Science.gov

Sample records for quasi-homogeneous initial states

  1. Propagation of the light generated by quasi-homogeneous sources through quasi-homogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Mu-Chun; Xu, Shi-Xue

    2010-01-01

    The spectral density of the quasi-homogeneous (QH) light has been known when it scatters on QH media or propagates in free space. The case that QH sources are surrounded by QH media is proposed in this paper. Under the paraxial approximation, the spectral density of the QH light propagating through QH media is derived. A modified scaling law for the propagation of the QH light through QH media is also obtained. This law also holds true in the far field beyond the paraxial approximation.

  2. On the Limit Cycles Bifurcating from Piecewise Quasi-Homogeneous Differential Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimin; Wu, Kuilin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a class of piecewise smooth quasi-homogeneous differential systems are considered. Using the first order Melnikov function derived in [Liu & Han, 2010], we obtain a lower bound of the maximum number of limit cycles which bifurcate from the periodic annulus of the center under polynomial perturbation. The results reveal that piecewise smooth quasi-homogeneous differential systems can bifurcate more limit cycles than the smooth systems.

  3. Accelerating multi-scale sheet forming simulations by exploiting local macroscopic quasi-homogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawad, J.; Khairullah, Md; Roose, D.; Van Bael, A.

    2016-08-01

    Multi-scale simulations are computationally expensive if a two-way coupling is employed. In the context of sheet metal forming simulations, a fine-scale representative volume element (RVE) crystal plasticity (CP) model would supply the Finite Element analysis with plastic properties, taking into account the evolution of crystallographic texture and other microstructural features. The main bottleneck is that the fine-scale model must be evaluated at virtually every integration point in the macroscopic FE mesh. We propose to address this issue by exploiting a verifiable assumption that fine-scale state variables of similar RVEs, as well as the derived properties, subjected to similar macroscopic boundary conditions evolve along nearly identical trajectories. Furthermore, the macroscopic field variables primarily responsible for the evolution of fine-scale state variables often feature local quasi-homogeneities. Adjacent integration points in the FE mesh can be then clustered together in the regions where the field responsible for the evolution shows low variance. This way the fine-scale evolution is tracked only at a limited number of material points and the derived plastic properties are propagated to the surrounding integration points subjected to similar deformation. Optimal configurations of the clusters vary in time as the local deformation conditions may change during the forming process, so the clusters must be periodically adapted. We consider two operations on the clusters of integration points: splitting (refinement) and merging (unrefinement). The concept is tested in the Hierarchical Multi-Scale (HMS) framework [1] that computes macroscopic deformations by means of the FEM, whereas the micro-structural evolution at the individual FE integration points is predicted by a CP model. The HMS locally and adaptively approximates homogenized stress responses of the CP model by means of analytical plastic potential or yield criterion function. Our earlier work

  4. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  5. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of electromagnetic waves scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan; Chang, Liping

    2016-10-17

    Within the validity of the first-order Born approximation, expressions are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of an electromagnetic plane wave scattered from a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. Upon establishing the correlation matrix of the scattering potential of the medium, we show that the CIF is the summation of Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potential matrix. Numerical results reveal that the CIF is susceptible to the effective width and correlation length of the medium, and degree of polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave. Our study not only extends the current knowledge of the CIF of a scattered field but also provides an important reference to the study of high-order intensity correlations of light scattered from a spatially anisotropic medium.

  6. Acidic ionic liquid as "quasi-homogeneous" catalyst for controllable synthesis of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dong; Han, Yangyang; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Yuan, Guiping

    2014-11-26

    In this paper, we demonstrated that acidic ionic liquids (ILs) can be used as "quasi-homogeneous" catalysts for the efficient acetylation of cellulose. Unlike existing techniques that use large amount of ILs as solvent to dissolve and acetylate cellulose, a small amount of acidic ILs was used as catalyst in this study to overcome the low efficiency associated with relatively high viscosity and costs of ILs during homogeneous acetylation. Fully substituted cellulose acetate with a conversion of 88.8% was obtained by using only 9 mol% IL 1-vinyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl) imidazolium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst, which is much higher than that of common commercialized solid acid catalysts. The degree of substitution and solubility of the obtained cellulose acetate can be facilely controlled by varying the concentration of ILs and reaction time. The dual function of swelling and catalyzing of acidic ILs for the acetylation of cellulose is responsible for the excellent catalytic performance.

  7. Correlation between intensity fluctuations induced by scattering of a partially coherent, electromagnetic wave from a quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping; Chen, Feinan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, the correlation between intensity fluctuations is derived for a partially coherent, electromagnetic plane wave scattering from a spatially quasi-homogeneous medium. Young's pinholes are utilized to control the degree of coherence of the incident field. For the electromagnetic scattering case, it is shown that the CIF of the scattered field strongly depends on the degree of polarization of the incident wave, Young's pinhole parameter, effective radius and correlation length of the medium. The influences of these parameters on the CIF distributions are revealed by numerical calculations.

  8. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  9. Effectiveness of the Monte Carlo method in stereotactic radiation therapy applied to quasi-homogenous brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Choi, Hoon Sik; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Byung-Do; Lim, Young Kyung; Jeong, Hojin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Monte Carlo (MC) method in stereotactic radiotherapy for brain tumor. The difference in doses predicted by the conventional Ray-tracing (Ray) and the advanced MC algorithms was comprehensively investigated through the simulations for phantom and patient data, actual measurement of dose distribution, and the retrospective analysis of 77 brain tumors patients. These investigations consistently showed that the MC algorithm overestimated the dose than the Ray algorithm and the MC overestimation was generally increased as decreasing the beams size and increasing the number of beams delivered. These results demonstrated that the advanced MC algorithm would be inaccurate than the conventional Raytracing algorithm when applied to a (quasi-) homogeneous brain tumors. Thus, caution may be needed to apply the MC method to brain radiosurgery or radiotherapy. PMID:26871473

  10. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  11. State initiatives in state-Federal relations

    SciTech Connect

    Standish, T.K.

    1980-05-01

    Based upon historical analysis, this paper examines the proper role of regulation at the state, regional, and federal levels of government. Four areas of inquiry are highlighted by the so-called crises in public utility industries. The first question is whether there should be a shift from passive to active regulation. Second, is increased regulatory power needed at regional and Federal levels of government in order to achieve an appropriate balance between state, regional, and Federal government, or does overcentralization breed economic inefficiency and autocratic decisions. Third, should regulators have a higher degree of power and control over private-utility companies to accomplish objectives mandated by state legislatures and Congress, or is the real problem that private incentives have not been given enough leeway to solve the problems that confront us. And, fourth, if we are to address today's opportunities, should planning efficiency and public interest norms displace the time-honored competitive-market standards of economic efficiency and social justice as the basis for regulatory decisions. At the root of these issues, there is a clash between those arguing for the use of a planning paradigm to solve economic problems and those advocating reliance upon market forces. Economic imperatives lead us to expect a continuation of a trend which resolves the market/nonmarket balance in favor of more government participation. Hence, the scope of state initiatives and the range of opportunities for policy action, will in fact, be defined by economic forces larger than the current debate on the issues. 8 references.

  12. Correlation between intensity fluctuations of light generated by scattering of Young’s diffractive electromagnetic waves by a quasi-homogeneous, anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Feinan

    2016-11-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, formulas are derived for the correlation between intensity fluctuations (CIF) of light generated by a Young’s diffractive electromagnetic wave scattered by a spatially quasi-homogeneous (QH), anisotropic medium. It is shown that the CIF of the scattered field can be written as the summation of the Fourier transforms of the strengths and normalized correlation coefficients (NCCs) of the scattering potentials. The differences between our results and those obtained in the previous literature are discussed. Our results might be important in investigating the high-order intensity correlation of an electromagnetic wave scattered from a 3D anisotropic object.

  13. On validating Quasi-Steady Quasi-Homogeneous nature of the relationgship between large-scale and small-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Chernyshenko, Sergei

    2016-11-01

    A formal definition to the two hypotheses of the quasi-steady and quasi-homogeneous (QSQH) theory was proposed. The theory is supposed to explain the phenomenon of the large-scale structures influencing the small-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. Multi-objective optimisations were performed to find the optimal cut-off parameters for the new large-scale filters. The new filters were proved to obtain much more clear large-scale structures than the filter suggested by the previous studies. Calculations and comparisons for a set of statistical flow properties extracted from the databases of the direct numerical simulations of a plane channel flow were conducted. The accuracy of the predictions based on the QSQH theory was observed improving when the Reynolds number increases. Extrapolations of urms and two-points correlation from medium to high Reynolds number based on the QSQH approach were preformed and about 10 % accuracy was reported. The more interesting thing is that the QSQH theory implies a dependence of the mean profile log-law constants on the Reynolds number. The main overall result of the present work is the validations of the two hypotheses of the quasi-steady quasi-homogeneous theory in near-wall turbulent flows.

  14. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  15. Implementing JOBS: Initial State Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Jan L.; Lurie, Irene

    This report presents the findings from the first of three rounds of research in a projected 3-year study of the way state governments have begun to implement the new Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS). JOBS is a part of the Family Support Act of 1988 and provides employment, education, and training services that recipients…

  16. State solar initiatives. Volume 1: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, R.; Neuendorffer, J.; Green, B.; Gordon, N.; Myring, G.; Perwin, E.; Poster, B.; Small, D.; Myring, L.

    1981-09-01

    The impacts of solar energy programs undertaken in California, Florida, New Mexico, Minnesota, and New York are reviewed. Initiatives were explored: information outreach activities; consumer protection programs including standards, testing, certification, warranties, licensing, and consumer complaint offices; and tax credits and rebates. The experience in these five states is analyzed and conclusions and recommendations that will assist state governments in improving or launching their own programs are presented.

  17. Final Report: Multi-State Sharing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Begoli, Edmon; Boehmann, Brant; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    In 2003 a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Justice created state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers. These fusion centers were an effort to share law enforcement, disaster, and terrorism related information and intelligence between state and local jurisdictions and to share terrorism related intelligence between state and local law enforcement agencies and various federal entities. In 2006, DHS commissioned the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to establish and manage a groundbreaking program to assist local, state, and tribal leaders in developing the tools and methods required to anticipate and forestall terrorist events and to enhance disaster response. This program, called the Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI), combines science and technology with validated operational approaches to address regionally unique requirements and suggest regional solutions with the potential for national application. In 2009, SERRI sponsored the Multistate Sharing Initiative (MSSI) to assist state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers with sharing information related to a wider variety of state interests than just terrorism. While these fusion centers have been effective at sharing data across organizations within their respective jurisdictions, their organizational structure makes bilateral communication with federal entities convenient and also allows information to be further disbursed to other local entities when appropriate. The MSSI-developed Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) sharing system allows state-to-state sharing of non-terrorism-related law enforcement and disaster information. Currently, the MSSI SAR system is deployed in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and South Carolina. About 1 year after implementation, cognizant fusion center personnel from each state were contacted to ascertain the status of their MSSI SAR systems. The overwhelming response from these individuals was that the MSSI

  18. Tunnelling from non-localised initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowcock, Peter; Gregory, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    An approach for calculating tunneling amplitudes from a nonlocalized initial state is presented. Generalizing the matching conditions and equations of motion to allow for complex momentum permits a description of tunneling in the presence of so-called classical motion. Possible applications of the method are presented.

  19. Kennesaw State University Classroom Technology Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Jane; Wallace, Deborah; Taylor, Beverley

    The purpose of the Kennesaw State University (KSU) Coca Cola/Board of Regents Classroom Technology Initiative was to develop preservice and inservice teachers' expertise in educational technology such as computers, presentation software, and multimedia and to teach educators to apply those skills to content instruction. Project goals were to…

  20. The initial state of generalized radiation universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kolionis, Georgios; Tsokaros, Antonios

    2013-04-01

    We use asymptotic methods to study the early time stability of isotropic and homogeneous solutions filled with radiation which are close initially to the exact, flat, radiation solution in quadratic lagrangian theories of gravity. For such models, we analyze all possible modes of approach to the initial singularity and prove the essential uniqueness and stability of the resulting asymptotic scheme in all cases except perhaps that of the conformally invariant Bach-Weyl gravity. We also provide a formal series representation valid near the initial singularity of the general solution of these models and show that this is dominated at early times by a form in which both curvature and radiation play a subdominant role. We also discuss the implications of these results for the generic initial state of the theory.

  1. The initial thermal state of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that the initial thermal state of the Moon was molten. The existence of young thrust fault scarps in the highlands and kbar stress drop, shallow moonquakes both suggest that the thermoelastic stresses in the outer crust are currently in the kbar range. This is expected if the Moon was initially molten, but not if the Moon had a magma ocean only a few hundred km deep. The thesis is also supported by reference to model studies of the concentrations of refractory incompatible elements.

  2. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost.

  3. Initial state radiation experiment at MAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Collaboration: A1-Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    In an attempt to contribute further insight into the discrepancy between the Lamb shift and elastic scattering determinations of the proton charge radius, a new experiment at MAMI is underway, aimed at measuring proton form-factors at very low momentum transfers by using a new technique based on initial state radiation. This paper reports on first findings of the pilot measurement performed in 2010, whose main goal was to check the feasibility of the proposed experiment and to recognize and overcome potential obstacles before running the full experiment in 2013.

  4. Hemispherical anomaly from asymmetric initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Koivisto, Tomi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate if the hemispherical asymmetry in the CMB is produced from "asymmetric" excited initial conditions. We show that in the limit where the deviations from the Bunch-Davies vacuum are large and the scale of new physics is maximally separated from the inflationary Hubble parameter, the primordial power spectrum is modulated only by position-dependent dipole and quadrupole terms. Requiring the dipole contribution in the power spectrum to account for the observed power asymmetry, A =0.07 ±0.022 , we show that the amount of quadrupole terms is roughly equal to A2. The mean local bispectrum, which gets enhanced for the excited initial state, is within the 1 σ bound of Planck 2015 results for a large field model, fNL≃4.17 , but is reachable by future CMB experiments. The amplitude of the local non-Gaussianity modulates around this mean value, depending on the angle that the correlated patches on the 2d CMB surface make with the preferred direction. The amount of variation is minimized for the configuration in which the short and long wavelength modes are around the preferred pole and |k→3|≈|k→l ≈10|≪|k→1|≈|k→2|≈|k→l ≈2500| with fNLmin≈3.64 . The maximum occurs when these modes are at the antipode of the preferred pole, fNLmax≈4.81 . The difference of non-Gaussianity between these two configurations is as large as ≃1.17 , which can be used to distinguish this scenario from other scenarios that try to explain the observed hemispherical asymmetry.

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor.

  6. Classification of initial state granularity via 2D Fourier expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman-Smith, C. E.; Petersen, H.; Wolpert, R. L.

    2013-09-01

    A new method for quantifying fluctuations in the initial state of heavy ion collisions is presented. The initial state energy distribution is decomposed with a set of orthogonal basis functions which include both angular and radial variation. The resulting two-dimensional Fourier coefficients provide additional information about the nature of the initial state fluctuations compared to a purely angular decomposition. We apply this method to ensembles of initial states generated by both Glauber and color glass condensate Monte-Carlo codes. In addition initial state configurations with varying amounts of fluctuations generated by a dynamic transport approach are analyzed to test the sensitivity of the procedure. The results allow for a full characterization of the initial state structures that is useful to discriminate the different initial state models currently in use. Communicated by Steffen Bass

  7. Making Child Care Better: State Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groginsky, Scott; Robison, Susan; Smith, Shelley

    In light of increasing evidence that good early childhood programs lead to school success, reduced delinquency and crime, and better job opportunities and productivity, state legislators are developing policies to improve these services. This report is designed to provide state lawmakers and their staff with research and state examples of policy…

  8. State College Readiness Initiatives and Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, David

    2009-01-01

    Greater attention to the college and career readiness problem by state leaders and policymakers could drastically boost the numbers and percentages of students who graduate from high school ready for college and career study. This chapter traces the author's work in developing California State University's Early Assessment Program, an initiative…

  9. State Education Initiatives of the Democratic Governors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democratic Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    The educational programs that have been proposed and implemented by Democratic governors in 29 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are briefly outlined in this report. A list of educational contacts for 23 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands is included. (LMI)

  10. Recurrence of initial state of nonlinear ion waves

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Satofuka, N.

    1981-06-01

    By solving the Korteweg--deVries equation in a wide range of the ratio between the nonlinearity and the dispersion, the recurrence of the initial state of the ion wave is examined. The recurrence is assured of taking place only when the dispersion of the initial ion wave predominates over the nonlinearity. If the initial wave has strong nonlinearity compared with the dispersion, the recurrence is indistinct, and the initial monochromatic wave evolves to a turbulent state.

  11. State Initiatives on Industry-Based Skill Standards and Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzglass, Evelyn; Simon, Martin

    A study examined state initiatives for industry-based skill standards and credentials. Officials in 19 states were interviewed, case studies of programs in 3 states (Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Texas) were conducted, and focus group discussions were held with 25 individuals. State skill standards were generally found to be tied to broader efforts…

  12. 2014 Survey of States: Initiatives, Trends, and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the fourteenth survey of states by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) at the University of Minnesota. Results are presented for the 50 regular states and eight of the 11 unique states. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the new initiatives, trends, accomplishments, and emerging issues…

  13. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: an Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate decision making in the Common Core State Standards Initiative as the change process moved from research, development and diffusion activities to adoption of the Common Core State Standards by the states. A decision-oriented evaluation model was used to describe the four stages of planning, structuring,…

  14. State Initiatives To Increase Compensation for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.; De Vita, Carol J.

    Noting that wages for child care workers are among the lowest in the U.S. labor force and that generally caregivers are offered few employee benefits, this paper summarizes proposals and programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia to raise child care worker compensation. The paper classifies state-level initiatives into two categories:…

  15. 3D glasma initial state for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Schlichting, Sören

    2016-10-01

    We extend the impact-parameter-dependent Glasma model to three dimensions using explicit small-x evolution of the two incoming nuclear gluon distributions. We compute rapidity distributions of produced gluons and the early-time energy momentum tensor as a function of space-time rapidity and transverse coordinates. We study rapidity correlations and fluctuations of the initial geometry and multiplicity distributions and make comparisons to existing models for the three-dimensional initial state.

  16. Highlights from PHENIX-I: initial state and early times

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    We will review the latest physics developments from PHENIX concentrating on cold nuclear matter effects, the initial state for heavy-ion collisions, and probes of the earliest stages of the hot-dense medium created in those collisions. Recent physics results from p + p and d + Au collisions; and from direct photons, quarkonia and low-mass vector mesons in A+A collisions will be highlighted. Insights from these measurements into the characteristics of the initial state and about the earliest times in heavy-ion collisions will be discussed.

  17. Enhanced Inflationary Trispectrum from a Non-Vacuum Initial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agullo, I.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Parker, L.

    2015-01-01

    We work out the primordial inflationary trispectrum for curvature perturbations in models with standard kinetic terms, when the initial quantum state is not necessarily the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. The presence of initial perturbations enhances the trispectrum amplitude for squeezed configurations, in parallel to the bispectrum enhancement. For those squeezed configurations the trispectrum acquires the so-called local form, with a scale dependent amplitude that can get values larger than the prediction of the so-called Maldacena consistency relation. The enhancement factor could be as large as 106, and could reach the sensitivity of forthcoming observations, even for single-field inflationary models.

  18. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  19. Anti-Gay Initiatives Cause Anxiety on State Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    In at least 10 states, conservative groups are pushing for ballot initiatives to limit gay-rights laws or remove public funding from gay organizations. Legal experts feel colleges and universities would be affected, particularly in constraints placed on curriculum content, college policies and services, and use of institutional facilities for…

  20. State Scholars Initiative in Review: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In response to the demands of the changing economy and the business community's need for better-educated, more highly skilled workers, the U.S. Department of Education, through the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), developed the State Scholars Initiative (SSI), which encourages students to take a rigorous course of study in high…

  1. Do initial conditions matter? A comparison of model climatologies generated from different initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    A coarse mesh (8 by 10) 7 layer global climate model was used to compute 15 months of meteorological history in two perpetual January experiments on a water planet (without continents) with a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature field. In the first of the two water planet experiments the initial atmospheric state was a set of zonal mean values of specific humidity, temperature, and wind at each latitude. In the second experiment the model was initialized with globally uniform mean values of specific humidity and temperature on each sigma level surface, constant surface pressure (1010 mb), and zero wind everywhere. A comparison was made of the mean January climatic states generated by the two water planet experiments. The first two months of each 15 January run were discarded, and 13 month averages were computed from months 3 through 15.

  2. Lunar Accretion and the Moon’s Initial Thermal State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Julien; Canup, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Previous models of lunar formation from an impact-generated disk predict the Moon accretes in less than a year (Ida et al. 1997, Kokubo et al. 2000). Such a rapid accretion implies a fully molten initial Moon (e.g., Pritchard & Stevenson 2000). However, the lack of global faults on the Moon has been interpreted as constraining the depth of initial melting to the Moon’s outer few hundred kilometers (Solomon & Chaiken 1976). Depth estimates for the lunar magma ocean (250 to 1000 km; e.g., Shearer et al. 2006) are also typically less than the Moon’s full radius (1738 km). Taken at face value, such observations appear most consistent with a partially molten initial Moon. We have developed a new lunar accretion model that includes a more accurate description of the inner protolunar disk, taking into account thermal processes that limit the disk’s evolution rate (Salmon and Canup 2012). Our model predicts a 3-phase accretion of the Moon, in which material initially orbiting in the outer disk accumulates rapidly, followed by a much slower evolution of the vapor/fluid inner disk and a final phase of accretion of inner disk material onto the Moon. The Moon’s total accretion then occurs over about 100 years, which could be compatible with partial cooling of protolunar material. We have coupled our accretion model to a simple model for the Moon’s initial thermal state. We use a 3D spherical grid to model the forming Moon. We estimate heating due to each accretionary event using the impactor properties predicted by our accretion model, assuming that a fixed fraction ("h") of each impactor’s kinetic energy is retained locally within the Moon’s interior, and include cooling from the Moon’s surface. We use this model to estimate the Moon’s initial thermal state as a function of h and specific accretionary histories.

  3. Multiple steady states for characteristic initial value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.

    1984-01-01

    The time dependent, isentropic, quasi-one-dimensional equations of gas dynamics and other model equations are considered under the constraint of characteristic boundary conditions. Analysis of the time evolution shows how different initial data may lead to different steady states and how seemingly anamolous behavior of the solution may be resolved. Numerical experimentation using time consistent explicit algorithms verifies the conclusions of the analysis. The use of implicit schemes with very large time steps leads to erroneous results.

  4. Correlated eikonal initial state in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ciappina, M.F.; Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R.

    2002-11-01

    An approximation is developed to deal with the ionization of atoms by bare charged ions. In this method the transition amplitude describing the three-body final state is evaluated using a continuum correlated wave and that for the initial state by an analytical continuation of the {phi}{sub 2} model to complex momenta. This procedure introduces in the atomic bound state a kinematical correlation with the projectile motion. Doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) are computed for collisions of H{sup +} and F{sup 9+} ions with He atoms. Results for the DDCS's in the forward direction are compared with experimental data and other theoretical models. We find an enhancement of the distribution for low energy electrons and that the asymmetry of the electron capture to the continuum (ECC) peak is correctly described.

  5. Quantum quenches in the thermodynamic limit. II. Initial ground states.

    PubMed

    Rigol, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    A numerical linked-cluster algorithm was recently introduced to study quantum quenches in the thermodynamic limit starting from thermal initial states [M. Rigol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 170601 (2014)]. Here, we tailor that algorithm to quenches starting from ground states. In particular, we study quenches from the ground state of the antiferromagnetic Ising model to the XXZ chain. Our results for spin correlations are shown to be in excellent agreement with recent analytical calculations based on the quench action method. We also show that they are different from the correlations in thermal equilibrium, which confirms the expectation that thermalization does not occur in general in integrable models even if they cannot be mapped to noninteracting ones.

  6. Collectivity in Small Collision Systems: An Initial-State Perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Schlichting, Sören; Tribedy, Prithwish

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of multiparticle correlations in the collisions of small systems such as p+p, p/d/ 3 He+A show striking similarity to the observations in heavy-ion collisions. A number of observables measured in the high-multiplicity events of these systems resemble features that are attributed to collectivity driven by hydrodynamics. However, alternative explanations based on initial-state dynamics are able to describe many characteristic features of these measurements. In this brief review, we highlight some of the recent developments and outstanding issues in this direction.

  7. Work fluctuations for Bose particles in grand canonical initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon; Talkner, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We consider bosons in a harmonic trap and investigate the fluctuations of the work performed by an adiabatic change of the trap curvature. Depending on the reservoir conditions such as temperature and chemical potential that provide the initial equilibrium state, the exponentiated work average (EWA) defined in the context of the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality may diverge if the trap becomes wider. We investigate how the probability distribution function (PDF) of the work signals this divergence. It is shown that at low temperatures the PDF is highly asymmetric with a steep fall-off at one side and an exponential tail at the other side. For high temperatures it is closer to a symmetric distribution approaching a Gaussian form. These properties of the work PDF are discussed in relation to the convergence of the EWA and to the existence of the hypothetical equilibrium state to which those thermodynamic potential changes refer that enter both the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality.

  8. Work fluctuations for Bose particles in grand canonical initial states.

    PubMed

    Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon; Talkner, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We consider bosons in a harmonic trap and investigate the fluctuations of the work performed by an adiabatic change of the trap curvature. Depending on the reservoir conditions such as temperature and chemical potential that provide the initial equilibrium state, the exponentiated work average (EWA) defined in the context of the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality may diverge if the trap becomes wider. We investigate how the probability distribution function (PDF) of the work signals this divergence. It is shown that at low temperatures the PDF is highly asymmetric with a steep fall-off at one side and an exponential tail at the other side. For high temperatures it is closer to a symmetric distribution approaching a Gaussian form. These properties of the work PDF are discussed in relation to the convergence of the EWA and to the existence of the hypothetical equilibrium state to which those thermodynamic potential changes refer that enter both the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality.

  9. Collectivity in small systems: Initial correlations or final state flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn

    2017-01-01

    I review recent progress in understanding correlation measurements in small collision systems, such as proton+lead and proton+proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and proton+gold, deuteron+gold, and 3He+gold collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). I discuss two distinct theoretical approaches to describing the experimental data on multi-particle correlations. The first attributes the origin of the measured correlations to strong final state interactions, often described by hydrodynamics, the second employs the color glass condensate effective theory and is able to reproduce many features of the data from initial state effects only. I discuss how to distinguish which of the two sources of correlations dominates the experimental observables, and give an outlook on how to make progress on the theory side.

  10. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T2, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter2 × T2 or Minkowski2 × T2. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M2 × T2 leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS2 × T2 parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  11. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T{sub 2}, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter{sub 2} × T{sub 2} or Minkowski{sub 2} × T{sub 2}. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M{sub 2} × T{sub 2} leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS{sub 2} × T{sub 2} parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  12. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-12

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T{sub 2}, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter{sub 2}×T{sub 2} or Minkowski{sub 2}×T{sub 2}. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M{sub 2}×T{sub 2} leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS{sub 2}×T{sub 2} parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  13. The Entrepreneurial State and Research Universities in the United States: Policy and New State-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2007-01-01

    The convergence of United States federal science and economic policy that began in earnest under the Reagan administration formed the First Stage in an emerging post-Cold War drive toward technological innovation. A frenzy of new state-based initiatives now forms the Second Stage, further promoting universities as decisive tools for economic…

  14. SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

  15. Rural health network development: public policy issues and state initiatives.

    PubMed

    Casey, M M; Wellever, A; Moscovice, I

    1997-02-01

    Rural health networks are a potential way for rural health care systems to improve access to care, reduce costs, and enhance quality of care. Networks provide a means for rural providers to contract with managed care organizations, develop their own managed care entities, share resources, and structure practice opportunities to support recruitment and retention of rural physicians and other health care professionals. The results of early network development initiatives indicate a need for state officials and others interested in encouraging network development to agree on common rural health network definitions, to identify clearly the goals of network development programs, and to document and analyze program outcomes. Future network development efforts need to be much more comprehensive if they are to have a significant impact on rural health care. This article analyzes public policy issues related to integrated rural health network development, discusses current efforts to encourage network development in rural areas, and suggests actions that states may take if they desire to support rural health network development. These actions include adopting a formal rural health network definition, providing networks with alternatives to certain regulatory requirements, and providing incentives such as matching grants, loans, or technical assistance. Without public sector support for networks, managed care options may continue to be unavailable in many less densely populated rural areas of the country, and locally controlled rural health networks are unlikely to develop as an alternative to the dominant pattern of managed care expansion by large urban entities. Implementation of Medicare reform legislation could provide significant incentives for the development of rural health networks, depending on the reimbursement provisions, financial solvency standards, and antitrust exemptions for provider-sponsored networks in the final legislation and federal regulations.

  16. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixie; Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Rondon, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    The applicability of pQCD to exclusive reactions at medium energies is a subject of considerable interest. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. In pQCD, three active quarks and two hard gluons are involved when describing RCS. But the cross sections do not agree with the pQCD predictions. In contrast, a handbag dominance model, involving only one single quark coupling to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs) does a good job of matching the cross section data. A measurement of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL was found inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations within the hand-bag mechanism. Further Miller's handbag approach, which including quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD and others which demands that KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL has been proposed to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. This experiment will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  17. Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative.

    PubMed

    Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

    2014-06-01

    In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program - an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff - concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

  18. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Zhang, Jixie

    2015-04-01

    Whether pQCD can describe exclusive reactions at medium energies remains an area of active study. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. A pQCD description of RCS requires the participation of three quarks and two hard gluons. However its predictions for the RCS cross sections disagree with data while calculations based on the handbag mechanism, involving a single quark coupled to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs), match the data well. The measured longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL is inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations of the handbag mechanism. Furthermore, Miller's approach, which includes quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD where KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL (E12-14-006) has been approved to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C and will be able to discriminate between the various models. E12-14-006 will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  19. Overdose Intake of Curcumin Initiates the Unbalanced State of Bodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-04-06

    Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric and widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food. However, its safety evaluation has been little investigated. To evaluate the 90-day subchronic toxicity of curcumin in rats, its general observation, clinical biochemistry, pathology, and metabolomics were evaluated. The results showed that curcumin induced liver injury through the generation of the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and the decreases of the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD and detoxified enzyme GST. Meanwhile, for the self-protection of rats, curcumin treatment activated the transcription of Nrf-2 and elevated the expression of HO-1 to reduce tissue damage. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased key mRNA levels of HK2, PKM2, LDHA, CES, Cpt1, Cpt2, FASN, and ATP5b and decreased levels of GLUT2 and ACC1 to enhance glycolysis and inhibit lipid metabolism and TCA cycle. Therefore, overdose or long-term intake of curcumin could initiate the unbalanced state of bodies through oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, which induces liver injury. Intermittent administration of curcumin is necessary in our daily lives.

  20. Consumer Satisfaction in Long-Term Care: State Initiatives in Nursing Homes and Assisted Living Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Timothy J.; Lucas, Judith A.; Castle, Nicholas G.; Robinson, Joanne P.; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a survey of state initiatives that measure resident satisfaction in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, and we describe several model programs for legislators and public administrators contemplating the initiation of their own state programs. Design and Methods: Data on state initiatives and programs…

  1. BRIE: The Penn State Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K. H.; Brantley, S. L.; Brenchley, J.

    2003-12-01

    Few scientists are prepared to address the interdisciplinary challenges of biogeochemical research due to disciplinary differences in vocabulary, technique, and scientific paradigm. Thus scientists and engineers trained in traditional disciplines bring a restricted view to the study of environmental systems, which can limit their ability to exploit new techniques and opportunities for scientific advancement. Although the literature is effusive with enthusiasm for interdisciplinary approaches to biogeochemistry, there remains the basic difficulty of cross-training geological and biological scientists. The NSF-IGERT funded Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education (BRIE) program at Penn State is specifically designed to break down both disciplinary and institutional barriers and it has fostered cross-disciplinary collaboration and training since 1999. Students and faculty are drawn from environmental engineering, geochemistry, soil science, chemistry and microbiology, and the program is regarded on the Penn State campus as a successful example of how interdisciplinary science can best be promoted. There are currently 23 Ph.D. students funded by the program, with an additional 7 affiliated students. At present, a total of 6 students have completed doctoral degrees, and they have done so within normal timeframes. The program is "discipline-plus," whereby students enroll in traditional disciplinary degree programs, and undertake broad training via 12 credits of graduate coursework in other departments. Students are co-advised by faculty from different disciplines, and engage in interdisciplinary research facilitated by research "credit cards." Funding is available for international research experiences, travel to meetings, and other opportunities for professional development. Students help institutionalize interdisciplinary training by designing and conducting a teaching module that shares their expertise with a class in another department or discipline

  2. The State of the States: State Initiatives in Foreign Languages and International Studies, 1979-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Jamie B.

