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Sample records for quasinormal mode spectroscopy

  1. Quasinormal mode theory and modelling of electron energy loss spectroscopy for plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Understanding light-matter interactions using localized surface plasmons (LSPs) is of fundamental interest in classical and quantum plasmonics and has a wide range of applications. In order to understand the spatial properties of LSPs, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a common and powerful method of spatially resolving the extreme localized fields that can be obtained with metal resonators. However, modelling EELS for general shaped resonators presents a major challenge in computational electrodynamics, requiring the full photon Green function as a function of two space points and frequency. Here we present an intuitive and computationally simple method for computing EELS maps of plasmonic resonators using a quasinormal mode (QNM) expansion technique. By separating the contribution of the QNM and the bulk material, we give closed-form analytical formulas for the plasmonic QNM contribution to the EELS maps. We exemplify our technique for a split ring resonator, a gold nanorod, and a nanorod dimer structure. The method is accurate, intuitive, and gives orders of magnitude improvements over direct dipole simulations that numerically solve the full 3D Maxwell equations. We also show how the same QNM Green function can be used to obtain the Purcell factor (and projected local density of optical states) from quantum dipole emitters or two level atoms, and we demonstrate how the spectral features differ in general to the EELS spectrum.

  2. Quasi-exactly solvable quasinormal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.-L.; Cho, H.-T.

    2007-11-20

    We consider quasinormal modes with complex energies from the point of view of the theory of quasi-exactly solvable (QES) models. We demonstrate that it is possible to find new potentials which admit exactly solvable or QES quasinormal modes by suitable complexification of parameters defining the QES potentials. Particularly, we obtain one QES and four exactly solvable potentials out of the five one-dimensional QES systems based on the sl(2) algebra.

  3. Quasinormal modes of a Schwarzschild white hole

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Nigel T.; Kubeka, Amos S.

    2009-09-15

    We investigate perturbations of the Schwarzschild geometry using a linearization of the Einstein vacuum equations within a Bondi-Sachs, or null cone, formalism. We develop a numerical method to calculate the quasinormal modes, and present results for the case l=2. The values obtained are different than those of a Schwarzschild black hole, and we interpret them as quasinormal modes of a Schwarzschild white hole.

  4. Quasinormal modes of near extremal black branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinets, Andrei O.

    2002-12-01

    We find quasinormal modes of near extremal black branes by solving a singular boundary value problem for the Heun equation. The corresponding eigenvalues determine the dispersion law for the collective excitations in the dual strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature.

  5. Quasinormal modes of superfluid neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, L.; Kantor, E. M.; Gusakov, M. E.; Chugunov, A. I.

    2014-07-01

    We study nonradial oscillations of neutron stars with superfluid baryons, in a general relativistic framework, including finite temperature effects. Using a perturbative approach, we derive the equations describing stellar oscillations, which we solve by numerical integration, employing different models of nucleon superfluidity, and determining frequencies and gravitational damping times of the quasinormal modes. As expected by previous results, we find two classes of modes, associated to superfluid and non-superfluid degrees of freedom, respectively. We study the temperature dependence of the modes, finding that at specific values of the temperature, the frequencies of the two classes of quasinormal modes show avoided crossings, and their damping times become comparable. We also show that, when the temperature is not close to the avoided crossings, the frequencies of the modes can be accurately computed by neglecting the coupling between normal and superfluid degrees of freedom. Our results have potential implications on the gravitational wave emission from neutron stars.

  6. Exact quasinormal modes for a special class of black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2010-07-15

    Analytic exact expressions for the quasinormal modes of scalar and electromagnetic perturbations around a special class of black holes are found in d{>=}3 dimensions. It is shown that the size of the black hole provides a lower bound for the angular momentum of the perturbation. Quasinormal modes appear when this bound is fulfilled; otherwise the excitations become purely damped.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Quasinormal modes of black holes and black branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2009-08-01

    Quasinormal modes are eigenmodes of dissipative systems. Perturbations of classical gravitational backgrounds involving black holes or branes naturally lead to quasinormal modes. The analysis and classification of the quasinormal spectra require solving non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems for the associated linear differential equations. Within the recently developed gauge-gravity duality, these modes serve as an important tool for determining the near-equilibrium properties of strongly coupled quantum field theories, in particular their transport coefficients, such as viscosity, conductivity and diffusion constants. In astrophysics, the detection of quasinormal modes in gravitational wave experiments would allow precise measurements of the mass and spin of black holes as well as new tests of general relativity. This review is meant as an introduction to the subject, with a focus on the recent developments in the field.

  8. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Chenggang; Wang Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su Rukeng

    2005-02-15

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordstroem black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  9. The Eikonal Quasinormal Modes of Kerr-Newman Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Zachary; Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-04-01

    Due to the complicated coupling between gravity and electromagnetism near a Kerr-Newman black hole, a master, separable equation governing gravitational or electromagnetic perturbations has yet to be discovered, impeding efforts to calculate the quasinormal modes of perturbed black holes with arbitrary spin and charge. Instead, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations are found to obey a pair of coupled, partial differential equations. To study the quasinormal modes, we examine these equations in the eikonal limit (where the waves are rapidly changing in space and time) via a newly developed WKB technique capable of handling coupled wave equations. Surprisingly, it turns out that an approximate master equation introduced by Dudley and Finley provides an accurate description of perturbations in the eikonal regime. These techniques allow the ``geometric correspondence'' between quasinormal modes and photon geodesics that is known to be true for Kerr black holes to be extended to Kerr-Newman black holes.

  10. Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Kokkotas, Kostas D; Schmidt, Bernd G

    1999-01-01

    Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman) and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating). The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.

  11. Quasinormal modes of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leaver, Edward W.

    1990-01-01

    A matrix-eigenvalue algorithm is presented for accurately computing the quasi-normal frequencies and modes of charged static blackholes. The method is then refined through the introduction of a continued-fraction step. The approach should generalize to a variety of nonseparable wave equations, including the Kerr-Newman case of charged rotating blackholes.

  12. Looking at the Gregory-Laflamme instability through quasinormal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R. A.; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro; Zhidenko, A.

