
Liu, Huili; Yuan, Xun; Lu, Ping; Shi, Xun; Xu, Fangfang; He, Ying; Tang, Yunshan; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Lin, Yue; Shi, Lei; Lin, He; Gao, Xingyu; Zhang, Xingmin; Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad
2013-12-03
Iodine-doped Cu2 Se shows a significantly improved thermoelectric performance during phase transitions by electron and phonon critical scattering, leading to a dramatic increase in zT by a factor of 3-7 times culminating in zT values of 2.3 at 400 K.
Effects of target polarization in electron elastic scattering off endohedral A @C60
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolmatov, V. K.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.
2017-01-01
We have developed an efficient approximation to describe the low-energy electron elastic scattering off an endohedral fullerene A @CN . It accounts for polarization of A @CN by incoming electrons without reference to complicated details of the electronic structure of CN itself. The developed approach has permitted us to unravel spectacular A @CN polarization effects in low-energy e-+A @CN elastic scattering, particularly the effects due to interelectron interaction between the electrons of both CN and A . We show that contribution of a single atom A remains unscreened by the multiatomic CN despite the fact that the projectile's wavelength is bigger than the size of the target. Inclusion of A and CN polarizability interference leads to violation of the previously predicted phase additivity rule. The partial scattering cross sections acquire prominent Ramsauer-type minima which, however, disappear in the total cross section. The study reveals notable trends in e-+A @CN elastic scattering versus the polarizability of an encapsulated atom. We also predict the existence of certain negative ions A @CN- . We chose Ne, Xe, and Ba as atoms A , and C60 as the endohedral CN, as the case study. The work focuses on a reasonable compromise between the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the problem in general rather than on carrying out detailed calculations for one particular system.
Electron scattering in the Δ{sub 1} model of the conduction band of germanium single crystals
Luniov, S. V. Burban, O. V.; Nazarchuk, P. F.
2015-05-15
Electron scattering in the possible Δ{sub 1} models of the conduction band in germanium crystals formed by hydrostatic or uniaxial pressure is investigated. On the basis of the theory of anisotropic scattering, the temperature dependences of the anisotropy parameter of the relaxation times and electron mobility for these models under conditions of scattering at impurity ions, as well as at acoustic and intervalley phonons are obtained. Analysis of the temperature dependences indicates that, in the temperature range of 77–300 K, intervalley scattering becomes substantial. Only for the Δ{sub 1} model formed by uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic direction [100], the electron scattering at intervalley phonons, which correspond to the g transitions, is minor with respect to scattering at acoustic phonons (the intravalley scattering) and impurity ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falaye, Babatunde
This study presents the effects of electric field, AB-flux field and uniform magnetic field directed along z-axis on electron-electron scattering encircled by a strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas. The all-inclusive effects result into a strongly repulsive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues increase. We have employ perturbation formalism in our calculations. The condition | Enm(0) | > > | Enm(1) | > | Enm(2) | > | Enm(3) | > . . . . > | Enm(n) | holds. We find that, the combined effect of the fields is stronger than solitary effect and consequently, there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy elastic electron-electron scattering in a strongly semiclassical plasmas, a strong electric field and a weak magnetic field are required where AB-flux field can be used as a regulator. The entanglement fidelity in the scattering process is also examined. We have used partial wave analysis to derive the entanglement fidelity. We find that for a low electric field intensity, the entanglement fidelity varies with projectile energy.
Influence of the angular scattering of electrons on the runaway threshold in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanrion, O.; Bonaventura, Z.; Bourdon, A.; Neubert, T.
2016-04-01
The runaway electron mechanism is of great importance for the understanding of the generation of x- and gamma rays in atmospheric discharges. In 1991, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Those emissions are bremsstrahlung from high energy electrons that run away in electric fields associated with thunderstorms. In this paper, we discuss the runaway threshold definition with a particular interest in the influence of the angular scattering for electron energy close to the threshold. In order to understand the mechanism of runaway, we compare the outcome of different Fokker-Planck and Monte Carlo models with increasing complexity in the description of the scattering. The results show that the inclusion of the stochastic nature of collisions smooths the probability to run away around the threshold. Furthermore, we observe that a significant number of electrons diffuse out of the runaway regime when we take into account the diffusion in angle due to the scattering. Those results suggest using a runaway threshold energy based on the Fokker-Planck model assuming the angular equilibrium that is 1.6 to 1.8 times higher than the one proposed by [1, 2], depending on the magnitude of the ambient electric field. The threshold also is found to be 5 to 26 times higher than the one assuming forward scattering. We give a fitted formula for the threshold field valid over a large range of electric fields. Furthermore, we have shown that the assumption of forward scattering is not valid below 1 MeV where the runaway threshold usually is defined. These results are important for the thermal runaway and the runaway electron avalanche discharge mechanisms suggested to participate in the TGF generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Sean M.; Midgley, Paul A.
2013-06-01
In previous publications, qualitative agreement between studies of surface plasmon excitations in nanoparticles by near-field light scattering and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been found for experiments and simulations. Here, we present a quantitative method for the comparison of light scattering and EELS for surface plasmons in metal spheres. Defining the Fourier transform of the modal component of the scattered electric field along the equivalent electron trajectory enables a direct evaluation of the relative weighting factor for light- and electron-excited surface plasmon modes. This common quantity for light scattering and EELS is examined for size, composition, and trajectory dependencies, facilitating the analysis of key differences between light and electron excitation. A single functional dependence on Drude model plasmon energies is identified to explain the relative modal weighting factors for light scattering and EELS. This method represents an important step toward the complete spectral and spatial reconstruction of EELS maps from near-field light scattering calculations.
Compton scattering cross section for inner-shell electrons in the relativistic impulse approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stutz, G. E.