    As a followup to the 1979 report by the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, "Strength Through Wisdom," a study was conducted to learn what progress has been made toward improving international knowledge among Americans. State foreign language supervisors and others responsible for international education…

  3. State Initiatives and Activities in Foreign Languages and International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Jamie B.

    A listing of state efforts in foreign language education and international studies compiled from results of a telephone and mail survey of state foreign language supervisors is presented. For those states for which information was not available from supervisors, consultants, or education officials, other sources were consulted, including…

  4. Health Care of Incarcerated Youth: State Programs & Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda S.; Sheahan, Paula M.

    This report presents the analysis and results of a survey of states' progress in meeting the goals and objectives of their state action plans on the health care of incarcerated youth. The survey questioned 48 juvenile justice professionals, health care professionals, and university faculty from across the nation concerning state progress toward…

  5. 77 FR 71344 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation...

  6. 75 FR 47256 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... variety of State-initiated changes to Louisiana's hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  7. 77 FR 71395 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... State-initiated changes to Texas' hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and...

  8. 75 FR 36609 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Arkansas: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... variety of State-initiated changes to Arkansas' hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  9. 76 FR 12307 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... State-initiated changes to Texas' hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and...

  10. 75 FR 36538 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Arkansas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  11. 76 FR 12283 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation...

  12. 77 FR 41348 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... variety of State-initiated changes to Louisiana's hazardous waste program ] under the...

  13. 78 FR 58988 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... variety of State-initiated changes to Louisiana's hazardous waste program under the Resource...

  14. Initial state fluctuations and final state correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzum, Matthew; Petersen, Hannah

    2014-06-01

    We review the phenomenology and theory of bulk observables in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, focusing on recent developments involving event-by-event fluctuations in the initial stages of a heavy-ion collision, and how they manifest in observed correlations. We first define the relevant observables and show how each measurement is related to underlying theoretical quantities. Then we review the prevailing picture of the various stages of a collision, including the state-of-the-art modeling of the initial stages of a collision and subsequent hydrodynamic evolution, as well as hadronic scattering and freeze-out in the later stages. We then discuss the recent results that have shaped our current understanding and identify the challenges that remain. Finally, we point out open issues and the potential for progress in the field.

  15. Expanding dependent coverage for young adults: lessons from state initiatives.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Joel C; Belloff, Dina; Monheit, Alan C; Delia, Derek; Koller, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that adults up to age twenty-six be permitted to enroll as dependents on their parents' health plans. This article examines the experiences of states that enacted dependent expansion laws. Drawing on public information from thirty-one enacting states and case studies of four diverse reform states, it derives lessons that are pertinent to the implementation of this ACA provision. Dependent coverage laws vary across the states, but most impose residency, marital status, and other restrictions. The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act further limits the reach of state laws. Eligibility for expanded coverage under the ACA is much broader. Rules in some states requiring or allowing separate premiums for adult dependents may also discourage enrollment compared with rules in other states (and the ACA), where these costs must be factored into family premiums. Business opposition in some states led to more restrictive regulations, especially for how premiums are charged, which in turn raised greater implementation challenges. Case study states did not report substantial young adult dependent coverage take-up, but early enrollment experience under ACA appears to be more positive. Long-term questions remain about the implications of this policy for risk pooling and the distribution of premium costs.

  16. State Technical Assistance Initiatives for IDEA Part B Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanft, Barbara

    This report discusses a study that examined state technical assistance (TA) infrastructures that support research-based practices for improved outcomes for students with disabilities served under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The 10 participating states included: Alabama, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, Montana, Oklahoma,…

  17. Frequently Asked Questions: Common Core State Standards Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The document provides answers to some of the frequently asked questions about the Common Core State Standards, from how they were developed to what they mean for states and local communities. The questions are organized into the following categories: (1) Overview; (2) Process; (3) Implementation and Future Work; and (4) Content and Quality of the…

  18. Map and Track: State Initiatives To Encourage Responsible Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report details current state efforts to promote responsible fatherhood, identifies and profiles specific strategies to encourage fathers to be responsible, and summarizes state father-related data. Chapter 1, "Setting the Context," provides a rationale for the policy interest in fathers and presents the methodology for the study.…

  19. Understanding the nuclear initial state with an electron ion collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    In these proceedings I describe how a future electron-ion collider will allow us to directly measure the initial spatial distribution of gluons in heavy ions, as well as its variance ("lumpiness") in exclusive diffraction. I show the feasibility of such a measurement by means of simulated data from the novel event generator Sartre.

  20. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khattak, Nasir

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  1. State Level Initiatives Related to Training and Supervision of Paraeducators. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri; Gerlach, Kent

    This report provides an overview of selected state initiatives related to the training and supervision of paraeducators serving students with disabilities. The five states highlighted in the document were selected because of the significant work each has done in the area of paraeducators. In all five states, paraeducator initiatives began prior to…

  2. 77 FR 41292 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... identified a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the...

  3. 78 FR 58890 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... identified a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the...

  4. 75 FR 47223 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... identified a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the...

  5. 77 FR 15845 - State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) National Standards For Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) National Standards For Compliance AGENCY: Department of... of ``SSBCI National Standards: Compliance and Oversight for Participating States''. DATES: Effective..., DC 20220. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The ``SSBCI National Standards: Compliance and Oversight...

  6. Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953

  7. Multi-State Initiatives---Agriculture Security Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 742, July 1998. 6 farming, including seed , feed, fertilizer, machinery, food processing...pathological organism. • This lack of diversity is compounded by the fact that 80 percent of the nation’s seed derives from one locale, the Idaho valley...due to the exceptionally dry climate in the region. • A notable percentage of imported hybrid seed used for crop production in the United States

  8. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  9. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  10. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  11. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  12. Toward a Semi-Self-Paced EEG Brain Computer Interface: Decoding Initiation State from Non-Initiation State in Dedicated Time Slots

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingling; Leung, Howard; Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) offer a broad class of neurologically impaired individuals an alternative means to interact with the environment. Many BCIs are “synchronous” systems, in which the system sets the timing of the interaction and tries to infer what control command the subject is issuing at each prompting. In contrast, in “asynchronous” BCIs subjects pace the interaction and the system must determine when the subject’s control command occurs. In this paper we propose a new idea for BCI which draws upon the strengths of both approaches. The subjects are externally paced and the BCI is able to determine when control commands are issued by decoding the subject’s intention for initiating control in dedicated time slots. A single task with randomly interleaved trials was designed to test whether it can be used as stimulus for inducing initiation and non-initiation states when the sensory and motor requirements for the two types of trials are very nearly identical. Further, the essential problem on the discrimination between initiation state and non-initiation state was studied. We tested the ability of EEG spectral power to distinguish between these two states. Among the four standard EEG frequency bands, beta band power recorded over parietal-occipital cortices provided the best performance, achieving an average accuracy of 86% for the correct classification of initiation and non-initiation states. Moreover, delta band power recorded over parietal and motor areas yielded a good performance and thus could also be used as an alternative feature to discriminate these two mental states. The results demonstrate the viability of our proposed idea for a BCI design based on conventional EEG features. Our proposal offers the potential to mitigate the signal detection challenges of fully asynchronous BCIs, while providing greater flexibility to the subject than traditional synchronous BCIs. PMID:24586440

  13. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2016-07-12

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  15. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  16. Initial state azimuthal anisotropies in small collision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.

    2016-12-01

    Strong multiparticle azimuthal correlations have recently been observed in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. While final state collective effects can be responsible for many of the observed effects, the domain structure in the classical color field of a high energy nucleus, naturally also leads to such multiparticle correlations. We describe recent calculations of the momentum space 2-particle cumulant azimuthal anisotropy coefficients νn { 2 }, n = 2 , 3 , 4 from fundamental representation Wilson line distributions describing the high energy nucleus. We find significant differences between Wilson lines from the MV model and from JIMWLK evolution. We also discuss the relation of this calculation to earlier work on the ridge correlation obtained in the "glasma graph" approximation, and to the "color electric field domain model."

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2016-07-12

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  18. Kindergarten Readiness Impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance State Prekindergarten Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Williams, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in state-funded pre-K programs prior to kindergarten entry has become increasingly common. As each state develops its own model for pre-K, rigorous studies of the impacts of state-specific programs are needed. This study investigates impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) initiative at kindergarten entry using a…

  19. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order...) Public awareness and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian...

  20. Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States: 1994-1996. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Criminal Justice Association, Washington, DC.

    This overview of recent state juvenile justice reform measures and identifies issues and trends associated with state juvenile reform initiatives. The report explains some of the more punitive measures, such as new criminal court transfer authority and expanded juvenile court sentencing options. Many states have balanced these steps with enhanced…

  1. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.413 Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office... State agency office, the appropriate JS official shall offer to explain the operation of the JS complaint system. The appropriate JS official shall offer to take the complaint in writing if it is...

  2. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Complaint System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.413 Initial handling of complaints by the State or... a State agency office, the appropriate JS official shall offer to explain the operation of the JS complaint system. The appropriate JS official shall offer to take the complaint in writing if it is...

  3. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Complaint System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.413 Initial handling of complaints by the State or... a State agency office, the appropriate JS official shall offer to explain the operation of the JS complaint system. The appropriate JS official shall offer to take the complaint in writing if it is...

  4. The 1990 Montana initiative to increase cigarette taxes: lessons for other states and localities.

    PubMed

    Moon, R W; Males, M A; Nelson, D E

    1993-01-01

    In November 1990, voters in Montana defeated an initiative that would have increased the state's excise tax on a pack of cigarettes by 25 cents. The increased revenues were intended for tobacco education and research. Opponents of the measure, primarily tobacco companies, outspent proponents by more than 35 to 1. Their primary themes were opposition to new taxes and to a larger state bureaucracy. Based on the results of initiative campaigns in Montana and California, taxation initiatives are more likely to succeed if guidance is sought from leaders of similar campaigns in other states, tobacco control coalitions are built and funding secured early, and polling conducted before initiative measures are finalized. Other requirements for success include careful wording of the initiative, strong leadership, consideration of a paid petition drive, effective use of the news media, anticipating opposition arguments, and emphasizing the benefits of the tax increase in the campaign.

  5. Evaluating the performance of vehicular platoon control under different network topologies of initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Li, Kezhi; Zheng, Taixiong; Hu, Xiangdong; Feng, Huizong; Li, Yinguo

    2016-05-01

    This study proposes a feedback-based platoon control protocol for connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) under different network topologies of initial states. In particularly, algebraic graph theory is used to describe the network topology. Then, the leader-follower approach is used to model the interactions between CAVs. In addition, feedback-based protocol is designed to control the platoon considering the longitudinal and lateral gaps simultaneously as well as different network topologies. The stability and consensus of the vehicular platoon is analyzed using the Lyapunov technique. Effects of different network topologies of initial states on convergence time and robustness of platoon control are investigated. Results from numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with respect to the position and velocity consensus in terms of the convergence time and robustness. Also, the findings of this study illustrate the convergence time of the control protocol is associated with the initial states, while the robustness is not affected by the initial states significantly.

  6. Genital Warts -- Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966 - 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 46. Genital Warts — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital warts estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  7. 78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and...

  8. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS INITIATIVE AND BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), there are several on-going programs and projects that collect health and environmental information. The USEPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative is one such program which includes the development of environmenta...

  9. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  10. Structural Minimality, CP and the Initial State in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.; Hancin-Bhatt, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Considers the current debate on the initial state of second language (L2) acquisition and presents critical empirical evidence from Hindi learners of English-as-a-Second-Language that supports the claim that the complementizer phase (CP) is initially absent from the grammar of L2 speakers.(Author/VWL)

  11. Reduced quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations characterized by pure Markov states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkmen, A.; Verçin, A.; Yılmaz, S.

    2016-09-01

    Any tripartite state which saturates the strong subadditivity relation for the quantum entropy is defined as the Markov state. A tripartite pure state describing an open system, its environment, and their purifying system is a pure Markov state if and only if the bipartite marginal state of the purifying system and environment is a product state. It has been shown that as long as the purification of the input system-environment state is a pure Markov state, the reduced dynamics of the open system can be described, on the support of the initial system state, by a quantum channel for every joint unitary evolution of the system-environment composite even in the presence of initial correlations. Entanglement, discord, and classical correlations of the initial system-environment states implied by the pure Markov states are analyzed and it has been shown that all these correlations are entirely specified by the entropy of environment. Some implications concerning perfect quantum error correction procedure and quantum Markovian dynamics are presented.

  12. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVenia, Mark; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Lang, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Today, with states' near-universal adoption of the Common Core State Standards, the political system has achieved that which was not possible less than 2 decades ago. Just why this is so remains unanswered. Some observers have attributed states' embrace of the standards to the substantial financial incentives that the federal government embedded…

  13. Government Initiatives to Encourage Employer-Supported Child Care: The State and Local Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.

    A study was conducted to identify a range of strategies that New York State government could adopt to stimulate business and industry to provide supportive family benefits, services, and work policies. The investigation included a national survey of state and local government initiatives and a special analysis of policies appropriate for New York…

  14. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service Complaint System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.413 Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office... complaint system. The appropriate JS official shall offer to take the complaint in writing if it is...

  15. One State's Initiative to Increase Access to Higher Education for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Martha; Love, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a state-based initiative to engage youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), their families, universities, schools, agencies, and funders in improving access to inclusive postsecondary education (PSE). As opportunities in higher education for students with ID continue to increase across United States, there are differing…

  16. Ahead of the Curve: State Success in the Developmental Education Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altstadt, David

    2012-01-01

    Building on their work through Achieving the Dream, six states and 15 community colleges joined the Developmental Education Initiative (DEI) in 2009 to take on one of higher education's most daunting challenges: improving the success of students who enter community college academically underprepared. The states and Jobs for the Future, which…

  17. ICTs for Learning: An Overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Trinidad, Sue

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories. This updated overview acknowledges the help and information provided by key contacts whom the authors contacted from each of the Australian State and Territory government education systems. In addition, the role of the Ministerial Council for…

  18. Universal Design for Learning: Four State Initiatives. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Tschantz, Jennifer

    This paper summarizes information from interviews with four states regarding their Universal Design for Learning (UDL) initiatives, i.e., state or regional level efforts to promote the principles and practices of UDL via professional development or the production and/or dissemination of universally designed instructional materials. Discussion of…

  19. Role of the Initial State in the Nonequilibrium Quantum Dynamics of Many-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Lea F.; Torres-Herrera, Eduardo J.

    2014-03-01

    We show that the dynamics of isolated many-body quantum systems after a quench depends on the interplay between the initial state and the Hamiltonian dictating the evolution. The systems considered are in the nonperturbative regime. The relaxation process is controlled by the width of the energy distribution of the initial state and may be very similar for both chaotic and integrable Hamiltonians. Our analytical expression for the fidelity decay displays excellent agreement with our numerical results. This decay is Gaussian and may persist until saturation. We also provide analytical expressions that describe very well the initial evolution of the Shannon entropy and of few-body observables. The analyses are developed for deterministic one-dimensional systems and initial states of interest to current experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices. This work was supported by the NSF grant No. DMR-1147430. E.J.T.H. acknowledges partial support by CONACyT, México.

  20. A FFT Method for the Quasiclassical Selection of Initial Ro-Vibrational States of Triatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaker, Charles W.; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an exact fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to prepare specified vibrational-rotational states of triatomic molecules. The method determines the Fourier coefficients needed to describe the coordinates and momenta of a vibrating-rotating triatomic molecule. Once the Fourier coefficients of a particular state are determined, it is possible to easily generate as many random sets of initial cartesian coordinates and momenta as desired. All the members of each set will correspond to the particular vibrational-rotational state selected. For example, in the case of the ground vibrational state of a non-rotating water molecule, the calculated actions of 100 sets of initial conditions produced actions within 0.001 h(bar) of the specified quantization values and energies within 5 cm(sup -1) of the semiclassical eigenvalue. The numerical procedure is straightforward for states in which all the fundamental frequencies are independent. However for states for which the fundamental frequencies become commensurate (resonance states), there are additional complications. In these cases it is necessary to determine a new set of "fundamental" frequencies and to modify the quantization conditions. Once these adjustments are made, good results are obtained for resonance states. The major problems are in labelling the large number of Fourier coefficients and the presence of regions of chaotic motion. Results are presented for the vibrational states of H2O and HCN and the ro-vibrational states of H2O.

  1. Chimera states and the interplay between initial conditions and non-local coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalle, Peter; Sawicki, Jakub; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2017-03-01

    Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent dynamics. We study chimera states in a network of non-locally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We investigate the impact of initial conditions in combination with non-local coupling. Based on an analytical argument, we show how the coupling phase and the coupling strength are linked to the occurrence of chimera states, flipped profiles of the mean phase velocity, and the transition from a phase- to an amplitude-mediated chimera state.

  2. No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work.

  3. Initial-state dependence of the quench dynamics in integrable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rigol, Marcos; Fitzpatrick, Mattias

    2011-09-15

    We identify and study classes of initial states in integrable quantum systems that, after the relaxation dynamics following a sudden quench, lead to near-thermal expectation values of few-body observables. In the systems considered here, those states are found to be insulating ground states of lattice hard-core boson Hamiltonians. We show that, as a suitable parameter in the initial Hamiltonian is changed, those states become closer to Fock states (products of single site states) as the outcome of the relaxation dynamics becomes closer to the thermal prediction. At the same time, the energy density approaches a Gaussian. Furthermore, the entropy associated with the generalized canonical and generalized grand-canonical ensembles, introduced to describe observables in integrable systems after relaxation, approaches that of the conventional canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We argue that those classes of initial states are special because a control parameter allows one to tune the distribution of conserved quantities to approach the one in thermal equilibrium. This helps in understanding the approach of all the quantities studied to their thermal expectation values. However, a finite-size scaling analysis shows that this behavior should not be confused with thermalization as understood for nonintegrable systems.

  4. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation.

    PubMed

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-02-05

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation.

  5. A Developmental Perspective of State Policy Initiatives in Instructional Management in the State of Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Jane Bruner

    This paper traces the evolution of curriculum reform in Mississippi from a state level, norm-referenced accountability system to a performance-based, centralized accreditation system that integrates instructional management requirements into improvement standards. Accountability legislation has primarily been concerned with quality of student…

  6. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: excited states.

    PubMed

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2007-01-14

    The authors show that a recently proposed approach [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 084103 (2005)] for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations can be used to obtain excited states of weakly bound complexes. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare gas clusters. The results show that the proposed approach allows the evaluation of excited states with reasonable accuracy when compared to exact basis set calculations.

  7. Nutrition initiatives in the context of population aging: where does the United States stand?

    PubMed

    Chalé, Angela; Unanski, Amanda G; Liang, Raymond Y

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the earliest segment of the baby boom generation turned 65 years of age. This event marks the beginning of a new phase of growth of the older adult population in the United States and is in line with what is referred to worldwide as "population aging." By 2030, older adults will comprise 20% of the U.S. population. With the impending increase in the older adult population, the United States is unprepared to handle the accompanying social and economic impact of growing rates of age-related diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. These diseases have nutritional determinants and, as such, they signify the need for effective preventive nutrition initiatives to address population aging in the United States. Comparatively, the European Union (EU) is projected to reach an older adult population of 24% by 2030. In this special article we evaluate nutrition initiatives for older adults in the United States and also examine nutrition initiatives in the European Union in search of an ideal model. However, we found that available data for EU initiatives targeted at population aging were limited. We conclude by offering the proposal of a physician-based model that establishes the primary care physician as the initiator of nutrition screening, education, referrals, and follow-up for the older adult population in the United States as a long-term goal. Apropos of the immediate future, we consider barriers that underscore the establishment of a physician-based model and suggest objectives that are attainable. Although the data are limited for the European Union, this model may serve to guide management of chronic diseases with a nutritional component in economies similar to the United States worldwide.

  8. Initial system-bath state via the maximum-entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jibo; Len, Yink Loong; Ng, Hui Khoon

    2016-11-01

    The initial state of a system-bath composite is needed as the input for prediction from any quantum evolution equation to describe subsequent system-only reduced dynamics or the noise on the system from joint evolution of the system and the bath. The conventional wisdom is to write down an uncorrelated state as if the system and the bath were prepared in the absence of each other; yet, such a factorized state cannot be the exact description in the presence of system-bath interactions. Here, we show how to go beyond the simplistic factorized-state prescription using ideas from quantum tomography: We employ the maximum-entropy principle to deduce an initial system-bath state consistent with the available information. For the generic case of weak interactions, we obtain an explicit formula for the correction to the factorized state. Such a state turns out to have little correlation between the system and the bath, which we can quantify using our formula. This has implications, in particular, on the subject of subsequent non-completely positive dynamics of the system. Deviation from predictions based on such an almost uncorrelated state is indicative of accidental control of hidden degrees of freedom in the bath.

  9. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Three Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its third…

  10. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Four Annual Report; Year Five Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic improvement in science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in the four states, focusing on schools that enroll large numbers of American Indian and Hispanic students. This document contains a report on UCAN's 4th year (September…

  11. Overview of the Common Core State Standards Initiatives for ELLs. TESOL Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL International Association, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this issue brief is to provide a comprehensive overview of the policies behind the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to outline some of the initiatives now in place to address the needs of English language learners (ELLs) in relation to the CCSS. This issue brief contains the appendices: (1) Assessment Consortia Time Lines; and…

  12. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  13. Students' Initial Knowledge State and Test Design: Towards a Valid and Reliable Test Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CoPo, Antonio Roland I.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a good test instrument involves specifications, test construction, validation, try-out, analysis and revision. The initial knowledge state of forty (40) tertiary students enrolled in Business Statistics course was determined and the same test instrument undergoes validation. The designed test instrument did not only reveal the baseline…

  14. The Illinois Alcoholism Prevention Initiative: A State-Wide Health Promotion and Primary Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Jerald D.

    Two resource centers were funded by the Illinois Alcoholism Prevention Initiative to facilitate primary prevention and health promotion efforts at the local level. Located in DeKalb and Springfield, the centers assisted the Illinois State Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Division of Alcoholism in building a body of…

  15. Ahead of the Curve: State Success in the Developmental Education Initiative. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altstadt, David

    2012-01-01

    Less than 25 percent of college students who take any developmental education courses earn a credential within eight years. Over the past three years, the six states in the Developmental Education Initiative have developed and enacted unprecedented changes in policy and practice in an effort to reverse these dismal outcomes. "Ahead of the…

  16. Goals for Fourth World Peoples and Sovereignty Initiatives in the United States and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffie, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Compares national policies of the United States and New Zealand toward their indigenous populations, and sovereignty initiatives of Native Americans and Maoris. Discusses colonialist patterns, treaty relationships, historical policy trajectories, and sovereignty disputes. Examines Indian gaming and Maori land claims settlements as a means to gain…

  17. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Two Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its second…

  18. What Variables Condition Syntactic Transfer? A Look at the L3 Initial State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates transfer at the third-language (L3) initial state, testing between the following possibilities: (1) the first language (L1) transfer hypothesis (an L1 effect for all adult acquisition), (2) the second language (L2) transfer hypothesis, where the L2 blocks L1 transfer (often referred to in the recent literature as the "L2…

  19. Quantum computers and unstructured search: finding and counting items with an arbitrarily entangled initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, A.; Hosoya, A.

    2001-02-01

    Grover's quantum algorithm for an unstructured search problem and the COUNT algorithm by Brassard et al. are generalized to the case when the initial state is arbitrarily and maximally entangled. This ansatz might be relevant with quantum subroutines, when the computational qubits and the environment are coupled, and in general when the control over the quantum system is partial.

  20. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-04-15

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k{sub 1} congruent with k{sub 0{+-}}O((1/R)) (where k{sub 0}={omega}{sub 0}/c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  1. On the unique mapping relationship between initial and final quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A.S.; Miret-Artés, S.

    2013-12-15

    In its standard formulation, quantum mechanics presents a very serious inconvenience: given a quantum system, there is no possibility at all to unambiguously (causally) connect a particular feature of its final state with some specific section of its initial state. This constitutes a practical limitation, for example, in numerical analyses of quantum systems, which often make necessary the use of some extra assistance from classical methodologies. Here it is shown how the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics removes the ambiguity of quantum mechanics, providing a consistent and clear answer to such a question without abandoning the quantum framework. More specifically, this formulation allows to define probability tubes, along which the enclosed probability keeps constant in time all the way through as the system evolves in configuration space. These tubes have the interesting property that once their boundary is defined at a given time, they are uniquely defined at any time. As a consequence, it is possible to determine final restricted (or partial) probabilities directly from localized sets of (Bohmian) initial conditions on the system initial state. Here, these facts are illustrated by means of two simple yet physically insightful numerical examples: tunneling transmission and grating diffraction. -- Highlights: •The concept of quantum probability tube is introduced. •Quantum tubes result from the evolution of a separatrix set of initial Bohmian conditions. •Probabilities inside these sets remain constant along the corresponding quantum tubes. •Particular features of final states are then uniquely linked to specific regions of initial states. •Tunneling and grating diffraction are analyzed.

  2. Stratospheric wind errors, initial states and forecast skill in the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1983-01-01

    Relations between stratospheric wind errors, initial states and 500 mb skill are investigated using the GLAS general circulation model initialized with FGGE data. Erroneous stratospheric winds are seen in all current general circulation models, appearing also as weak shear above the subtropical jet and as cold polar stratospheres. In this study it is shown that the more anticyclonic large-scale flows are correlated with large forecast stratospheric winds. In addition, it is found that for North America the resulting errors are correlated with initial state jet stream accelerations while for East Asia the forecast winds are correlated with initial state jet strength. Using 500 mb skill scores over Europe at day 5 to measure forecast performance, it is found that both poor forecast skill and excessive stratospheric winds are correlated with more anticyclonic large-scale flows over North America. It is hypothesized that the resulting erroneous kinetic energy contributes to the poor forecast skill, and that the problem is caused by a failure in the modeling of the stratospheric energy cycle in current general circulation models independent of vertical resolution.

  3. Geographic Factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Initiation Among Adolescent Girls in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is among the first to explore geographic factors that may be associated with HPV vaccine uptake in the United States. Methods Data from the 2011 and 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen for 20,565 female adolescents aged 13-17 years were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least one dose) with ZIP code-level geographic factors. Logistic regression including individual and geographic factors was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccine initiation. Results Approximately 53% of girls initiated the HPV vaccine in both years. Girls in high poverty communities had higher HPV vaccine initiation compared to those in low poverty communities (61.1% vs .52.4%; Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.18,95%CI 1.04-1.33). Initiation was higher among girls in communities where the majority of the population was Hispanic (69.0% vs. 49.9%;AOR 1.64, 95%CI 1.43-1.87) or non-Hispanic mixed race (60.4% vs. 49.9%; AOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) compared to majority non-Hispanic white communities. Interactions between individual-level race/ethnicity and community racial–ethnic composition indicated significantly higher odds of initiation among Hispanic girls living in Hispanic communities compared to Hispanic girls living in predominately NHW (AOR 2.23;95%CI 1.87-2.65) or NHB (AOR 1.90; 95%CI 1.20-3.04)communities, respectively Conclusion Initiation rates of HPV vaccination among teen girls were highest in the poorest communities and among Hispanics living in communities where the racial–ethnic composition was predominantly Hispanic or mixed race. Impact Given low HPV vaccination rates in the United States, these results provide important evidence to inform public health interventions to increase HPV vaccination. PMID:26768989

  4. Transient population dynamics: Relations to life history and initial population state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Zinner, B.; Rockwell, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Most environments are variable and disturbances (e.g., hurricanes, fires) can lead to substantial changes in a population's state (i.e., age, stage, or size distribution). In these situations, the long-term (i.e., asymptotic) measure of population growth rate (??1) may inaccurately represent population growth in the short-term. Thus, we calculated the short-term (i.e., transient) population growth rate and its sensitivity to changes in the life-cycle parameters for three bird and three mammal species with widely varying life histories. Further, we performed these calculations for initial population states that spanned the entire range of possibilities. Variation in a population's initial net reproductive value largely explained the variation in transient growth rates and their sensitivities to changes in life-cycle parameters (all AICc ??? 6.67 units better than the null model, all R2 ??? 0.55). Additionally, the transient fertility and adult survival sensitivities tended to increase with the initial net reproductive value of the population, whereas the sub-adult survival sensitivity decreased. Transient population dynamics of long-lived, slow reproducing species were more variable and more different than asymptotic dynamics than they were for short-lived, fast reproducing species. Because ??1 can be a biased estimate of the actual growth rate in the short-term (e.g., 19% difference), conservation and wildlife biologists should consider transient dynamics when developing management plans that could affect a population's state, or whenever population state could be unstable.

  5. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

    1995-08-01

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model.

  6. 77 FR 3152 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-2011-0407; FRL-9613-6] New Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  7. Using vibrational branching ratios to probe initial and final state effects in molecular photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchese, Robert R.; Bozek, John D.; Das, Aloke; Poliakoff, E. D.

    2009-11-01

    Recent computed and experimental results for ICN, BF3 and C6F6 will be presented. In ICN we consider the ionization leading to the X2 Π1/2,3/2 states of ICN+. We show how the geometry dependence of the initial state orbital can be studied using vibrational branching ratios. In C6F6, we consider the excitation of the effects of two prominent shape resonances on the symmetric stretching modes in the photoionization leading to the C 3B2u state of the ion. In BF3, the excitation of both the symmetric stretching and the degenerate asymmetric stretching modes are considered in the photoionization leading to the E2A1' state of the ion.

  8. Neuronal substrates for initiation, maintenance, and structural organization of sleep/wake states

    PubMed Central

    Eban-Rothschild, Ada; de Lecea, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Animals continuously alternate between sleep and wake states throughout their life. The daily organization of sleep and wakefulness is orchestrated by circadian, homeostatic, and motivational processes. Over the last decades, much progress has been made toward determining the neuronal populations involved in sleep/wake regulation. Here, we will discuss how the application of advanced in vivo tools for cell type–specific manipulations now permits the functional interrogation of different features of sleep/wake state regulation: initiation, maintenance, and structural organization. We will specifically focus on recent studies examining the roles of wake-promoting neuronal populations. PMID:28357049

  9. Hamiltonian Tomography in an Access-Limited Setting without State Initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Franco, C.; Paternostro, M.; Kim, M. S.

    2009-05-01

    We propose a scheme for the determination of the coupling parameters in a chain of interacting spins. This requires only time-resolved measurements over a single particle, simple data postprocessing and no state initialization or prior knowledge of the state of the chain. The protocol fits well into the context of quantum-dynamics characterization and is efficient even when the spin chain is affected by general dissipative and dephasing channels. We illustrate the performance of the scheme by analyzing explicit examples and discuss possible extensions.

  10. Research Initiatives for Materials State Sensing (RIMSS) Task Order 0020: High Frequency Eddy Current NDE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.  Between single sweep measurements Eddy Current excitation will not run, to prevent heating the...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2015-0004 RESEARCH INITIATIVES FOR MATERIALS STATE SENSING (RIMSS) Task Order 0020: High Frequency Eddy Current NDE...Frequency Eddy Current NDE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-D-5210-0020 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) See

  11. 77 FR 20817 - Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC's application...

  12. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE), and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error) with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in

  13. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model . The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation is analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12-hour assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4% decrease in the root mean squred error (RMSE), and a 59.9% increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8% and 13% for the +24 and +12 hours, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in ozone prediction for

  14. Connecticut State University System Initiative for Nanotechnology-Related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbridge, Christine C.