    2008-10-15

    We study evolution of gravitational perturbations of black strings. It is well known that for all wave numbers less than some threshold value, the black string is unstable against the scalar type of gravitational perturbations, which is named the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Using numerical methods, we find the quasinormal modes and time-domain profiles of the black string perturbations in the stable sector and also show the appearance of the Gregory-Laflamme instability in the time domain. The dependence of the black string quasinormal spectrum and late-time tails on such parameters as the wave vector and the number of extra dimensions is discussed. There is numerical evidence that at the threshold point of instability, the static solution of the wave equation is dominant. For wave numbers slightly larger than the threshold value, in the region of stability, we see tiny oscillations with very small damping rate. While, for wave numbers slightly smaller than the threshold value, in the region of the Gregory-Laflamme instability, we observe tiny oscillations with very small growth rate. We also find the level crossing of imaginary part of quasinormal modes between the fundamental mode and the first overtone mode, which accounts for the peculiar time domain profiles.

  13. Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-12-15

    Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow.

  14. Model for Quasinormal Mode Excitation by a Particle Plunging into a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Chen, Yanbei

    2016-03-01

    It is known that the late time gravitational waveform produced by a particle plunging into a Kerr black hole is well described by a sum of quasinormal modes. However it is not yet understood how the early part of the waveform gives way to the quasinormal mode description, which diverges at early times, nor how the inhomogenous part of the waveform contributes. Motivated by, we offer a model for quasinormal mode excitation by a particle plunging into a Schwarzschild black hole. To develop our model we study approximations to the Regge-Wheeler equation that allow for a closed-form expression for the frequency-domain Green's function, which we use to isolate the component of the waveform that should be identified with quasinormal ringing. Our description of quasinormal ringing does not diverge at early times and reveals that quasinormal ringing should be understood in analogy with a damped harmonic oscillator experiencing a transient driving source.

  15. Resolving nanophotonic spectra with quasi-normal modes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Many nanophotonic systems are strongly coupled to radiating waves, or suffer significant dissipative losses. Furthermore, they may have complex shapes which are not amenable to closed form calculations. This makes it challenging to determine their modes without resorting to quasi-static or point dipole approximations. To solve this problem, the quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are found from an integral equation model of the particle. These give complex frequencies where excitation can be supported without any incident field. The corresponding eigenvectors yield the modal distributions, which are non-orthogonal due to the non-Hermitian nature of the system. The model based on quasi-normal modes is applied to plasmonic and dielectric particles, and compared with a spherical multipole decomposition. Only with the QNMs is it possible to resolve all features of the extinction spectrum, as each peak in the spectrum can be attributed to a particular mode. In contrast, many of the multipole coefficient have multiple peaks and dips. Furthermore, by performing a multipolar decomposition of each QNM, the spectrum of multipole coefficients is explained in terms of destructive interference between modes of the same multipole order.

  16. Quasinormal modes and the phase structure of strongly coupled matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Romuald A.; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to different first order phase transitions. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We focus on quantifying linearized level dynamical response of the system in the critical region of phase diagram. Generically non-hydrodynamic degrees of freedom are important for the low energy physics in the vicinity of a phase transition. For a model with linear confinement in the meson spectrum we find degeneracy of hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic modes close to the minimal black hole temperature, and we establish a region of temperatures with unstable non-hydrodynamic modes in a branch of black hole solutions.

  17. Quasinormal modes of asymptotically (A)dS black hole in Lovelock background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasvandi, N.; Soleimani, M. J.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Radiman, Shahidan

    2017-03-01

    We study the quasinormal modes of the massless scalar field in asymptotically (A)dS black holes in Lovelock spacetime by using the sixth order of the WKB approximation. We consider the effects of the second and third order of Lovelock coupling constants on quasinormal frequencies spectrum as well as cosmological constant.

  18. Computing black hole partition functions from quasinormal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Peter; Szepietowski, Phillip; Vaman, Diana

    2016-07-07

    We propose a method of computing one-loop determinants in black hole space-times (with emphasis on asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes) that may be used for numerics when completely-analytic results are unattainable. The method utilizes the expression for one-loop determinants in terms of quasinormal frequencies determined by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev in [1]. A numerical evaluation must face the fact that the sum over the quasinormal modes, indexed by momentum and overtone numbers, is divergent. A necessary ingredient is then a regularization scheme to handle the divergent contributions of individual fixed-momentum sectors to the partition function. To this end, we formulate an effective two-dimensional problem in which a natural refinement of standard heat kernel techniques can be used to account for contributions to the partition function at fixed momentum. We test our method in a concrete case by reproducing the scalar one-loop determinant in the BTZ black hole background. Furthermore, we then discuss the application of such techniques to more complicated spacetimes.

  19. Computing black hole partition functions from quasinormal modes

    DOE PAGES

    Arnold, Peter; Szepietowski, Phillip; Vaman, Diana

    2016-07-07

    We propose a method of computing one-loop determinants in black hole space-times (with emphasis on asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes) that may be used for numerics when completely-analytic results are unattainable. The method utilizes the expression for one-loop determinants in terms of quasinormal frequencies determined by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev in [1]. A numerical evaluation must face the fact that the sum over the quasinormal modes, indexed by momentum and overtone numbers, is divergent. A necessary ingredient is then a regularization scheme to handle the divergent contributions of individual fixed-momentum sectors to the partition function. To this end, we formulatemore » an effective two-dimensional problem in which a natural refinement of standard heat kernel techniques can be used to account for contributions to the partition function at fixed momentum. We test our method in a concrete case by reproducing the scalar one-loop determinant in the BTZ black hole background. Furthermore, we then discuss the application of such techniques to more complicated spacetimes.« less

  20. Computing black hole partition functions from quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Peter; Szepietowski, Phillip; Vaman, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method of computing one-loop determinants in black hole space-times (with emphasis on asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes) that may be used for numerics when completely-analytic results are unattainable. The method utilizes the expression for one-loop determinants in terms of quasinormal frequencies determined by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev in [1]. A numerical evaluation must face the fact that the sum over the quasinormal modes, indexed by momentum and overtone numbers, is divergent. A necessary ingredient is then a regularization scheme to handle the divergent contributions of individual fixed-momentum sectors to the partition function. To this end, we formulate an effective two-dimensional problem in which a natural refinement of standard heat kernel techniques can be used to account for contributions to the partition function at fixed momentum. We test our method in a concrete case by reproducing the scalar one-loop determinant in the BTZ black hole background. We then discuss the application of such techniques to more complicated spacetimes.