2014-01-01
Total Compton scattering cross sections and inelastic scattering factors for bound electron states of several elements have been evaluated in the framework of the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA). The accuracy of different approximate expressions for the singly differential cross section within the RIA is discussed. Accurate evaluations of bound state scattering factors require the use of the full RIA expression. Compton scattering from K-shell electrons dominates over the photoelectric absorption at higher energies. Energy values at which the Compton interaction become the main process of creation of K-shell vacancies are assessed. The role of binding effects in Compton processes at lower energies are clearly evidenced by the computed total cross sections. Calculated K-shell ionization total cross sections, defined as the sum of the photoelectric absorption and the Compton scattering cross sections, are in good agreement with available experimental data. The total Compton cross section for the 2s atomic orbital exhibits a shoulder-like structure, which can be traced back to the node structure of the 2s wave function.
Bound-state methods for low-energy electron-ion scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Leonard
1996-02-01
An effective-potential formalism, previously developed for electron scattering by a neutral target, is extended to apply to electron-ion scattering, with the requirement of antisymmetrization now accounted for explicitly. A minimum principle for the effective potential is derived, valid for scattering below the ionization threshold and applicable when, as is usually the case, the target wave functions are imprecisely known. The basis for the minimum principle is the Rayleigh-Ritz property that is satisfied by the modified Hamiltonian in terms of which the effective potential is defined. An analysis of single-channel, zero-energy scattering for a particular partial wave is presented; it is based on the effective-potential formalism and leads to an absolute definition of the zero-energy phase shift δ(0) of the form δ(0)=μ(∞)π, where μ(n) is the quantum defect of the nth energy level. This result may be thought of as an extension of Levinson's theorem for scattering by short-range potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desjarlais, Michael P.; Scullard, Christian R.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Whitley, Heather D.; Redmer, Ronald
2017-03-01
We compute electrical and thermal conductivities of hydrogen plasmas in the nondegenerate regime using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and an application of the Kubo-Greenwood response formula, and demonstrate that for thermal conductivity, the mean-field treatment of the electron-electron (e-e) interaction therein is insufficient to reproduce the weak-coupling limit obtained by plasma kinetic theories. An explicit e-e scattering correction to the DFT is posited by appealing to Matthiessen's Rule and the results of our computations of conductivities with the quantum Lenard-Balescu (QLB) equation. Further motivation of our correction is provided by an argument arising from the Zubarev quantum kinetic theory approach. Significant emphasis is placed on our efforts to produce properly converged results for plasma transport using Kohn-Sham DFT, so that an accurate assessment of the importance and efficacy of our e-e scattering corrections to the thermal conductivity can be made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Follett, R. K.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Wen, H.; Froula, D. H.
2014-10-01
Thomson scattering is used to probe electron plasma waves (EPW's) driven by the common-wave two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability near the quarter-critical density. Between two and five laser beams (λ3 ω = 351 nm) illuminated planar CH targets with 300- μm-diam (FWHM) laser spots with overlapped intensities ~1015 W/cm2. A 263-nm Thomson-scattering beam was used to probe densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 nc while k matching the TPD common wave. The Thomson-scattering spectra show two spectral peaks consistent with scattering from forward-scattered TPD common-wave EPW's and Langmuir decay of backscattered TPD waves. Broad TPD driven spectral features were observed in an alternate scattering configuration probing EPW k vectors that do not lie along a TPD maximum-growth hyperbola, consistent with TPD k-space saturation. Experimental results are compared to ZAK3D simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, N.
1976-01-01
The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.
Doubly excited states of ammonia by scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Karin; Sakai, Yasuhiro
2012-03-01
To obtain information on the optically forbidden doubly excited states of ammonia (NH3), we performed scattered electron-ion coincidence measurements. First, we observed scattered electrons using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and determined the generalized oscillator strength distribution (GOSD) under 200 eV incident electron energy at a scattering angle of 8°. Ionic GOSDs were also determined by combination with the coincidence signal, which was observed by the time-of-flight mass spectrometer at each energy-loss value, for each ion. The total and partial ionic GOSDs were compared with the experimental results of both photon and fast electron impact. Moreover, the neutral GOSD determined by subtracting the total ionic GOSD from the total was compared with previous results. In addition to the optically forbidden doubly excited states, which were identified by Kato et al (2003 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36 3541) and Ishikawa et al (2008 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41 195204), we found a new optically forbidden doubly excited state at around 35 eV.
Electron-phonon interaction and scattering in Si and Ge: Implications for phonon engineering
Tandon, Nandan; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2015-07-28
We report ab-initio results for electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and display the existence of a large variation in the coupling parameter as a function of electron and phonon dispersion. This variation is observed for all phonon modes in Si and Ge, and we show this for representative cases where the initial electron states are at the band gap edges. Using these e-ph matrix elements, which include all possible phonon modes and electron bands within a relevant energy range, we evaluate the imaginary part of the electron self-energy in order to obtain the associated scattering rates. The temperature dependence is seen through calculations of the scattering rates at 0 K and 300 K. The results provide a basis for understanding the impacts of phonon scattering vs. orientation and geometry in the design of devices, and in analysis of transport phenomena. This provides an additional tool for engineering the transfer of energy from carriers to the lattice.
Large Logarithms in the Beam Normal Spin Asymmetry of Elastic Electron--Proton Scattering
Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov
2004-06-01
We study a parity-conserving single-spin beam asymmetry of elastic electron-proton scattering induced by an absorptive part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. It is demonstrated that excitation of inelastic hadronic intermediate states by the consecutive exchange of two photons leads to logarithmic and double-logarithmic enhancement due to contributions of hard collinear quasi-real photons. The asymmetry at small electron scattering angles is expressed in terms of the total photoproduction cross section on the proton, and is predicted to reach the magnitude of 20-30 parts per million. At these conditions and fixed 4-momentum transfers, the asymmetry is rising logarithmically with increasing electron beam energy, following the high-energy diffractive behavior of total photoproduction cross section on the proton.
Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors
Fluegel, Brian; Mialitsin, Aleksej V.; Beaton, Daniel A.; Reno, John L.; Mascarenhas, Angelo
2015-01-01
Semiconductor strain engineering has become a critical feature of high-performance electronics because of the significant device performance enhancements that it enables. These improvements, which emerge from strain-induced modifications to the electronic band structure, necessitate new ultra-sensitive tools to probe the strain in semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate that minute amounts of strain in thin semiconductor epilayers can be measured using electronic Raman scattering. We applied this strain measurement technique to two different semiconductor alloy systems using coherently strained epitaxial thin films specifically designed to produce lattice-mismatch strains as small as 10−4. Comparing our strain sensitivity and signal strength in AlxGa1−xAs with those obtained using the industry-standard technique of phonon Raman scattering, we found that there was a sensitivity improvement of 200-fold and a signal enhancement of 4 × 103, thus obviating key constraints in semiconductor strain metrology. PMID:26017853
Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors
Fluegel., Brian; Mialitsin, Aleksej V.; Beaton, Daniel A.; ...
2015-05-28
Semiconductor strain engineering has become a critical feature of high-performance electronics because of the significant device performance enhancements that it enables. These improvements, which emerge from strain-induced modifications to the electronic band structure, necessitate new ultra-sensitive tools to probe the strain in semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate that minute amounts of strain in thin semiconductor epilayers can be measured using electronic Raman scattering. We also applied this strain measurement technique to two different semiconductor alloy systems using coherently strained epitaxial thin films specifically designed to produce lattice-mismatch strains as small as 10-4. Thus, comparing our strain sensitivity and signal strength inmore » AlxGa 1-x As with those obtained using the industry-standard technique of phonon Raman scattering, we found that there was a sensitivity improvement of 200-fold and a signal enhancement of 4 × 103, thus obviating key constraints in semiconductor strain metrology.« less
Electron Accumulation Layers in InN Nanocolumns Studied by Raman Scattering
Gallardo, E.; Lazic, S.; Calleja, J. M.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.
2010-01-04
Inelastic light scattering measurements on single crystal InN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on both Si(001) and Si(111) substrates reveal the existence of a surface electron accumulation layer in the lateral non-polar sidewalls of the nanocolumns. Small and reversible electron density variations of this surface layer has been induced by chemical treatments of the nanocolumns, which can be accurately determined from the frequency of the LO phonon-plasmon coupled mode L{sub -}. The L{sub -} to E{sub 1}(LO) phonon intensity ratio dependence on the column diameter and the excitation wavelength is interpreted in terms of the inhomogeneous electron distribution in the nanocolumns volume and the presence of strong elastic light scattering by the nanocolumns. The TO modes fail to obey conventional selection rules, a fact that is also observed in GaN nanocolumns.
An investigation into electron scattering from pyrazine at intermediate and high energies
Sanz, A. G.; Fuss, M. C.; Blanco, F.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Almeida, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.
2013-11-14
Total electron scattering cross sections for pyrazine in the energy range 10–500 eV have been measured with a new magnetically confined electron transmission-beam apparatus. Theoretical differential and integral elastic, as well as integral inelastic, cross sections have been calculated by means of a screening-corrected form of the independent-atom representation (IAM-SCAR) from 10 to 1000 eV incident electron energies. The present experimental and theoretical total cross sections show a good level of agreement, to within 10%, in the overlapping energy range. Consistency of these results with previous calculations (i.e., the R-matrix and Schwinger Multichannel methods) and elastic scattering measurements at lower energies, below 10 eV, is also discussed.
Observation of pulsed x-ray trains produced by laser-electron Compton scatterings
Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Araki, Sakae; Fukuda, Masafumi; Higashi, Yasuo; Honda, Yosuke; Omori, Tsunehiko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Sasao, Noboru
2009-12-15
X-ray generation based on laser-electron Compton scattering is one attractive method to achieve a compact laboratory-sized high-brightness x-ray source. We have designed, built, and tested such a source; it combines a 50 MeV multibunch electron linac with a mode-locked 1064 nm laser stored and amplified in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We directly observed trains of pulsed x rays using a microchannel plate detector; the resultant yield was found to be 1.2x10{sup 5} Hz in good agreement with prediction. We believe that the result has demonstrated good feasibility of linac-based compact x-ray sources via laser-electron Compton scatterings.