    2013-03-28

    DOE grant used for partial fulfillment of necessary laboratory equipment for course enrichment and new graduate programs in nanotechnology at the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System (CSUS). Equipment in this initial phase included variable pressure scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis capability [at Southern Connecticut State University]; power x-ray diffractometer [at Central Connecticut State University]; a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorimeter [at Eastern Connecticut State University; and a Raman Spectrometer [at Western Connecticut State University]. DOE's funding was allocated for purchase and installation of this scientific equipment and instrumentation. Subsequently, DOE funding was allocated to fund the curriculum, faculty development and travel necessary to continue development and implementation of the System's Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology (GCNT) program and the ConnSCU Nanotechnology Center (ConnSCU-NC) at Southern Connecticut State University. All of the established outcomes have been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the GCNT program have been determined and the program will be completely implemented in the fall of 2013. The instrumentation has been purchased, installed and has been utilized at each campus for the implementation of the nanotechnology courses, CSUS GCNT and the ConnSCU-NC. Additional outcomes for this grant include curriculum development for non-majors as well as faculty and student research.

  15. Initial-state dependence of the route to chaos of an external-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locquet, A.; Kim, Byungchil; Choi, Daeyoung; Li, Nianqiang; Citrin, D. S.

    2017-02-01

    External-cavity semiconductor lasers (ECLs), consisting of a laser diode in front of a mirror to reflect light back into the laser diode, are among the most important dynamical systems because of their ultrafast dynamics, their tunability, and the numerous existing applications. The dynamics of an ECL is greatly influenced by the existence and stability of numerous modes of the external cavity. In such high-dimensional nonlinear systems, numerous attractors, located around various modes of the external cavity, can coexist in phase space for a given set of parameters, a phenomenon called generalized multistability. In this work, we propose a procedure that allows one to select experimentally different modes of the external cavity as different initial states. We use this procedure to reveal experimentally generalized multistability in an ECL through the demonstration that different routes to chaos exist in an ECL, depending on the initial state selected. In particular, we show that the famous quasiperiodic route to chaos is only observed for specific choices of initial conditions.

  16. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, W.R.A.; Kellar, S.A.; Moler, E.J. |; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.; Shirley, D.A.; Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the p{sub o} final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA.

  17. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    PubMed

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  18. Distance between quantum states in the presence of initial qubit-environment correlations: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Dajka, Jerzy; Luczka, Jerzy; Haenggi, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The time evolution of the trace distance between two states of an open quantum system may increase due to initial system-environment correlations, thus exhibiting a breakdown of distance contractivity of the reduced dynamics. We analyze how the time evolution of the distance depends on the chosen distance measure. Here we elucidate the behavior of the trace distance, the Hilbert-Schmidt distance, the Bures distance, the Hellinger distance, and the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence for two system-environment setups, namely a qubit bilinearly coupled to an infinite and a finite-size environment with the latter composed of harmonic oscillators.

  19. Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of the two-dimensional Ising model quenched from a correlated initial state.

    PubMed

    Környei, László; Pleimling, Michel; Iglói, Ferenc

    2008-01-01

    The universality class, even the order of the transition, of the two-dimensional Ising model depends on the range and the symmetry of the interactions (Onsager model, Baxter-Wu model, Turban model, etc.), but the critical temperature is generally the same due to self-duality. Here we consider a sudden change in the form of the interaction and study the nonequilibrium critical dynamical properties of the nearest-neighbor model. The relaxation of the magnetization and the decay of the autocorrelation function are found to display a power law behavior with characteristic exponents that depend on the universality class of the initial state.

  20. Fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of spin state of an electron in a semiconductor quantum dot using light-hole-trion states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically show that under the Faraday geometry fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of electron spin (ES) state in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) can be realized by utilizing the light-hole (LH)-trion states. Initialization is completed within the time scale of ten nanoseconds with high fidelity, and the initialization laser pulse can be linearly, right-circularly, or left-circularly polarized. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time required for initialization can be further shortened down to a few hundreds of picoseconds if we introduce a pillar-microcavity to promote the relaxation of a LH-trion state towards the desired ES state through the Purcell effect. We also clarify the role of heavy-hole and light-hole mixing induced transitions on the fidelity of ES state initialization.

  1. The Initial State of Optically Polarized 8Li+ from the β-NMR in Bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, W. A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Pearson, M. R.; Buck, T.; Chow, K. H.; Hariwal, A. N.; Kiefl, R. F.; McGee, F. H.; Morris, G. D.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the positive muon, β-NMR probe nuclei must be actively polarized. At the TRIUMF ISAC facility this is accomplished by in-flight collinear optical pumping with resonant circularly polarized laser light. This reliably produces a high degree of polarization, but the detailed state populations in the beam emerging from the optical polarizer are not well known. These populations are significant as they represent the initial state of the ensemble of probe spins implanted in a β-NMR experiment. Here we use the well-resolved quadrupolar split spectrum of 8Li+ in a high purity single crystal of bismuth to extract the sublevel populations under typical polarizer operating conditions, accounting for the spin relaxation in this semimetal.

  2. Controlling Two-Electron Threshold Dynamics in Double Photoionization of Lithium by Initial-State Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Schuricke, M.; Steinmann, J.; Albrecht, J.; Ullrich, J.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Dorn, A.

    2009-09-01

    Double photoionization (DPI) and ionization-excitation (IE) of Li(2s) and Li(2p), state-prepared and aligned in a magneto-optical trap, were explored in a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH). From 6 to 12 eV above threshold (ℏω=85, 91 eV), total as well as differential DPI cross sections were observed to critically depend on the initial state and, in particular, on the alignment of the 2p orbital with respect to the VUV-light polarization, whereas no effect is seen for IE. The alignment sensitivity is traced back to dynamical electron correlation at threshold.

  3. Controlling Two-Electron Threshold Dynamics in Double Photoionization of Lithium by Initial-State Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G.; Schuricke, M.; Steinmann, J.; Albrecht, J.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2009-09-04

    Double photoionization (DPI) and ionization-excitation (IE) of Li(2s) and Li(2p), state-prepared and aligned in a magneto-optical trap, were explored in a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH). From 6 to 12 eV above threshold ((Planck constant/2pi)omega=85, 91 eV), total as well as differential DPI cross sections were observed to critically depend on the initial state and, in particular, on the alignment of the 2p orbital with respect to the VUV-light polarization, whereas no effect is seen for IE. The alignment sensitivity is traced back to dynamical electron correlation at threshold.

  4. On the robustness of near term climate predictability regarding initial state uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germe, Agathe; Sévellec, Florian; Mignot, Juliette; Swingedouw, Didier; Nguyen, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    A set of four ensemble simulations has been designed to assess the relative importance of atmospheric, oceanic, and deep ocean initial state uncertainties, as represented by spatial white noise perturbations, on seasonal to decadal prediction skills in a perfect model framework. It is found that a perturbation mimicking random oceanic uncertainties have the same impact as an atmospheric-only perturbation on the future evolution of the ensemble after the first 3 months, even if they are initially only located in the deep ocean. This is due to the fast (1 month) perturbation of the atmospheric component regardless of the initial ensemble generation strategy. The divergence of the ensemble upper-ocean characteristics is then mainly induced by ocean-atmosphere interactions. While the seasonally varying mixed layer depth allows the penetration of the different signals in the thermocline in the mid-high latitudes, the rapid adjustment of the thermocline to wind anomalies followed by Kelvin and Rossby waves adjustment dominates the growth of the ensemble spread in the tropics. These mechanisms result in similar ensemble distribution characteristics for the four ensembles design strategy at the interannual timescale.

  5. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  6. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems.

  7. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-02-16

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems.

  8. From Initial Nucleation to Cassie-Baxter State of Condensed Droplets on Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; Niu, Fenglei; He, Feng; Hao, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how droplet condensation happens plays an essential role for our fundamental insights of wetting behaviors in nature and numerous applications. Since there is a lack of study of the initial formation and growing processes of condensed droplets down to nano-/submicroscale, relevant underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. We report an in situ observation of vapor condensation on nano-/microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces using optical microscopy. An interesting picture of the vapor condensation, from the initial appearance of individual small droplets (≤1 μm) to a Cassie-Baxter wetting state (>30 μm), are exhibited. It is found that individual droplets preferentially nucleate at the top and the edge of single micropillars with very high apparent contact angles on the nanotextures. Scenarios of two distinguished growing modes are reported statistically and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in the view of thermodynamics. We particularly reveal that the formation of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state is a result of a continuous coalescence of individual small droplets, in which the nanotexture-enhanced superhydrophobicity plays a crucial role. We envision that these fundamental findings can deepen our understanding of the nucleation and development of condensed droplets in nanoscale, so as to optimize design strategies of superhydrophobic materials for a broad range of water-harvesting and heat-transfer systems. PMID:28202939

  9. Phosphorylation states of translational initiation factors affect mRNA cap binding in wheat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mateen A; Goss, Dixie J

    2004-07-20

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translational initiation factors (eIFs) has been shown to be an important means of regulating protein synthesis. Plant initiation factors undergo phosphorylation/dephosphorylation under a variety of stress and growth conditions. We have shown that recombinant wheat cap-binding protein, eIF(iso)4E, produced from E. coli can be phosphorylated in vitro. Phosphorylation of eIF(iso)4E has effects on m(7)G cap-binding affinity similar to those of phosphorylation of mammalian eIF4E even though eIF(iso)4E lacks an amino acid that can be phosphorylated at the residue corresponding to Ser-209, the phosphorylation site in mammalian eIF4E. The cap-binding affinity was reduced 1.2-2.6-fold when eIF(iso)4E was phosphorylated. The in vitro phosphorylation site for wheat eIF(iso)4E was identified as Ser-207. Addition of eIF(iso)4G and eIF4B that had also been phosphorylated in vitro further reduced cap-binding affinity. Temperature-dependent studies showed that DeltaH(degrees) was favorable for cap binding regardless of the phosphorylation state of the initiation factors. The entropy, however, was unfavorable (negative) except when eIF(iso)4E was phosphorylated and interacting with eIF(iso)4G. Phosphorylation may modulate not only cap-binding activity, but other functions of eukaryotic initiation factors as well.

  10. Measuring Psychobiosocial States in Sport: Initial Validation of a Trait Measure

    PubMed Central

    Bertollo, Maurizio; Ruiz, Montse C.; Bortoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined the item characteristics, the factor structure, and the concurrent validity of a trait measure of psychobiosocial states. In Study 1, Italian athletes (N = 342, 228 men, 114 women, Mage = 23.93, SD = 6.64) rated the intensity, the frequency, and the perceived impact dimensions of a psychobiosocial states scale, trait version (PBS-ST), which is composed of 20 items (10 functional and 10 dysfunctional) referring to how they usually felt before an important competition. In Study 2, the scale was cross validated in an independent sample (N = 251, 181 men, 70 women, Mage = 24.35, SD = 7.25). The concurrent validity of the PBS-ST scale scores were also examined in comparison with two sport-specific emotion-related measures and a general measure of affect. Exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis of the data of Study 1 showed that a 2-factor, 15-item solution of the PBS-ST scale (8 functional items and 7 dysfunctional items) reached satisfactory fit indices for the three dimensions (i.e., intensity, frequency, and perceived impact). Results of Study 2 provided evidence of substantial measurement and structural invariance of all dimensions across samples. The low association of the PBS-ST scale with other measures suggests that the scale taps unique constructs. Findings of the two studies offer initial validity evidence for a sport-specific tool to measure psychobiosocial states. PMID:27907111

  11. Effects of the interplay between initial state and Hamiltonian on the thermalization of isolated quantum many-body systems.

    PubMed

    Torres-Herrera, E J; Santos, Lea F

    2013-10-01

    We explore the role of the initial state on the onset of thermalization in isolated quantum many-body systems after a quench. The initial state is an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian H(I) and it evolves according to a different final Hamiltonian H(F). If the initial state has a chaotic structure with respect to H(F), i.e., if it fills the energy shell ergodically, thermalization is certain to occur. This happens when H(I) is a full random matrix, because its states projected onto H(F), are fully delocalized. The results for the observables then agree with those obtained with thermal states at infinite temperature. However, finite real systems with few-body interactions, as the ones considered here, are deprived of fully extended eigenstates, even when described by a nonintegrable Hamiltonian. We examine how the initial state delocalizes as it gets closer to the middle of the spectrum of H(F), causing the observables to approach thermal averages, be the models integrable or chaotic. Our numerical studies are based on initial states with energies that cover the entire lower half of the spectrum of one-dimensional Heisenberg spin-1/2 systems.

  12. Initial and Final State Interaction Effects in Small-x Quark Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2010-08-30

    We study the initial and final state interaction effects in the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in the small-x saturation region. In particular, we discuss the quark distributions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan lepton pair production and dijet-correlation processes in pA collisions. We calculate the quark distributions in the scalar-QED model and then extend to the color glass condensate formalism in QCD. The quark distributions are found universal between the DIS and Drell-Yan processes. On the other hand, the quark distribution from the qq'-->qq' channel contribution to the dijet-correlation process is not universal. However, we find that it can be related to the quark distribution in DIS process by a convolution with the normalized unintegrated gluon distribution in the CGC formalism in the large Nc limit.

  13. Illinois State University FOCUS Initiative: Civic Engagement and Outreach Projects in the ISU Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansher, J. A.; Holland, D. L.; Johns, G. F.; Willmitch, T. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Illinois State University Physics Department has long realized the importance of providing educational outreach opportunities to the wider community. Creating and maintaining community networks with engaging outreach projects helps us broaden the appreciation of physics, as well as encourage young students to consider careers in the sciences. A key aspect of these ISU Physics programs is that we involve our undergraduates in them, thereby fostering civic engagement in the next generation of scientists. This presentation highlights how our department promotes basic science literacy, and awareness of space physics and astronomy through several existing outreach projects. We also describe how we operate under the broader scope of the ISU FOCUS Initiative, and the NASA Solar System Ambassadors program.

  14. Localized Bioconvection Patterns and Their Initial State Dependency in Euglena gracilis Suspensions in an Annular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Localized patterns of bioconvection in Euglena gracilis suspensions were experimentally analyzed in an annular container. Near the critical mean density of convection, we succeeded in isolating two basic types of localized convection patterns. One was an almost stationary pattern consisting of two convection cells centered by an isolated high-density region of the microorganism where a downflow was generated, which we call a "bioconvection unit". The other was a traveling wave pattern consisting of an array of moving high-density waves bounded in a certain area. The effect of the mean density of E. gracilis on the emergence of the localized convection pattern was also examined. Near the critical mean density, we found that the emergence probability of the localized convection pattern depends on the initial state, i.e., whether E. gracilis has a uniform or localized distribution, which suggests that the system is bistable. Such bistability is often accompanied by localized structures in spatially extended dissipative systems.

  15. Binary neutron star merger simulations with different initial orbital frequency and equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maione, F.; De Pietri, R.; Feo, A.; Löffler, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from three-dimensional general relativistic simulations of binary neutron star coalescences and mergers using public codes. We considered equal mass models where the baryon mass of the two neutron stars is 1.4{M}⊙ , described by four different equations of state (EOS) for the cold nuclear matter (APR4, SLy, H4, and MS1; all parametrized as piecewise polytropes). We started the simulations from four different initial interbinary distances (40,44.3,50, and 60 km), including up to the last 16 orbits before merger. That allows us to show the effects on the gravitational wave (GW) phase evolution, radiated energy and angular momentum due to: the use of different EOS, the orbital eccentricity present in the initial data and the initial separation (in the simulation) between the two stars. Our results show that eccentricity has a major role in the discrepancy between numerical and analytical waveforms until the very last few orbits, where ‘tidal’ effects and missing high-order post-Newtonian coefficients also play a significant role. We test different methods for extrapolating the GW signal extracted at finite radii to null infinity. We show that an effective procedure for integrating the Newman-Penrose {\\psi }4 signal to obtain the GW strain h is to apply a simple high-pass digital filter to h after a time domain integration, where only the two physical motivated integration constants are introduced. That should be preferred to the more common procedures of introducing additional integration constants, integrating in the frequency domain or filtering {\\psi }4 before integration.

  16. Role of initial state and final quench temperature on aging properties in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Villavicencio-Sanchez, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved dynamics quenched from an initial equilibrium state at the temperature Ti≥Tc to a final temperature Tf below the critical one. By considering processes initiating both from a disordered state at infinite temperature Ti=∞ and from the critical configurations at Ti=Tc and spanning the range of final temperatures Tf∈[0 ,Tc[ we elucidate the role played by Ti and Tf on the aging properties and, in particular, on the behavior of the autocorrelation C and of the integrated response function χ . Our results show that for any choice of Tf, while the autocorrelation function exponent λC takes a markedly different value for Ti=∞ [λC(Ti=∞ ) ≃5 /4 ] or Ti=Tc [λC(Ti=Tc) ≃1 /8 ] the response function exponents are unchanged. Supported by the outcome of the analytical solution of the solvable spherical model we interpret this fact as due to the different contributions provided to autocorrelation and response by the large-scale properties of the system. As changing Tf is considered, although this is expected to play no role in the large-scale and long-time properties of the system, we show important effects on the quantitative behavior of χ . In particular, data for quenches to Tf=0 are consistent with a value of the response function exponent λχ=1/2 λC(Ti=∞ ) =5 /8 different from the one [λχ∈(0.5 -0.56 ) ] found in a wealth of previous numerical determinations in quenches to finite final temperatures. This is interpreted as due to important preasymptotic corrections associated to Tf>0 .

  17. Black carbon aerosol optical properties are influenced by initial mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Healy, R. M.; Riemer, N.; West, M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Wenger, J.; Abbatt, J.; Lee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete combustion emits teragram quantities of black carbon (BC) aerosol to the troposphere each year, resulting in a significant warming effect on climate that may be second only to carbon dioxide. The magnitude of BC impacts on a global scale remains poorly constrained and is intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modeling informed by novel quantitative measurements from an Aerodyne soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), we show that initial mixing state (or the distribution of co-emitted components amongst fresh BC-containing particles) significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble observations indicate that BC near emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon (mfBC) in HOA- and BC-rich particle types was 0.02-0.08 and 0.72-0.93, respectively. Notably, positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of ensemble SP-AMS measurements indicates that BC-rich particles contribute the majority of BC mass (> 90%) in freshly emitted particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection to the atmosphere.

  18. Conformational Differences between Open and Closed States of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Jose L.; Hussain, Tanweer; Marler, Laura; Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Thakur, Anil; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Translation initiation in eukaryotes begins with the formation of a pre-initiation complex (PIC) containing the 40S ribosomal subunit, eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3, ternary complex (eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi), and eIF5. The PIC, in an open conformation, attaches to the 5′ end of the mRNA and scans to locate the start codon, whereupon it closes to arrest scanning. We present single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of 48S PICs from yeast in these open and closed states, at 6.0 Å and 4.9 Å, respectively. These reconstructions show eIF2β as well as a configuration of eIF3 that appears to encircle the 40S, occupying part of the subunit interface. Comparison of the complexes reveals a large conformational change in the 40S head from an open mRNA latch conformation to a closed one that constricts the mRNA entry channel and narrows the P site to enclose tRNAi, thus elucidating key events in start codon recognition. PMID:26212456

  19. Fault geometries in basement-induced wrench faulting under different initial stress states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M. A.; Mandl, G.; Supesteijn, C. H. K.

    Scaled sandbox experiments were used to generate models for relative ages, dip, strike and three-dimensional shape of faults in basement-controlled wrench faulting. The basic fault sequence runs from early en échelon Riedel shears and splay faults through 'lower-angle' shears to P shears. The Riedel shears are concave upwards and define a tulip structure in cross-section. In three dimensions, each Riedel shear has a helicoidal form. The sequence of faults and three-dimensional geometry are rationalized in terms of the prevailing stress field and Coulomb-Mohr theory of shear failure. The stress state in the sedimentary overburden before wrenching begins has a substantial influence on the fault geometries and on the final complexity of the fault zone. With the maximum compressive stress (∂ 1) initially parallel to the basement fault (transtension), Riedel shears are only slightly en échelon, sub-parallel to the basement fault, steeply dipping with a reduced helicoidal aspect. Conversely, with ∂ 1 initially perpendicular to the basement fault (transpression), Riedel shears are strongly oblique to the basement fault strike, have lower dips and an exaggerated helicoidal form; the final fault zone is both wide and complex. We find good agreement between the models and both mechanical theory and natural examples of wrench faulting.

  20. FINAL REPORT: SUNSHINE STATE SOLAR GRID INITIATIVE (SUNGRIN) PHASE 1 (Critical Milestone Review Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, Rick; Steurer, Mischa; Li, Hui; Edrington, Chris; Dale, Steinar; Faruque, MD Omar; Schoder, Karl; McLaren, Peter G.; Liu, Liming; Ravindra, Harsha; Henry, Shawn; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Xiaohu; Springstroh, Aaron; Click, David; Reedy, Robert; Moaveni, Houtan; Davis, Kristopher; Cromer, Charlie; Pappalardo, Anthoney; Krueger, Rodica; Domijan, Alexander; Islam, Arif; Islam, Mujahidil; Damole, Ademole

    2012-03-30

    This report provides details on the activities and accomplishments of Phase 1 of the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) Project for the period beginning 4/28/2010 and ending 12/31/2011. SUNGRIN is a five-phase high-penetration solar PV project within the Systems Integration (SI) area of the Solar Energy Technologies (SETP) Program, under the SunShot Initiative. SUNGRIN is focused on understanding and enabling high-penetration grid-connected solar PV through simulation assisted studies of actual Florida utility high-penetration distribution circuits as well as substations and, to a limited extent, the bulk power system. Each phase builds and expands upon the efforts of the previous phase, leading to a comprehensive examination and understanding of high-penetration solar PV issues, from the solar resource to the conversion and integration technologies to the electric power system, with Florida and it’s utility partners providing the broad range of conditions and system integration scenarios necessary to develop useful insight and solutions. This phase, Phase 1, was funded with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. This version of the final report is organized to align with statement of project objectives (SOPO) critical milestones.

  1. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists.

  2. Wavelength Dependence of Nanosecond IR Laser-Induced Breakdown in Water: Evidence for Multiphoton Initiation via an Intermediate State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Wavelength dependence of nanosecond IR laser-induced breakdown in water: evidence for multiphoton initiation via an intermediate state Norbert...band. Theoretical analysis based on these assumptions suggests that the seed electron density required for initiating avalanche ionization drops from...powerful for supporting higher order multiphoton processes [15-18]. However, conclusive evidence for the relevance of photoionization in ns breakdown is

  3. A state-wide partnership to promote safe and supportive schools: the PBIS Maryland Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Pas, Elise T; Bloom, Jerry; Barrett, Susan; Hershfeldt, Patricia; Alexander, Andrea; McKenna, Milton; Chafin, Ann E; Leaf, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Schools continue to be an important context for preventive interventions targeting a range of behavioral and mental health problems. Yet competing demands on teachers and shifting priorities in response to federal legislation have posed some unique challenges to prevention researchers working in school settings. This paper summarizes an approach to prevention partnerships developed over a decade and centered on the three-tiered Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) model. A state-wide initiative was formed and led through a partnership between the Maryland State Department of Education, Sheppard Pratt Health System, and Johns Hopkins University, which focused on implementing evidence-based practices and conducting prevention research in Maryland public schools. Drawing on a community-based participatory research framework for developing research partnerships, we highlight the importance of forming and sustaining authentic relationships to support school-based prevention research and implementation of evidence-based programs. We also discuss how these relationships have been used to disseminate PBIS and rigorously test its effectiveness. We describe some lessons learned from the partnership and identify potential areas for future research on the prevention partnership model. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for both researchers and community partners engaged in translational research in school settings.

  4. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, Rick; Steurer, Mischa; Faruque, MD Omar; Langston, James; Schoder, Karl; Ravindra, Harsha; Hariri, Ali; Moaveni, Houtan; Click, Dave; Reedy, Bob

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  5. Study of the Exclusive Initial State RadiationProduction of the D \\bar D System

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-09-07

    A study of exclusive production of the D{bar D} system through initial-state radiation is performed in a search for charmonium states, where D = D{sup 0} or D{sup +}. The D{sup 0} mesons are reconstructed in the D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, and D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay modes. The D{sup +} is reconstructed through the D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decay mode. The analysis makes use of an integrated luminosity of 288.5 fb{sup -1} collected by the BABAR experiment. The D{bar D} mass spectrum shows a clear {psi}(3770) signal. Further structures appear in the 3.9 and 4.1 GeV/c{sup 2} regions. No evidence is found for Y(4260) decays to D{bar D}, implying an upper limit {Beta}(Y(4260) {yields} D{bar D})/{Beta}(Y(4260) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 7.6 (95% confidence level).

  6. GeoBolivia the initiator Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia's Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Rodriguez, Raul Fernando; Lesage, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Started in 2011, the GeoBolivia project (www.geo.gob.bo)aims at building the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (IDE-EPB by its Spanish initials), as an effort of the Vice Presidency of the State to give an open access to the public geographic information of Bolivia. The first phase of the project has already been completed. It consisted in implementing an infrastructure and a geoportal for accessing the geographic information through WMS, WFS, WCS and CSW services. The project is currently in its second phase dedicated to decentralizing the structure of IDE-EPB and promoting its use throughout the Bolivian State. The whole platform uses free software and open standards. As a complement, an on-line training module was developed to undertake the transfer of the knowledge the project generated. The main software components used in the SDI are: gvSIG, QGis, uDig as GIS desktop clients; PostGreSQL and PostGIS as geographic database management system; geOrchestra as a framework containing the GeoServer map server, the GeoNetwork catalog server and the OpenLayers and Mapfish GIS webclient; MapServer as a map server for generating OpenStreetMap tiles; Debian as operating system; Apache and Tomcat as web servers. Keywords: SDI, Bolivia, GIS, free software, catalog, gvSIG, QGIS, uDig, geOrchestra, OpenLayers, Mapfish, GeoNetwork, MapServer, GeoServer, OGC, WFS, WMS, WCS, CSW, WMC.

  7. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for market... 20426. The filings in the above-referenced proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary...

  8. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for...

  9. Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

  10. Anisotropic non-gaussianity from rotational symmetry breaking excited initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Koivisto, Tomi

    2016-12-01

    If the initial quantum state of the primordial perturbations broke rotational invariance, that would be seen as a statistical anisotropy in the angular correlations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) temperature fluctuations. This can be described by a general parameterisation of the initial conditions that takes into account the possible direction-dependence of both the amplitude and the phase of particle creation during inflation. The leading effect in the CMBR two-point function is typically a quadrupole modulation, whose coefficient is analytically constrained here to be |B|≲0.06. The CMBR three-point function then acquires enhanced non-gaussianity, especially for the local configurations. In the large occupation number limit, a distinctive prediction is a modulation of the non-gaussianity around a mean value depending on the angle that short and long wavelength modes make with the preferred direction. The maximal variations with respect to the mean value occur for the configurations which are coplanar with the preferred direction and the amplitude of the non-gaussianity increases (decreases) for the short wavelength modes aligned with (perpendicular to) the preferred direction. For a high scale model of inflation with maximally pumped up isotropic occupation and ϵ≃0.01 the difference between these two configurations is about 0.27, which could be detectable in the future. For purely anisotropic particle creation, the non-Gaussianity can be larger and its anisotropic feature very sharp. The non-gaussianity can then reach f{sub NL}∼30 in the preferred direction while disappearing from the correlations in the orthogonal plane.

  11. Anisotropic non-gaussianity from rotational symmetry breaking excited initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Casadio, Roberto; Koivisto, Tomi

    2016-12-01

    If the initial quantum state of the primordial perturbations broke rotational invariance, that would be seen as a statistical anisotropy in the angular correlations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) temperature fluctuations. This can be described by a general parameterisation of the initial conditions that takes into account the possible direction-dependence of both the amplitude and the phase of particle creation during inflation. The leading effect in the CMBR two-point function is typically a quadrupole modulation, whose coefficient is analytically constrained here to be |B| lesssim 0.06. The CMBR three-point function then acquires enhanced non-gaussianity, especially for the local configurations. In the large occupation number limit, a distinctive prediction is a modulation of the non-gaussianity around a mean value depending on the angle that short and long wavelength modes make with the preferred direction. The maximal variations with respect to the mean value occur for the configurations which are coplanar with the preferred direction and the amplitude of the non-gaussianity increases (decreases) for the short wavelength modes aligned with (perpendicular to) the preferred direction. For a high scale model of inflation with maximally pumped up isotropic occupation and epsilonsimeq 0.01 the difference between these two configurations is about 0.27, which could be detectable in the future. For purely anisotropic particle creation, the non-Gaussianity can be larger and its anisotropic feature very sharp. The non-gaussianity can then reach 0fNL ~ 3 in the preferred direction while disappearing from the correlations in the orthogonal plane.

  12. A transition state view on reactive scattering: Initial state-selected reaction probabilities for the H+CH4-->H2+CH3 reaction studied in full dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffel, Gerd; Manthe, Uwe

    2010-11-01

    Initial state-selected reaction probabilities for the H+CH4→H2+CH3 reaction are computed for vanishing total angular momentum by full-dimensional calculations employing the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree approach. An ensemble of wave packets completely describing reactivity for total energies up to 0.58 eV is constructed in the transition state region by diagonalization of the thermal flux operator. These wave packets are then propagated into the reactant asymptotic region to obtain the initial state-selected reaction probabilities. Reaction probabilities for reactants in all rotational states of the vibrational 1A1, 1F2, and 1E levels of methane are presented. Vibrational excitation is found to decrease reactivity when reaction probabilities at equivalent total energies are compared but to increase reaction probabilities when the comparison is done at the basis of equivalent collision energies. Only a fraction of the initial vibrational energy can be utilized to promote the reaction. The effect of rotational excitation on the reactivity differs depending on the initial vibrational state of methane. For the 1A1 and 1F2 vibrational states of methane, rotational excitation decreases the reaction probability even when comparing reaction probabilities at equivalent collision energies. In contrast, rotational energy is even more efficient than translational energy in increasing the reaction probability when the reaction starts from the 1E vibrational state of methane. All findings can be explained employing a transition state based interpretation of the reaction process.

  13. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1990 - December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1990 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  14. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1989 - December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1989 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  15. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  16. Initial singlet and triplet spin state contributions to -> ppπ0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thörngren Engblom, P.; Meyer, H. O.; Balewski, J. T.; Daehnick, W. W.; Doskow, J.; Haeberli, W.; Lorentz, B.; Pancella, P. V.; Pollock, R. E.; von Przewoski, B.; Rathmann, F.; Rinckel, T.; Saha, Swapan K.; Schwartz, B.; Wellinghausen, A.; Wise, T.

    2000-01-01

    The PINTEX2http://www.iucf.indiana.edu/~pintex/2 facility at the IUCF Cooler ring, dedicated to the study of spin dependence in nucleon-nucleon interactions, has been used to measure polarization observables of the reaction -> ppπ0 at beam energies between 325 and 400 MeV. The stored, polarized proton beam had spin projections both in the longitudinal and the transverse directions with respect to the beam momentum. We report here on the measurements of the relative transverse and longitudinal spin-dependent cross sections3Defined as ΔσT(L) = [σ(⇕) + σ(⇕)] - [σ(⇈ + σ(⇊)] where the arrows denote parallel and antiparallel beam/target spin combinations, either transversely (T) or longitudinally (L) polarized.3, ΔσT/σtot and ΔσL/σtot, and how from these observables the initial spin singlet and triplet cross sections are obtained. Considering angular momentum states less than or equal to one, the contribution of the Ps partial waves to the cross section can be extracted.

  17. Initial state effects on the cosmic microwave background and trans-Planckian physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A.

    2003-03-01

    There exists a one complex parameter family of de Sitter invariant vacua, known as α vacua. In the context of slow roll inflation, we show that all but the Bunch-Davies vacuum generates unacceptable production of high energy particles at the end of inflation. As a simple model for the effects of trans-Planckian physics, we go on to consider non de Sitter invariant vacua obtained by patching modes in the Bunch-Davies vacuum above some momentum scale Mc, with modes in an α vacuum below Mc. Choosing Mc near the Planck scale MPl, we find acceptable levels of hard particle production, and corrections to the cosmic microwave perturbations at the level of HMPl/M2c, where H is the Hubble parameter during inflation. More general initial states of this type with H≪Mc≪MPl can give corrections to the spectrum of cosmic microwave background perturbations at order 1. The parameter characterizing the α vacuum during inflation is a new cosmological observable.