  1. Highly damped quasinormal modes and the small scale structure of quantum corrected black hole exteriors

    SciTech Connect

    Babb, James; Kunstatter, Gabor; Daghigh, Ramin

    2011-10-15

    Quasinormal modes provide valuable information about the structure of spacetime outside a black hole. There is also a conjectured relationship between the highly damped quasinormal modes and the semiclassical spectrum of the horizon area/entropy. In this paper, we show that for spacetimes characterized by more than one scale, the 'infinitely damped' modes in principle probe the structure of spacetime outside the horizon at the shortest length scales. We demonstrate this with the calculation of the highly damped quasinormal modes of the nonsingular, single-horizon, quantum corrected black hole derived in [A. Peltola and G. Kunstatter, Phys. Rev. D 79, 061501 (2009); ].

  2. Quasinormal Modes for Schwarzschild-AdS Black Holes: Exponential Convergence to the Real Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Oran

    2014-09-01

    We study quasinormal modes for massive scalar fields in Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes. When the mass-squared is above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, we show that for large angular momenta, ℓ, there exist quasinormal modes with imaginary parts of size exp(- ℓ/ C). We provide an asymptotic expansion for the real parts of the modes closest to the real axis and identify the vanishing of certain coefficients depending on the dimension.

  3. Quasinormal modes of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécar, Ramón; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2017-02-01

    We study the quasinormal modes of scalar field perturbations in the background of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We find that the quasinormal frequencies have no real part so there is no oscillatory behavior in the perturbations, only exponential decay, that is, the system is always overdamped, which guarantees the mode stability of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We determine analytically the quasinormal modes for massless scalar fields for a dynamical exponent z=2 and hyperscaling violating exponent tilde{θ }>-2. Also, we obtain numerically the quasinormal frequencies for different values of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violating exponent by using the improved asymptotic iteration method.

  4. Second-order quasinormal mode of the Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ioka, Kunihito

    2007-10-01

    We formulate and calculate the second-order quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH). Gravitational waves (GW) from a distorted BH, the so-called ringdowns, are well understood as QNMs in general relativity. Since QNMs from binary BH mergers will be detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio by GW detectors, it is also possible to detect the second perturbative order of QNMs, generated by nonlinear gravitational interaction near the BH. In the BH perturbation approach, we derive the master Zerilli equation for the metric perturbation to second order and explicitly regularize it at the horizon and spatial infinity. We numerically solve the second-order Zerilli equation by implementing the modified Leaver continued fraction method. The second-order QNM frequencies are found to be twice the first-order ones, and the GW amplitude is up to ˜10% that of the first order for the binary BH mergers. Since the second-order QNMs always exist, we can use their detections (i) to test the nonlinearity of general relativity, in particular, the no-hair theorem, (ii) to remove fake events in the data analysis of QNM GWs, and (iii) to measure the distance to the BH.

  5. Mesonic quasinormal modes of the Sakai-Sugimoto model at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; Threlfall, Ed

    2008-06-15

    We examine the mesonic thermal spectrum of the Sakai-Sugimoto model of holographic QCD by finding the quasinormal frequencies of the supergravity dual. If flavor is added using D8-D8 branes there exist embeddings where the D-brane world volume contains a black hole. For these embeddings (the high-temperature phase of the Sakai-Sugimoto model) we determine the quasinormal spectra of scalar and vector mesons arising from the world volume Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of the D-brane. We stress the importance of a coordinate change that makes the infalling quasinormal modes regular at the horizon allowing a simple numerical shooting technique. Finally we examine the effect of finite spatial momentum on quasinormal spectra.

  6. Numerical study of the quasinormal mode excitation of Kerr black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Dorband, Ernst Nils; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel; Berti, Emanuele; Schnetter, Erik

    2006-10-15

    We present numerical results from three-dimensional evolutions of scalar perturbations of Kerr black holes. Our simulations make use of a high-order accurate multiblock code which naturally allows for adapted grids and smooth inner (excision) and outer boundaries. We focus on the quasinormal ringing phase, presenting a systematic method for extraction of the quasinormal mode frequencies and amplitudes and comparing our results against perturbation theory. The detection of a single mode in a ringdown waveform allows for a measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole; a multimode detection would allow a test of the Kerr nature of the source. Since the possibility of a multimode detection depends on the relative mode amplitude, we study this topic in some detail. The amplitude of each mode depends exponentially on the starting time of the quasinormal regime, which is not defined unambiguously. We show that this time-shift problem can be circumvented by looking at appropriately chosen relative mode amplitudes. From our simulations we extract the quasinormal frequencies and the relative and absolute amplitudes of corotating and counterrotating modes (including overtones in the corotating case). We study the dependence of these amplitudes on the shape of the initial perturbation, the angular dependence of the mode, and the black hole spin, comparing against results from perturbation theory in the so-called asymptotic approximation. We also compare the quasinormal frequencies from our numerical simulations with predictions from perturbation theory, finding excellent agreement. For rapidly rotating black holes (of spin j=0.98) we can extract the quasinormal frequencies of not only the fundamental mode, but also of the first two overtones. Finally we study under what conditions the relative amplitude between given pairs of modes gets maximally excited and present a quantitative analysis of rotational mode-mode coupling. The main conclusions and techniques of our

  7. Stability and quasinormal modes of the massive scalar field around Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A. V.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we find quasinormal spectrum of the massive scalar field in the background of the Kerr black holes. We show that all found modes are damped under the quasinormal modes boundary conditions when μM≲1, thereby implying stability of the massive scalar field. This complements the region of stability determined by the Beyer inequality for large masses of the field. We show that, similar to the case of a nonrotating black hole, the massive term of the scalar field does not contribute in the regime of high damping. Therefore, the high damping asymptotic should be the same as for the massless scalar field.

  8. Quasinormal modes of a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole: gravitational and Dirac perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mahamat; Bouetou, Bouetou Thomas; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the Schwarzschild black hole are investigated by taking into account the quantum fluctuations. Gravitational and Dirac perturbations were considered for this case. The Regge-Wheeler gauge and the Dirac equation were used to derive the perturbation equations of the gravitational and Dirac fields respectively and the third order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation method is used for the computing of the quasinormal frequencies. The results show that due to the quantum fluctuations in the background of the Schwarzschild black hole, the QNMs of the black hole damp more slowly when increasing the quantum correction factor (a), and oscillate more slowly.

  9. Quasi-normal modes of extremal BTZ black holes in TMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Hamid R.; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Mosaffa, Amir E.

    2010-08-01

    We study the spectrum of tensor perturbations on extremal BTZ black holes in topologically massive gravity for arbitrary values of the coefficient of the Chern-Simons term, μ. Imposing proper boundary conditions at the boundary of the space and at the horizon, we find that the spectrum contains quasi-normal modes.