Varela, Solmar; Medina, Ernesto; López, Floralba; Mujica, Vladimiro
2014-01-08
We analyze single scattering of unpolarized photoelectrons through a monolayer of chiral molecules modeled by a continuous hardcore helix and spin-orbit coupling. The molecular helix is represented by an optical contact potential containing a non-hermitian component describing inelastic events. Transmitted photoelectrons are transversely polarized at optimal angles, and separated into up and down spin with up to 20% efficiency. Such a process involves the interference of both spin-orbit and inelastic strengths, that are parameterized quantitatively to recent experiments in chiral self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The structure factor of the model chiral molecule shows the energy dependence of the differential cross section which decays strongly as energy increases. Larger incident momenta reduce axial deviations from the forward direction and the spin-orbit interaction becomes less effective. Transverse electron polarization is then restricted to a characteristic energy window.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buică, Gabriela
2017-01-01
We theoretically study the influence of laser polarization in inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field in the domain of field strengths below 107 V/cm and high projectile energies. A semi-perturbative approach is used in which the interaction of the projectile electrons with the laser field is described by Gordon-Volkov wave functions, while the interaction of the hydrogen atom with the laser field is described by first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. A closed analytical solution is derived in laser-assisted inelastic electron-hydrogen scattering for the 1 s → nl excitation cross section which is valid for both circular and linear polarizations. For the excitation of the n=2 levels simple analytical expressions of differential cross section are derived for laser-assisted inelastic scattering in the perturbative domain, and the differential cross sections by the circularly and linearly polarized laser fields and their ratios for one- and two-photon absorption are calculated as a function of the scattering angle. Detailed numerical results for the angular dependence and the resonance structure of the differential cross sections are discussed for the 1 s → 4 l excitations of hydrogen in a circularly polarized laser field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brand, Joachim; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Meyer, Hans-Dieter
1999-10-01
We derive a rigorous optical potential for electron-molecule scattering including the effects of nuclear dynamics by extending the common many-body Green's function approach to optical potentials beyond the fixed-nuclei limit for molecular targets. Our formalism treats the projectile electron and the nuclear motion of the target molecule on the same footing whereby the dynamical optical potential rigorously accounts for the complex many-body nature of the scattering target. One central result of the present work is that the common fixed-nuclei optical potential is a valid adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential even when projectile and nuclear motion are (nonadiabatically) coupled as long as the scattering energy is well below the electronic excitation thresholds of the target. For extremely low projectile velocities, however, when the cross sections are most sensitive to the scattering potential, we expect the influences of the nuclear dynamics on the optical potential to become relevant. For these cases, a systematic way to improve the adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential is presented that yields nonlocal operators with respect to the nuclear coordinates.
Tsikata, S.; Pisarev, V.; Gresillon, D. M.; Lemoine, N.
2009-03-15
Kinetic models and numerical simulations of E-vectorxB-vector plasma discharges predict microfluctuations at the scales of the electron cyclotron drift radius and the ion plasma frequency. With the help of a specially designed collective scattering device, the first experimental observations of small-scale electron density fluctuations inside the plasma volume are obtained, and observed in the expected ranges of spatial and time scales. The anisotropy, dispersion relations, form factor, amplitude, and spatial distribution of these electron density fluctuations are described and compared to theoretical expectations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel
2017-04-01
For total energies below the ionization threshold it is possible to dramatically reduce the computational burden of the solution of the electron-atom scattering problem based on grid methods combined with the exterior complex scaling. As in the R-matrix method, the problem can be split into the inner and outer problem, where the outer problem considers only the energetically accessible asymptotic channels. The (N + 1)-electron inner problem is coupled to the one-electron outer problems for every channel, resulting in a matrix that scales only linearly with size of the outer grid.
Observation of stimulated electron acoustic wave scattering: the case for nonlinear kinetic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, D. S.; Cobble, J. A.; Fernandez, J. C.; Rose, H. A.; Focia, R. J.; Russell, D. A.
2001-10-01
Electrostatic waves with a frequency and phase velocity between an ion acoustic wave (IAW) and an electron plasma wave (EPW) have been observed with Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous plasmas, and in the backscattered spectrum for homogeneous single hot spot laser plasmas. We show that these waves are consistent with an electron-acoustic wave (EAW) that is a BGK-like mode due to electron trapping. The nonlinear dispersion relation for BGK-like EPW and EAW is discussed, and previous inhomogeneous Trident and Nova data are re-examined in this context. The possible implications of these results for backscattered SRS on the NIF are discussed.
Low-energy elastic electron scattering from chloromethane, CH3Cl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro, C.; Sakaamini, A.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2015-10-01
We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloromethane, CH3Cl, also known as methyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles from {5}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to earlier previous results for this molecule.
Low-energy elastic electron scattering form chloroethane, C2H5Cl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaamini, A.; Navarro, C.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2015-10-01
We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloroethane, C2H5Cl, also known as ethyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 1 to 30 eV and at scattering angles from {10}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to previous results for C2H5Cl and for the related molecule chloromethane.
Electron-deuteron scattering based on the Chiral Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozpȩdzik, Dagmara
2014-06-01
Based on the Chiral Effective Field Theory (ChEFT) dynamical picture of the two-pion exchange (TPE) contributions to the nuclear current operator which appear at higher order chiral expansions were considered. Their role in the electron-deuteron scattering reactions was studied and chiral predictions were compared with those obtained in the conventional framework. Results for cross section and various polarization observables are presented. The bound and scattering states were calculated with five different chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials which leads to the so-called theoretical uncertainty bands for the predicted results.
Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos in low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.
2017-03-01
A thorough account of electromagnetic interactions of massive neutrinos in the theoretical formulation of low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering is given. The formalism of neutrino charge, magnetic, electric, and anapole form factors defined as matrices in the mass basis is employed under the assumption of three-neutrino mixing. The flavor change of neutrinos traveling from the source to the detector is taken into account and the role of the source-detector distance is inspected. The effects of neutrino flavor-transition millicharges and charge radii in the scattering experiments are pointed out.
Detailed Characterization of Electron Plasma Waves Produced by Stimulated Raman Scattering
Renard, N.; Labaune, C.; Baldis, H.A.; Bauer, B.S.; Quesnel, B.; Schifano, E.; Michard, A.; Seka, W.; Estabrook, K.G.
1996-10-01
Time-resolved spectra and location of electron plasma waves (EPW) produced by stimulated Raman scattering in back and in side directions have been measured using Thomson scattering of a short wavelength probe beam. Significant Raman sidescattering was observed for angles as large as 40{degree} from the laser axis. The Raman growth is larger and starts earlier in the front part of the density profile than at the summit. Simultaneous measurements at multiple places in the plasma provided an indication of the coherence length of the EPW. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Rayleigh x-ray scattering from many-electron atoms and ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Stöhlker, Th; Fritzsche, S.