  18. Planning for the worst in Washington State: initial response planning for improvised nuclear device explosions.

    PubMed

    Poeton, Richard W; Glines, Wayne M; McBaugh, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Since 11 September 2001, improvised nuclear devices have become recognized as an important radiological threat requiring emergency response planning. Although Protective Action Guidance is well established for fixed nuclear facilities, correspondingly well-developed guidance does not exist for nuclear explosions. The Washington State Department of Health has developed preplanned Protective Action Recommendations for improvised nuclear device explosions. These recommendations recognize the need for advice to the public soon after such an event, before significant data are available. They can be used before significant outside support is available locally, and reference observable effects so people can use them if communications were disabled. The recommendations focus on early actions (24-48 h) and place priority on actions to avoid deterministic health effects due to residual fallout. Specific emphasis is placed on determining recommendations for evacuation, as well as the extent of the area for sheltering. The key recommendations developed for an initial public response are: (1) if there is ready access to robust shelter such as an underground basement or interior spaces in a multi-story structure, immediate sheltering in these areas is the best action, regardless of location; (2) if robust shelter is not available, and if fallout is observed in the area, then evacuation is the best general recommendation for locations within 16 km (10 miles) of the explosion; and (3) beyond 16 km (10 miles), the generally recommended protective action is to shelter in the best-protected location which is readily available.

  19. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  20. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    PubMed

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  1. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  2. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.

  3. Measures of Last Resort: Assessing Strategies for State-Initiated Turnarounds. Linking State and Local School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) puts responsibility for improving student outcomes back where some say it has always belonged--under states' purview. No longer will prescriptive federal requirements dictate how states should identify, support, and turn around the lowest-performing schools and districts. Instead, states are empowered to craft…

  4. Correlates and contexts of US injection drug initiation among undocumented Mexican migrant men who were deported from the United States.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2012-08-01

    Preventing the onset of injection drug use is important in controlling the spread of HIV and other blood borne infections. Undocumented migrants in the United States face social, economic, and legal stressors that may contribute to substance abuse. Little is known about undocumented migrants' drug abuse trajectories including injection initiation. To examine the correlates and contexts of US injection initiation among undocumented migrants, we administered quantitative surveys (N = 309) and qualitative interviews (N = 23) on migration and drug abuse experiences to deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. US injection initiation was independently associated with ever using drugs in Mexico pre-migration, younger age at first US migration, and US incarceration. Participants' qualitative interviews contextualized quantitative findings and demonstrated the significance of social contexts surrounding US injection initiation experiences. HIV prevention programs may prevent/delay US injection initiation by addressing socio-economic and migration-related stressors experienced by undocumented migrants.

  5. Finite-time fuzzy stabilisation and control for nonlinear descriptor systems with non-zero initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhan; Zhang, Qingling; Ai, Jun; Sun, Xin

    2015-01-01

    For nonlinear descriptor systems, this paper presents an approach to obtain a fuzzy controller with guaranteed finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state, which outperforms some recent work and additionally provides a precision estimation of model approximation. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions of finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state for nonlinear descriptor systems. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy dynamic models and proposed sufficient conditions, we define fuzzy sets and use linear matrix inequalities to satisfy differential linear matrix inequalities. A simulation confirms efficiency and precision of the given method.

  6. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  7. 75 FR 79419 - Training and Employment Guidance (TEGL) Letter No. 13-10: Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 State Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... 2010 Second Distribution of Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Training Funds to States''; 20 CFR Part... provisions, 20 CFR 618.900--618.940, went into effect April 2, 2010, with the publication of 20 CFR 618... amendments and 20 CFR 618.910--618.930. A. TAA Formula Funds: The initial allocation of 65 percent...

  8. The Impact of the Common Core State Standards Initiative on Math ACT Scores of West Tennessee High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kirkland D.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative is the latest effort by educational leaders to improve educational outcomes of American students. The standards are intended to bring uniformity in educational content of what is being taught in schools across the nation in order to promote rigor and academic portability. Proponents claimed the new…

  9. ERISA as an obstacle to fair share legislation and other state initiatives to expand coverage to the uninsured and underinsured.

    PubMed

    Polvino, Kathlynn Butler; Antia, Mazda K; Burnette, Jeremy P

    2007-01-01

    As states experiment with legislation designed to address problems of healthcare affordability and accessibility by requiring employers to offer or spend more on employee health benefit plans, courts increasingly will be called upon to determine whether such mandates run afoul of ERISA. This article examines the potential impact of existing case law on current legislative initiatives.

  10. Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h Warm Season QPF be Improved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that numerical warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for numerous reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the numerical algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.

  11. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  12. Universities and the Entrepreneurial State: Politics and Policy and a New Wave of State-Based Economic Initiatives. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.14.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2006-01-01

    The convergence of US federal science and economic policy that began in earnest in the Reagan administration formed the first stage in an emerging post-Cold War drive toward technological innovation. A frenzy of new state-based initiatives now forms the Second Stage, further promoting universities as decisive tools for economic competitiveness.…

  13. The differential impact of WIC peer counseling programs on breastfeeding initiation across the state of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Gross, Susan M; Resnik, Amy K; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Nanda, Joy P; Augustyn, Marycatherine; Paige, David M

    2009-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examines Maryland's women, infants, and children (WIC) breastfeeding initiation rates by program participation. The authors report on data regarding demographic and health characteristics and infant feeding practices for infants (n = 18,789) newly WIC-certified from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2007. The authors compared self-reported, breastfeeding initiation rates for 3 groups: peer counselor (PC-treatment group) and two comparison groups, lactation consultant (LC), and standard care group (SCG). Reported breastfeeding initiation at certification was 55.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for relevant maternal and infant characteristics, showed that the odds of breastfeeding initiation were significantly greater among PC-exposed infants (OR [95% CI] 1.27 [1.18, 1.37]) compared to the reference group of SCG infants, but not significantly different between LC infants (1.04 [0.96, 1.14]) and the SCG. LC and SCG infants had similar odds of breastfeeding initiation. In the Maryland WIC program, breastfeeding initiation rates were positively associated with peer counseling.

  14. An instrumental variable approach finds no associated harm or benefit with early dialysis initiation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scialla, Julia J; Liu, Jiannong; Crews, Deidra C; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L; Tangri, Navdeep; Sozio, Stephen M; Shafi, Tariq; Miskulin, Dana C; Michels, Wieneke M; Jaar, Bernard G; Wu, Albert W; Powe, Neil R; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-10-01

    The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation has been rising. Observational studies suggest harm, but may be confounded by unmeasured factors. As instrumental variable methods may be less biased, we performed a retrospective cohort study of 310,932 patients who started dialysis between 2006 and 2008 and were registered in the United States Renal Data System in order to describe geographic variation in eGFR at dialysis initiation and determine its association with mortality. Patients were grouped into 804 health service areas (HSAs) by zip code. Individual eGFR at dialysis initiation averaged 10.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but varied geographically. Only 11% of the variation in mean HSA-level eGFR at dialysis initiation was accounted for by patient characteristics. We calculated demographic-adjusted mean eGFR at dialysis initiation in the HSAs using the 2006 and 2007 incident cohort as our instrument and estimated the association between individual eGFR at dialysis initiation and mortality in the 2008 incident cohort using the two-stage residual inclusion method. Among 89,547 patients starting dialysis in 2008 with eGFR 5-20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), eGFR at initiation was not associated with mortality over a median of 15.5 months (hazard ratio, 1.025 per 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for eGFR 5-14 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); and 0.973 per 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for eGFR 14-20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Thus, there was no associated harm or benefit with early dialysis initiation in the United States.

  15. Evaluation of the State Energy Conservation Program from program initiation to September 1978. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, James N.; Grossmann, John R.; Shochet, Susan; Bresler, Joel; Duggan, Noreene

    1980-03-01

    The State Energy Conservation Program was established in 1975 to promote energy conservation and to help states develop and implement their own conservation programs. Base (5) and supplemental (3) programs required states to implement programs including: mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings; mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; mandatory standards and policies affecting the procurement practices of the state and its political subdivisions; program measures to promote the availability and use of carpools, vanpools, and public transportation; a traffic law or regulation which permits a right turn-on-red; and procedures to carry out a continuing public education effort to increase awareness of energy conservation; procedures which promote effective coordination among local, state, and Federal energy conservation programs; and procedures for carrying out energy audits on buildings and industrial plants. All 50 states and Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia participated in the program. The total 1980 energy savings projected by the states is about 5.9 quadrillion Btu's or about 7% of the DOE projected 1980 baseline consumption of just under 83 quads. The detailed summary is presented on the following: information the SECP evaluation; DOE response to the SECP; DOE's role in the program management process; the effectiveness of the states in managing the SECP; the status of program measure implementation; innovative state energy conservation programs; and the evaluation methodology.

  16. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  17. Juvenile Justice and Students with Disabilities: State Infrastructure and Initiatives. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2006-01-01

    According to data collected in 2003 by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), just over 96,000 youth were incarcerated in juvenile correctional facilities throughout the United States (not including those being held in detention). An additional 10,000 youth were in state prisons or adult jails during the same time,…

  18. Collaborative Technology Initiatives for Serving Persons with Disabilities in New York State. Occasional Paper #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    This paper describes the programs undertaken by the New York State Center for Learning Technologies in cooperation both with other state agencies and with private agencies to ensure that learning technologies are integrated into educational training programs for the disabled, the handicapped, and other special needs populations. Programs described…

  19. Taxing Pennsylvania: A Family-Focused Overview of Pennsylvania Taxes. State Fiscal Analysis Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    Noting that a state's tax policies have direct impact on a family's ability to feed, clothe, house, educate, and care for its children, this report presents an overview of taxes in the state of Pennsylvania. The report is presented in five sections. Section 1 presents the argument that it is necessary to understand the rule driving the revenue…

  20. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  1. Map and Track: State Initiatives for Young Children and Families. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Page, Stephen

    This report profiles state efforts to develop comprehensive programs and policies for young children and families, presents indicators of child and family well-being, and describes state investments in young children and families. Chapter 1, "Overview of Findings and Implications," identifies the research questions, describes data collection…

  2. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Kwang S. Min Univ. of Alabama in Huntsville East Texas State University Specialty: Discrete Mathematics Specialty: Signal Processing Dr. Joseph J...Base) Dr. Charles D. Covington Dr. Donald Robertson (1987) University of Arkansas Indiana University of PA Specialty: Digital Signal Processing ...Georgia Tech. Tennessee Tech. University Specialty: Atmospheric Physics Specialty: Digital Signal Processing Dr. Mateen M. Rizki Wright State University

  3. Strategic Global Advantage: The Career Academy/Technical College State Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.; Burns, Janet Z.

    2012-01-01

    Georgia's legislators have approved a plan whereby public school districts in the state could convert to charter schools to tailor programs for local educational communities. The state has authorized funds for five secondary-level charter career academies that are to be positioned regionally and partnered with a postsecondary community or…

  4. Solar America Initiative State Working Group: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Julie

    2012-03-30

    Through the support from the Department of Energy, NARUC has educated thousands of stakeholders, including Public Utility Commissioners, commission staff, and State energy officials on solar energy technology, implementation, and policy. During the lifetime of this grant, NARUC staff engaged stakeholders in policy discussions, technical research, site visits, and educational meetings/webinars/materials that provided valuable education and coordination on solar energy technology and policy among the States. Primary research geared toward State decision-makers enabled stakeholders to be informed on current issues and created new solar energy leaders throughout the United States. Publications including a Frequently Asked Questions guide on feed-in tariffs and a legal analysis of state implementation of feed-in tariffs gave NARUC members the capacity to understand complex issues related to the economic impacts of policies supportive of solar energy, and potential paths for implementation of technology. Technical partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) instructed NARUC members on feed-in tariff policy for four States and solar PV resource assessment in seven States, as well as economic impacts of solar energy implementation in those States. Because many of the States in these technical partnerships had negligible amounts of solar energy installed, this research gave them new capacity to understand how policies and implementation could impact their constituency. This original research produced new data now available, not only to decision-makers, but also to the public at-large including educational institutions, NGOs, consumer groups, and other citizens who have an interest in solar energy adoption in the US. Under this grant, stakeholders engaged in several dialogs. These educational opportunities brought NARUC members and other stakeholders together several times each year, shared best practices with State decision-makers, fostered

  5. Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong; Moncrieff, Mitch; Dudhia, Jimy; Caron, Julie M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bruyere, Cindy

    2010-06-08

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of highresolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  6. Calculation of correlated initial state in the hierarchical equations of motion method using an imaginary time path integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-11-21

    Based on recent findings in the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) for correlated initial state [Y. Tanimura, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044114 (2014)], we propose a new stochastic method to obtain the initial conditions for the real time HEOM propagation, which can be used further to calculate the equilibrium correlation functions and symmetrized correlation functions. The new method is derived through stochastic unraveling of the imaginary time influence functional, where a set of stochastic imaginary time HEOM are obtained. The validity of the new method is demonstrated using numerical examples including the spin-Boson model, and the Holstein model with undamped harmonic oscillator modes.

  7. Calculation of correlated initial state in the hierarchical equations of motion method using an imaginary time path integral approach.

    PubMed

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-11-21

    Based on recent findings in the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) for correlated initial state [Y. Tanimura, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044114 (2014)], we propose a new stochastic method to obtain the initial conditions for the real time HEOM propagation, which can be used further to calculate the equilibrium correlation functions and symmetrized correlation functions. The new method is derived through stochastic unraveling of the imaginary time influence functional, where a set of stochastic imaginary time HEOM are obtained. The validity of the new method is demonstrated using numerical examples including the spin-Boson model, and the Holstein model with undamped harmonic oscillator modes.

  8. Maine Rallies behind Rules for Athletics: State Initiative Billed as National Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2005-01-01

    Youth athletes increasingly complain about unruly fans, overbearing coaches, and pressures from elite travel teams. In Maine, at least, their concerns have been heard. Superintendents, sports officials, and parents in Maine are rallying behind a major initiative billed as a national model for creating more positive athletic experiences for young…

  9. Regional Variation in Breast Cancer Rates in the United States (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    Five institutions are being funded to conduct research using epidemiologic and statistical methods for determining whether various factors may account for the geographic differences in breast cancer rates in the United States.

  10. Status of science education in state departments of education: An initial report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Kenneth W.; Yager, Robert E.

    The past five years have been characterized as times of assessment in science education. One aspect of the profession where little information has been reported is the service and leadership provided by the various Departments of Education that exist as a part of the 50 state governments. Information was collected from the 50 states concerning the professional preparation of state science consultants, the nature of the positions, number of workers employed in such units, changes in support staff, facilities, and budget for each five year interval between 1960-1980. Science consultants are 46 years of age, have completed more than 10 years of classroom teaching, have been supervisors at the last level, have been in state positions for one-eight years, and have a Master's degree (half have the Ph.D.). Science consultants in the state department of education work in local schools, write proposals, assist with other administrative duties, work as members of evaluation teams. They spend two-thirds of their time in science education per se. The duties have become more general with less time spent exclusively on science education duties. The positions have become more involved with regulations, evaluations; the consultants enjoying less flexibility in their jobs. There has been a decline in terms of numbers of consultants, budget for science education; and general support for science education projects in state departments of education during the 20-year period surveyed.

  11. Real-time broadening of nonequilibrium density profiles and the role of the specific initial-state realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinigeweg, R.; Jin, F.; Schmidtke, D.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Gemmer, J.

    2017-01-01

    The real-time broadening of density profiles starting from nonequilibrium states is at the center of transport in condensed-matter systems and dynamics in ultracold atomic gases. Initial profiles close to equilibrium are expected to evolve according to the linear response, e.g., as given by the current correlator evaluated exactly at equilibrium. Significantly off equilibrium, the linear response is expected to break down and even a description in terms of canonical ensembles is questionable. We unveil that single pure states with density profiles of maximum amplitude yield a broadening in perfect agreement with the linear response, if the structure of these states involves randomness in terms of decoherent off-diagonal density-matrix elements. While these states allow for spin diffusion in the XXZ spin-1 /2 chain at large exchange anisotropies, coherences yield entirely different behavior.

  12. H+CH4 → H2 + CH3 initial state-selected reaction probabilities on different potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Roman; Manthe, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Initial state-selected reaction probabilities for the H +CH4 →H2 +CH3 reaction on a recently developed potential energy surface which employs neutral network fitting based on permutational invariant polynomials are reported. The quantum dynamics calculations use the quantum transition state concept and the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach and study the reaction process in full-dimensionality for vanishing total angular momentum. A detailed comparison with previous results obtained on other high-level potential energy surfaces is given. The connection between the level of quantum state resolution and the sensitivity of the results on differences in the potential energy surfaces is highlighted. Employing a decomposition of the total reactivity into contributions of the different vibrational states of the activated complex, it is found that differences between the potential energy surfaces are mainly related to the umbrella motion of the methyl group.

  13. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the fluctuation theorems of heat for arbitrary initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zongping; Quan, H. T.

    2015-07-01

    By taking full advantage of the dynamic property imposed by the detailed balance condition, we derive a new refined unified fluctuation theorem (FT) for general stochastic thermodynamic systems. This FT involves the joint probability distribution functions of the final phase-space point and a thermodynamic variable. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the FTs of heat as well as the trajectory entropy production can be regarded as special cases of this refined unified FT, and all of them are generalized to arbitrary initial distributions. We also find that the refined unified FT can easily reproduce the FTs for processes with the feedback control, due to its unconventional structure that separates the thermodynamic variable from the choices of initial distributions. Our result is heuristic for further understanding of the relations and distinctions between all kinds of FTs and might be valuable for studying thermodynamic processes with information exchange.

  14. The initial state of the human gut microbiome determines its reshaping by antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Frédéric; Ouameur, Amin A; Déraspe, Maxime; Iqbal, Naeem; Gingras, Hélène; Dridi, Bédis; Leprohon, Philippe; Plante, Pier-Luc; Giroux, Richard; Bérubé, Ève; Frenette, Johanne; Boudreau, Dominique K; Simard, Jean-Luc; Chabot, Isabelle; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Trottier, Sylvie; Boissinot, Maurice; Huletsky, Ann; Roy, Paul H; Ouellette, Marc; Bergeron, Michel G; Corbeil, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    Microbiome studies have demonstrated the high inter-individual diversity of the gut microbiota. However, how the initial composition of the microbiome affects the impact of antibiotics on microbial communities is relatively unexplored. To specifically address this question, we administered a second-generation cephalosporin, cefprozil, to healthy volunteers. Stool samples gathered before antibiotic exposure, at the end of the treatment and 3 months later were analysed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. On average, 15 billion nucleotides were sequenced for each sample. We show that standard antibiotic treatment can alter the gut microbiome in a specific, reproducible and predictable manner. The most consistent effect of the antibiotic was the increase of Lachnoclostridium bolteae in 16 out of the 18 cefprozil-exposed participants. Strikingly, we identified a subgroup of participants who were enriched in the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter cloacae after exposure to the antibiotic, an effect linked to lower initial microbiome diversity and to a Bacteroides enterotype. Although the resistance gene content of participants' microbiomes was altered by the antibiotic, the impact of cefprozil remained specific to individual participants. Resistance genes that were not detectable prior to treatment were observed after a 7-day course of antibiotic administration. Specifically, point mutations in beta-lactamase blaCfxA-6 were enriched after antibiotic treatment in several participants. This suggests that monitoring the initial composition of the microbiome before treatment could assist in the prevention of some of the adverse effects associated with antibiotics or other treatments.

  15. The initial state of the human gut microbiome determines its reshaping by antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Frédéric; Ouameur, Amin A; Déraspe, Maxime; Iqbal, Naeem; Gingras, Hélène; Dridi, Bédis; Leprohon, Philippe; Plante, Pier-Luc; Giroux, Richard; Bérubé, Ève; Frenette, Johanne; Boudreau, Dominique K; Simard, Jean-Luc; Chabot, Isabelle; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Trottier, Sylvie; Boissinot, Maurice; Huletsky, Ann; Roy, Paul H; Ouellette, Marc; Bergeron, Michel G; Corbeil, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Microbiome studies have demonstrated the high inter-individual diversity of the gut microbiota. However, how the initial composition of the microbiome affects the impact of antibiotics on microbial communities is relatively unexplored. To specifically address this question, we administered a second-generation cephalosporin, cefprozil, to healthy volunteers. Stool samples gathered before antibiotic exposure, at the end of the treatment and 3 months later were analysed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. On average, 15 billion nucleotides were sequenced for each sample. We show that standard antibiotic treatment can alter the gut microbiome in a specific, reproducible and predictable manner. The most consistent effect of the antibiotic was the increase of Lachnoclostridium bolteae in 16 out of the 18 cefprozil-exposed participants. Strikingly, we identified a subgroup of participants who were enriched in the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter cloacae after exposure to the antibiotic, an effect linked to lower initial microbiome diversity and to a Bacteroides enterotype. Although the resistance gene content of participants' microbiomes was altered by the antibiotic, the impact of cefprozil remained specific to individual participants. Resistance genes that were not detectable prior to treatment were observed after a 7-day course of antibiotic administration. Specifically, point mutations in beta-lactamase blaCfxA-6 were enriched after antibiotic treatment in several participants. This suggests that monitoring the initial composition of the microbiome before treatment could assist in the prevention of some of the adverse effects associated with antibiotics or other treatments. PMID:26359913

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa porphobilinogen synthase assembly state regulators: hit discovery and initial SAR studies

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Allen B.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Stith, Linda; Du, Yanming; Smith, Garry R.; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2010-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential heme, chlorophyll and vitamin B12 heme pigments. PBGS activity is regulated by assembly state, with certain oligomers exhibiting biological activity and others either partially or completely inactive, affording an innovative means of allosteric drug action. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS is functionally active as an octamer, and inactive as a dimer. We have identified a series of compounds that stabilize the inactive P. aeruginosa dimer by a computational prescreen followed by native PAGE gel mobility shift analysis. From those results, we have prepared related thiadiazoles and evaluated their ability to regulate P. aeruginosa PBGS assembly state. PMID:21643541

  17. The United State of Wyoming: Teacher-to-Teacher Initiative Boosts Reading Scores Statewide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lain, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    When teachers collaborate in schools, taking collective responsibility to improve instruction and achieve goals, student performance improves and good results happen. Wyoming is one example of a state that uses peer-to-peer professional learning with notable results. Teachers joined together to form a statewide professional community and saw the…

  18. The Educationally Disadvantaged: A National Crisis. The State Youth Initiatives Project. Working Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Available data reviewed in this paper suggest that at least 30% of elementary and secondary school students in the United States are educationally disadvantaged, and that the proportion will rise rapidly in the future. When these youth reach adulthood, their poor educational foundations will have deleterious economic and social consequences,…

  19. 76 FR 11187 - Due Date of Initial Application Requirements for State Home Construction Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ..., Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism, Claims, Day care, Dental health, Drug abuse, Government contracts, Grant..., altering, or expanding State home facilities that will furnish specified types of care to veterans. VA has... Facilities; 64.007, Blind Rehabilitation Centers; 64.008, Veterans Domiciliary Care; 64.009, Veterans...

  20. Job Corps. Comparison of Federal Program with State Youth Training Initiatives. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office compared state youth training programs with the Job Corps using the four program features that, taken together, characterize the Job Corps program: (1) serving a severely disadvantaged population, (2) providing basic education instruction, (3) focusing on vocational training services, and (4) providing these services…

  1. CONCURRENT WORK-EDUCATION (PROGRAMS IN THE 50 STATES 1965-66). INITIAL DRAFT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHILL, WILLIAM JOHN

    A DESCRIPTIVE REPORT OF THE CONDUCT OR STATUS OF CONCURRENT WORK-EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN EACH OF THE 50 STATES IS PRESENTED. DATA ARE REPORTED FOR TWO DISTINCT PROGRAMS--(1) COOPERATIVE EDUCATION, A PROGRAM IN WHICH THE STUDENTS WORK PART-TIME AND STUDY IN A FORMAL CLASSROOM SETTING PART-TIME, AND (2) WORK-STUDY, A PROGRAM IN WHICH STUDENTS IN…

  2. USDA food-borne virus research initiatives at Delaware State University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Microbial Safety of Aquaculture Products Center of Excellence located on the campus of Delaware State University is conducting research geared toward; 1) improving detection methods for virus contamination of shellfish; 2) understanding how and why viruses persist within shellfish; and ...

  3. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... complaint on the JS Complaint/Referral Form prescribed or approved by the ETA. The JS Complaint/Referral Form shall be used for all complaints taken by a State agency, including complaints about unlawful... assist the complainant in filling out the form and shall do so if the complainant desires such...

  4. Assessing Outcomes of Higher Education in Colorado: Initial Library Participation in State Legislature Mandated Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Mary L.; And Others

    In response to a state mandate, the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) created an administrative structure, the University Assessment Committee (UAC), to assess the institution's educational merit. Representing the university library was the University Library Assessment Committee (ULAC). The ULAC used two surveys, one for faculty and one for…

  5. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  6. Strategic Financing: Making the Most of the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    As states build comprehensive early childhood systems, policy leaders will need to be attentive to the funding streams available to communities to achieve desired returns. Most public funding for early care and education, as well as for other health and social services for young children and their families is categorical. Categorical funding…

  7. The History and Impact of State Initiatives to Eliminate Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Susan W.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, efforts to prohibit affirmative action have intensified, perhaps most strikingly in higher education. In 1996, California voters adopted Proposition 209 (Prop. 209), an amendment to the state constitution that banned both discrimination and affirmative action programs that give preferences to groups or individuals based on their race,…

  8. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own…

  9. The Nature of the Initial State Zulu L2 Grammar and Subsequent Interlanguage Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Sibusisiwe

    2000-01-01

    A notable feature of developing interlanguage grammars is the apparent optionality in those areas of grammar where optionality is not characteristic of stable state grammars. In the Valueless Features Hypothesis, it is proposed that the appearance of apparent optionality in the very early stages of interlanguage development is due to the partial…

  10. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1984 Research Reports. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    STUDY OF TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN...8217,’ , ’,’’,,,- _-,. %,’_,’_’_,’ _,"-, ..--. ,’. ’ ,’.. .. w",r..- ... , -,., ... , ,-o. ,.-,.........,,., .....- .. ,... .. ,_.:..., . w ,.,_- PREFACE The work presented in this...Education and the United States Air Force. ’ .% . Professor R. W. Courter and his graduate student, Raymond M. Patin, worked with members of the

  11. Infection rates following initial cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement across pediatric hospitals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tamara D.; Hall, Matthew; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Albert, J. Elaine; Jeffries, Howard E.; LaFleur, Bonnie; Dean, J. Michael; Kestle, John R. W.

    2010-01-01

    Object Reported rates of CSF shunt infection vary widely across studies. The study objective was to determine the CSF shunt infection rates after initial shunt placement at multiple US pediatric hospitals. The authors hypothesized that infection rates between hospitals would vary widely even after adjustment for patient, hospital, and surgeon factors. Methods This retrospective cohort study included children 0–18 years of age with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement performed between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) longitudinal administrative database from 41 children's hospitals. For each child with 24 months of follow-up, subsequent CSF shunt infections and procedures were determined. Results The PHIS database included 7071 children with uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement during this time period. During the 24 months of follow-up, these patients had a total of 825 shunt infections and 4434 subsequent shunt procedures. Overall unadjusted 24-month CSF shunt infection rates were 11.7% per patient and 7.2% per procedure. Unadjusted 24-month cumulative incidence rates for each hospital ranged from 4.1 to 20.5% per patient and 2.5–12.3% per procedure. Factors significantly associated with infection (p < 0.05) included young age, female sex, African-American race, public insurance, etiology of intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory complex chronic condition, subsequent revision procedures, hospital volume, and surgeon case volume. Malignant lesions and trauma as etiologies were protective. Infection rates for each hospital adjusted for these factors decreased to 8.8–12.8% per patient and 1.4–5.3% per procedure. Conclusions Infections developed in > 11% of children who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placements within 24 months. Patient, hospital, and surgeon factors contributed somewhat to the wide variation in CSF shunt infection rates across hospitals. Additional

  12. Estimating the state of a geophysical system with sparse observations: time delay methods to achieve accurate initial states for prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather prediction, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of state variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality predictions. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.

  13. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    University of Alabama Wichita State University Specialty: Exercise Physiology Specialty: Zoology Dr. Mohammed Maleque Dr. Stephen Pruett Meharry Medical...variable using an inverted gamma prior having mean kand shape parameter a . Sampling plans for this test have been published by Goel and Joglekar...1976). The entries in table 1 are taken from Goel and Joglekar (1976). The variance of an inverted gamma random variable is a monotone decreasing

  14. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    D. R., and Golovin , M. N., "Enhanced Energy Coupling Phenomena: A State-of-the-Art Survey and Assessment," Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB...PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 1-6 9380 8755 625 625 100% 2-1 3000 200 2800 5700 49% 2-6 3090 270 2820 7350 38% 2-11 1940 370 1570 6940 23% 1-10 2830 1250 1580 6020

  15. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  16. Proton transport by a bacteriorhodopsin mutant, aspartic acid-85-->asparagine, initiated in the unprotonated Schiff base state.

    PubMed Central

    Dickopf, S; Alexiev, U; Krebs, M P; Otto, H; Mollaaghababa, R; Khorana, H G; Heyn, M P

    1995-01-01

    At alkaline pH the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D85N, with aspartic acid-85 replaced by asparagine, is in a yellow form (lambda max approximately 405 nm) with a deprotonated Schiff base. This state resembles the M intermediate of the wild-type photocycle. We used time-resolved methods to show that this yellow form of D85N, which has an initially unprotonated Schiff base and which lacks the proton acceptor Asp-85, transports protons in the same direction as wild type when excited by 400-nm flashes. Photoexcitation leads in several milliseconds to the formation of blue (630 nm) and purple (580 nm) intermediates with a protonated Schiff base, which decay in tens of seconds to the initial state (400 nm). Experiments with pH indicator dyes show that at pH 7, 8, and 9, proton uptake occurs in about 5-10 ms and precedes the slow release (seconds). Photovoltage measurements reveal that the direction of proton movement is from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular side with major components on the millisecond and second time scales. The slowest electrical component could be observed in the presence of azide, which accelerates the return of the blue intermediate to the initial yellow state. Transport thus occurs in two steps. In the first step (milliseconds), the Schiff base is protonated by proton uptake from the cytoplasmic side, thereby forming the blue state. From the pH dependence of the amplitudes of the electrical and photocycle signals, we conclude that this reaction proceeds in a similar way as in wild type--i.e., via the internal proton donor Asp-96. In the second step (seconds) the Schiff base deprotonates, releasing the proton to the extracellular side. PMID:8524795

  17. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir). PMID:28272546

  18. A three axis turntable's online initial state measurement method based on the high-accuracy laser gyro SINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunfeng; Wei, Guo; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Zhenyu; Wang, Qun; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    As an indispensable equipment in inertial technology tests, the three-axis turntable is widely used in the calibration of various types inertial navigation systems (INS). In order to ensure the calibration accuracy of INS, we need to accurately measure the initial state of the turntable. However, the traditional measuring method needs a lot of exterior equipment (such as level instrument, north seeker, autocollimator, etc.), and the test processing is complex, low efficiency. Therefore, it is relatively difficult for the inertial measurement equipment manufacturers to realize the self-inspection of the turntable. Owing to the high precision attitude information provided by the laser gyro strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) after fine alignment, we can use it as the attitude reference of initial state measurement of three-axis turntable. For the principle that the fixed rotation vector increment is not affected by measuring point, we use the laser gyro INS and the encoder of the turntable to provide the attitudes of turntable mounting plat. Through this way, the high accuracy measurement of perpendicularity error and initial attitude of the three-axis turntable has been achieved.

  19. Control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states via periodic dynamical decoupling pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).