  10. Quasinormal modes, scattering, and Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman black holes in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkotas, K. D.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2011-01-15

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the spectrum of proper oscillations (quasinormal modes), transmission/reflection coefficients, and Hawking radiation for a massive charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an asymptotically homogeneous magnetic field. There are two main effects: the Zeeman shift of the particle energy in the magnetic field and the difference of values of an electromagnetic potential between the horizon and infinity, i.e. the Faraday induction. We have shown that 'turning on' the magnetic field induces a stronger energy-emission rate and leads to 'recharging' of the black hole. Thus, a black hole immersed in a magnetic field evaporates much quicker, achieving thereby an extremal state in a shorter period of time. Quasinormal modes are moderately affected by the presence of a magnetic field which is assumed to be relatively small compared to the gravitational field of the black hole.

  11. Connection between black-hole quasinormal modes and lensing in the strong deflection limit.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Ivan Zh; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S; Gyulchev, Galin G

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of the current Letter is to give some relations between gravitational lensing in the strong-deflection limit and the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat black holes. On the one side, the relations obtained can give a physical interpretation of the strong-deflection limit parameters. On the other side, they also give an alternative method for the measurement of the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat black holes. They could be applied to the localization of the sources of gravitational waves and could tell us what frequencies of the gravitational waves we could expect from a black hole acting simultaneously as a gravitational lens and a source of gravitational waves.

  12. On Quasi-Normal Modes, Area Quantization and Bohr Correspondence Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corda, Christian

    2015-10-01

    In (Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. D 14, 181 2005), the author Khriplovich verbatim claims that "the correspondence principle does not dictate any relation between the asymptotics of quasinormal modes and the spectrum of quantized black holes" and that "this belief is in conflict with simple physical arguments". In this paper we analyze Khriplovich's criticisms and realize that they work only for the original proposal by Hod, while they do not work for the improvements suggested by Maggiore and recently finalized by the author and collaborators through a connection between Hawking radiation and black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNMs). This is a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Thus, QNMs can be really interpreted as BH quantum levels (the "electrons" of the "Bohr-like BH model").Our results have also important implications on the BH information puzzle.

  13. Behavior of quasinormal modes and high dimension RN-AdS black hole phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; Moumni, H. El; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we use the quasinormal frequencies of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the phase transition of the high dimension charged AdS black hole. The signature of the critical behavior of this black hole solution is detected in the isobaric as well as in isothermal process. This paper is a natural generalization of Liu et al. (JHEP 1409:179, 2014) to higher dimensional spacetime. More precisely our study shows a clear signal for any dimension d in the isobaric process. As to the isothermal case, we find that this signature can be affected by other parameters like the pressure and the horizon radius. We conclude that the quasinormal modes can be an efficient tool to investigate the first-order phase transition, but fail to disclose the signature of the second-order phase transition.

  14. Linear mode stability of the Kerr-Newman black hole and its quasinormal modes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Óscar J C; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-04-17

    We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m=2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Reω=mΩH(ext) and Imω=0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s|≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩH(ext) the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement.

  15. Application of the confluent Heun functions for finding the quasinormal modes of nonrotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiziev, Plamen; Staicova, Denitsa

    2011-12-01

    Although finding numerically the quasinormal modes of a nonrotating black hole is a well-studied question, the physics of the problem is often hidden behind complicated numerical procedures aimed at avoiding the direct solution of the spectral system in this case. In this article, we use the exact analytical solutions of the Regge-Wheeler equation and the Teukolsky radial equation, written in terms of confluent Heun functions. In both cases, we obtain the quasinormal modes numerically from spectral condition written in terms of the Heun functions. The frequencies are compared with ones already published by Andersson and other authors. A new method of studying the branch cuts in the solutions is presented—the epsilon method. In particular, we prove that the mode n=8 is not algebraically special and find its value with more than 6 firm figures of precision for the first time. The stability of that mode is explored using the ɛ method, and the results show that this new method provides a natural way of studying the behavior of the modes around the branch cut points.

  16. Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng

    2014-06-01

    In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in [1] by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2, we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in [1]. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. [2] and Banerjee et al. [3]. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2, 1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1. We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS2 n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2 n, 1), the motion group of H 2 n .

  17. Highly damped quasinormal modes of generic single-horizon black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghigh, Ramin G.; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2005-10-01

    We calculate analytically the highly damped quasinormal mode spectra of generic single-horizon black holes using the rigorous WKB techniques of Andersson and Howls (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 1623). We thereby provide a firm foundation for previous analysis, and point out some of their possible limitations. The numerical coefficient in the real part of the highly damped frequency is generically determined by the behaviour of coupling of the perturbation to the gravitational field near the origin, as expressed in tortoise coordinates. This fact makes it difficult to understand how the famous ln(3) could be related to the quantum gravitational microstates near the horizon.

  18. Quasinormal modes, bifurcations, and nonuniqueness of charged scalar-tensor black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stefanov, Ivan Zh.

    2010-09-15

    In the present paper, we study the scalar sector of the quasinormal modes of charged general relativistic, static, and spherically symmetric black holes coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and embedded in a class of scalar-tensor theories. We find that for a certain domain of the parametric space, there exists unstable quasinormal modes. The presence of instabilities implies the existence of scalar-tensor black holes with primary hair that bifurcate from the embedded general relativistic black-hole solutions at critical values of the parameters corresponding to the static zero modes. We prove that such scalar-tensor black holes really exist by solving the full system of scalar-tensor field equations for the static, spherically symmetric case. The obtained solutions for the hairy black holes are nonunique, and they are in one-to-one correspondence with the bounded states of the potential governing the linear perturbations of the scalar field. The stability of the nonunique hairy black holes is also examined, and we find that the solutions for which the scalar field has zeros are unstable against radial perturbations. The paper ends with a discussion of possible formulations of a new classification conjecture.

  19. Quasinormal modes of self-dual warped AdS{sub 3} black hole in topological massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ran; Ren Jirong

    2011-03-15

    We consider the scalar, vector and spinor field perturbations in the background of self-dual warped AdS{sub 3} black hole of topological massive gravity. The corresponding exact expressions for quasinormal modes are obtained by analytically solving the perturbation equations and imposing the vanishing Dirichlet boundary condition at asymptotic infinity. It is expected that the quasinormal modes agree with the poles of retarded Green's functions of the CFT dual to self-dual warped AdS{sub 3} black hole. Our results provide a quantitative test of the warped AdS/CFT correspondence.