2015-07-01
A theoretical analysis is presented for the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-rays by many-electron atoms and ions. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and linear polarization of the scattered photons for the case when the incident light is completely (linearly) polarized. Based on second-order perturbation theory and the independent particle approximation, we found that the Rayleigh angular distribution is strongly affected by the charge state and shell structure of the target ions or atoms. This effect can be observed experimentally at modern synchrotron facilities and might provide further insight into the structure of heavy atomic systems.
Lemons, Don S.
2012-01-15
We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarm, F.-W.; Schönherr, G.; Falkner, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wolff, M. T.; Becker, P. A.; Sokolova-Lapa, E.; Klochkov, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Fürst, F.; Hemphill, P. B.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Dauser, T.; Wilms, J.
2017-01-01
Context. Electron cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) are observed as absorption-like lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars. A significant fraction of the computing time for Monte Carlo simulations of these quantum mechanical features is spent on the calculation of the mean free path for each individual photon before scattering, since it involves a complex numerical integration over the scattering cross section and the (thermal) velocity distribution of the scattering electrons. Aims: We aim to numerically calculate interpolation tables which can be used in CRSF simulations to sample the mean free path of the scattering photon and the momentum of the scattering electron. The tables also contain all the information required for sampling the scattering electron's final spin. Methods: The tables were calculated using an adaptive Simpson integration scheme. The energy and angle grids were refined until a prescribed accuracy is reached. The tables are used by our simulation code to produce artificial CRSF spectra. The electron momenta sampled during these simulations were analyzed and justified using theoretically determined boundaries. Results: We present a complete set of tables suited for mean free path calculations of Monte Carlo simulations of the cyclotron scattering process for conditions expected in typical X-ray pulsar accretion columns (0.01 ≤ B/Bcrit ≤ 0.12, where Bcrit = 4.413 × 1013 G, and 3 keV ≤ kBT ≤ 15 keV). The sampling of the tables is chosen such that the results have an estimated relative error of at most 1/15 for all points in the grid. The tables are available online (see link in footnote, page 1). The electronic tables described here are available at http://www.sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de/research/cyclo
Effect of EMIC Wave Normal Angle Distribution on Relativistic Electron Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.
2006-01-01
The flux level of outer-zone relativistic electrons (above 1 MeV) is extremely variable during geomagnetic storms, and controlled by a competition between acceleration and loss. Precipitation of these electrons due to resonant pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is considered one of the major loss mechanisms. This mechanism was suggested in early theoretical studies more than three decades ago. However, direct experimental evidence of the wave role in relativistic electrons precipitation is difficult to obtain because of lack of concurrent measurements of precipitating electrons at low altitudes and the waves in a magnetically conjugate equatorial region. Recently, the data from balloon-borne X-ray instruments provided indirect but strong evidence on an efficiency of the EMIC wave induced loss for the outer-zone relativistic electrons. These observations stimulated theoretical studies that, particularly, demonstrated that EMIC wave induced pitch-angle diffusion of MeV electrons can operate in the strong diffusion limit and this mechanism can compete with relativistic electron depletion caused by the Dst effect during the initial and main phases of storm. Although an effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves depends strongly on the wave spectral properties, the most favorable assumptions regarding wave characteristics has been made in all previous theoretical studies. Particularly, only quasi field-aligned EMIC waves have been considered as a driver for relativistic electron loss. At the same time, there is growing experimental and theoretical evidence that these waves can be highly oblique; EMIC wave energy can occupy not only the region of generation, i.e. the region of small wave normal angles, but also the entire wave normal angle region, and even only the region near 90 degrees. The latter can dramatically change he effectiveness of relativistic electron scattering by EMIC waves. In the present study, we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arenas, Claudio; Henriquez, Ricardo; Moraga, Luis; Muñoz, Enrique; Munoz, Raul C.
2015-02-01
We calculate the electrical resistivity of a metallic specimen, under the combined effects of electron scattering by impurities, grain boundaries, and rough surfaces limiting the film, using a quantum theory based upon the Kubo formalism. Grain boundaries are represented by a one-dimensional periodic array of Dirac delta functions separated by a distance "d" giving rise to a Kronig-Penney (KP) potential. We use the Green's function built from the wave functions that are solutions of this KP potential; disorder is included by incorporating into the theory the probability that an electron is transmitted through several successive grain boundaries. We apply this new theory to analyze the resistivity of samples S1, S2, S7 and S8 measured between 4 and 300 K reported in Appl. Surf. Science273, 315 (2013). Although both the classical and the quantum theories predict a resistivity that agrees with experimental data to within a few percent or better, the phenomena giving rise to the increase of resistivity over the bulk are remarkably different. Classically, each grain boundary contributes to the electrical resistance by reflecting a certain fraction of the incoming electrons. In the quantum description, there are states (in the allowed KP bands) that transmit electrons unhindered, without reflections, while the electrons in the forbidden KP bands are localized. A distinctive feature of the quantum theory is that it provides a description of the temperature dependence of the resistivity where the contribution to the resistivity originating on electron-grain boundary scattering can be identified by a certain unique grain boundary reflectivity R, and the resistivity arising from electron-impurity scattering can be identified by a certain unique ℓIMP mean free path attributable to impurity scattering. This is in contrast to the classical theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS), that does not discriminate properly between a resistivity arising from electron-grain boundary
Matulevich, Y.; Lederer, S.; Winter, H.