  20. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    59, 5987 (1984). 5. J. Kristofik, J.J. Mares, V. Smid, and J. Zeman, Phys. Stat. Sol . (a) 88, K187 (1985); J.J. Mares, J. Kristofik, V. Smid, and J...Zeman, Sol . State Commu. 60, 275 (1986). 6. S. Abdalla and B. Pistoulet, J. Appl. Phys. 58 2646 (1985); B. Pistoulet and G. Hamamdjian, Phys. Rev. B 35...in Ap = effective pneumatic piston area, in2. B = bulk modulus of hydraulic fluid, psi Cd = discharge coefficient for hydraulic orifice Ch

  1. On fertile ground: An initial evaluation of green care farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Keith A; Chapin, Kate P; Reimer, Zachary; Siffri, Gina

    2017-02-07

    Green care farms (GCF) provide unique opportunities to persons with disabilities to engage in meaningful and therapeutic activities in farm settings. In this pilot study, the researchers examined the feasibility and impact of the first GCF in the United States. Qualitative interviews (N = 19) and thematic analysis were conducted. GCF participants and family members were enthusiastic about participation and identified benefits such as respite and improved mood. Administrators and farmers indicated that GCF challenged the status quo of funding, programming, and farming. Administrators speculated that the future success of GCF relies upon administrative expertise, local relationships, and managing risk and liability.

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  3. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  4. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  5. Black holes and fundamental fields in numerical relativity: Initial data construction and evolution of bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirotada; Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental fields are a natural outcome in cosmology and particle physics and might therefore serve as a proxy for more complex interactions. The equivalence principle implies that all forms of matter gravitate, and one therefore expects relevant, universal imprints of new physics in strong field gravity, such as that encountered close to black holes. Fundamental fields in the vicinities of supermassive black holes give rise to extremely long-lived, or even unstable, configurations, which slowly extract angular momentum from the black hole or simply evolve nonlinearly over long time scales, with important implications for particle physics and gravitational-wave physics. Here, we perform a fully nonlinear study of scalar-field condensates around rotating black holes. We provide novel ways to specify initial data for the Einstein—Klein—Gordon system, with potential applications in a variety of scenarios. Our numerical results confirm the existence of long-lived bar modes, which act as lighthouses for gravitational wave emission: the scalar field condenses outside the black hole geometry and acts as a constant frequency gravitational-wave source for very long time scales. This effect could turn out to be a potential signature of beyond standard model physics and also a promising source of gravitational waves for future gravitational-wave detectors.

  6. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges—Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico). PMID:22427168

  7. Training initiatives for essential obstetric care in developing countries: a 'state of the art' review.

    PubMed

    Penny, S; Murray, S F

    2000-12-01

    Increased international awareness of the need to provide accessible essential or emergency obstetric and newborn care in developing countries has resulted in the recognition of new training needs and in a number of new initiatives to meet those needs. This paper reviews experience in this area so far. The first section deals with some of the different educational approaches and teaching methods that have now been employed, ranging from the traditional untheorized 'chalk and talk', to competency-based training, to theories of adult learning, problem solving and transferable skills. The second section describes a range of different types of indicators and data sources (learner assessments, user and community assessments, trainer assessments and institutional data) that have been used in the assessment of the effectiveness of such training. The final section of the paper draws together some of the lessons. It considers evaluation design issues such as the inclusion of medium and long term evaluation, the importance of methods that allow for the detection of iatrogenic effects of training, and the roles of community randomized trials and 'before, during and after' studies. Issues identified for the future include comparative work, how to keep training affordable, and where training ought to lie on the continuum between straightforward technical skills acquisition and the more complex learning processes required for demanding professional work.

  8. State of Simulation in Healthcare Education: An Initial Survey in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zichen; Niu, Pengfei; Ji, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In 2013, medical error was the third leading cause of death in the United States.1 In China, as in the case with the United States, training and assessment are developing as a strategy to reduce the occurrence of such errors. The objective of this study was to assess the current state of the use of simulation-based training in Beijing and to explore the barriers to further development. Methods: This study included hospitals in Beijing accredited by the Standardized Residency Training (SRT) program. The questionnaire was designed online and distributed to the SRT management departments by e-mail or instant message. Results: Thirty hospitals were invited to participate in this survey, and 15 responses were completed and met the inclusion criteria. Task trainers (15/15), full-scale mannequins (14/15), standardized patients (12/15), and virtual reality workstations (11/15) were the most common types of simulation modalities available for use. Among the given specialties for SRT, the availability of simulation courses was 2/2 for pediatric internal medicine, 1/1 for pediatric surgery, 10/11 for surgery, 11/14 for internal medicine, 7/9 for anesthesiology, 6/8 for emergency medicine, and 3/9 for obstetrics/gynecology. Of the 13 institutions with available simulation curricula, 12/13 had simulation focused on proficiency-based skill training, 11/13 had medical knowledge learning, 10/13 had skill competency assessment. The main targeted trainees in these hospitals were residents (or postgraduate residents) and medical students (or interns). The top 2 barriers were the shortage of sustainable financial resources (12/15) and advocacy from their institutional authorities (7/15). Conclusion: It is evident that there is a need for more development of training facilities, and for training the “trainers” and administrators. Financial funding, curricular design, and research seem to be crucial for building a long-term, sustainable, effective program

  9. Statistical analysis of the correlations between cell performance and its initial states in contact resistive random access memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yun Feng; Hsieh, Wei Ting; Che Chen, Chun; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2017-04-01

    Variability has been one of the critical challenges in the implementation of large resistive random access memory (RRAM) arrays. Wide variations in set/reset, read and cycling characteristics can significantly reduce the design margin and feasibility of a memory array. Predicting the characteristics of RRAM cells is constructive to provide insights and to adjust the memory operations accordingly. In this study, a strong correlation between the cell performance and its initial state is found in contact RRAM (CRRAM) cells by 28 nm CMOS logic technology. Furthermore, a verify-reset operation is proposed to identify the type of conductive filament (CF) in a cell. Distinctive CRRAM characteristics are found to be linked directly to initial CFs, enabling preliminary screening and adaptive resets to address the large variability problems in sizable CRRAM arrays.

  10. A Collaborative State of the Science Initiative: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    2017-02-01

    : To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward.

  11. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants.

  12. Initial Performance Characterization for a Thermalized Neutron Beam for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; P.E> Sloan; J.R. Venhuizen; C.A. Wemple

    2005-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Washington State University (WSU) have constructed a new epithermal-neutron beam for collaborative Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preclinical research at the WSU TRIGATM research reactor facility1. More recently, additional beamline components were developed to permit the optional thermalization of the beam for certain types of studies where it is advantageous to use a thermal neutron source rather than an epithermal source. This article summarizes the results of some initial neutronic performance measurements for the thermalized system, with a comparison to the expected performance from the design computations.

  13. Search for saddle-point electrons using the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal initial-state model

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, M.

    1995-08-01

    The continuum-distorted-wave eikonal initial-state (CDWEIS) model is used to study the ionization of hydrogen by protons of energy 10--500 keV. Ejected electron spectra are presented and discussed in the context of the saddle-point mechanism. The behavior of the ejected electron spectrum as the charge of the incident projectile is varied is also considered. It is concluded that within its range of validity, CDWEIS does not provide any evidence of the existence of saddle-point electrons.

  14. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    This study analyzed a state department of education's ability to have actual influence over the improvement of science achievement and proficiency by having direct relationships with science teachers in Georgia's lowest performing schools. The study employed a mixed ANOVA analysis of the mean scale scores and proficiency rates of the science portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine if the intervention by the Science Mentor Program (SMP) had significant effect on the science achievement and proficiency within the cohort of schools, as compared to a set of schools receiving no intervention, on various subgroups within the schools, and on various levels of intervention within the SMP. All data used in this study are available to the public through the Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE). SMP schools were selected based on their level of intervention for three consecutive years. Non-SMP schools were selected based on demographic similarities in economically disadvantaged, white, African-American, and students with disabilities to ensure a match of pairings for analyses. The results of this study showed significant improvement of scale scores and proficiency rates between 2004 and 2007. The study showed significant increases in all schools regardless of treatment. The study also showed significant differences in performance within the subgroups. Males, white, non-Economically Disadvantaged, and regular education students were all found to have significantly better performance in both achievement and proficiency rate. Economically Disadvantaged students were found to have a significant difference with regard to treatment groups. There was a significant difference between the mean scale score and proficiency rates of Economically Disadvantaged students in schools receiving high-intervention and schools receiving no-intervention. Further analysis showed that the only significant difference was in 2004, the

  15. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome as the Initial Manifestation of a Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Velver, Karla Victoria; Soto-Garcia, Analy J.; Zapata-Rivera, María Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a life-threatening demyelinating syndrome. The association of ODS with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) has been seldom reported. The aim of this study was to present and discuss previous cases and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in ODS secondary to HHS. A 47-year-old man arrived to the emergency room due to generalized tonic-clonic seizures and altered mental status. The patient was lethargic and had a Glasgow coma scale of 11/15, muscle strength was 4/5 in both lower extremities, and deep tendon reflexes were diminished. Glucose was 838 mg/dL; serum sodium and venous blood gas analyses were normal. Urinary and plasma ketones were negative. Brain magnetic resonance revealed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted FLAIR images with restricted diffusion on the medulla and central pons. Supportive therapy was started and during the next 3 weeks the patient progressively regained consciousness and muscle strength and was able to feed himself. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and MRI showed no residual damage. In conclusion, the association of ODS with HHS is extremely rare. The exact mechanism by which HHS produces ODS still needs to be elucidated, but we favor a rapid hypertonic insult as the most plausible mechanism. PMID:25431711

  16. Initiation of diverse epigenetic states during nuclear programming of the Drosophila body plan.

    PubMed

    Boija, Ann; Mannervik, Mattias

    2016-08-02

    Epigenetic patterns of histone modifications contribute to the maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we show that such modifications also accompany the specification of cell identities by the NF-κB transcription factor Dorsal in the precellular Drosophila embryo. We provide evidence that the maternal pioneer factor, Zelda, is responsible for establishing poised RNA polymerase at Dorsal target genes before Dorsal-mediated zygotic activation. At the onset of cell specification, Dorsal recruits the CBP/p300 coactivator to the regulatory regions of defined target genes in the presumptive neuroectoderm, resulting in their histone acetylation and transcriptional activation. These genes are inactive in the mesoderm due to transcriptional quenching by the Snail repressor, which precludes recruitment of CBP and prevents histone acetylation. By contrast, inactivation of the same enhancers in the dorsal ectoderm is associated with Polycomb-repressed H3K27me3 chromatin. Thus, the Dorsal morphogen gradient produces three distinct histone signatures including two modes of transcriptional repression, active repression (hypoacetylation), and inactivity (H3K27me3). Whereas histone hypoacetylation is associated with a poised polymerase, H3K27me3 displaces polymerase from chromatin. Our results link different modes of RNA polymerase regulation to separate epigenetic patterns and demonstrate that developmental determinants orchestrate differential chromatin states, providing new insights into the link between epigenetics and developmental patterning.

  17. Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

  18. Osmotic demyelination syndrome as the initial manifestation of a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velver, Karla Victoria; Soto-Garcia, Analy J; Zapata-Rivera, María Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a life-threatening demyelinating syndrome. The association of ODS with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) has been seldom reported. The aim of this study was to present and discuss previous cases and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in ODS secondary to HHS. A 47-year-old man arrived to the emergency room due to generalized tonic-clonic seizures and altered mental status. The patient was lethargic and had a Glasgow coma scale of 11/15, muscle strength was 4/5 in both lower extremities, and deep tendon reflexes were diminished. Glucose was 838 mg/dL; serum sodium and venous blood gas analyses were normal. Urinary and plasma ketones were negative. Brain magnetic resonance revealed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted FLAIR images with restricted diffusion on the medulla and central pons. Supportive therapy was started and during the next 3 weeks the patient progressively regained consciousness and muscle strength and was able to feed himself. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and MRI showed no residual damage. In conclusion, the association of ODS with HHS is extremely rare. The exact mechanism by which HHS produces ODS still needs to be elucidated, but we favor a rapid hypertonic insult as the most plausible mechanism.

  19. Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States Differentially Prime Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor-Initiating Cells for Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Latil, Mathilde; Nassar, Dany; Beck, Benjamin; Boumahdi, Soufiane; Wang, Li; Brisebarre, Audrey; Dubois, Christine; Nkusi, Erwin; Lenglez, Sandrine; Checinska, Agnieszka; Vercauteren Drubbel, Alizée; Devos, Michael; Declercq, Wim; Yi, Rui; Blanpain, Cédric

    2017-02-02

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells has been associated with metastasis, stemness, and resistance to therapy. Some tumors undergo EMT while others do not, which may reflect intrinsic properties of their cell of origin. However, this possibility is largely unexplored. By targeting the same oncogenic mutations to discrete skin compartments, we show that cell-type-specific chromatin and transcriptional states differentially prime tumors to EMT. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) derived from interfollicular epidermis (IFE) are generally well differentiated, while hair follicle (HF) stem cell-derived SCCs frequently exhibit EMT, efficiently form secondary tumors, and possess increased metastatic potential. Transcriptional and epigenomic profiling revealed that IFE and HF tumor-initiating cells possess distinct chromatin landscapes and gene regulatory networks associated with tumorigenesis and EMT that correlate with accessibility of key epithelial and EMT transcription factor binding sites. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin states and transcriptional priming in dictating tumor phenotypes and EMT.

  20. Measurement of e+e-→γ χc J via initial state radiation at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. L.; Wang, X. L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Shen, C. P.; Wang, P.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Bhardwaj, V.; Biswal, J.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Getzkow, D.; Gillard, R.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Horiguchi, T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Lewis, P.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Steder, M.; Sumihama, M.; Tamponi, U.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The process e+e-→γ χc J (J =1 , 2) is studied via initial state radiation using 980 fb-1 of data at and around the ϒ (n S ) (n =1 , 2, 3, 4, 5) resonances collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. No significant signal is observed except from ψ (2 S ) decays. Upper limits on the cross sections between √{s }=3.80 and 5.56 GeV are determined at the 90% credibility level, which range from a few pb to a few tens of pb. We also set upper limits on the decay rate of the vector charmonium [ψ (4040 ), ψ (4160 ), and ψ (4415 )] and charmoniumlike [Y (4260 ), Y (4360 ), and Y (4660 )] states to γ χc J.

  1. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  2. The initial and final states of electron and energy transfer processes: Diabatization as motivated by system-solvent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Cave, Robert J.; Steele, Ryan P.; Shenvi, Neil

    2009-06-21

    For a system which undergoes electron or energy transfer in a polar solvent, we define the diabatic states to be the initial and final states of the system, before and after the nonequilibrium transfer process. We consider two models for the system-solvent interactions: A solvent which is linearly polarized in space and a solvent which responds linearly to the system. From these models, we derive two new schemes for obtaining diabatic states from ab initio calculations of the isolated system in the absence of solvent. These algorithms resemble standard approaches for orbital localization, namely, the Boys and Edmiston-Ruedenberg (ER) formalisms. We show that Boys localization is appropriate for describing electron transfer [Subotnik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244101 (2008)] while ER describes both electron and energy transfer. Neither the Boys nor the ER methods require definitions of donor or acceptor fragments and both are computationally inexpensive. We investigate one chemical example, the case of oligomethylphenyl-3, and we provide attachment/detachment plots whereby the ER diabatic states are seen to have localized electron-hole pairs.

  3. Quenched dynamics in interacting one-dimensional systems: Appearance of current carrying steady states from initial domain wall density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jarrett; Gull, Emanuel; Mitra, Aditi

    2011-03-01

    Dynamics arising after an interaction quench in the quantum sine-Gordon model is studied for the case of a system initially prepared in a spatially inhomogeneous domain wall state. The time-evolution of the density, current and equal time correlation functions are studied using the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA) to which quantum corrections are added in order to set the limits on its validity. For weak to moderate strengths of the back-scattering interaction, the domain wall is found to spread out ballistically with the system within the light cone reaching a non-equilibrium steady-state characterized by a net current flow. A steady state current is also found to exist for a quench at the exactly solvable Luther-Emery point. The magnitude of the current decreases with increasing strength of the back-scattering interaction. The two-point correlation function of the variable canonically conjugate to the density reaches a steady state which is spatially oscillating at a wavelength which is inversely related to the current. This was was supported by NSF-DMR (Award no. 1004589).

  4. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in deformed and asymmetric nuclear collisions in the IP-Glasma framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-01

    The IP-Glasma model of initial conditions based on the ab initio color glass condensate framework successfully explains most of the bulk features of the global data for various systems like p+p, p+A and A+A over a wide range of energies. We employ this framework to study deformed U+U collisions, asymmetric Cu+Au collisions and the effect of deformation in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. A combined study of these heavy ion systems with varying initial geometries can provide a unique opportunity to determine the origin of different sources of fluctuations that affect global observables like multiplicity and flow. We study the sensitivity of multiplicity, eccentricity and their event-by-event distributions to the details of initial state geometry. Results are compared to a two-component MC-Glauber model implementation that includes Negative-Binomial multiplicity fluctuations. We argue that the measurements of global observables for these systems at RHIC can constrain the mechanism of multi-particle production.

  5. Laser angle-resolved photoemission as a probe of initial state kz dispersion, final-state band gaps, and spin texture of Dirac states in the Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ä; rrälä, Minna; Hafiz, Hasnain; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Jiang, Rui; Riedemann, Trevor; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Kaminski, Adam; Bansil, Arun; Lindroos, Matti

    2016-10-01

    We have obtained angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra from single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Te3 using a tunable laser spectrometer. The spectra were collected for 11 different photon energies ranging from 5.57 to 6.70 eV for incident light polarized linearly along two different in-plane directions. Parallel first-principles, fully relativistic computations of photointensities were carried out using the experimental geometry within the framework of the one-step model of photoemission. A reasonable overall accord between theory and experiment is used to gain insight into how properties of the initial- and final-state band structures as well as those of the topological surface states and their spin textures are reflected in the laser-ARPES spectra. Our analysis reveals that laser-ARPES is sensitive to both the initial-state kz dispersion and the presence of delicate gaps in the final-state electronic spectrum.

  6. Creating Workforce Development Systems That Work: An Evaluation of the Initial One-Stop Implementation Experience. Final Report Appendices: State and Local Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Deborah; Fedrau, Ruth; Midling, Michael J.; Remboulis, Maria A.; Wolff, Kristin E.

    This appendix includes individual case study profiles of the One-Stop Career Center implementation experiences of the 9 states and 14 local sites included in the study of initial implementation experiences. The 12 state and local profiles are State of Connecticut (CT); CT Works Career Center, New London, CT; CT Works Career Center, Willimantic,…

  7. Exclusive Production of Ds Ds-, Ds* Ds-, and Ds* Ds*- via e e- Annihilation with Initial-State-Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-10-27

    The authors perform a study of exclusive production of D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, D*{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, and D*{sub s}{sup +}D*{sub s}{sup -} final states in initial-state-radiation events from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium 1{sup --} states. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 525 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. The D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -}, D*{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, and D*{sub s}{sup +}D*{sub s}{sup -} mass spectra show evidence of the known {psi} resonances. Limits are extracted for the branching ratios of the decays X(4260) {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}.

  8. Fundamental structural characteristics of planar granular assemblies: Self-organization and scaling away friction and initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Takashi; Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2017-03-01

    The microstructural organization of a granular system is the most important determinant of its macroscopic behavior. Here we identify the fundamental factors that determine the statistics of such microstructures, using numerical experiments to gain a general understanding. The experiments consist of preparing and compacting isotropically two-dimensional granular assemblies of polydisperse frictional disks and analyzing the emergent statistical properties of quadrons—the basic structural elements of granular solids. The focus on quadrons is because the statistics of their volumes have been found to display intriguing universal-like features [T. Matsushima and R. Blumenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098003 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.098003]. The dependence of the structures and of the packing fraction on the intergranular friction and the initial state is analyzed, and a number of significant results are found. (i) An analytical formula is derived for the mean quadron volume in terms of three macroscopic quantities: the mean coordination number, the packing fraction, and the rattlers fraction. (ii) We derive a unique, initial-state-independent relation between the mean coordination number and the rattler-free packing fraction. The relation is supported numerically for a range of different systems. (iii) We collapse the quadron volume distributions from all systems onto one curve, and we verify that they all have an exponential tail. (iv) The nature of the quadron volume distribution is investigated by decomposition into conditional distributions of volumes given the cell order, and we find that each of these also collapses onto a single curve. (v) We find that the mean quadron volume decreases with increasing intergranular friction coefficients, an effect that is prominent in high-order cells. We argue that this phenomenon is due to an increased probability of stable irregularly shaped cells, and we test this using a herewith developed free cell analytical model

  9. On Baryon-Antibaryon Cross Sections from Initial State Radiation Processes at BABAR and their Surprising Threshold Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pacetti, Simone

    2015-04-14

    BABAR has measured with unprecedented accuracy the e+e- → pp-bar and e+e- → ΛΛ-bar cross sections by means of the initial state radiation technique, which has the advantages of good efficiency and energy resolution, and full angular acceptance in the threshold region. A striking feature of these cross sections is their non-vanishing values at threshold. In the case of charged baryons, the phenomenon is well understood in terms of the Coulomb interaction between the outgoing baryon and antibaryon. However, such an effect is not expected for neutral baryons. We suggest a simple explanation for both charged and neutral baryon pairs based on Coulomb interactions at the valence quark level.

  10. Observation of e+e-→K+K-J/ψ via initial-state radiation at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, C. Z.; Shen, C. P.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Barberio, E.; Belous, K.; Bitenc, U.; Bondar, A.; Bračko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Das, A.; Dash, M.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Gabyshev, N.; Golob, B.; Ha, H.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. E.; Lesiak, T.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; Mandl, F.; Matyja, A.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mohapatra, D.; Moloney, G. R.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Peak, L. S.; Piilonen, L. E.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schümann, J.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shibuya, H.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Singh, J. B.; Somov, A.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Vervink, K.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zupanc, A.; Zyukova, O.

    2008-01-01

    The process e+e-→K+K-J/ψ is observed for the first time via initial-state radiation. The cross section of e+e-→K+K-J/ψ for center-of-mass energies between threshold and 6.0 GeV is measured using 673fb-1 of data collected with the Belle detector on and off the Υ(4S) resonance. No significant signal for Y(4260)→K+K-J/ψ is observed, and we determine B(Y(4260)→K+K-J/ψ)Γ(Y(4260)→e+e-)<1.2eV/c2 at a 90% confidence level. We also find evidence for e+e-→KS0KS0J/ψ in the same data sample.

  11. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K.; Fellers, G.M.; Sandinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  12. Evaluation of Initial and Steady-State Gatifloxacin Pharmacokinetics and Dose in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients by Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, Wynand; Merle, Corinne S.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Gninafon, Martin; Lo, Mame Bocar; Bah-Sow, Oumou; Olliaro, Piero L.; Lienhardt, Christian; Horton, John; Smith, Peter; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4-month regimen of gatifloxacin with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide is being evaluated for the treatment of tuberculosis in a phase 3 randomized controlled trial (OFLOTUB). A prior single-dose study found that gatifloxacin exposure increased by 14% in the combination. The aims of the study are to evaluate the initial and steady-state pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin when daily doses are given to patients with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis as part of a combination regimen and to evaluate the gatifloxacin dose with respect to the probability of attaining a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. We describe the population pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin from the first dose to a median of 28 days in 169 adults enrolled in the OFLOTUB trial in Benin, Guinea, Senegal, and South Africa. The probability of achieving a ratio of ≥125 for the area under the concentration time curve to infinity (AUC0–∞) for the free fraction of gatifloxacin over the MIC (fAUC/MIC) was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The median AUC0–∞ of 41.2 μg · h/ml decreased on average by 14.3% (90% confidence interval [CI], −90.5% to +61.5%) following multiple 400-mg daily doses. At steady state, 90% of patients achieved an fAUC/MIC of ≥125 only when the MIC was <0.125 μg/ml. We conclude that systemic exposure to gatifloxacin declines with repeated daily 400-mg doses when used together with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide, thus compensating for any initial increase in gatifloxacin levels due to a drug interaction. (The OFLOTUB study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00216385.) PMID:23774436

  13. When Is a Diffusion Profile Not a Diffusion Profile? the Importance of Initial State Assumptions in Diffusion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. J.; Chamberlain, K. J.; Kahl, M.; Potts, N. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.; Wilson, C. J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, diffusion chronometers have evolved from a niche tool into one of routine application, with more practitioners, new tools and increasingly large datasets. As we expand the horizons of diffusional geochronometry, it is worth taking stock of developments in methodologies and data acquisition, and taking time to revisit the underpinnings of the technique. Data collected as part of recent projects on Campi Flegrei, the Bishop Tuff and Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull are here used to investigate the initial state assumption, an absolutely vital aspect underpinning most diffusional work and one that is rarely evaluated despite its fundamental importance. To illustrate the nature of the problem we consider two widely-used element-mineral systems for felsic and mafic systems, respectively. First, barium and strontium profiles within sanidine crystals, modelled independently, can give strongly contrasting timescales from the same crystal zone. We can reconcile the datasets only for a situation where the initial boundary within the crystal was not a sharp step function, but relatively fuzzy before diffusion onset. This fuzziness effectively starts both chronometers off with an apparent, and false, pre-existing timescale, impacting the slower-diffusing barium much more strongly than the faster-diffusing strontium, yielding thousands of years of non-existent diffusion history. By combining both elements, a starting width of tens of microns can be shown, shortening the true diffusive timescales from tens of thousands of years to hundreds. Second, in olivine, we encounter different growth-related problems. Here, Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurs at a rate comparable to growth, with the compound nature of zonation making it difficult to extract the diffusion component. This requires a treatment of changing boundary conditions and sequential growth to generate the curvature seen in natural data, in order to recover timescales for anything but the outermost

  14. Regional, State, and Local Initiatives in Nanotechnology: Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop, April 1-3, 2009, Oklahoma City, OK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    nanotechnology R&D program established in 2000 to coordinate Federal nanotechnology research, development, and deployment. The NNI consists of the...8 References 8 2. MODELS FOR REGIONAL, STATE, LOCAL, AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS Introduction 9 State-Dominated Models 9 Regional Models 13...Background and Needs 20 Broad “STEM” Education Issues and K–12 Nanotechnology Education 21 Overview of Current Educational Activities 24 Concluding

  15. Effect of the Initial Synaptic State on the Probability to Induce Long-Term Potentiation and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; De Simone, Giada; Migliore, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are the two major forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity in the mammalian neurons, and are directly related to higher brain functions such as learning and memory. Experimentally, they are characterized by a change in the strength of a synaptic connection induced by repetitive and properly patterned stimulation protocols. Although many important details of the molecular events leading to LTP and LTD are known, experimenters often report problems in using standard induction protocols to obtain consistent results, especially for LTD in vivo. We hypothesize that a possible source of confusion in interpreting the results, from any given experiment on synaptic plasticity, can be the intrinsic limitation of the experimental techniques, which cannot take into account the actual state and peak conductance of the synapses before the conditioning protocol. In this article, we investigate the possibility that the same experimental protocol may result in different consequences (e.g., LTD instead of LTP), according to the initial conditions of the stimulated synapses, and can generate confusing results. Using biophysical models of synaptic plasticity and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, we study how, why, and to what extent the phenomena observed at the soma after induction of LTP/LTD reflects the actual (local) synaptic state. The model and the results suggest a physiologically plausible explanation for why LTD induction is experimentally difficult to obtain. They also suggest experimentally testable predictions on the stimulation protocols that may be more effective. PMID:25762316

  16. Studies of sigma(e+ e- to hadrons) at BaBar using Initial State Radiation (ISR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.F.; /Orsay, LAL

    2007-10-24

    We present a review of BaBar results on e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} hadrons using the initial state radiation technique. Cross sections over the {radical}s range from threshold to 4-5 GeV, with very small point-to-point systematic errors, are presented for the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), 2(K{sup +}K{sup -}), 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})2{pi}{sup 0}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup +}K{sup -}, and p{bar p} final states. The preliminary results of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} cross sections are also presented.

  17. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM weather forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Duguay, C. R.; Rontu, L.; Eerola, K.; Kurzeneva, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) observations are used to improve the lake surface state in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Satellite-derived LSWT observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) are first evaluated against in-situ measurements for a selection of large to medium-size lakes during the open-water season. Three experiments were then run over northern Europe for two winters (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), which involved the assimilation of remote-sensing LSWT observations into the HIRLAM analysis. In the baseline experiment, the prognostic lake parameterization inside the forecast model provided the background for the LSWT analysis by the lake parameterizations of the Fresh-water Lake model (FLake) integrated in HIRLAM. No satellite observations were used in this experiment. In the second experiment, remote-sensing observations were included along with the FLake model and in-situ observations. In the third experiment, satellite observations were used to correct the background provided by the previous analysis, excluding the FLake parameterization scheme. Results encourage work to describe better the initial state of the lake surface in NWP models by combining satellite observations and lake parameterizations via advanced data assimilation methods. It has been learned that space-borne observations are beneficial for the description of lake surface state even without parameterizations when FLake alone would have led to too early break-up in spring. In order to utilize the space-borne and in-situ observations along with lake parameterization for the improvement of the weather forecast, methods to connect the analyzed LSWT and ice cover to the prognostic in-lake variables are needed to fully benefit from the space-borne observations.

  18. Measurement of initial-state-final-state radiation interference in the processes e+e-→μ+μ-γ and e+e-→π+π-γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lee, M. J.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kim, J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Röhrken, M.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Ford, W. T.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Grünberg, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'Vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wulsin, H. W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; de Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Babar Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Charge asymmetry in the processes e+e- →μ+μ-γ and e+e- →π+π-γ is measured using 232 fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at e+e- center-of-mass energies near 10.58 GeV. An observable is introduced and shown to be very robust against detector asymmetries while keeping a large sensitivity to the physical charge asymmetry that results from the interference between initial- and final-state radiation (FSR). The asymmetry is determined as a function of the invariant mass of the final-state tracks from production threshold to a few GeV /c2 . It is compared to the expectation from QED for e+e- →μ+μ-γ , and from theoretical models for e+e- →π+π-γ . A clear interference pattern is observed in e+e- →π+π-γ , particularly in the vicinity of the f2(1270 ) resonance. The inferred rate of lowest-order FSR production is consistent with the QED expectation for e+e- →μ+μ-γ , and is negligibly small for e+e- →π+π-γ .

  19. Regional, State, and Local Initiatives in Nanotechnology: Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop, Held in Washington, DC on 30 September-1 October 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    by the NSET Subcommittee, through the NNCO, and by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration. Cover and book design Book design by...Technology. The workshops were organized as a part of a long-range planning effort for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a multi-agency...quality of life through coordi- nation of funding, research, and infrastructure development activities at individual agencies. A key part of the NNI

  20. Smoothing the Path: Changing State Policies to Support Early College High School. Case Studies from Georgia, Ohio, Texas, and Utah. Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Smoothing the Path" describes successful state-level strategies and policy lessons that have been learned in four states during the development of schools that integrate secondary and postsecondary education. Statewide efforts in the multi-year Early College High School Initiative, which began in Ohio and Utah in 2002 and in Texas and…

  1. Competing feedbacks drive state transitions during initial catchment evolution: Examples from post-mining landscape and ecosystems evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Christoph; Wolfgang, Schaaf; Werner, Gerwin

    2014-05-01

    Within the context of severely disturbed landscapes with little or no ecological memory, such as post-mining landscapes, we propose a simple framework that explains the catchment evolution as a result of competing feedbacks influenced by the initial conditions and the atmospheric drivers such as rainfall intermittency and intensity. The first stage of the evolution is dominated by abiotic feedbacks triggered by rainfall and subsequent fluid flow causing particle mobilisation on the surface and in the subsurface leading to flow concentration or in some instances to densification of surface and subsurface substrates. Subsequently, abiotic-biotic feedbacks start to compete in the sense that biological activity generally stabilizes substrate by preventing particle mobilisation and hence contribute to converting the substrate to a habitat. We suggest that these competing feedbacks may generate alternative stable states in particular under semi-arid and arid climatic conditions, while in temperate often energy limited environments biological process "outcompete" abiotic processes leading to a stable state, in particular from the water balance point of view for comparable geomorphic situations. To illustrate this framework, we provide examples from post-mining landscapes, in which soil, water and vegetation was monitored. In case of arid regions in Australia, we provide evidence that the initial conditions of a mine waste disposal "locked" the system into a state that was limited by water and nutrient storage capacity while at the same time it was stable from a geomorphic point of view for the observation period. The cause of the system to be locked in, is the very high hydraulic conductivity of the substrate, that has not undergone any changes during the first years. In contrast to this case study, we illustrate how this framework explains the evolution of an artificial catchment (Hühnerwasser Catchment) in Lusatia (150 km southeast of Berlin, Germany). During the

  2. Elastic Constants of Solids and Fluids with Initial Pressure via a Unified Approach Based on Equations-of-State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The second and third-order Brugger elastic constants are obtained for liquids and ideal gases having an initial hydrostatic pressure p(sub 1). For liquids the second-order elastic constants are C(sub 11) = A + p(sub 1), C(sub 12) = A -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = --(B + 5A + 3p(sub 1)), C(sub 112) = --(B + A -- p(sub 1)), and C(sub 123) = A -- B -- p1, where A and B are the Beyer expansion coefficients in the liquid equation of state. For ideal gases the second order constants are C(sub 11) = p(sub 1)gamma + p9sub 1), C(sub 12) = p(sub 1)gamma -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = p(sub 1)(gamma(2) + 4gamma + 3), C(sub 112) = --p(sub 1)(gamma(2) -- 1), and C(sub 123) = --p(sub 1) (gamma(2) -- 2gamma + 1), where gamma is the ratio of specific heats. The inequality of C(sub 11) and C(sub 12) results in a nonzero shear constant C(sub 44) = (1/2)(C(sub 11) C(sub 12)) = p(sub 1) for both liquids and gases. For water at standard temperature and pressure the ratio of terms p1/A contributing to the second-order constants is approximately 4.3 x 10(-5). For atmospheric gases the ratio of corresponding terms is approximately 0.7. Analytical expressions that include initial stresses are derived for the material 'nonlinearity parameters' associated with harmonic generation and acoustoelasticity for fluids and solids of arbitrary crystal symmetry. The expressions are used to validate the relationships for the elastic constants of fluids.