  20. Maxwell perturbations on asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Generic boundary conditions and a new branch of quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sampaio, Marco O. P.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations of asymptotically anti-de-Sitter (AdS) spacetimes are often considered by imposing field vanishing boundary conditions (BCs) at the AdS boundary. Such BCs, of Dirichlet-type, imply a vanishing energy flux at the boundary, but the converse is, generically, not true. Regarding AdS as a gravitational box, we consider vanishing energy flux (VEF) BCs as a more fundamental physical requirement and we show that these BCs can lead to a new branch of modes. As a concrete example, we consider Maxwell perturbations on Kerr-AdS black holes in the Teukolsky formalism, but our formulation applies also for other spin fields. Imposing VEF BCs, we find a set of two Robin BCs, even for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. The Robin BCs on the Teukolsky variables can be used to study quasinormal modes, superradiant instabilities and vector clouds. As a first application, we consider here the quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. We find that one of the Robin BCs yields the quasinormal spectrum reported in the literature, while the other one unveils a new branch for the quasinormal spectrum.

  1. Damped and zero-damped quasinormal modes of charged, nearly extremal black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Mark, Zachary

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent progress, the complete understanding of the perturbations of charged, rotating black holes as described by the Kerr-Newman metric remains an open and fundamental problem in relativity. In this study, we explore the existence of families of quasinormal modes of Kerr-Newman black holes whose decay rates limit to zero at extremality, called zero-damped modes in past studies. We review the nearly extremal and WKB approximation methods for spin-weighted scalar fields (governed by the Dudley-Finley equation) and give an accounting of the regimes where scalar zero-damped and damped modes exist. Using Leaver's continued fraction method, we verify that these approximations give accurate predictions for the frequencies in their regimes of validity. In the nonrotating limit, we argue that gravito-electromagnetic perturbations of nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes have zero-damped modes in addition to the well-known spectrum of damped modes. We provide an analytic formula for the frequencies of these modes, verify their existence using a numerical search, and demonstrate the accuracy of our formula. These results, along with recent numerical studies, point to the existence of a simple universal equation for the frequencies of zero-damped gravito-electromagnetic modes of Kerr-Newman black holes, whose precise form remains an open question.

  2. The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babb, James Patrick

    Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.

  3. Partition functions with spin in AdS2 via quasinormal mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Lisbão, Pedro; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-10-01

    We extend the results of [1], computing one loop partition functions for massive fields with spin half in AdS2 using the quasinormal mode method proposed by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev [2]. We find the finite representations of SO(2, 1) for spin zero and spin half, consisting of a highest weight state | h> and descendants with non-unitary values of h. These finite representations capture the poles and zeroes of the one loop determinants. Together with the asymptotic behavior of the partition functions (which can be easily computed using a large mass heat kernel expansion), these are sufficient to determine the full answer for the one loop determinants. We also discuss extensions to higher dimensional AdS2 n and higher spins.

  4. Quasinormal mode approach to modelling light-matter interactions in plasmonic-dielectric cavity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Axelrod, Simon; Wang, Herman M. K.; Helmy, Amr; Gordon, Reuven; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    We describe a powerful quasinormal mode (QNM) approach to characterizing the decay properties of quantum emitters in metal-dielectric resonator systems, including hybrid plasmonic-photonic coupled cavities as well as hyperbolic metamaterial resonators. We quantify both the radiative and non-radiative decay rates in these complex structures using these QNMs and a Green function expansion, which yields an excellent agreement with full-dipole calculations of Maxwell's equations. Using this analytical QNM theory, we can map the Purcell factor for the system over a wide range of frequencies and dipole positions. We further show that how individual QNMs of these systems contribute to the underlying physics, whether it is strong interference effects between the sub-systems, in the case of a hybrid structure, or it is a physically meaningful explanation of very low beta factor for single photon emission in the case of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  5. Analytical description of quasi-normal mode in resonant plasmonic nano cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Haitao; Jia, Hongwei; Zhong, Ying

    2016-03-01

    We propose an analytical model of quasi-normal mode (QNM) for resonant plasmonic nano cavities formed by sub wavelength grooves in metallic substrate. The QNM has shown great advantages in understanding and calculating the frequency response of resonant nano-structures. With our model we show that the QNM originates from a resonance of the fundamental mode in every individual groove and its interaction via surface waves. Analytical expression for the complex eigenfrequency as well as the field distribution of the QNM can be derived from the model. With the analytical model and a few assumptions on the scattered field, the legitimacy of the expansion of scattered field with QNMs under external illuminations is justified with the Mittag-Leffler's theorem of meromorphic function. The expansion coefficients of QNMs are analytically expressed with a finite set of elementary scattering coefficients, which avoids the calculation of the mode volume of QNMs that have a spatial divergence at infinity. The model clarifies the physical origin of QNMs and drastically reduces the computational load of QNMs, especially for a large ensemble of grooves for which brute-force numerical tools are not available. The validity of the proposed model is tested against fully vectorial numerical results.

  6. Quasinormal Modes of Charged Dilaton Black Holes and Their Entropy Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we employ the scalar perturbations of the charged dilaton black hole (CDBH) found by Chan, Horne and Mann (CHM), and described with an action which emerges in the low-energy limit of the string theory. A CDBH is neither asymptotically flat (AF) nor non-asymptotically flat (NAF) spacetime. Depending on the value of its dilaton parameter a, it has both Schwarzschild and linear dilaton black hole (LDBH) limits. We compute the complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the CDBH by considering small perturbations around its horizon. By using the highly damped QNM in the process prescribed by Maggiore, we obtain the quantum entropy and area spectra of these black holes (BHs). Although the QNM frequencies are tuned by a, we show that the quantum spectra do not depend on a, and they are equally spaced. On the other hand, the obtained value of undetermined dimensionless constant ɛ is the double of Bekenstein's result. The possible reason of this discrepancy is also discussed.

  7. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  8. Semianalytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures.

    PubMed

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-12-15

    We present and validate a semianalytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities, a nontrivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.

  9. Quasinormal modes and thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in (anti) de Sitter space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasia, P.; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study the Quasi-Normal Modes (QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter ((A)dS) space-time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter of the graviton and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space-time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter of the graviton and also on the charge of the black hole.