2005-01-15
The number of electrons emitted during grazing scattering of Ne atoms with kilo-electron-volt energies from an Al(111) surface is recorded in coincidence with the energy loss of scattered projectiles. Irrespective of the total projectile energies used, we observe a pronounced increase of total electron emission yields when the energy for motion normal to the surface exceeds about 25 eV. Based on energy loss spectra and classical computer simulations of projectile trajectories we attribute electron emission under these scattering conditions to a promotion mechanism in binary collisions between Ne and Al target atoms resulting in single and double excitations of projectiles.
Low-energy electron scattering from C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH isomers
Bettega, M. H. F.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.
2010-12-15
We present differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by three butanol isomers, isobutanol, t-butanol, and 2-butanol. Our results were calculated with the Schwinger multichannel method in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation for collision energies from 1 to 50 eV. The present results are compared with previous calculations and measurements for the remaining C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH isomer, n-butanol [Khakoo et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 062714 (2008)]. Distinctive behavior is observed in the differential cross sections at collision energies between 5 and 10 eV. In particular, whereas n-butanol exhibits an f-wave scattering pattern, the other isomers exhibit d-wave behavior. A similar pattern is found in the related alkanes when comparing straight-chain versus branched isomers. We discuss the possible connection of this behavior to shape resonances that influence the scattering.
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; Amaryan, M.; Anderson, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W.; Burkert, V.; Carman, D.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G.; Giovanetti, K.; Girod, F.; Goetz, J.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.; Ishkhanov, B.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M.; Meyer, C.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E.; Smith, G.; Sober, D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Wood, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zonta, I.
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peña, C.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration
2015-02-01
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GEp, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GEp from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ɛ ) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ɛ at Q2=1.45 GeV2 . This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2 - 3 GeV2 .
Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, H. Y.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.
2015-08-01
Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF) radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS) in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.
Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data
Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; ...
2015-02-10
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentummore » transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.« less
Towards a resolution of the proton form factor problem: new electron and positron scattering data.
Adikaram, D; Rimal, D; Weinstein, L B; Raue, B; Khetarpal, P; Bennett, R P; Arrington, J; Brooks, W K; Adhikari, K P; Afanasev, A V; Amaryan, M J; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Careccia, S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garillon, B; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mattione, P; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peña, C; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, I; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I
2015-02-13
There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, G(E)(p), extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of G(E)(p) from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ϵ) and momentum transfer (Q(2)) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ϵ at Q(2)=1.45 GeV(2). This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q(2)≈1.75 GeV(2) and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV(2).
Monte Carlo simulation of 1-10-keV electron scattering in an aluminum target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotera, Masatoshi; Murata, Kenji; Nagami, Koichi
1981-12-01
New Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering based on the single scattering model have been performed in the low-energy region for an aluminum target, where two basic equations are required, namely the elastic scattering cross section and the energy-loss rate. We investigated the screened Rutherford equation and the Mott equation for two different atomic potentials for the former, and the Rao Sahib-Wittry equation (the modified Bethe equation) for the latter. The validity of each model is discussed in a comparison between Monte Carlo results and experimental results such as the electron range, electron backscattering, and electron transmission which have been reported by various authors. Consequently, it was found that a combination of the Mott cross section and the Rao Sahib-Wittry equation showed the best accuracy. However, the accuracy of a previous model with the screened Rutherford equation is not as bad as aniticipated because of the higher accuracy of the Born approximation for light elements such as Al, compared to Au.
Electron scattering by biomass molecular fragments: useful data for plasma applications?*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridenti, Marco A.; Amorim Filho, Jayr; Brunger, Michael J.; da Costa, Romarly F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.
2016-08-01
Recent data obtained for electron scattering by biomass molecular fragments, indicated that low-energy resonances may have an important role in the de-lignification of biomass through a plasma pre-treatment. To support these findings, we present new experimental evidence of the predicted dissociation pathways on plasma treatment of biomass. An important question is how accurate must the experimental and/or the theoretical data be in order to indicate that plasma modelings can be really useful in understanding plasma applications? In this paper, we initiate a discussion on the role of data accuracy of experimental and theoretical electron-molecule scattering cross sections in plasma modeling. First we review technological motivations for carrying out electron-molecule scattering studies. Then we point out the theoretical and experimental limitations that prevent us from obtaining more accurate cross sections. We present a few examples involving biomass molecular fragments, to illustrate theoretical inaccuracies on: resonances positions and widths, electronic excitation, superelastic cross sections from metastable states and due to multichannel effects on the momentum transfer cross sections. On the experimental side we briefly describe challenges in making absolute cross sections measurements with biomass species and radicals. And finally, through a simulation of a N2 plasma, we illustrate the impact on the simulation due to inaccuracies on the resonance positions and widths and due to multichannel effects on the momentum transfer cross sections. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf and two mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70272-8
Dynamic screening and electron electron scattering in low-dimensional metallic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silkin, V. M.; Quijada, M.; Muiño, R. Díez; Chulkov, E. V.; Echenique, P. M.
2007-09-01
The modification of dynamic screening in the electron-electron interaction in systems with reduced dimensionality and tunable one-particle electronic structure is studied. Two examples of such systems are considered, namely, the adsorbate-induced quantum well states at the Na adlayer covered Cu(1 1 1) surface, and metal clusters of sizes up to few nanometers. The dependence of the electron-electron decay rates on the Na coverage in the former case and on the cluster size in the latter is investigated. The role played by the dynamical screened interaction in such processes is addressed as well.
Zhu, Hongguo
2000-08-01
The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia (^{15}ND_{3}) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q^{2} = 0.5 (GeV/c)_{2}. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (A$V\\atop{ed}$), of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor G$n\\atop{E}$. The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G$n\\atop{E}$ within experimental uncertainty.
Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; ...