  3. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A collaborative approach to assessing, evaluating, and advancing the state of the field

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Hoover, Mark D; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI), a project of the National Cancer Informatics Program Nanotechnology Working Group (NCIP NanoWG), explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are gaining widespread interest, with multiple projects now appearing in the US and the EU. Even in these early stages of development, a single common aspect shared across all nanoinformatics resources is that data must be curated into them. Through exploration of sub-topics related to all activities necessary to enable, execute, and improve the curation process, the NDCI will provide a substantive analysis of nanomaterial data curation itself, as well as a platform for multiple other important discussions to advance the field of nanoinformatics. This article outlines the NDCI project and lays the foundation for a series of papers on nanomaterial data curation. The NDCI purpose is to: 1) present and evaluate the current state of nanomaterial data curation across the field on multiple specific data curation topics, 2) propose ways to leverage and advance progress for both individual efforts and the nanomaterial data community as a whole, and 3) provide opportunities for similar publication series on the details of the interactive needs and workflows of data customers, data creators, and data analysts. Initial responses from stakeholder liaisons throughout the nanoinformatics community reveal a shared view that it will be critical to focus on integration of datasets with specific orientation toward the purposes for which the individual resources were created, as well as the purpose for integrating multiple resources. Early acknowledgement and undertaking of complex topics such as uncertainty, reproducibility, and interoperability is proposed as an important path to addressing key challenges

  4. Elastic constants of solids and fluids with initial pressure via a unified approach based on equations-of-state.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, John H

    2014-07-01

    The second and third-order Brugger elastic constants are obtained for liquids and ideal gases having an initial hydrostatic pressure p1. For liquids the second-order elastic constants are C₁₁=A+p₁, C₁₂=A-p₁, and the third-order constants are C₁₁₁=-(B+5A+3p₁), C₁₁₂=-(B+A-p₁), and C₁₂₃=A-B-p₁, where A and B are the Beyer expansion coefficients in the liquid equation of state. For ideal gases the second-order constants are C₁₁=p₁γ+p₁, C₁₂=p₁γ-p₁, and the third-order constants are C₁₁₁=-p₁(γ(2)+4γ+3), C₁₁₂=-p₁(γ(2)-1), and C₁₂₃=-p₁ (γ(2)-2γ+1), where γ is the ratio of specific heats. The inequality of C₁₁ and C₁₂ results in a nonzero shear constant C₄₄=(1/2)(C₁₁-C₁₂)=p₁ for both liquids and gases. For water at standard temperature and pressure the ratio of terms p₁/A contributing to the second-order constants is approximately 4.3×10(-5). For atmospheric gases the ratio of corresponding terms is approximately 0.7. Analytical expressions that include initial stresses are derived for the material 'nonlinearity parameters' associated with harmonic generation and acoustoelasticity for fluids and solids of arbitrary crystal symmetry. The expressions are used to validate the relationships for the elastic constants of fluids.

  5. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xia; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Jia, Xiang-Fu

    2012-07-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections.

  6. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor-initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H; Miller, Emily E; Shih, David J; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T; Taylor, Michael D; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-09-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, particularly in tumor-initiating cells (TIC), within clinically identical tumors. Here, we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)(+/-) mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels.

  7. GR@PPA 2.8: Initial-state jet matching for weak-boson production processes at hadron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    The initial-state jet matching method introduced in our previous studies has been applied to the event generation of single W and Z production processes and diboson (WW, WZ and ZZ) production processes at hadron collisions in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The generated events reproduce the transverse momentum spectra of weak bosons continuously in the entire kinematical region. The matrix elements (ME) for hard interactions are still at the tree level. As in previous versions, the decays of weak bosons are included in the matrix elements. Therefore, spin correlations and phase-space effects in the decay of weak bosons are exact at the tree level. The program package includes custom-made parton shower programs as well as ME-based hard interaction generators in order to achieve self-consistent jet matching. The generated events can be passed to general-purpose event generators to make the simulation proceed down to the hadron level. Catalogue identifier: ADRH_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 112 146 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 596 667 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran; with some included libraries coded in C and C++ Computer: All Operating system: Any UNIX-like system RAM: 1.6 Mega bytes at minimum Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRH_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 665 External routines: Bash and Perl for the setup, and CERNLIB, ROOT, LHAPDF, PYTHIA according to the user's choice. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No, this version supports only a part of the processes included in the previous versions. Nature of problem: We

  8. Laser angle-resolved photoemission as a probe of initial state kz dispersion, final-state band gaps, and spin texture of Dirac states in the Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    DOE PAGES

    Ärrälä, Minna; Hafiz, Hasnain; Mou, Daixiang; ...

    2016-10-27

    Here, we have obtained angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra from single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Te3 using tunable laser spectrometer. The spectra were collected for eleven different photon energies ranging from 5.57 to 6.70 eV for incident light polarized linearly along two different in-plane directions. Parallel first-principles, fully relativistic computations of photo-intensities were carried out using the experimental geometry within the framework of the one-step model of photoemission. Good overall accord between theory and experiment is used to gain insight into how properties of the initial and final state band structures as well as those of the topological surfacemore » states and their spin-textures are reflected in the laser-ARPES spectra. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that laser-ARPES is sensitive to both the initial state kz dispersion and the presence of delicate gaps in the final state electronic spectrum.« less

  9. INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia's Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.; Wirasantosa, S.; Baker, E. T.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D.; Djamaluddin, R.; Fryer, P.; Holden, J.; McDonough, J.; Potter, J.; Russell, C. W.; Shank, T. M.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2010-12-01

    INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia’s Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview S. Hammond, S. Wirasantosa, E. Baker, R. Brainard, D. Butterfield, R. Djamaluddin, P. Fryer, J. Holden, J. McDonough, J. Potter, C. Russell, T. Shank, V. Tunnicliffe Through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Indonesia’s (RI) Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research has begun a formal 5-year partnership with the RI’s Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research for the purpose of exploring Indonesia’s seas. This summer, a US and Indonesian science and technical team, using the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the RI Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology's ship Baruna Jaya IV, conducted the first year’s cruises to areas in the Sulawesi and Maluku seas. These were the maiden international expeditions for the Okeanos Explorer (EX) and the first international implementation of the ship’s broad-band, high-definition video “telepresence” system which enabled members of an onshore science and technical team to participate in real-time from Exploration Command Centers in the US and in Jakarta. The EX operated in two areas, one along the western flanks of the Sangihe Arc and the other north of the Talaud Islands. The principal objectives of the cruises were to, (1) produce high-resolution bathymetric maps of both areas using the EX’s EM302 sonar, (2) conduct CTD/rosette surveys of the water column in areas that appeared to have the potential for volcanic and/or hydrothermal activity, and (3) use a two-body ROV system to acquire high-definition video of selected seafloor features and benthic fauna. Among the most interesting features acoustically and visually mapped along the western flank of the Sangihe Arc were several discrete volcanic cones with varying surficial morphologies and

  10. Coherence and Polarization Properties of Far Fields Generated by Quasi-Homogeneous Planar Electromagnetic Sources (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-03

    the explicit dependence of all he parameters on the frequency. In order that the elec- romagnetic Gaussian Schell - model source generated by eans of the...the far field gener- ted by a planar electromagnetic Gaussian Schell - model ource are given by the expressions s1 rs, = xx 2 exp− xx 2 k2 2/2...uniformly polarized, quasi- omogeneous Gaussian Schell - model source, which is haracterized by a cross-spectral density matrix J rs ,rs , whose

  11. Quasi-homogeneous hydrogenation with platinum and palladium nanoparticles stabilized by dendritic core-multishell architectures.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Michael; Keilitz, Juliane; Nowag, Sabrina; Parapat, Riny Y; Haag, Rainer; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2011-05-17

    Platinum and palladium nanoparticles, supported and stabilized by polymeric core-shell architectures, proved to be active catalysts for hydrogenation reactions. Here, two different reactions were used as probes to investigate the influence of the polymeric support: the hydrogenation of α-methyl styrene (AMS) to cumene and the partial hydrogenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD). We found that the stability of the nanoparticles and the rate of reaction are higher in the presence of a hydrophobic octadecyl shell within a three-shell polymer system. The kinetic study of AMS hydrogenation showed much higher activities for palladium nanoparticles than for platinum nanoparticles, and the obtained results (e.g., 35 kJ/mol for the activation energy) are of the same order of magnitude as reported earlier for palladium supported on alumina. A methanol/n-heptane biphasic mixture was tested for catalyst recycling and allowed for highly efficient catalyst separation with very low metal leaching.

  12. Alabama's Education Coalition Focuses on Supporting the State's Math, Science and Technology Initiative and on Building Distance Learning Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denson, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Alabama Math Science Technology Educational Coalition (AMSTEC) was formed as a non-profit after a 1998 NASA Linking Leaders program brought in education and corporate leaders to address systemic education reform in Alabama public schools. AMSTEC was instrumental in the creation of the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI), a K-12 program designed using data from national and international research and local teacher survey. In the face of dwindling government support in a state ranked last in education funding, AMSTEC believes that its best hope for improved STEM education lies in strengthening its community/industry partnerships and building upon the Department of Education's newly created AMSTI program. NASA's GLOBE program is the primary earth science education component being integrated into AMSTI. AMSTI is structured to provide teachers with (1) the materials, equipment, technology and supplies necessary to deliver high quality, inquiry-based instruction; (2) professional development linked directly to the educational resources with the intent of strengthening content knowledge, instructional strategies, and use of assessment tools; and (3) on-site support and mentoring throughout the year in the interest of achieving these goals. Roles for community partners to support these objectives far exceed that of mere funding - especially in the area of mentoring and professional development. Currently, AMSTEC consists of 100+ members including classroom teachers and district officers, education department representatives from higher educational institutions, policy makers and administrators, and government and industry representatives. AMSTEC remains partially tied to NASA fiscally and is administratively housed by the National Space Science and Technology Center's Earth System Science Center. AMSTEC's partnership emphasis is focused on increasing corporate and industry participation to support the implementation of AMSTI and its hub

  13. Using National and State Assessments To Evaluate the Performance of State Education Systems: Learning from the Cases of Kentucky and Maine. Research Report. Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSI) Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; McIntire, Walter G.

    This study examined two major questions: do national and state assessments provide consistent information on the performance of state education systems, and what accounts for discrepancies between national and state assessment results if they are found? Data came from national and state assessments in grade 4 and grade 8 mathematics from 1992 to…

  14. Nailing Jello to the Wall. Forum: What Progress Are the States Making in Initiating Higher Education Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan

    The relationship between state government and higher education institutions is discussed. It is noted that, by and large, state governments have left colleges alone until the past two decades. State intrusions have taken the form of accountability statutes, budgeting, performance audits, program review, minimum standards, sunset laws, and more…

  15. Evidence of the Adoption and Implementation of a Statewide Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative in the New York State WIC Program: The "NY Fit WIC" Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhobo, Jackson P.; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S.; Shackman, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, "NY Fit WIC", was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from…

  16. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. UCAN Measures of Progress toward Full Implementation: A Guide for Schools/Communities Involved in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports standards-based reform in mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states. This guide provides UCAN schools and communities with a set of measures that describe the location of a school/community on the developmental continuum of…

  17. Adapting to Changing Conditions: Accessing State Tobacco Settlement Revenue for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives. Strategy Brief, Volume 1, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carol; Wegener, Victoria

    Noting that out-of-school time and community school initiatives are operating in a rapidly changing policy context and that tobacco settlement funds provide a flexible, significant inflow of new state revenue, this strategy brief provides policymakers, community leaders, and program developers with background information on the tobacco settlement…

  18. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  19. Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery: How Do Digital Depository Librarians Discover and Select Web-Based Government Publications for State Digital Depositories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chi-Shiou; Eschenfelder, Kristin R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of librarian initiated publications discovery (LIPD) in U.S. state digital depository programs using the OCLC Digital Archive to preserve web-based government publications for permanent public access. This paper describes a model of LIPD processes based on empirical investigations of four OCLC DA-based digital…

  20. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A Collaborative Approach to Assessing, Evaluating, and Advancing the State of the Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI) explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are...

  1. Coriolis coupling effects on the initial-state-resolved dynamics of the N(2D)+H2-->NH+H reaction.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2007-11-28

    We present Coriolis coupling effects on the initial-state-resolved dynamics of the insertion reaction N((2)D)+H(2)(X (1)Sigma(g) (+))-->NH(X (3)Sigma(-) and a (1)Delta)+H((2)S), without and with nonadiabatic Renner-Teller (RT) interactions between the NH(2) X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) electronic states. We report coupled-channel (CC) Hamiltonian matrix elements, which take into account both Coriolis and RT couplings, use the real wave-packet and flux methods for calculating initial-state-resolved reaction probabilities, and contrast CC with centrifugal-sudden (CS) results. Without RT interactions, Coriolis effects are rather small up to J=40, and the CS approximation can be safely employed for calculating initial-state-resolved, integral cross sections. On the other hand, RT effects are associated with rather large Coriolis couplings, mainly near the linearity of NH(2), and the accuracy of the CS approximation thus breaks down at high collision energies, when the reaction starts on the excited A (2)A(1) surface. We also present the CC-RT distribution of the X (3)Sigma(-) and a (1)Delta electronic states of the NH products.

  2. State-to-state photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide ({nu}{sub 2}=0,1|JlM). II. The effect of initial bending on coherence of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Brom, Alrik J. van den; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2005-10-22

    Photodissociation studies using ion imaging are reported, measuring the coherence of the polarization of the S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) fragment from the photolysis of single-quantum state-selected carbonyl sulfide (OCS) at 223 and 230 nm. A hexapole state-selector focuses a molecular beam of OCS parent molecules in the ground state ({nu}{sub 2}=0 vertical bar JM=10) or in the first excited bending state ({nu}{sub 2}=1 vertical bar JlM=111). At 230 nm photolysis the Im[a{sub 1}{sup (1p}{sub arallel}{sup ,perpendicular})] moment for the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) channel increases by about 50% when the initial OCS parent state changes from the vibrationless ground state to the first excited bending state. No dependence on the initial bending state is found for photolysis at 223 nm. We observe separate rings in the slow channel of the velocity distribution of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) correlating to single CO(J) rotational states. The additional available energy for photolysis at 223 nm is found to be channeled mostly into the CO(J) rotational motion. An improved value for the OC-S bond energy D{sub 0}=4.292 eV is reported.

  3. Determination of the effects of initial glucose on the production of α-amylase from Penicillium sp. under solid-state and submerged fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ertan (İnceoğlu), Figen; Balkan, Bilal; Yarkın, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of catabolite repression of initial glucose on the synthesis of α-amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium griseofulvum were investigated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) systems. The results obtained from either fermentation were compared with each other. In the SmF system, initial glucose concentration above 10 mg/mL completely repressed the production of α-amylase from P. chrysogenum and P. griseofulvum. However, the repression in the SSF system was not complete, even when the glucose level was raised to 160 mg/g. PMID:26019493

  4. Leadership for Student Learning: Recognizing the State's Role in Public Education. School Leadership for the 21st Century Initiative: A Report of the Task Force on State Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    Historically states are seen as more comfortable with narrowly focused rules, regulation, and monitoring responsibilities than with broad change. Currently states face revolutionary new arrangements for financing education, overseeing federal commitments, and providing fair and meaningful standards for educational performance. The major…

  5. Electromagnetic radiation as a probe of the initial state and of viscous dynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The penetrating nature of electromagnetic signals makes them suitable probes to explore the properties of the strongly interacting medium created in relativistic nuclear collisions. We examine the effects of the initial conditions and shear relaxation time on the spectra and flow coefficients of electromagnetic probes, using an event-by-event 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic simulation (music).

  6. Child-Initiated Pedagogies: Moving toward Democratically Appropriate Practices in Finland, England, Estonia, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo; Robertson, Leena; Barbour, Nancy; Pukk, Maarika

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to be treated as human beings with a distinct set of rights, instead of as passive objects of care. They can and should be agents in their own lives. Child-initiated pedagogy recognizes this by respecting children's individual and collective views, interests, and motivations.…

  7. Quenched dynamics in interacting one-dimensional systems: Appearance of current-carrying steady states from initial domain wall density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jarrett; Gull, Emanuel; Mitra, Aditi

    2010-12-01

    We investigate dynamics arising after an interaction quench in the quantum sine-Gordon model for a one-dimensional system initially prepared in a spatially inhomogeneous domain wall state. We study the time evolution of the density, current, and equal time correlation functions using the truncated Wigner approximation to which quantum corrections are added in order to set the limits on its validity. For weak to moderate strengths of the backscattering interaction, the domain wall spreads out ballistically with the system within the light cone reaching a nonequilibrium steady state characterized by a net current flow. A steady-state current exists for a quench at the exactly solvable Luther-Emery point. The magnitude of the current decreases with increasing strength of the backscattering interaction. The two-point correlation function of the variable canonically conjugate to the density reaches a spatially oscillating steady state at a wavelength inversely related to the current.

  8. Risk factors for initial respiratory disease in United States' feedlots based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael W; Dargatz, David A; Wagner, Bruce A

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of initial respiratory disease was followed for 12 weeks in 122 pens of feedlot cattle, based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts. Weekly incidence density was calculated based on the number of new cases and the population at risk. Incidence density was greatest in the 1st week after arrival and decreased in following weeks. Weekly incidence rate varied between pens and over time from 0 to 27.7 cases per 100 animal weeks at risk. A negative binomial model controlling for multiple events within pens and over time was used to model effects on the number of new cases. Mixed gender groups, cattle from multiple sources and increasing distance shipped were associated with increased risk for initial respiratory morbidity. Heavier entry weight was associated with decreased morbidity risk. These factors may be useful in categorizing groups of calves into risk groups for targeted purchase and management decision making.

  9. Planning for the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS): An Environmental Scan of Opportunities and Readiness for Building Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Uyeda, Kimberly; Inkelas, Moira; Kumar, Vani; Tullis, Ericka; Rice, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the national and state environmental context for the SECCS Initiative in supporting MCH strategic planning in early childhood systems building. This strategic context has implications for roles, relationships, and activities within a planning process and ultimately an implementation process. It summarizes the opportunities and…

  10. Snapshot of sequential SNARE assembling states between membranes shows that N-terminal transient assembly initializes fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong Jian; Li, Feng; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Lafosse, Xavier; Gourier, Christine; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Many prominent biological processes are driven by protein assembling between membranes. Understanding the mechanisms then entails determining the assembling pathway of the involved proteins. Because the intermediates are by nature transient and located in the intermembrane space, this determination is generally a very difficult, not to say intractable, problem. Here, by designing a setup with sphere/plane geometry, we have been able to freeze one transient state in which the N-terminal domains of SNARE proteins are assembled. A single camera frame is sufficient to obtain the complete probability of this state with the transmembrane distance. We show that it forms when membranes are 20 nm apart and stabilizes by further assembling of the SNAREs at 8 nm. This setup that fixes the intermembrane distance, and thereby the transient states, while optically probing the level of molecular assembly by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to characterize any other transient transmembrane complexes. PMID:26979957

  11. AmericaView - A State-Based Remote Sensing Initiative Integrating Remote Sensing Data Into Geospatial Education and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, R. L.; Lawrence, R.

    2007-12-01

    AmericaView (AV) is a national program created to advance the availability, timely distribution, and widespread use of land remote sensing data, especially among users within the university and government communities. Since the 1970s the federal government and private sector have spent billions of dollars on satellite-based earth observing systems, but distribution of data and development of real-world applications have been tough issues for the government and the academic research communities. It has often been hard for researchers to use or even access the data, particularly at smaller schools or research facilities, hindering applied research and current and future workforce development. Many state and local agencies working with applied research programs have not been able to effectively integrate remote sensing data into their geospatial management or decision-support programs. AV addresses these issues through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and the AmericaView Consortium, which is a 501c3 non-profit comprised of university-led, state-based consortia. AmericaView is the federal government's partner in achieving the program vision and goals, which focus both on making data available in usable, cost-effective formats and on helping the university, secondary-education, and public sectors in each state identify, develop, and implement the kinds of remote sensing applications each state needs most. AV is developing applied remote sensing research programs in each of its thirty StateViews. Partner academic institutions are creating internships programs involving students and faculty with applications development, in cooperation with local, state, and federal government agencies. Education and training outreach programs are improving workforce preparation at K-12, post-secondary, and professional levels. Data distribution and sharing infrastructure that leverages funding and avoids duplication is enabling practical archive expansion and distribution

  12. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  13. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  14. Levers for Change: Southeast Region State Initiatives to Improve High Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 024

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.; McColskey, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive report examines the strategies of the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) to improve high school graduation rates and student achievement and to increase the number of students leaving high school with the skills and knowledge necessary for the twenty-first…

  15. Initial efforts to develop a national strategy to protect crop wild relatives native or naturalized in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the call to conserve crop wild relatives has been driven by habitat degradation fueled by exponential population growth. Today, we have a clarion call for action, as historic impetuses are compounded by the forecast of global climate change. In the United States efforts have been movin...

  16. West Virginia. The Demonstration of State Work/Welfare Initiatives. Final Report on the Community Work Experience Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Daniel; And Others

    This report presents findings of a three-year evaluation of West Virginia's Community Work Experience Program (CWEP), which requires public service in exchange for welfare payments by able-bodied recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Overall findings indicate that the state has succeeded in its principal objective:…

  17. What We See: A Department of Education's View of a State-Sponsored Urban School Improvement Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Gary T.; Alvarez, Frank R.

    This paper presents the State of New Jersey Board of Education's evaluation of the Operation School Renewal (OSR) Program, a multi-year assistance program involving the urban school districts of Trenton, East Orange, and Neptune Township (New Jersey). Goals included the following: (1) attendance improvement; (2) reduction of disruptive pupil…

  18. Culturally Afforded Tensions in the Second Life Metaverse: From Sustainability Initiatives in Europe to Sustainability Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the culturally contingent tensions afforded by the implementation of Second Life in transatlantic communications among 13 college-level students at a Southwestern academic institution in the United States and their instructor and an assistant professor and his graduate student at a Greek-speaking academic institution. The…

  19. Integrating Grades 9 through 14: State Policies to Support and Sustain Early College High Schools. Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Nancy; Vargas, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Across the country, increasing numbers of high school students are getting a head start on college by completing some college-level work in high school. Opportunities such as Advanced Placement courses and dual enrollment not only boost college-going rates but also save money for families and, potentially, for taxpayers and states. In particular,…

  20. A Professional Learning Community for the New Teacher Professionalism: The Case of a State-Led Initiative in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the empirical fit of two PLC models, using Singapore as a case. Insights emerged from documentary analyses and interviews with state-affiliated agents from the Academy of Singapore Teachers. The proposed DuFour--Fullan model, despite policy aspirations, remains largely DuFour-predominant in practice. Aspirations for a…

  1. Rheological control on the initial geometry of the Raft River detachment fault and shear zone, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.

    2001-08-01

    The strain, exhumation history, and field orientation of a well-exposed shear zone and detachment fault in the Raft River Mountains of northwestern Utah, a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex, have been studied to determine the kinematics of ductile shearing and initial orientations of the shear zone and detachment fault. Mapping and strain and kinematic analysis indicate that the top-to-the-east Raft River shear zone initially developed parallel to an unconformity separating Archean rocks from overlying Proterozoic quartzite and schist for at least 24 km in the shear direction. Experimental rock deformation data from lithologies similar to the Archean and Proterozoic rocks suggest the unconformity represented a significant rheological boundary at the deformation temperatures; the base of the shear zone was localized along the boundary between relatively weak quartzite above and stronger monzogranite below. An extensive thermochronological database is used to reconstruct the position of the basement unconformity in temperature-lateral distance coordinates. The initial average dip of the shear zone and basement unconformity is estimated between 7° and 30°, assuming subhorizontal isotherms and geothermal gradients of 20°-40°C/km. The east dip of the unconformity at the onset of Miocene extension is interpreted to have resulted from late Eocene unroofing and flexure beneath a top-to-the-WNW extensional shear zone in the western Raft River, Grouse Creek, and Albion Mountains. The observations from the Raft River shear zone suggest that the orientation of some midcrustal shear zones may not reflect the predicted orientation for ductile faults according to ductile failure criteria but, rather, the orientation of rheological boundaries along which deformation is localized. Furthermore, detachment faults that are superimposed on mylonite during progressive displacement and footwall unroofing may use an inherited mechanical anisotropy from the mylonite, and their

  2. Characteristics of Initial Prescription Episodes and Likelihood of Long-Term Opioid Use - United States, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj; Hayes, Corey J; Martin, Bradley C

    2017-03-17

    Because long-term opioid use often begins with treatment of acute pain (1), in March 2016, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain included recommendations for the duration of opioid therapy for acute pain and the type of opioid to select when therapy is initiated (2). However, data quantifying the transition from acute to chronic opioid use are lacking. Patient records from the IMS Lifelink+ database were analyzed to characterize the first episode of opioid use among commercially insured, opioid-naïve, cancer-free adults and quantify the increase in probability of long-term use of opioids with each additional day supplied, day of therapy, or incremental increase in cumulative dose. The largest increments in probability of continued use were observed after the fifth and thirty-first days on therapy; the second prescription; 700 morphine milligram equivalents cumulative dose; and first prescriptions with 10- and 30-day supplies. By providing quantitative evidence on risk for long-term use based on initial prescribing characteristics, these findings might inform opioid prescribing practices.

  3. Initiating Experiential Learning Programs: Four Case Studies. CAEL Institutional Report. The Consortium of the California State University and Colleges. Memphis State University. Union College. University of Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortnick, Barrie D.; And Others

    Four experiential learning programs that are in the early stages of development are described. The report from the Consortium of the California State University and Colleges details the efforts of a traditional, decentralized system to introduce flexibility into the use of examinations for crediting prior learning. A description of a large,…

  4. Gait initiation is impaired in subjects with Parkinson's disease in the OFF state: Evidence from the analysis of the anticipatory postural adjustments through wearable inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Gianluca; Mancini, Martina; Carpinella, Ilaria; Chiari, Lorenzo; Horak, Fay B; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) typically demonstrate impaired anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that shift the body center of mass forward (imbalance) and over the stance leg (unloading) prior to gait initiation. APAs are known to be smallest when people with PD are in their OFF-medication state compared to ON-medication or healthy controls. The aim of this pilot study is to validate a previously developed method for the assessment of gait initiation on PD patients in OFF state with body-worn, inertial sensors. Ten subjects with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD and twelve healthy controls of similar age performed three gait initiation trials. The spatio-temporal parameters of APAs were extracted from three wearable sensors, placed on the shins and on the lower back, and validated with two force plates. Temporal parameters extracted from sensors and force plates, as well as the trunk medio-lateral acceleration and the correspondent displacement of the center of pressure, were significantly correlated. Subjects with PD showed hypometric adjustments in the medio-lateral direction (p-value<0.003) and increased duration of the unloading phase (p-value=0.04). The unloading phase was significantly longer than the imbalance (p-value=0.003) only in subjects with PD. The validity of the method of quantifying APAs from inertial sensors was confirmed in PD subjects by comparison with force plates. Sensitivity in discriminating PD patients from healthy controls was proven by both spatial and temporal parameters. Objective measures of gait initiation deficits with wearable technology provides valuable instrument for the assessment of gait initiation in clinical environments.

  5. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  6. Investigation of the initial state of the Moon-forming disk: Bridging SPH simulations and hydrostatic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-05-01

    According to the standard giant impact hypothesis, the Moon formed from a partially vaporized disk generated by a collision between the proto-Earth and a Mars-sized impactor. The initial structure of the disk significantly affects the Moon-forming process, including the Moon’s mass, its accretion time scale, and its isotopic similarity to Earth. The dynamics of the impact event determines the initial structure of a nearly hydrostatic Moon-forming disk. However, the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic models have been studied separately and their connection has not previously been well quantified. Here, we show the extent to which the properties of the disk can be inferred from Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations. By using entropy, angular momentum and mass distributions of the SPH outputs as approximately conserved quantities, we compute the two-dimensional disk structure. We investigate four different models: (a) standard, the canonical giant impact model, (b) fast-spinning Earth, a collision between a fast-spinning Earth and a small impactor, (c) sub-Earths, a collision between two objects with half Earth’s mass, and (d) intermediate, a collision of two bodies whose mass ratio is 7:3. Our SPH calculations show that the initial disk has approximately uniform entropy. This is because the materials of different angular momenta are shocked to similar extents. The disks of the fast-spinning Earth and sub-Earths cases are hotter and more vaporized (∼80-90% vapor) than the standard case (∼20%). The intermediate case falls between these values. In the highly vaporized cases, our procedure fails to establish a unique surface density profile of the disk because the disk is unstable according to the Rayleigh criterion (the need for a monotonically increasing specific angular momentum with radius). In these cases, we estimate non-unique disk models by conserving global quantities (mass and total angular momentum). We also develop a semi-analytic model for the

  7. Development of the Water-Analysis Screening Tool Used in the Initial Screening for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan Update of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning Act, Act 220 of 2002, requires the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) to update the State Water Plan by 2008. As part of this update, a water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the PaDEP, to provide assistance to the state in the identification of critical water-planning areas. The WAST has two primary inputs: net withdrawals and the initial screening criteria. A comprehensive water-use database that includes data from registration, estimation, discharge monitoring reports, mining data, and other sources was developed as input into the WAST. Water use in the following categories was estimated using water-use factors: residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, and golf courses. A percentage of the 7-day, 10-year low flow is used for the initial screenings using the WAST to identify potential critical water-planning areas. This quantity, or initial screening criteria, is 50 percent of the 7-day, 10-year low flow for most streams. Using a basic water-balance equation, a screening indicator is calculated that indicates the potential influences of net withdrawals on aquatic-resource uses for watersheds generally larger than 15 square miles. Points representing outlets of these watersheds are colored-coded within the WAST to show the screening criteria for each watershed.

  8. Altered baseline brain activity with 72 h of simulated microgravity--initial evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Zhang, Jinsong; Huang, Zhiping; Xi, Yibin; Zhang, Qianru; Zhu, Tianli; Liu, Xufeng

    2012-01-01

    To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a -6° head down tilt (HDT). A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a -6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm(3) (13 voxels), which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim). Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment.