  10. Gravitational wave quasinormal mode from Population III massive black hole binaries in various models of population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Focusing on the remnant black holes after merging binary black holes, we show that ringdown gravitational waves of Population III binary black hole mergers can be detected at the rate of 5.9-500 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33) for various parameters and functions. This rate is estimated for events with SNR>8 for second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as KAGRA. Here, SFR and f are the peak value of the Population III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. When we consider only events with SNR>35, the event rate becomes 0.046-4.21 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33). This suggest that for a remnant black hole spin of q>0.95 we have an event rate of quasinormal modes with SNR>35 of less than 0.037 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33), while it is 3-30 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33) for third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope. If we detect many Population III binary black hole mergers, it may be possible to constrain the Population III binary evolution paths not only by the mass distribution but also by the spin distribution.

  11. Waveforms produced by a scalar point particle plunging into a Schwarzschild black hole: Excitation of quasinormal modes and quasibound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Décanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine; Ould El Hadj, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    With the possibility of testing massive gravity in the context of black hole physics in mind, we consider the radiation produced by a particle plunging from slightly below the innermost stable circular orbit into a Schwarzschild black hole. In order to circumvent the difficulties associated with black hole perturbation theory in massive gravity, we use a toy model in which we replace the graviton field with a massive scalar field and consider a linear coupling between the particle and this field. We compute the waveform generated by the plunging particle and study its spectral content. This permits us to highlight and interpret some important effects occurring in the plunge regime which are not present for massless fields, such as (i) the decreasing and vanishing, as the mass parameter increases, of the signal amplitude generated when the particle moves on quasicircular orbits near the innermost stable circular orbit; and (ii) in addition to the excitation of the quasinormal modes, the excitation of the quasibound states of the black hole.

  12. Quasinormal ringing on the brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun; Randall, Lisa; Rodriguez, Maria J.; Varela, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    While the linear behavior of gravity in braneworld models is well understood, much less is known about full nonlinear gravitational effects. Even when they agree at the linear level, these could be expected to distinguish braneworlds from a lower-dimensional theory with no brane. Black holes are a good testing ground for such studies, as they are nonlinear solutions that would be expected to reflect the background geometry. In particular, we assess the role of black hole quasinormal modes (QNMs) in gravitational experiments devised to be sensitive to the existence of the brane, in a lower-dimensional setting where we have analytical control. We compute QNMs of brane-localized black holes and find that they follow the entropy of the corresponding black hole. This observation allows us to conclude that, surprisingly, the scattering problem we consider, at least in some regimes, does not distinguish between nonlinear gravitational effects of black holes in AdS space with a brane and black holes in a spacetime of one lower dimension.

  13. Quasi-normal frequencies: key analytic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2011-03-01

    The study of exact quasi-normal modes [QNMs], and their associated quasi-normal frequencies [QNFs], has had a long and convoluted history — replete with many rediscoveries of previously known results. In this article we shall collect and survey a number of known analytic results, and develop several new analytic results — specifically we shall provide several new QNF results and estimates, in a form amenable for comparison with the extant literature. Apart from their intrinsic interest, these exact and approximate results serve as a backdrop and a consistency check on ongoing efforts to find general model-independent estimates for QNFs, and general model-independent bounds on transmission probabilities. Our calculations also provide yet another physics application of the Lambert W function. These ideas have relevance to fields as diverse as black hole physics, (where they are related to the damped oscillations of astrophysical black holes, to greybody factors for the Hawking radiation, and to more speculative state-counting models for the Bekenstein entropy), to quantum field theory (where they are related to Casimir energies in unbounded systems), through to condensed matter physics, (where one may literally be interested in an electron tunnelling through a physical barrier).

  14. Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles: Numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2007-10-15

    Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles is discussed. The equation for sounds in a transonic flow is written into a Schroedinger-type equation with a potential barrier, and the quasinormal frequencies are calculated semianalytically. From the results of numerical simulations, it is shown that the quasinormal modes are actually excited when the transonic flow is formed or slightly perturbed, as well as in the real black hole case. In an actual experiment, however, the purely-outgoing boundary condition will not be satisfied at late times due to the wave reflection at the end of the apparatus, and a late-time ringing will be expressed as a superposition of boxed quasinormal modes. It is shown that the late-time ringing damps more slowly than the ordinary quasinormal ringing, while its central frequency is not greatly different from that of the ordinary one. Using this fact, an efficient way for experimentally detecting the quasinormal ringing of an acoustic black hole is discussed.

  15. Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sakagami, Masa-Aki

    2007-10-01

    Quasinormal ringing of acoustic black holes in Laval nozzles is discussed. The equation for sounds in a transonic flow is written into a Schrödinger-type equation with a potential barrier, and the quasinormal frequencies are calculated semianalytically. From the results of numerical simulations, it is shown that the quasinormal modes are actually excited when the transonic flow is formed or slightly perturbed, as well as in the real black hole case. In an actual experiment, however, the purely-outgoing boundary condition will not be satisfied at late times due to the wave reflection at the end of the apparatus, and a late-time ringing will be expressed as a superposition of boxed quasinormal modes. It is shown that the late-time ringing damps more slowly than the ordinary quasinormal ringing, while its central frequency is not greatly different from that of the ordinary one. Using this fact, an efficient way for experimentally detecting the quasinormal ringing of an acoustic black hole is discussed.

  16. Mode identification from spectroscopy of gravity-mode pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Brunsden, E.; Cottrell, P. L.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2014-02-01

    The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. For the MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury, we obtain extensive high-resolution echelle spectra of γ Dor stars from the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We analyze these to obtain the pulsational frequencies and identify these with the multiple pulsational modes excited in the star. A summary of recent results from our spectroscopic mode-identification programme is given.

  17. Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.

    2008-11-14

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.

  18. Echelle Spectroscopy of Double-Mode Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziládi, K.; Vinkó, J.; Poretti, E.; Szabados, L.; Kun, M.

    2006-04-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (R ˜ 48000) spectra of thirteen southern double-mode Cepheids using the FEROS spectrograph at the 2.20-m telescope on La Silla with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 200 to 350. The aim of the project is to specify physical parameters (chemical abundance, gravity and temperature) and evolutionary status of beat Cepheids. We present the method of the detailed spectroscopic investigation and its application to EY Car. We intend to refine the existing period ratio -- metallicity relations. This new calibration may allow us to determine whether metallicities smaller than the solar value are the actual reasons for the observed period ratios of the galactic Cepheids.