2015-04-01
This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less
Analysis of incoherent scatter during ionospheric heating near the fifth electron gyrofrequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jun, WU; Jian, WU; Haisheng, ZHAO; Zhengwen, XU
2017-04-01
The observation of ultra-high frequency radar during an ionospheric heating experiment carried out at Tromsø site of European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association, Norway, is analyzed. When pump is operating slightly above the fifth electron gyrofrequency, some strong enhancements in radar echo and electron density occur in a wide altitude range and are in sync with the shifting and spread of plasma line around the reflection altitude, which may be due to the focusing or collimating of radar wave by irregularities. While some strong enhancements in electron density and radar echo around the reflection altitude do not correspond to the true increase in electron density, but due to the enhanced ion acoustic wave by parametric decay instability and oscillation two stream instability. In addition, the different heating rates and cooling rates at the pump frequencies below, around and above fifth gyrofrequency respectively result in the dependence of the enhancements in electron temperature on the pump frequency.
Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute
2015-04-01
This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.
Pitch angle scattering of diffuse auroral electrons by whistler mode waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalón, Elena; Burke, William J.
1995-10-01
Resonant electron-whistler interactions in the plasma sheet are investigated as possible explanations of the nearly isotropic fluxes of low-energy electrons observed above the diffuse aurora. Whistler mode waves, propagating near the resonance cone with frequencies near or larger than half the equatorial electron cyclotron frequency, can interact with low-energy plasma sheet electrons. A Hamiltonian formulation is developed for test particles interacting with the coherent chorus emission spectra. We consider the second-order resonance condition which requires that inhomogeneities in the Earth's magnetic field be compensated by a finite bandwidth of wave frequencies to maintain resonance for extended distances along field lines. These second-order interactions are very efficient in scattering the electrons toward the atmospheric loss cone. Numerical calculations are presented for the magnetic shell L=5.5 for wave amplitudes of ~10-6 V/m, using different frequency and magnetospheric conditions. .
Gupta, D. N. Yadav, Pinki; Avinash, K.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.; Hur, M. S.
2015-05-15
Stimulated Raman scattering of a laser in plasmas with energetic drifting electrons was investigated by analyzing the growth of interacting waves during the Raman scattering process. The Langmuir wave and scattered electromagnetic sideband wave grow initially and are dampened after attaining a maximum level that indicates a periodic exchange of energy between the pump wave and the daughter waves. The presence of energetic drifting electrons in the laser-produced plasma influences the stimulated Raman scattering process. The plasma wave generated by Raman scattering may be influenced by the energetic electrons, which enhance the growth rate of the instability. Our results show that the presence of energetic (hot) drifting electrons in a plasma has an important effect on the evolution of the interacting waves. This phenomenon is modeled via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the propagation and interaction of the laser under Raman instability.
Yoshikawa, M. Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K.; Minami, T.
2014-11-15
A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K.; Minami, T.
2014-11-01
A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.
Thakar, Aruna; Kumar, Ajai; Thomas, Jinto; Chavda, Chhaya
2008-09-15
An IR enhanced thermoelectrically cooled Si-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) module is used for detection of scattered photons from plasma electrons. Present design of signal conditioning electronics for the APD has fast (50 MHz) and slow (500 kHz) channels to measure scattered and plasma background light, respectively. We report design analysis for different stages and their performance. The performance of fast channel is analyzed for two different group delays, speed, linearity, and its cross-talk with slow channel. Temperature dependence of APD's responsivity is studied in the wavelength range of 900-1060 nm. A minimum detection of {approx}25 photoelectrons (with S/N=1) in the range of 5 to 25 deg. C is achieved at an APD gain of 75 in the present design.
System-bath approach to electronic effect in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saikin, Semion; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Rodriguez-Rosario, Cesar; Stopa, Michael; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2009-03-01
Raman scattering from molecules is greatly enhanced in proximity of a metal nanoparticle or a rough metal surface. The strong interest in this effect is driven by applications to selective detection of toxic chemicals, warfare agents, etc. The scattering enhancement has two distinct contributions. The electromagnetic effect originates in the field concentration by surface plasmons excited in the metal. The second, electronic or chemical contribution, which is important for molecules in direct contact with the surface, is more controversial. It is controlled by the charge transfer between a molecule and a metal with nanoscale roughness. We develop an open quantum system approach to the formation of charge-transferred states and apply it to describe electronic effect in SERS using specific examples of organic molecules adsorbed on a surface of a silver nanoparticle.
Ueda, S.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Takanashi, K.; Ishimaru, S.; Tsujikawa, M.; Shirai, M.
2014-03-31
We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials.
Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetries in Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Robert Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; Charles Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; Richard HASTY; Alice Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; Jianglai Liu; Berenice Loupias; Allison Lung; Dominique Marchand; Jeffery Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; David McKee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Glen Warren; Steven Wells; Steven Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps
2007-08-01
We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely-polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q^2 values of 0.15 and 0.25 (GeV/c)^2 with results of A_n = -4.06 +- 0.99(stat) +- 0.63(syst) and A_n = -4.82 +- 1.87(stat) +- 0.98(syst) ppm. These results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state, and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A_n provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the two-photon exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.
Magnetic fields with photon beams: dose calculation using electron multiple-scattering theory.
Jette, D
2000-08-01
Strong transverse magnetic fields can produce large dose enhancements and reductions in localized regions of a patient under irradiation by a photon beam. We have developed a new equation of motion for the transport of charged particles in an arbitrary magnetic field, incorporating both energy loss and multiple scattering. Key to modeling the latter process is a new concept, that of "typical scattered particles." The formulas which we have arrived at are particularly applicable to the transport of, and deposition of energy by, Compton electrons and pair-production electrons and positrons generated within a medium by a photon beam, and we have shown qualitatively how large dose enhancements and reductions can occur. A companion article examines this dose modification effect through systematic Monte Carlo simulations.