  9. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  10. Continuous detection of the self-initiated walking pre-movement state from EEG correlates without session-to-session recalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as a rehabilitation tool have been used to restore functions in patients with motor impairments by actively involving the central nervous system and triggering prosthetic devices according to the detected pre-movement state. However, since EEG signals are highly variable between subjects and recording sessions, typically a BCI is calibrated at the beginning of each session. This process is inconvenient especially for patients suffering locomotor disabilities in maintaining a bipedal position for a longer time. This paper presents a continuous EEG decoder of a pre-movement state in self-initiated walking and the usage of this decoder from session to session without recalibrating. Approach. Ten healthy subjects performed a self-initiated walking task during three sessions, with an intersession interval of one week. The implementation of our continuous decoder is based on the combination of movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) features with sparse classification models. Main results. During intrasession our technique detects the pre-movement state with 70% accuracy. Moreover this decoder can be applied from session to session without recalibration, with a decrease in performance of about 4% on a one- or two-week intersession interval. Significance. Our detection model operates in a continuous manner, which makes it a straightforward asset for rehabilitation scenarios. By using both temporal and spectral information we attained higher detection rates than the ones obtained with the MRCP and ERD detection models, both during the intrasession and intersession conditions.

  11. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement.

  12. National Initiatives to Improve Healthcare Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Health Delivery Systems in Slovakia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Robert; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    While the United States and Slovakia offer different healthcare delivery systems, each country faces the same challenges of improving the health status of their populations. The authors explore the impact of their respective systems on the health of their populations and compare the health outcomes of both nations. They point out that socioeconomic factors play a far more important role in determining population health outcomes than do the structures of the systems surrounding the care delivery. The authors illustrate this finding through a comparison of the poverty and education levels of a selected minority group from each country in relation to the health outcomes for each population group. The comparison reveals that education is a more influential determinant in a population's health outcomes, than the improved access to care offered by a universal system.

  13. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  14. Reversible Phase Change Characteristics of Cr-Doped Sb2Te3 Films with Different Initial States Induced by Femtosecond Pulses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Jiang, Minghui; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yang; Zheng, Yonghui; Song, Sannian; Wu, Yiqun; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin

    2016-08-17

    As a kind of chalcogenide alloy, phase change material has been widely used as novel storage medium in optical disk or electrical memory. In this paper, femtosecond pulses are used to study the reversible phase transition processes of Cr-doped Sb2Te3 films with different initial states. The SET processes are all induced by multiple pulses and relate to the increase of crystallized partial in the irradiated spot. When the Cr concentration is 5.3 at % or 10.5 at %, the crystallization mechanism is still growth-dominated as Sb2Te3, which is beneficial for high speed and high density storage, whereas the necessary crystallization energy increases with more Cr-dopants, leading to higher amorphous thermal stability. RESET results by multiple pulses show that Cr-dopants will not increase the power consumption, and the increase in Cr-dopants could greatly increase the antioxidant capacity. Single-pulse experiments show that the RESET process involves the competition of melting/amorphization and recrystallization. The reversible SET/RESET results on different initial states are quite different from each other, which is mainly due to the different surroundings around the irradiated spot. Crystalline surroundings provide higher thermal conductivity and lead to easier crystallization, whereas amorphous surroundings were the reverse. All in all, Cr-doped Sb2Te3 films with suitable composition have advantages for storage with high density, better thermal stability, and lower power consumption; and the suitable initial states could ensure better reversible phase transition performances.

  15. Investigation of initial and steady-state sliding behavior of a nearly-frictionless carbon film by imaging 2- and 3-D TOF-SIMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-01

    Using imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we investigated the initial and steady-state sliding behavior of a nearly frictionless carbon (NFC) film. Specifically, TOF-SIMS images (both 2-D and 3-D) of these surfaces were constructed to highlight the spatial distributions of ionized and molecular species that were present on as-received and friction-tested NFC surfaces and as a function of depth. As a complementary technique, we used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to gain further insight into the chemical nature of the sliding surfaces. The NFC films were produced on Si wafers and steel substrates in a gas discharge plasma that consisted of 25 vol.% methane and 75 vol.% hydrogen using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. They were then subjected to sliding friction and wear experiments in a pin-on-disk machine under 5- and 10-N loads and at sliding velocities of 0.2-0.5 m/s in dry nitrogen. The initial friction coefficients of the NFC films were in the range of 0.05-0.1, but decreased rapidly to values less than 0.01 at steady state. Positive and negative TOF-SIMS spectra and 2- and 3-D images reconstructed from selected masses revealed that the elemental distribution of certain chemical species differs substantially between undisturbed and tribo-tested areas of the NFC films. Specifically, the tribo-tested areas are essentially made up of carbon and hydrogen, while undisturbed or as-received areas are covered by a layer that is rich in oxygen and other species. These findings correlate well with the initial and steady-state friction coefficients of these films and help further explain their superlubricity in inert test environments.

  16. Correlation and relativistic effects in 2p photoelectron spectra of sodium atoms from the initial state 2{p}^{6}3p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Shi, Yinglong; Xing, Yongzhong; Lu, Feiping; Chen, Zhanbin

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the 2p photoelectron spectra of sodium atoms with the initial state 2{p}63p at a photon energy of 54 eV. The analysis is performed based on the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method. Special attention is given to the influences of correlation and relativistic effects on the spectra structures. To explore the nature and importance of such influences, calculations were performed based on detailed analyses of the thresholds, relative intensities and corresponding data calculated in the nonrelativistic limit.

  17. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  18. Photon-initiated production of a dilepton final state at the LHC: Cross section versus forward-backward asymmetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomando, Elena; Fiaschi, Juri; Hautmann, Francesco; Moretti, Stefano; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire H.

    2017-02-01

    We explore the effects of photon induced (PI) production of a dilepton final state in the Large Hadron Collider environment. Using QED parton distribution function (PDF) sets we can treat the photons as real partons inside the protons and compare their yield directly to that of the Drell-Yan (DY) process. In particular, we concentrate on an error analysis of the two mechanisms. In order to do so, we use the neural network parton distribution functions (NNPDF) set, which comes with a set of replicas to estimate the systematic PDF error, and the CT14 set. On the one hand, we find that the PI contribution becomes dominant over DY above a dilepton invariant mass of 3 TeV. On the other hand, the PI predictions are affected by a large uncertainty coming from the QED PDFs, well above the one affecting the DY mode. We assess the impact of these uncertainties in the context of resonant and nonresonant searches for a neutral massive vector boson (Z') through the differential cross section and forward-backward asymmetry (AFB) observables as a function of the dilepton invariant mass. While the former is subject to the aforementioned significant residual errors the latter shows the systematic error cancellation expected (recall that AFB is a ratio of cross sections) even in presence of PI contributions, so that the recently emphasized key role played by AFB as a valid tool for both Z' discovery and interpretation in both resonant and nonresonant mode is further consolidated.

  19. The impact of Westerly wind bursts and ocean initial state on the development and diversity of El Niño events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Lengaigne, M.; Guilyardi, E.

    2013-12-01

    Westerly wind bursts (WWBs) that occur in the tropical Pacific near the Dateline are believed to play an important role in the development of El Niño events, even though the direct link is sometimes difficult to establish. Here, following the study of Lengaigne et al. (2004), we conduct numerical simulations in which we reexamine the response of the climate system to an observed wind burst added to a coupled model. Two sets of ensemble experiments are conducted. In the first set, the initial ocean heat content of the system is higher than the model climatology (or recharged), while in the second set it is nearly normal (neutral). For the recharged state, in the absence of WWBs, a moderate central Pacific El Niño (CP) develops in about a year. In contrast, for the neutral state, there develops a weak La Niña. However, when the WWB is imposed, the situation changes dramatically: the recharged state slides into an eastern Pacific El Niño (EP), while the neutral set shifts into a weak CP El Niño instead of previous La Niña conditions. The different response of the system to the exact same perturbations is controlled by the initial state of the ocean and the subsequent ocean-atmosphere interactions involving an interplay between the eastward shift of the warm pool and the warming of the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, the occurrence of different flavors of El Niño, including extreme events, may depend on stochastic atmospheric processes, modulating El Niño properties within a broad continuum.

  20. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  1. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  2. Return of the King: Time-series Photometry of FO Aquarii’s Initial Recovery from its Unprecedented 2016 Low State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefield, Colin; Garnavich, Peter; Kennedy, Mark R.; Aadland, Erin; Terndrup, Donald M.; Calhoun, Grace V.; Callanan, Paul; Abe, Lyu; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Vernet, David; Devogèle, Maxime; Shappee, Benjamin; Holoien, Thomas; Arranz Heras, Teófilo; Bonnardeau, Michel; Cook, Michael; Coulter, Daniel; Debackère, André; Dvorak, Shawn; Foster, James R.; Goff, William; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Harris, Barbara; Myers, Gordon; Nelson, Peter; Popov, Velimir; Solomon, Rob; Stein, William L.; Stone, Geoff; Vietje, Brad

    2016-12-01

    In 2016 May, the intermediate polar FO Aqr was detected in a low state for the first time in its observational history. We report time-resolved photometry of the system during its initial recovery from this faint state. Our data, which includes high-speed photometry with cadences of just 2 s, show the existence of very strong periodicities at 22.5 and 11.26 minutes, equivalent to the spin-orbit beat frequency and twice its value, respectively. A pulse at the spin frequency is also present but at a much lower amplitude than is normally observed in the bright state. By comparing our power spectra with theoretical models, we infer that a substantial amount of accretion was stream-fed during our observations, in contrast to the disk-fed accretion that dominates the bright state. In addition, we find that FO Aqr’s rate of recovery has been unusually slow in comparison to rates of recovery seen in other magnetic cataclysmic variables, with an e-folding time of 115 ± 7 days. The recovery also shows irregular variations in the median brightness of as much as 0.2 mag over a 10-day span. Finally, we show that the arrival times of the spin pulses are dependent upon the system’s overall brightness.

  3. Probing the stau-neutralino coannihilation region at the LHC with a soft tau lepton and a jet from initial state radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flórez, Andrés; Bravo, Luis; Gurrola, Alfredo; Ávila, Carlos; Segura, Manuel; Sheldon, Paul; Johns, Will

    2016-10-01

    We present a feasibility study, to search for dark matter at the LHC, in events with one soft hadronically decaying tau lepton and missing transverse energy recoiling against a hard pT jet from initial state radiation. This methodology allows the search for supersymmetry in compressed mass spectra regions, where the mass difference between the lightest neutralino, χ˜10, and the stau (the tau superpartner), τ ˜, is small. Several theoretical models predict a direct connection between thermal bino dark matter and staus within this scenario. We show that compressed regions, not excluded by ATLAS nor CMS experiments, are opened up with the increase in experimental sensitivity reached with the proposed methodology. The requirement of a hard jet from initial state radiation combined with a soft tau lepton is effective in reducing Standard Model backgrounds, providing expected significances greater than 3 σ for χ˜1± masses up to 300 GeV and τ ˜-χ˜10 mass gaps below 25 GeV with only 30 fb-1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC.

  4. Initial results from the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment. [of steady-state ion heating method based on modified Penning discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Richardson, R. W.; Gerdin, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Initial results were obtained from low power operation of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment, in which a steady-state ion heating method based on the modified Penning discharge is applied in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The magnet facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 T, equally spaced in a toroidal array 1.52 m in major diameter. A 18 cm i.d. anode ring is located at each of the 12 midplanes and is maintained at high positive potentials by a dc power supply. Initial observations indicate electron temperatures from 10 to 150 eV, and ion kinetic temperatures from 200 eV to 1200 eV. Two modes of operation were observed, which depend on background pressure, and have different radial density profiles. Steady state neutron production was observed. The ion heating process in the bumpy torus appears to parallel closely the mechanism observed when the modified Penning discharge was operated in a simple magnetic mirror field.

  5. Electromagnetic probes of a pure-glue initial state in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, V.; Karpenko, Iu. A.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Kämpfer, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2016-08-01

    Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. To study the implications of such a scenario, the dynamical evolution of a chemically nonequilibrated system is described by ideal (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with a time dependent (anti)quark fugacity. The equation of state interpolates linearly between the lattice data for the pure gluonic matter and the lattice data for the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. The spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy of √{sN N}=2.76 TeV. We test the sensitivity of the results to the choice of equilibration time, including also the case where the complete chemical equilibrium of partons is reached already at the initial stage. It is shown that a suppression of quarks at early times leads to a significant reduction of the yield of the thermal dileptons, but only to a rather modest suppression of the pT distribution of direct photons. It is demonstrated that an enhancement of photon and dilepton elliptic flows might serve as a promising signature of the pure-glue initial state.

  6. Characteristics of federally licensed firearms retailers and retail establishments in the United States: initial findings from the firearms licensee survey.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-02-01

    Firearms have widely supported legitimate purposes but are also frequently used in violent crimes. Owners and senior executives of federally licensed firearms dealers and pawnbrokers are a potentially valuable source of information on retail commerce in firearms, links between legal and illegal commerce, and policies designed to prevent the firearms they sell from being used in crimes. To our knowledge, there has been no prior effort to gather such information. In 2011, we conducted the Firearms Licensee Survey on a probability sample of 1,601 licensed dealers and pawnbrokers in the United States believed to sell 50 or more firearms per year. This article presents details of the design and execution of the survey and describes the characteristics of the respondents and their business establishments. The survey was conducted by mail, using methods developed by Dillman and others. Our response rate was 36.9 % (591 respondents), similar to that for other establishment surveys using similar methods. Respondents had a median age of 54; 89 % were male, 97.6 % were White, and 98.1 % were non-Hispanic. Those who held licenses under their own names had been licensed for a median of 18 years. A large majority of 96.3 % agreed that "private ownership of guns is essential for a free society"; just over half (54.9 %) believed that "it is too easy for criminals to get guns in this country." A match between the job and a personal interest in the shooting sports was the highest-ranking reason for working as a firearms retailer; the highest-ranking concerns were that "there are too many 'gun control' regulations" and that "the government might confiscate my guns." Most respondents (64.3 %) were gun dealers, with significant variation by region. Residential dealers accounted for 25.6 % of all dealers in the Midwest. Median annual sales volume was 200 firearms for both dealers and pawnbrokers. Dealers appeared more likely than pawnbrokers to specialize; they were more likely

  7. Resting-State Functional Connectivity by Independent Component Analysis-Based Markers Corresponds to Areas of Initial Seizure Propagation Established by Prior Modalities from the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Angus A.; Curry, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate a clinically practical functional connectivity (fc) protocol designed to blindly identify the corresponding areas of initial seizure propagation and also to differentiate these areas from remote secondary areas affected by seizure. The patients in this cohort had intractable epilepsy caused by intrahypothalamic hamartoma, which is the location of the ictal focus. The ictal propagation pathway is homogeneous and established, thus creating the optimum situation for the proposed method validation study. Twelve patients with seizures from hypothalamic hamartoma and six normal control patients underwent resting-state functional MRI, using independent component analysis (ICA) to identify network differences in patients. This was followed by seed-based connectivity measures to determine the extent of fc derangement between hypothalamus and these areas. The areas with significant change in connectivity were compared with the results of prior studies' modalities used to evaluate seizure propagation. The left amygdala-parahippocampal gyrus area, cingulate gyrus, and occipitotemporal gyrus demonstrated the highest derangement in connectivity with the hypothalamus, p < 0.01, corresponding to the initial seizure propagation areas established by prior modalities. Areas of secondary ictal propagation were differentiated from these initial locations by first being identified as an abnormal neuronal signal source through ICA, but did not show significant connectivity directly with the known ictal focus. Noninvasive connectivity measures correspond to areas of initial ictal propagation and differentiate such areas from secondary ictal propagation, which may aid in ictal focus surgical disconnection planning and support the use of this newer modality for adjunctive information in epilepsy surgery evaluation. PMID:27503346

  8. The development of a Master of Public Health Program with an initial focus on urban and immigrant health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; LaRosa, Judith H; Schechter, Leslie

    2005-12-01

    The State University Downstate Medical Center initiated a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program in July 2001 following planning efforts that began in 1995. Twelve Students entered the program in June 2002. Currently, eighty students are enrolled in the program and eighteen have graduated from it in 2004 and 2005. With an initial focus on urban and immigrant health, the program aims to train public health professionals who can assist in addressing through population-based interventions the health issues of Brooklyn's 2,465,326 people, of whom 38.5% are immigrants to the United States. Starting with four courses in the summer 2002 semester, the program now offers twenty-four courses over the three semesters of the academic year. The program is housed in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health of the College of Medicine and is part-time in nature for most students. In addition to completing required course work, students must also complete a 250-hour practicum experience in which they apply theoretical knowledge in a public health practice setting. Student practicum experiences play a vital role in linking the program to communities and serve as conduits for the initiation of further community based collaboratives. This article describes the challenges encountered in initiating an MPH program in an academic medical center, the importance of both intramural and community support to its success, and the vital role it plays in addressing the health issues of various communities. The program became a leading priority of the Strategic Plan of the Downstate Medical Center in 2000, and received the full support of Downstate's then new president, Dr. John C. LaRosa. This prioritization and support proved essential to the rapid development of the program. The Downstate MPH program offers a concurrent degree to medical students who are able to complete both degrees in a four year period. The Alumni Fund of the College of Medicine provides each MD

  9. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-04

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10).

  10. [Relationship between the spike responses of crayfish mechanoreceptor neurons and the initial functional state and degree of aggregation of their Nissl substance].

    PubMed

    Zaguskin, S L; Kaminskiĭ, I I

    1978-01-01

    The discharges of a single neuron in the crayfish isolated stretch receptor to square standard adequate stimuli were studied. The following parameters were analyzed: response duration, number of impulses per burst, inhibitory pause duration, amplitude and shape of the frequencygram. Preliminary desaggregation of Nissl substance correlated with increase in discharges. When initial frequency of the discharge was low or when the stretch receptor was in resting state, especially in winter time, and the Nissl substance showed high degree of aggregation, discharges to the same stimuli were weaker, and their range diminished. It is suggested that intensified discharges are determined by intracellular redistribution and uptake of calcium which take place during desaggregation of the Nissl substance.

  11. Measurement of the e+e- → π+π- cross section between 600 and 900 MeV using initial state radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    We extract the e+e- →π+π- cross section in the energy range between 600 and 900 MeV, exploiting the method of initial state radiation. A data set with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb-1 taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider is used. The cross section is measured with a systematic uncertainty of 0.9%. We extract the pion form factor |Fπ | 2 as well as the contribution of the measured cross section to the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to (g - 2) μ. We find this value to be aμππ, LO (600- 900MeV) = (368.2 ±2.5stat ±3.3sys) ṡ10-10, which is between the corresponding values using the BaBar or KLOE data.

  12. Evidence of the adoption and implementation of a statewide childhood obesity prevention initiative in the New York State WIC Program: the NY Fit WIC process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sekhobo, Jackson P; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S; Shackman, Gene

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, NY Fit WIC, was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from qualitative telephone interviews of 101 WIC local agency directors, following NY Fit WIC trainings. Activities were summarized and cross-tabulated by target level (i.e. participant, staff, agency or community) and by theoretical construct (i.e. knowledge promotion, skill building, self-efficacy or role modeling). Approximately 528 activities were reported across all WIC agencies. When activities were grouped into similar categories, 123 unique activities were identified. Agencies were more likely to implement physical activity-related activities (67%) than nutrition-related activities (33%). The majority of activities targeted WIC participants (47%) and staff (22%) and focused on skill building/self-efficacy (67%) among participants and on role modeling (61%) among staff. The involvement of all agencies shows a high level of adoption of the initiative. The diverse number of activities suggests that WIC local agencies tailored implementation to match their resources and clients' needs as planned. These results suggest that an outcome evaluation is warranted to determine whether meaningful behavioral changes occurred among WIC participants and staff.

  13. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  14. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor-initiating cell state.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A; Carpenter, Anne E; Silver, Serena J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A; Ligon, Keith L; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Root, David E; Sabatini, David M; Hahn, William C; Chheda, Milan G

    2014-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) harbors subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397 kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin-remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state.

  15. Final Report on the Study of the Impact of the Statewide Systemic Initiatives. Volume II: Final Report on the Use of State NAEP Data to Assess the Impact of the Statewide Systemic Initiatives. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.; Kane, Janet; Yang, Jung-Ho; Kaufman, Darwin; Cohen, Allen; Kang, Taehoon; Park, Chanho; Wilson, Linda

    2003-01-01

    This document represents the second of two volumes presented in "Study of the Impact of the Statewide Systemic Initiatives Program" (Norman L. Webb and Iris R. Weiss). In an effort to evaluate the impact of the Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSIs) on student achievement and the lessons that could be learned from the National Science Foundation's…

  16. Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative (MCDI) is a collaboration of federal, state and local agencies, along with communities, non-profit organizations and private companies working together by reducing exposure to emissions from diesel engines

  17. Study of the reaction e+e-→ψ(2S)π+π- via initial-state radiation at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; BaBar Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We study the process e+e-→ψ(2S)π+π- with initial-state-radiation events produced at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider. The data were recorded with the BABAR detector at center-of-mass energies at and near the ϒ(nS) (n =2,3,4) resonances and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 520 fb-1. We investigate the ψ(2S)π+π- mass distribution from 3.95 to 5.95 GeV /c2, and measure the center-of-mass energy dependence of the associated e+e-→ψ(2S)π+π- cross section. The mass distribution exhibits evidence of two resonant structures. A fit to the ψ(2S)π+π- mass distribution corresponding to the decay mode ψ(2S)→J/ψπ+π- yields a mass value of 4340±16 (stat) ±9 (syst) MeV /c2 and a width of 94±32 (stat) ±13 (syst) MeV for the first resonance, and for the second a mass value of 4669±21 (stat) ±3 (syst) MeV /c2 and a width of 104±48 (stat) ±10 (syst) MeV. In addition, we show the π+π- mass distributions for these resonant regions.

  18. Nonuniform Liouville transformers for quasi-homogeneous optical fields. Final technical report, September 25, 1989--January 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jannson, T.

    1993-03-01

    During the last two decades, there have been dramatic improvements in the development of optical sources. Examples of this development range from semiconductor laser diodes to free electron beam lasers and synchrotron radiation. Before these developments, standards for the measurement of basic optical parameters (quantities) were less demanding. Now, however, there is a fundamental need for new, reliable methods for providing fast quantitative results for a very broad variety of optical systems and sources. This is particularly true for partially coherent optical beams, since all optical sources are either fully or partially spatially coherent (including Lambertian sources). Until now, there has been no satisfactory solution to this problem. During the last two decades, however, the foundations of physical radiometry have been developed by Walther, Wolf and co-workers. By integrating physical optics, statistical optics and conventional radiometry, this body of work provides necessary tools for the evaluation of radiometric quantities for partially coherent optical beams propagating through optical systems. In this program, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) demonstrated the viability of such a radiometric approach for the specific case of generalized energy concentrators called Liouville transformers. We believe that this radiometric approach is necessary to fully characterize any type of optical system since it takes into account the partial coherence of radiation. 90 refs., 57 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program in animal reproduction: changes in priorities and scope relevant to United States animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the USDA's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. The NRI was authorized by the US Congress in the 1990 Farm Bill at a funding level of $500 million; however, the maximal NRI appropriation was $181.17 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Across all programs, the NRI is mandated to use 40% of its funding to support mission-linked research. Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Before 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program funded a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry and laboratory animals. During FY 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of its funding priorities to 5 issue-based topics in an effort to make greater measurable improvements in a few high-impact areas over the next 10 years. Funding priorities were narrowed further in FY 2006 to 3 subdisciplines based, in part, on recommendations that emerged from a stakeholder workshop conducted by Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in August 2004. In FY 2003, Congress authorized expenditure of up to 20% of the funds appropriated to the NRI to support projects that integrate at least 2 of the 3 functions of research, education, and extension. In FY 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program included a funding priority for integrated projects focused primarily on infertility in dairy cattle. The program funded its first integrated project in FY 2005. During FY 2002, increased emphasis on justification for the use of model systems (e.g., laboratory animals and in vitro systems) was included in the NRI request for applications. In FY 2006, applications proposing to primarily utilize nonagricultural animal models were excluded from

  20. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  1. Ports Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the ports initiative is to assist EPA and other participants to formulate strategies for moving forward on actions addressing the transportation, air quality and climate issues raised in the National Conversations.

  2. Descriptive Case Study of Theories of Action, Strategic Objectives, and Strategic Initiatives Used by California Female County Superintendents to Move Their Organizations from Current State to Desired Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Valerie Darlene

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the theories of action, strategic objectives, and strategic initiatives of school systems led by female county superintendents in California and examine their impact on improving system outcomes. Additionally, the factors influencing theory of action, strategic objective, and initiative development were…

  3. The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossekuil, Bryan; Fein, Robert A.; Reddy, Marisa; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William

    2004-01-01

    The "Safe School Initiative" was implemented through the Secret Service's National Threat Assessment Center and the Department of Education's Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program. The "Initiative" drew from the Secret Service's experience in studying and preventing assassination and other types of targeted violence and the Department of Education's…

  4. Radiography of magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid beryllium cylindrical shells for equation-of-state studies at the Z pulsed-power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    The Z accelerator delivers approximately 4-MV, 26-MA electrical pulses with adjustable current rise times of 100--600 ns, as well as adjustable pulse waveforms. The magnetic pressure produced is used for various applications, including magnetically-driven implosions. The Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL) is a pulsed (0.3-1.5 ns), multi-kJ, TW-class Nd:glass laser system that provides x-ray radiography capabilities for Z experiments. This talk focuses primarily on the radiography diagnostic used to study the magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid cylindrical shells (also referred to as ``liners''). Specifically, we discuss the 6.151-keV monochromatic backlighting system and its use in obtaining radiographs of imploding beryllium (Be) liners. The high transmission efficiency of 6.151-keV photons in Be allowed us to obtain radiographs with finite transmission throughout the radial extent of the imploding liners. Abel inverting these data, we have obtained time-resolved measurements of the imploding liner's density as a function of both axial and radial location throughout the field of view. These data are allowing us to study magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) growth for inertial-confinement-fusion applications, as well as compression-wave propagation for equation-of-state studies (see talks by R.L. Lemke and M.R. Martin). Additionally, Z's pulse-shaping capabilities have enabled us to obtain data for both shock- and quasi-isentropically-compressed Be. Example data from MRT, shock-compression, and quasi-isentropic-compression experiments will be shown. We will also discuss planned upgrades to 25-keV radiography that will allow us to study materials with opacities beyond that of beryllium. This work was done in collaboration with R.W. Lemke, M.R. Martin, J.-P. Davis, M.D. Knudson, D.B. Sinars, S.A. Slutz, C.A. Jennings, M.E. Cuneo, D.G. Flicker, and M.C. Herrmann. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin company, for the US

  5. Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on Addressing the Needs in Indian Country Pertaining to Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony to showcase Native American program initiatives at the college and university level. Program representatives presented information on the characteristics and accomplishments of their programs. The Institute of Tribal Government at Portland State University (Oregon) provides intensive 3-day training…

  6. New Initiatives in Vocational Education. A Progress Report on the Implementation of "Education for the World of Work in the State of Maine" and "Career and Occupational Education in Maine for the 'Third American Century.'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Bureau of Adult and Secondary Vocational Education.

    This 2-year status report focuses on the implementation in Maine of the recommendations of two reports--the report of the Commissioner's Task Force to Study Secondary Vocational Education in Maine and Commissioner Eve Bither's response to the report. New initiatives, now being implemented at many sites throughout the state, are designed to enhance…

  7. Youth Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    Summarizing the first eight months of the planning, design, and implementation of the new federal youth programs created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) and the efforts for expansion and enrichment of the Job Corps, this report explains the charters of the two projects and their initial successes in and…

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  9. Applying Bayesian parameter estimation to relativistic heavy-ion collisions: Simultaneous characterization of the initial state and quark-gluon plasma medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Moreland, J. Scott; Bass, Steffen A.; Liu, Jia; Heinz, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We quantitatively estimate properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions utilizing Bayesian statistics and a multiparameter model-to-data comparison. The study is performed using a recently developed parametric initial condition model, TRENTo, which interpolates among a general class of particle production schemes, and a modern hybrid model which couples viscous hydrodynamics to a hadronic cascade. We calibrate the model to multiplicity, transverse momentum, and flow data and report constraints on the parametrized initial conditions and the temperature-dependent transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We show that initial entropy deposition is consistent with a saturation-based picture, extract a relation between the minimum value and slope of the temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity, and find a clear signal for a nonzero bulk viscosity.

  10. Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dottie C.

    This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…

  11. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  12. Partisan Politics or Public-Health Need? An empirical analysis of state choice during initial implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Martin; Kenter, Robert; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    States' policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 have often been explained as predominantly, if not solely, partisan. Might rival explanations also apply? Using a cross-sectional 50-state regression model, we studied standard political variables coupled with public-health indicators. This work differs from existing research by employing a dependent variable of five additive measures of ACA support, examining the impact of both political and socioeconomic indicators on state policy decisions. Expanding on recent empirical studies with our more nuanced additive index of support measures, we found that same-party control of a state's executive and legislative branches was indeed by far the single best predictor of policy decisions. Public-health indicators, overwhelmed by partisan effect, did not sufficiently explain state policy choice. This result does not allay the concerns that health policy has become synonymous with health politics and that health politics now has little to do with health itself.

  13. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  14. SCB initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  15. Laser angle-resolved photoemission as a probe of initial state kz dispersion, final-state band gaps, and spin texture of Dirac states in the Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ärrälä, Minna; Hafiz, Hasnain; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Jiang, Rui; Riedemann, Trevor; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Kaminski, Adam; Bansil, Arun; Lindroos, Matti

    2016-10-27

    Here, we have obtained angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra from single crystals of the topological insulator material Bi2Te3 using tunable laser spectrometer. The spectra were collected for eleven different photon energies ranging from 5.57 to 6.70 eV for incident light polarized linearly along two different in-plane directions. Parallel first-principles, fully relativistic computations of photo-intensities were carried out using the experimental geometry within the framework of the one-step model of photoemission. Good overall accord between theory and experiment is used to gain insight into how properties of the initial and final state band structures as well as those of the topological surface states and their spin-textures are reflected in the laser-ARPES spectra. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that laser-ARPES is sensitive to both the initial state kz dispersion and the presence of delicate gaps in the final state electronic spectrum.

  16. Improving Numerical Weather Predictions of Summertime Precipitation Over the Southeastern U.S. Through a High-Resolution Initialization of the Surface State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Krikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as soil moisture and sea surface temperature are necessary to improve simulations of summertime pulse-type convective precipitation in high resolution models. This paper presents model verification results of a case study period from June-August 2008 over the Southeastern U.S. using the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical weather prediction model. Experimental simulations initialized with high-resolution land surface fields from the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared to a set of control simulations initialized with interpolated fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 12-km North American Mesoscale model. The LIS land surface and MODIS SSTs provide a more detailed surface initialization at a resolution comparable to the 4-km model grid spacing. Soil moisture from the LIS spin-up run is shown to respond better to the extreme rainfall of Tropical Storm Fay in August 2008 over the Florida peninsula. The LIS has slightly lower errors and higher anomaly correlations in the top soil layer, but exhibits a stronger dry bias in the root zone. The model sensitivity to the alternative surface initial conditions is examined for a sample case, showing that the LIS/MODIS data substantially impact surface and boundary layer properties.

  17. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  18. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  19. The Strengthening Families Initiative and Child Care Quality Improvement: How Strengthening Families Influenced Change in Child Care Programs in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…

  20. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  1. Sex, Race, and HIV Risk Disparities in Discontinuity of HIV Care After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Rebeiro, Peter F; Abraham, Alison G; Horberg, Michael A; Althoff, Keri N; Yehia, Baligh R; Buchacz, Kate; Lau, Bryan M; Sterling, Timothy R; Gange, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of continuous retention in care (discontinuity) is associated with HIV disease progression. We examined sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among patients in North America. Adults (≥18 years of age) initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Discontinuity was defined as first disruption of continuous retention (≥2 visits separated by >90 days in the calendar year). Relative hazard ratio (HR) and times from ART initiation until discontinuity by race, sex, and HIV risk were assessed by modeling of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) in the presence of the competing risk of death. Models were adjusted for cohort site, baseline age, and CD4(+) cell count within 1 year before ART initiation; nadir CD4(+) cell count after ART, but before a study event, was assessed as a mediator. Among 17,171 adults initiating ART, median follow-up time was 3.97 years, and 49% were observed to have ≥1 discontinuity of care. In adjusted regression models, the hazard of discontinuity for patients was lower for females versus males [HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.89] and higher for blacks versus nonblacks (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) and persons with injection drug use (IDU) versus non-IDU risk (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.25-1.41). Sex, racial, and HIV risk differences in clinical retention exist, even accounting for access to care and known competing risks for discontinuity. These results point to vulnerable populations at greatest risk for discontinuity in need of improved outreach to prevent disruptions of HIV care.