  19. Quasinormal ringing of Kerr black holes. II. Excitation by particles falling radially with arbitrary energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor

    2013-08-01

    The analytical understanding of quasinormal mode ringing requires an accurate knowledge of the Green’s function describing the response of the black hole to external perturbations. We carry out a comprehensive study of quasinormal mode excitation for Kerr black holes. Relying on the formalism developed by Mano, Suzuki, and Takasugi, we improve and extend previous calculations of the quasinormal mode residues in the complex frequency plane (“excitation factors Bq”). Using these results we compute the “excitation coefficients” Cq (essentially the mode amplitudes) in the special case where the source of the perturbations is a particle falling into the black hole along the symmetry axis. We compare this calculation with numerical integrations of the perturbation equations, and we show quantitatively how the addition of higher overtones improves the agreement with the numerical waveforms. Our results should find applications in models of the ringdown stage and in the construction of semianalytical template banks for gravitational-wave detectors, especially for binaries with large mass ratios and/or fast-spinning black holes.

  20. Massive vector field perturbations in the Schwarzschild background: Stability and quasinormal spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R. A.

    2006-01-15

    We consider the perturbations of the massive vector field around Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter, and Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes. Equations for a spherically symmetric massive vector perturbation can be reduced to a single wavelike equation. We have proved the stability against these perturbations and investigated the quasinormal spectrum. The quasinormal behavior for Schwarzschild black hole is quite unexpected: the fundamental mode and higher overtones show totally different dependence on the mass of the field m: as m is increasing, the damping rate of the fundamental mode is decreasing, what results in appearing of the infinitely long living modes, while, on the contrary, damping rate of all higher overtones are increasing, and their real oscillation frequencies gradually go to tiny values. Thereby, for all higher overtones, almost nonoscillatory, damping modes can exist. In the limit of asymptotically high damping, Re{omega} goes to ln3/(8{pi}M), while imaginary part shows equidistant behavior with spacing Im{omega}{sub n+1}-Im{omega}{sub n}=1/4M. In addition, we have found quasinormal spectrum of massive vector field for Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole.

  1. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-09-07

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  2. Multi-mode heterodyned 5th-order infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Joel D.; Varner, Clyde; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2016-10-01

    Fifth-order multidimensional infrared spectroscopy with heterodyned detection was carried out in the three-beam dual-frequency configuration. Numerous 5th-order cross peaks were detected for the 4-azidobutyrate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester compound in solution involving several vibrational modes ranging in frequency from 1045 to 2100 cm-1. Cross peaks involving overtones (2X/Z) and combination bands (XY/Z) among the tags, modes X and Y excited by the first two mid-IR laser pulses, and the reporter, modes Z excited by the third laser pulse, were acquired and the factors affecting the amplitude of 5th-order cross peaks are discussed. The 5th-order cross peaks were detected among modes that are spatially close (a few bonds apart) as well as for modes spatially separated by ca. 12 Å (eight bonds apart). In both cases, the waiting time dependences for the 3rd and 5th order cross peaks were found to be different. In particular, the waiting time at which the cross-peak maximum is reached, the decay time, and the value of a plateau at large waiting times were all differing strongly. The differences are explained by reduced sensitivity of the 5th-order signals to modes coupled weakly to the reporter mode and different relaxation dynamics involving overtone state of the tag. The ability of the 5th-order peaks to single out the modes coupled strongly to the reporter can help identifying specific energy relaxation and transport pathways, which will be useful for understanding energy transport dynamics in molecules. The absorptive 5th-order cross peaks were constructed which report on three-point correlation functions. It is shown that in addition to the triple-frequency correlation functions, a correlation of the frequencies with the mode coupling (anharmonicity) can be naturally measured by the 5th-order spectroscopy. The current limit for detecting 5th-order signals was estimated at the level of 1 × 10-3 in reduced anharmonicity, which is determined by the corresponding two

  3. Macromolecule Biosynthesis Assay and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Methods to Explore Antimicrobial Peptide Mode(s) of Action.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bimal; Baker, Kristin Renee; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are viable alternatives to the currently available antimicrobials, and numerous studies have investigated their possible use as therapeutic agents for specific clinical applications. AMPs are a diverse class of antimicrobials that often act upon the bacterial cell membrane but may exhibit additional modes of action. Identification of the multiple modes of action requires a comprehensive study at subinhibitory concentrations and careful data analysis since additional modes of action can be eclipsed by AMP action on the cell membrane.Techniques that measure the biosynthesis rate of macromolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall) and the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force (PMF) energy can help to unravel the diverse modes of action of AMPs. Here, we present an overview of macromolecule biosynthesis rate measurement and fluorescence spectroscopy methods to identify AMP mode(s) of action. Detailed protocols designed to measure inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall synthesis or membrane de-energization are presented and discussed for optimal application of these two techniques as well as to enable accurate interpretation of the experimental findings.

  4. Quasinormal frequencies of self-dual black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Victor; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-04-01

    One simplified black hole model constructed from a semiclassical analysis of loop quantum gravity (LQG) is called the self-dual black hole. This black hole solution depends on a free dimensionless parameter P known as the polymeric parameter and also on the a0 area related to the minimum area gap of LQG. In the limit of P and a0 going to zero, the usual Schwarzschild solution is recovered. Here we investigate the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of massless scalar perturbations in the self-dual black hole background. We compute the QN frequencies using the sixth-order WKB approximation method and compare them with numerical solutions of the Regge-Wheeler equation. Our results show that, as the parameter P grows, the real part of the QN frequencies suffers an initial increase and then starts to decrease while the magnitude of the imaginary one decreases for fixed area gap a0. This particular feature means that the damping of scalar perturbations in the self-dual black hole spacetimes is slower, and the oscillations are faster or slower according to the value of P .

  5. Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.

    2013-12-01

    We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.

  6. Local observation and spectroscopy of optical modes in an active photonic-crystal microcavity.

    PubMed

    Louvion, N; Gérard, D; Mouette, J; de Fornel, F; Seassal, C; Letartre, X; Rahmani, A; Callard, S

    2005-03-25

    We report the direct, room-temperature, near-field mapping and spectroscopy of the optical modes of a photonic-crystal microcavity containing quantum wells. We use a near-field optical probe to reveal the imprint of the cavity mode structure on the quantum-well emission. Furthermore, near-field spectroscopy allows us to demonstrate the strong spatial and spectral dependence of the coupling between the sources and the microcavity. This knowledge will be essential in devising future nanophotonic devices.