Constrained gamma-Z interference corrections to parity-violating electron scattering
Hall, Nathan Luke; Blunden, Peter Gwithian; Melnitchouk, Wally; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.
2013-07-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of gamma-Z interference corrections to the weak charge of the proton measured in parity-violating electron scattering, including a survey of existing models and a critical analysis of their uncertainties. Constraints from parton distributions in the deep-inelastic region, together with new data on parity-violating electron scattering in the resonance region, result in significantly smaller uncertainties on the corrections compared to previous estimates. At the kinematics of the Qweak experiment, we determine the gamma-Z box correction to be Re\\box_{gamma-Z}^V = (5.61 +- 0.36) x 10^{-3}. The new constraints also allow precise predictions to be made for parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries on the deuteron.
A New Strangeness Fit to World Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Benjamin
2017-01-01
A global experimental effort to determine the strangeness content of nuclei, including experiments such as G0, SAMPLE, HAPPEx, and A4, have presented results on the precision frontier for parity-violating electron scattering. In particular, the kinematics of these experiments are in the low momentum-transfer region (Q2 < 1), to allow more robust extrapolation to the static (Q2 = 0) properties of the nucleon. The combination of these results into a global fit presents a new opportunity to comment on the globally observed strangeness content in nuclei. The process for constructing this fit faces certain challenges, with electromagnetic form factor model dependence standing out in particular. A novel fit including the most recent data for 1H, 2H, and 4He target parity-violating electron scattering experiments will also be presented, suggesting small but non-zero electromagnetic strangeness contributions. U.S. Department of Energy grant #DE-FG02-07ER41522
Absolute differential cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons from pyrimidine
Maljkovic, J. B.; Milosavljevic, A. R.; Sevic, D.; Marinkovic, B. P.; Blanco, F.
2009-05-15
Differential cross sections (DCSs) for elastic scattering of electrons from pyrimidine (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}) are presented for incident energies from 50 to 300 eV. The measurements were performed using a cross beam technique, for scattering angles from 20 deg. to 110 deg. The relative DCSs were measured as a function of both the angle and incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow method. The calculations of electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screen corrected additivity rule procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Calculated results agree very well with the experiment.
Single-spin asymmetries from two-photon exchange in elastic electron proton scattering
A.V. Afanasev; N.P. Merenkov
2005-02-01
The parity-conserving single-spin beam asymmetry of elastic electron-proton scattering is induced by an absorptive part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. We demonstrate that this asymmetry has logarithmic and double-logarithmic enhancement due to contributions of hard collinear quasi-real photons. An optical theorem is used to evaluate the asymmetry in terms of the total photoproduction cross section on the proton.
Two-Photon Exchange in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering: A QCD Factorization Approach
Kivel, Nikolai; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2009-08-28
We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. It is shown that the leading two-photon exchange amplitude behaves as 1/Q{sup 4}, and can be expressed in a model independent way in terms of the leading twist nucleon distribution amplitudes. Using several models for the nucleon distribution amplitudes, we provide estimates for existing data and for ongoing experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khakoo, Murtadha A.
2011-10-01
The near-threshold scattering of electrons from polyatomic molecules of fundamental interest, e.g. water, primary alcohols and ring molecules e.g. furan, benzene are important in plasma fuel processes, plasmas used in biological processes e.g. in the treatment of skin diseases, astrophysical plasmas, etc. The determination of cross-sections for such molecules has gathered impetus because of the increasing number of applications industrial plasma and biomedical processes and the need to understand and model these complex processes. It is now possible to determine accurate differential cross-sections for electron scattering from these polyatomic molecules. We will present recent normalized, absolute low energy electron scattering differential cross-sections for near-threshold elastic and inelastic scattering from water, primary alcohols, furan and benzene using a well-tested electron spectrometer apparatus. We will also compare our results with those of other experiments and available theoretical models, which show an encouragingly overall improved picture in terms of agreement between the different research groups. Funded by the National Science Foundation Research in an Undergraduate Institution Grant #s 0653452 and 1135203. This work was done collaboratively with Drs. V. Mckoy and C. Winstead, Caltech, USA (National Science Foundation Grant # 0653396 and Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE Grant) and Dr. M. C. A. Lopes, U. Fed. de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Dr. M. H. F. Bettega, U. Fed. do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil Drs. R. F. da Costa and M. A. P. Lima, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP and CTBE, Campinas, Brazil (CNPq, FAPESP, FAPEMG, Finep, CENAPAD-SP and CAPES grants). Funded by US-NSF Grant #s 0653452 and 1135203.
Transverse response functions in deep inelastic electron scattering for 40Ca, 48Ca, and 56Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meziani, Z. E.; Barreau, P.; Bernheim, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Altemus, R.; McCarthy, J.; Orphanos, L. J.; Whitney, R. R.; Capitani, G. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.
1985-03-01
Deep-inelastic inclusive electron-scattering cross sections from 40Ca, 48Ca, and 56Fe have been measured at 60°, 90°, and 140° and at energy transfers including the Δ(3,3) region. The transverse response function in the momentum interval 300 MeV/c<||q-->||<600 MeV/c was extracted by the Rosenbluth prescription. Different theoretical approaches to the quasielastic region are compared to the data. A mass-number scaling is observed.
Visualizing a protein quake with time resolved X-ray scattering at a free electron laser
Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J.; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P.; Shoeman, Robert L.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Doak, R. Bruce; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S.; Kirian, Richard A.; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sjöhamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sébastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N.; Neutze, Richard
2014-01-01
A ‘protein quake’ describes the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake like structural motions. Here we measure ultrafast structural changes in the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center following multi-photon excitation using time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free electron laser. A global conformational change arises within picoseconds, which precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This motion is damped within a hundred picoseconds. PMID:25108686