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  3. Department-Initiated Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…

  4. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  5. The dynamics of entanglement in two-atom Tavis-Cummings model with non-degenerate two-photon transitions for four-qubits initial atom-field entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirov, E. K.; Mastyugin, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of dipole-dipole interaction on the entanglement between two Δ-type artificial atoms interacting with two-mode field via non-degenerate two-photon transitions has been investigated. The atom-field system is assumed to be prepared in four-partite atom-field entangled state. The results show that the entanglement between two atoms can be increased by means of dipole-dipole interaction and for some initial states the entanglement sudden death effect can be weakened.

  6. Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood practices elimination initiative of a women organisation in Ozubulu, Anambra State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilika, Amobi Linus; Ilika, Ucha Rose

    2005-08-01

    Gender-based violence has received increased international focus since after the International Conference on Population and Devlopment in Cairo 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. This paper reports the activities and outcome of a Christian women group initiative to eliminate dehumanising widowhood practices, a prevalent type of gender-based violence among the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria. Through in-depth interviews, group discussions, participant observations and membership records, information was elicited on the processes and outcome of the women group initiative. Evaluation was done using the community action cycle framework model for community mobilisation. The women group was able to identify and eliminate major dehumanising widowhood practices. Though women were the victims of violence, they were surprisingly also the perpetrators and astute enforcers of the practice, as well as those who vehemently opposed any form of change. Superstitious beliefs and associated fears were major reasons for opposition to change. Women can play key and effective roles in eliminating gender-based violence and in initiating and implementing programmes that guarantee their reproductive and human rights. They should, therefore, be strengthened and encouraged to champion issues that affect their well-being.

  7. The Initial Work and Education Experiences of Early School Leavers: A Comparative Study of Australia and the United States. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Stephen; Rumberger, Russell

    A study examined experiences of early leavers in the United States (US) and Australia in the first two years beyond high school. Data were from these comparable longitudinal surveys: US data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988; Australian data from the 1975 cohort of the Youth in Transition surveys. Findings indicated similar…

  8. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  9. Phosphorylation state of a Tob/BTG protein, FOG-3, regulates initiation and maintenance of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm fate program.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myon-Hee; Kim, Kyung Won; Morgan, Clinton T; Morgan, Dyan E; Kimble, Judith

    2011-05-31

    FOG-3, the single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG protein, directs germ cells to adopt the sperm fate at the expense of oogenesis. Importantly, FOG-3 activity must be maintained for the continued production of sperm that is typical of the male sex. Vertebrate Tob proteins have antiproliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation of Tob proteins has been proposed to abrogate "antiproliferative" activity. Here we investigate FOG-3 phosphorylation and its effect on sperm fate specification. We found both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of FOG-3 in nematodes. We then interrogated the role of FOG-3 phosphorylation in sperm fate specification. Specifically, we assayed FOG-3 transgenes for rescue of a fog-3 null mutant. Wild-type FOG-3 rescued both initiation and maintenance of sperm fate specification. A FOG-3 mutant with its four consensus ERK phosphorylation sites substituted to alanines, called FOG-3(4A), rescued partially: sperm were made transiently but not continuously in both sexes. A different FOG-3 mutant with its sites substituted to glutamates, called FOG-3(4E), had no rescuing activity on its own, but together with FOG-3(4A) rescue was complete. Thus, when FOG-3(4A) and FOG-3(4E) were both introduced into the same animals, sperm fate specification was not only initiated but also maintained, resulting in continuous spermatogenesis in males. Our findings suggest that unphosphorylated FOG-3 initiates the sperm fate program and that phosphorylated FOG-3 maintains that program for continued sperm production typical of males. We discuss implications of our results for Tob/BTG proteins in vertebrates.

  10. Antiretroviral regimen durability and success in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients by year of treatment initiation, United States, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Chmiel, Joan S.; Hart, Rachel L.D.; Baker, Rose; Brooks, John T.; Palella, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens are better tolerated and less complex than earlier treatments, regimen modification or discontinuation remains a concern. Methods We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants who initiated first or second cART regimens during: 1996–1999, 2000–2003, 2004–2007 and 2008–2011. We analyzed regimen durability (time to regimen modification) and success (achieving undetectable plasma HIV RNA) for first and second cART regimens using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests, and examined factors associated with durability and success of first cART regimen using proportional hazards models. Results Durability of cART was progressively longer for cART regimens initiated in more recent periods: median first cART regimen durations were 1.0, 1.1, 2.1 and 4.6 years in 1996–1999, 2000–2003, 2004–2007 and 2008–2011, and median second cART durations were 0.9, 1.2, 2.8 and 3.9 years, respectively (both p<0.001). Comparing 1996–1999 and 2008–2011, the percentage of patients who achieved an undetectable HIV RNA within 6 months of first cART initiation increased from 65% to 81%, and from 63% to 80% on second cART (both p<0.001). Among patients initiating first cART during 2008–2011, black non-Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity and ≥twice daily dosing were significantly associated with higher rates of regimen modification (p<0.05), and higher baseline HIV RNA levels were associated with failure to achieve an undetectable HIV RNA (p<0.001). Conclusions Among HIV-infected U.S. adults in routine HIV care, durability of first and second cART regimens and the likelihood of prompt virologic suppression increased during 1996–2011, coincident with the availability of more tolerable, less complex cART options. PMID:26334737

  11. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  12. Building on Individual, State, and Federal Initiatives for Advance Care Planning, an Integral Component of Palliative and End-of-Life Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Andrew S.; Volandes, Angelo E.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state provisions for advance care planning—the process by which patients, families, and medical professionals plan for future and, in particular, end-of-life care—continue to receive attention. Such planning remains an integral component of palliative care, complementing the recognition and treatment of pain and other symptoms that patients with advanced malignancies and their families encounter. Historically, advance care planning interventions (particularly those involving advance directives) have been unable to consistently demonstrate positive outcomes for patients with life-threatening illnesses. However, more recent literature, including that on patients with cancer, illustrates that both patients and caregivers report improved quality of life and less distress after discussions with their health care teams about end-of-life care. Herein, we discuss recent federal and state public policy that focuses on advance care planning, suggesting the promise for care delivery improvements and the means by which existing barriers might be surmounted. These care delivery issues apply to several disease states but are particularly pertinent to the adult oncology setting. PMID:22379415

  13. Provider practices in the primary care behavioral health (PCBH) model: an initial examination in the Veterans Health Administration and United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Walsh, Christine O; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify characteristics of both behavioral health providers (BHPs) and the patients seen in a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) model of service delivery using prospective data obtained from BHPs. A secondary objective was to explore similarities and differences between these variables within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and United States Air Force (USAF) primary care clinics. A total of 159 VHA and 23 USAF BHPs, representing almost every state in the United States, completed the study, yielding data from 403 patient appointments. BHPs completed a web-based questionnaire that assessed BHP and setting characteristics, and a separate questionnaire after each patient seen on one day of clinical service. Data demonstrated that there are many similarities between the VHA and USAF BHPs and practices. Both systems tend to use well-trained psychologists as BHPs, had systems that support the BHP being in close proximity to the primary care providers, and have seamless operational elements (i.e., shared record, one waiting room, same-day appointments, and administrative support for BHPs). Comorbid anxiety and depression was the most common presenting problem in both systems, but overall rates were higher in VHA clinics, and patients were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for mental health conditions. This study provides the first systematic, prospective examination of BHPs and practices within a PCBH model of service delivery in two large health systems with well over 5 years of experience with behavioral health integration. Many elements of the PCBH model were implemented in a manner consistent with the model, although some variability exists within both settings. These data can help guide future implementation and training efforts.

  14. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  15. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid-state

  16. Surface-Initiated Controlled Radical Polymerization: State-of-the-Art, Opportunities, and Challenges in Surface and Interface Engineering with Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Ataman, Nariye Cavusoglu; Mocny, Piotr; Wang, Jian; Moraes, John; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2017-02-08

    The generation of polymer brushes by surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization (SI-CRP) techniques has become a powerful approach to tailor the chemical and physical properties of interfaces and has given rise to great advances in surface and interface engineering. Polymer brushes are defined as thin polymer films in which the individual polymer chains are tethered by one chain end to a solid interface. Significant advances have been made over the past years in the field of polymer brushes. This includes novel developments in SI-CRP, as well as the emergence of novel applications such as catalysis, electronics, nanomaterial synthesis and biosensing. Additionally, polymer brushes prepared via SI-CRP have been utilized to modify the surface of novel substrates such as natural fibers, polymer nanofibers, mesoporous materials, graphene, viruses and protein nanoparticles. The last years have also seen exciting advances in the chemical and physical characterization of polymer brushes, as well as an ever increasing set of computational and simulation tools that allow understanding and predictions of these surface-grafted polymer architectures. The aim of this contribution is to provide a comprehensive review that critically assesses recent advances in the field and highlights the opportunities and challenges for future work.

  17. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  18. Surveillance for Asian H5N1 avian influenza in the United States. The government initiates early detection efforts in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Slota, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern over the potential for migratory birds to introduce the Asian H5N1 strain of avian influenza to North America prompted the White House Policy Coordinating Committee for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness to request that the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Interior (DOI) develop a plan for the early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States. To promote coordination among wildlife, agriculture, and human health agencies on HPAI surveillance efforts, the two Departments worked with representatives from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game to develop the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of Asian H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds.

  19. Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detecting “abnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID

  20. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  1. Adaptation of a cyanobacterium to a biochemically rich environment in experimental evolution as an initial step toward a chloroplast-like state.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kazufumi; Habuchi, Masumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Miyazaki, Mikako; Takikawa, Go; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Sueyoshi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Kiuchi, Ayako; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. The original cyanobacterial endosymbiont evolved to adapt to the biochemically rich intracellular environment of the host cell while maintaining its photosynthetic function; however, no such process has been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we show the adaptation of a model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, to a biochemically rich environment by experimental evolution. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 does not grow in a biochemically rich, chemically defined medium because several amino acids are toxic to the cells at approximately 1 mM. We cultured the cyanobacteria in media with the toxic amino acids at 0.1 mM, then serially transferred the culture, gradually increasing the concentration of the toxic amino acids. The cells evolved to show approximately the same specific growth rate in media with 0 and 1 mM of the toxic amino acid in approximately 84 generations and evolved to grow faster in the media with 1 mM than in the media with 0 mM in approximately 181 generations. We did not detect a statistically significant decrease in the autotrophic growth of the evolved strain in an inorganic medium, indicating the maintenance of the photosynthetic function. Whole-genome resequencing revealed changes in the genes related to the cell membrane and the carboxysome. Moreover, we quantitatively analyzed the evolutionary changes by using simple mathematical models, which evaluated the evolution as an increase in the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and estimated quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary process. Our results clearly demonstrate not only the potential of a model cyanobacterium to adapt to a biochemically rich environment without a significant decrease in photosynthetic function but also the properties of its evolutionary process, which sheds light of the evolution of chloroplasts at the initial stage.

  2. Initial Design Calculations for a Detection System that will Observe Resonant Excitation of the 680 keV state in 238U

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Hagmann, C

    2007-01-26

    We present calculations and design considerations for a detection system that could be used to observe nuclear resonance fluorescence in {sup 238}U. This is intended as part of an experiment in which a nearly monochromatic beam of light incident on a thin foil of natural uranium resonantly populates the state at 680 keV in {sup 238}U. The beam of light is generated via Compton upscattering of laser light incident on a beam of relativistic electrons. This light source has excellent energy and angular resolution. In the current design study we suppose photons emitted following de-excitation of excited nuclei to be observed by a segmented array of BGO crystals. Monte Carlo calculations are used to inform estimates for the design and performance of this detector system. We find that each detector in this array should be shielded by about 2 cm of lead. The signal to background ratio for each of the BGO crystals is larger than ten. The probability that a single detector observes a resonant photon during a single pulse of the light source is near unity.

  3. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  4. Compiling ASCAT Scatterometer Data for Continuing Global Vegetation State Monitoring: An initial comparison with SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT Scatterometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Dunbar, S.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Steiner, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Küppers, M.

    2012-12-01

    The C-band advanced scatterometer instrument (ASCAT) onboard the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Metop satellite is the current data source for meteorologists who rely on near real-time ocean surface wind field observations to provide accurate weather forecasts. Furthermore, with the demise of the Ku-band SeaWind-on-QuikSCAT scatterometer (QSCAT) in November of 2009, ASCAT is, also the only satellite-borne radar providing high-repeat (1-3 days) global vegetation state monitoring. In this study, we investigate the effects of land cover and seasonal vegetation development (phenology) on concurrent backscatter measurements made on a global basis by the ASCAT and the QSCAT instruments between November 2008 and 2009. A method for the normalization of the ASCAT backscatter dependency on incidence angle is provided. The incidence angle correction procedure relies on an 8-week long moving window applied to the ASCAT backscatter data. The resulting slope images define, for each ASCAT antenna, the input to a simple forward model. The resulting ASCAT backscatter is then normalized to a look angle of 54 degrees, equal to that of the VV-polarized QSCAT backscatter measurements. A radiometric slope correction is applied based on a digital elevation model and satellite viewing geometry (i.e. azimuth and altitude). We investigate the combined time series evolution of the backscatter responses of the QSCAT and normalized ASCAT data over vegetated pixels showing dominant (> 80 percent) land cover as defined by the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 Land Cover Product (BU-MODIS). Despite the difference in frequency, we find that the normalized backscatter from ASCAT correlates well (R[AM] = 0.6, R[PM] = 0.63, p < 0.001) with QSCAT when all dominant land cover pixels are combined. However, the correlation between ASCAT and QSCAT is stratified largely by land cover, with very high (R > 0.77) agreement over grassland-type vegetation

  5. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stefanick, Marcia L.; Johnson, Karen C.; Lane, Dorothy S.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Prentice, Ross; Rohan, Thomas E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings Participants from the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913). Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking), were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.09). For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much

  6. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e to K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-19

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}-{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} or e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020){pi}{pi}{gamma} reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y (2175) resonance in the {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and K{sup +}K{sup -} f{sub 0}(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the {phi}(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  7. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  8. Cross sections for the reactions e+e-→KS0KL0π0 , KS0KL0η , and KS0KL0π0π0 from events with initial-state radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Brown, D. N.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Fritsch, M.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Kim, J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Röhrken, M.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rotondo, M.; Zallo, A.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Lacker, H. M.; Bhuyan, B.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Robertson, S. H.; Dey, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cheaib, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Posocco, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Grünberg, O.; Heß, M.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; BaBar Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We study the processes e+e- →KS0KL0π0 γ , KS0KL0η γ , and KS0KL0π0π0 γ , where the photon is radiated from the initial state, providing cross section measurements for the hadronic final states over a continuum of center-of-mass energies. The results are based on 469 fb-1 of data collected at or near the Υ (4 S ) resonance with the BABAR detector at SLAC. We present the first measurements of the e+e- →KS0KL0π0 , KS0KL0η , and KS0KL0π0π0 cross sections up to a center-of-mass energy of 4 GeV and study their intermediate resonance structures. We observe J /ψ decays to all of these final states for the first time, present measurements of their J /ψ branching fractions, and search for ψ (2 S ) decays.

  9. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. First Year Report (August 31, 1996); First Year Analysis (August 31, 1996); Year Two Annual Report (September 1, 1997); Third Year Report (September 1, 1998); Year Three Annual Report Executive Summary (September 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    Since September 1995, the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) has promoted systemic reform to improve science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in its states. Initially, UCAN targeted 159,000 students in over 430 rural, primarily American Indian or Hispanic, communities. These…

  10. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  11. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the...

  16. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (the Initiative) became law in 2005 with Senate Bills 70 and 1133 and provided more than $380 million over eight years to improve career technical education…

  17. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  18. Green Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Patrick Barry

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  19. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  20. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  1. The Plus 50 Initiative Evaluation: Initiative Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), with funding from The Atlantic Philanthropies, created the Plus 50 Initiative (2008-2012). This initiative was designed to build the capacity of community colleges nationwide to develop programming that engages the plus 50 learner. This report contains: (1) An overview of the Plus 50…

  2. The 5' untranslated region and Gag product of Idefix, a long terminal repeat-retrotransposon from Drosophila melanogaster, act together to initiate a switch between translated and untranslated states of the genomic mRNA.

    PubMed

    Meignin, Carine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Arnaud, Frédérick; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal

    2003-11-01

    Idefix is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon present in Drosophila melanogaster which shares similarities with vertebrates retroviruses both in its genomic arrangement and in the mechanism of transposition. Like in retroviruses, its two LTRs flank a long 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and three open reading frames referred to as the gag, pol, and env genes. Here we report that its 5'UTR, located upstream of the gag gene, can fold into highly structured domains that are known to be incompatible with efficient translation by ribosome scanning. Using dicistronic plasmids analyzed by both (i) in vitro transcription and translation in rabbit reticulocyte or wheat germ lysates and (ii) in vivo expression in transgenic flies, we show that the 5'UTR of Idefix exhibits an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that is able to promote translation of a downstream cistron in a cap-independent manner. The functional state of this novel IRES depends on eukaryotic factors that are independent of their host origin. However, in vivo, its function can be down-regulated by trans-acting factors specific to tissues or developmental stages of its host. We identify one of these trans-acting factors as the Gag protein encoded by Idefix itself. Our data support a model in which nascent Gag is able to block translation initiated from the viral mRNA and thus its own translation. These data highlight the fact that LTR-retrotransposons may autoregulate their replication cycle through their Gag production.

  3. Glennan Microsystems Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillson, Leonard J.

    2002-01-01

    During the 2001-2002 award period, we performed research on Pt/Ti/bare 6H-SiC and bare 4H-SiC interfaces in order to identify their electronic properties as a function of surface preparation. The overall aim of this work is to optimize the electronic properties of metal contacts to SiC as well as the active SiC material itself as a function of surface preparation and subsequent processing. Initially, this work has involved identifying bare surface, subsurface, and metal induced gap states at the metal-SiC contact and correlating energies and densities of deep levels with Schottky barrier heights. We used low energy electron-excited nanoluminescence (LEEN) spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in order to correlate electronic states and energy bands with chemical composition, bonding, and crystal structure. A major development has been the discovery of polytype transformations that occur in 4H-SiC under standard microelectronic process conditions used to fabricate SiC devices. Our results are consistent with the stacking fault generation, defect formation, and consequent degradation of SiC recently reported for state-of-the-art ABB commercial diodes under localized electrical stress. Our results highlight the importance of -optimizing process conditions and material properties - anneal times, temperatures and doping to control such structural changes within epitaxial SiC layers. Thus far, we have established threshold times and temperatures beyond which 4H-SiC exhibits 3C-SiC transformation bands for a subset of dopant concentrations and process conditions. On the basis of this temperature time behavior, we have been able to establish an activation energy of approximately 2.5 eV for polytype transformation and dislocation motion. Work continues to establish the fundamental mechanisms underlying the polytype changes and its dependence on material parameters.

  4. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  5. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  6. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  7. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  8. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  9. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  10. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  11. Initiation of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of vascular development occurs during embryogenesis and the development of lateral organs, such as lateral roots and leaves. Understanding the mechanism underlying the initiation of vascular development has been an important goal of plant biologists. Auxin flow is a crucial factor involved in the initiation of vascular development. In addition, recent studies have identified key factors that regulate the establishment of vascular initial cells in embryos and roots. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in this field and discuss the initiation of vascular development.

  12. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  13. 39 CFR 963.18 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 963.18 Section 963.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.18 Initial decision. Unless given orally...

  14. Internet2 and the K20 Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Describes the status of the K20 initiative, efforts to extend the advantages of the high-speed Internet2 (largely for research universities) to K-12 schools, state education networks, and teaching-oriented universities. Includes cost and requirements to join the initiative. (PKP)

  15. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  16. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  17. A Review of the Properties of Nb3Sn and Their Variation with A15Composition, Morphology and Strain State

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, Arno

    2006-03-27

    Significant efforts can be found throughout the literature to optimize the current carrying capacity of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires. The achievable transport current density in wires depends on the A15 composition, morphology and strain state. The A15 sections in wires contain, due to compositional inhomogeneities resulting from solid state diffusion A15 formation reactions, a distribution of superconducting properties. The A15 grain size can be different from wire to wire and is also not necessarily homogeneous across the A15 regions. Strain is always present in composite wires, and the strain state changes as a result of thermal contraction differences and Lorentz forces in magnet systems. To optimize the transport properties it is thus required to identify how composition, grain size and strain state influence the superconducting properties. This is not accurately possible in inhomogeneous and spatially complex systems such as wires. This article therefore gives an overview of the available literature on simplified, well defined(quasi--)homogeneous laboratory samples. After more than 50 years of research on superconductivity in Nb{sub 3}Sn, a significant amount of results are available, but these are scattered over a multitude of publications. Two reviews exist on the basic properties of A15 materials in general, but no specific review for Nb{sub 3}Sn is available. This article is intended to provide such an overview. It starts with a basic description of the Niobium--Tin intermetallic. After this it maps the influence of Sn content on the electron--phonon interaction strength and on the field-temperature phase boundary. The literature on the influence of Cu, Ti and Ta additions will then be briefly summarized.This is followed by a review on the effects of grain size and strain. The article is concluded with a summary of the main results.

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the Breckinridge Project and summarizes the results achieved during the development phase of the project performed under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy. The Breckinridge Project provides for the design, construction and operation of a 50,000 barrel per day coal liquefaction facility in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. The development of the basic technology used in the Breckinridge Project dates back to the late 1950's and the invention by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) of the ebullated-bed reactor and the H-OIL process. The H-COAL process is based on the H-OIL technology. This coal liquefaction process produces clean low-sulfur petroleum substitutes suitable for most types of hydrocarbon-based fuel and chemical uses regardless of the sulfur content of the coal. A large H-COAL Pilot Plant in operation at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, is converting 220 tons of coal per day into 600 barrels of distillate products by catalytic hydrogenation. The estimated capital cost of the commercial facility is $3.17 billion, and the associated out-of-pocket operating cost is $18 per barrel, both in January 1981 dollars. Financial analysis shows the project to be an attractive investment under certain leveraged conditions which are possible through the assistance of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. is currently working with the Synthetic Fuels Corporation and potential partners to develop financing for the commercial venture. Critical permits are being obtained and an Environmental Impact Statement is being prepared pursuant to initiating site preparation in early 1983. Commercial operations are expected to start up in early 1988.

  19. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  20. Monitoring Abortive Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Lilian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abortive initiation, when first discovered, was an enigmatic phenomenon, but fully three decades hence, it has been shown to be an integral step in the transcript initiation process intimately tied to the promoter escape reaction undergone by RNA polymerase at the initiation-elongation transition. A detailed understanding of abortive initiation-promoter escape has brought within reach a full description of the transcription initiation mechanism. This enormous progress was the result of convergent biochemical, genetic, and biophysical investigations propelled by parallel advances in quantitation technology. This chapter discusses the knowledge gained through the biochemical approach and a high-resolution method that yields quantitative and qualitative information regarding abortive initiation-promoter escape at a promoter. PMID:18948204

  1. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  2. Maine Leading Initiative for Multistate Tech. Buys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    A group of states has joined forces to arrange the purchase of an unusually comprehensive set of educational-technology devices and services, in a compact that could foreshadow other cooperative efforts by state and local governments attempting to turn the digital-procurement process to their advantage. The initial partners in the multistate…

  3. "Schools of the Future" Initiative in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Schools of the Future" initiative introduced in California in January 2011 by the newly elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Tom Torlakson. Its objective is to focus on the reform of the state school facility programme and to design highperforming, "greener" schools.…

  4. Winning with Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    A common complaint among high school coaches is the lack of initiative shown by some of their players. Coaches expect a certain level of decision-making and independence, and more so from team captains and senior players. Developing leadership skills is a major benefit to athletes who participate at a competitive level, and taking initiative can…

  5. The Fostering Hope Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven; Winters, Katie; Dean, Joyce; Seymour, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Fostering Hope Initiative is a neighborhood-based Collective Impact initiative that promotes optimum child and youth development by supporting vulnerable families, encouraging connections between neighbors, strengthening systems to ensure collective impact, and advocating for family-friendly public policy. This article describes the…

  6. Prioritizing Scientific Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcall, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the way in which a limited number of astronomy research initiatives were chosen and prioritized based on a consensus of members from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. A list of recommended equipment initiatives and estimated costs is provided. (KR)

  7. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of action. 92.14 Section 92.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT... the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States...

  8. Current State and Local Initiatives To Support Student Learning: Early Childhood Programs and Innovative Programs To Better Address the Needs of Youth. Selected Presentations from an "Ensuring Student Success through Collaboration Network" Conference (Louisville, Kentucky, September 12-15, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Burton

    The Ensuring Student Success Through Collaboration Network, administered by the Council of Chief State School Officers, is comprised of teams of state and local leaders from Arkansas, California, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Oregon, and Washington and works to connect education improvement efforts with other human service reforms, economic…

  9. Innovative Workforce Development Initiatives. Hearing on an Examination of Innovative Strategies Pertaining to Vocational Education, Adult Education, and Job Training, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (Randolph, Vermont).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional hearing examines vocational education, adult education, and job training initiatives in Vermont and the role of these programs in developing work force development legislation. Testimony includes statements from a U.S. Senator and individuals representing the following: Vermont Department of Employment and Training; Vermont…

  10. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  11. Countering Islamic Radicalization and Al Shabaab Recruitment Within the Ethnic Somali Population of the United States: An Argument for Applying Best Practices for Stemming Youth Gang Recruitment and Initiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    policy, or economy of the United States” (United States Department of State [USDOS], 2008). This designation was made largely due to the threat posed by...with foreign government partners in order to ensure that a shared and consistent message is passed to the global Muslim community. Following RICU’s...market and its endeavors to promote inter- faith harmony and shared sense of what it means to be a citizen of the U.K.” (Pursue Prevent Protect Prepare

  12. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  13. Collaborative Procurement Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPP's Clean Energy Collaborative Procurement Initiative provides a platform for deploying clean energy technologies across multiple government and educational organizations for maximum impact on installed solar system capacity and local economic activity.

  14. About the RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  15. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Cancer.gov

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  16. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  17. Advanced Concepts Research Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    This initiative is investigating various approaches to controlling and treating wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges in the urban watershed. WWF, including combined sewer overflow (CSO), sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) and stormwater discharges are leading causes of receiving water q...

  18. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  19. Project Matching Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership's Project Matching initiative works to connect green power users with new, not-yet-built renewable energy projects that may align with their energy, environmental, and financial objectives.

  20. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  1. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  2. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  3. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  4. Research on diabatic initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, Akira

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to contribute to improvement in the synoptic analyses in the tropics for numerical weather prediction and climate research. In addition to a prediction model, four dimensional data assimilation systems have two principal components. One is objective analysis and the other is initialization. Various methods of objective analysis are designed primarily to analyze the mass and rotational wind fields. Methods of initialization are developed to obtain the irrotational wind and its associated vertical velocity field which are balanced with the mass field and free from meteorological noise. There are essentially three approaches to the problem of initialization: quasi-geostrophic theory, bounded derivative method and nonlinear normal mode method. In the midlatitudes, these approaches generally produce satisfactory results even without diabatic effects for large-scale motions. In the tropics, the situation is quite different from that in the midlatitudes. Because of a small magnitude of the Coriolis parameter and a weak horizontal temperature gradient in the tropics, any method of initialization must incorporate diabatic effects. In fact, it can be said that understanding the problem of diabatic initialization is the key to improving the analysis and weather forecasting in the tropics.

  5. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's Manufacturing R&D Initiative, which supports projects aimed at developing better-performing, lower-cost solid-state lighting while encouraging engineering and manufacturing in the United States.

  6. Research on diabatic initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashara, Akira

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to contribute to the improvement of the analyses of irrotational wind and moisture fields in the tropics through advancement in the technique of initialization, incorporating diabatic effects and use of satellite-derived, radiometric imagery data that are not used currently by operational centers. Significant accomplishments during the period of May 1991 - April 1992 in research involving the following are presented: impact of tropical initialization upon the spin-up of precipitation forecasts; and a unified approach to diabatic initialization for improvement in the analysis of divergence and water vapor fields in the tropics. Focus of current research and plans for next year are discussed with respect to the topics of controlling the precipitation over shoot during the early part of a numerical forecast and the use of satellite imagery data for improvement of the tropical analysis.

  7. The Road to Tomorrow's Teachers: Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a State-Based Special Education Workforce Development Initiative. Lessons Learned from the National Pilot Sites Project for Recruitment and Retention. Developing the Special Education Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Arlington, VA.

    This document describes the National Pilot Sites Project for Recruitment and Retention, an effort to recruit, prepare, and retain highly qualified diverse educators and related services personnel for children and youth with disabilities by involving multiple stakeholder groups within selected states (Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, New Jersey, Oregon,…

  8. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  9. A Preliminary Case Study of SCALE Activities at the California State University, Northridge: Factors Influencing Change Initiatives in STEM Undergraduate Education, Teacher Training, and Partnerships with K-12 Districts. WCER Working Paper No. 2007-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Matthew T.; Millar, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    This report of the National Science Foundation-funded SCALE Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) Case Studies line of work provides preliminary findings about SCALE activities at the California State University, Northridge (CSUN). This interview-based study (N = 19) includes a descriptive analysis of SCALE activities and an exploratory analysis…

  10. A Final Case Study of SCALE Activities at California State University, Northridge: How Institutional Context Influenced a K-20 STEM Education Change Initiative. WCER Working Paper No. 2009-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Matthew T.; Millar, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study reports on processes and outcomes of the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded System-Wide Change for All Learners and Educators (SCALE) project at the California State University, Northridge (CSUN). It addresses a critical challenge in studying systemic reform in complex organizations: the lack of methodologies that…

  11. Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care: Action Plan To Improve Access to Child Care Assistance for Low-Income Families. Survey Results on the Status of State Implementation Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This report presents findings of a survey study examining the efforts of southern states and the District of Columbia to implement the goals and action steps of the Action Plan to Improve Access to Child Care Assistance for Low-Income Families in the South. Surveys were sent to the members of the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care,…

  12. Local health care initiatives--ERISA preemption of State Health Care Reform-Health Insurance-Fair Share Act. Golden Gate Restaurant Association v. City and County of San Francisco, 512 F.3d 1112 (9th Cir. 2008).

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    A state or local ordinance is not preempted by ERISA if it does not bind plan administrators to structure plans in a certain way or mandate that they provide specific benefits to employees. A local law could be preempted if it contains specific provisions relating to ERISA, or the operation of the law itself depends upon ERISA.

  13. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  14. Shock initiation of nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.

    1993-12-31

    The shock initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. a broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 and 700 nm from shocked nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that shocked nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a hock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. This paper discusses temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the shock-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15 GPa.

  15. Research on diabatic initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasahara, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to contribute to the improvement of the analyses of irrotational wind and moisture fields in the trophics through advancement in the technique of initialization by incorporating diabatic effects. Significant accomplishments made during the period May 1990 to April 1991 in the following areas are presented: (1) estimation of the uncertainty of daily synoptic analyses in the tropics; (2) normal modes of Laplace's tidal equations for zonal wavenumber zero; and (3) tropical initialization to ameliorate the spin-up problem of precipitation forecasts. The focus of current research and plans for next year are also presented.

  16. STI Program Multimedia Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This paper relates the experience of the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program in introducing multimedia within the STI Program framework. A discussion of multimedia technology is included to provide context for the STI Program effort. The STI Program's Multimedia Initiative is discussed in detail. Parallels and differences between multimedia and traditional information systems project development are highlighted. Challenges faced by the program in initiating its multimedia project are summarized along with lessons learned. The paper concludes with a synopsis of the benefits the program hopes to provide its users through the introduction of multimedia illustrated by examples of successful multimedia projects.

  17. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  18. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  19. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  20. Information Technology Initiative (Videorecording),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Physical description: 1 VHS video; col.; sd.; mono.; standard playback sp.; 35:40 mins.; 1/2 in. In this video, Dr. Kurt Fisher, Deputy Director for Information Technology , introduces the Corporate Information Management (CIM) program and explains the following major technical initiatives: reuse/repositories; I-case; data administration; information technology architecture; software process improvement; standards.