  7. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy exploiting tuning fork overtone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaolo, A.; Patimisco, P.; Dong, L.; Geras, A.; Scamarcio, G.; Starecki, T.; Tittel, F. K.; Spagnolo, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor (QEPAS) based on a custom-made quartz tuning fork (QTF) to operate in both the fundamental and the first overtone vibrational mode resonances. The QTF fundamental mode resonance falls at ˜3 kHz and the first overtone at ˜18 kHz. Electrical tests showed that the first overtone provides a higher quality factor and increased piezoelectric current peak values, with respect to the fundamental flexural mode. To evaluate the QTF acousto-electric energy conversion efficiency, we operated the QEPAS in the near-IR and selected water vapor as the target gas. The first overtone resonance provides a QEPAS signal-to-noise ratio ˜5 times greater with respect to that measured for the fundamental mode. These results open the way to employing QTF overtone vibrational modes for QEPAS based trace gas sensing.

  8. Vibrationally-resolved polyatomic photoelectron spectroscopy: Mode-specific behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbone, G. J.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Bozek, J. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2002-05-01

    We report the first vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra for polyatomic molecules performed over a broad spectral range. Such studies elucidate vibrationally mode-specific aspects of the photoelectron scattering dynamics. Three linear triatomic systems (CO_2, N_2O, and CS_2) are studied, and the results exhibit striking differences for alternative modes. For CO_2^+(C^2Σ_g^+), a continuum resonance results in a 15 eV wide dip for the symmetric stretch branching ratio, while strong peaks are observed for vibrational branching ratios associated with the two symmetry forbidden modes. For CS_2^+(B^2Σ_u^+), mode-specific behavior is displayed, as resonance enhancement of a single quantum excitation is weak for the symmetric stretch, but strong for the bending vibration. For N_2O^+(A^2Σ^+), many vibrational excitations are observed and families of vibrational branching ratio spectra emerge.

  9. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher order modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Thomas K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  10. Thermal Mode Spectroscopy for Thermal Diffusivity of Millimeter-Size Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hideshi; Nagakubo, Akira; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Hirao, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    Heat conduction possesses (thermal) modes in analogy with acoustics even without oscillation. Here, we establish thermal mode spectroscopy to measure the thermal diffusivity of small specimens. Local heating with a light pulse excites such modes that show antinodes at the heating point, and photothermal detection at another antinode spot allows measuring relaxation behavior of the desired mode selectively: The relaxation time yields thermal diffusivity. The Ritz method is proposed for arbitrary geometry specimens. This method is applicable even to a diamond crystal with ˜1 mm dimensions.

  11. Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morville, J.; Kassi, S.; Chenevier, M.; Romanini, D.

    2005-06-01

    A new technique of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy is described. Molecular absorption spectra are obtained by recording the transmission maxima of the successive TEMoo resonances of a high-finesse optical cavity when a Distributed Feedback Diode Laser is tuned across them. A noisy cavity output is usually observed in such a measurement since the resonances are spectrally narrower than the laser. We show that a folded (V-shaped) cavity can be used to obtain selective optical feedback from the intracavity field which builds up at resonance. This induces laser linewidth reduction and frequency locking. The linewidth narrowing eliminates the noisy cavity output, and allows measuring the maximum mode transmissions accurately. The frequency locking permits the laser to scan stepwise through the successive cavity modes. Frequency tuning is thus tightly optimized for cavity mode injection. Our setup for this technique of Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) includes a 50 cm folded cavity with finesse ˜20 000 (ringdown time ˜20 μs) and allows recording spectra of up to 200 cavity modes (2 cm-1) using 100 ms laser scans. We obtain a noise equivalent absorption coefficient of ˜5×10-10 cm-1 for 1 s averaging over scans, with a dynamic range of four orders of magnitude.

  12. Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, T. Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L.; Ranke, M.; Ferrer, A.

    2015-08-31

    We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.

  13. Torsional vibrational modes of tryptophan studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Zeng, F; Yang, Y; Xing, Q; Chechin, A; Xin, X; Zeylikovich, I; Alfano, R R

    2004-03-01

    The low-frequency torsional modes, index of refraction, and absorption of a tryptophan film and pressed powders from 0.2 to 2.0 THz (6.6-66 cm(-1)) were measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy at room temperature. It was found that there were two dominated torsional vibrational modes at around 1.435 and 1.842 THz. The associated relaxation lifetimes ( approximately 1 ps) for these modes of the tryptophan molecule were measured. Using a density-functional calculation, the origins of the observed torsional vibrations were assigned to the chain and ring of the tryptophan molecule.

  14. Activated vibrational modes and Fermi resonance in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengtao; Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Xu, Hongxing

    2013-02-01

    Using p-aminothiophenol (PATP) molecules on a gold substrate and high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS), we show that the vibrational spectra of these molecules are distinctly different from those in typical surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Detailed first-principles calculations help to assign the Raman peaks in the TERS measurements as Raman-active and IR-active vibrational modes of dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), providing strong spectroscopic evidence for the dimerization of PATP molecules to DMAB under the TERS setup. The activation of the IR-active modes is due to enhanced electromagnetic field gradient effects within the gap region of the highly asymmetric tip-surface geometry. Fermi resonances are also observed in HV-TERS. These findings help to broaden the versatility of TERS as a promising technique for ultrasensitive molecular spectroscopy.

  15. Mapping bright and dark modes in gold nanoparticle chains using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Steven J; Rossouw, David; Funston, Alison M; Botton, Gianluigi A; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-07-09

    We present a scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) investigation of gold nanosphere chains with lengths varying from 1 to 5 particles. We show localized EELS signals from the chains and identify energy-loss peaks arising due to l = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 plasmon modes through the use of EELS mapping. We also show the evolution of the energy of these modes as the length of a given chain increases, and we find that a chain containing N particles can accommodate at least N experimentally observable modes, in addition to the transverse mode. As the chain length is increased by the addition of one more gold particle to the chain, the new N + 1 mode becomes the highest energy mode, while the existing modes lower their energy and eventually asymptote as they delocalize along the chain. We also show that modes become increasingly difficult to detect with the EELS technique as l approaches N. The data are compared to numerical simulations.

  16. Polarised spectroscopy of individual single-wall nanotubes: Radial-breathing mode study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, J.; Débarre, A.; Richard, A.; Tchénio, P.; Bandow, S.; Iijima, S.

    2001-02-01

    Polarised Raman spectroscopy is performed in a randomly distributed single-wall carbon tube (SWNT) sample at the scale of an individual single-wall nanotube. A detailed analysis in the radial-breathing mode (RBM) domain is presented. Selection of either a single tiny rope of SWNTs or of a single SWNT results from the conjugated high spatial selection of confocal microscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and sample dilution. The drastic modifications observed in the low-frequency Raman spectra as a function of the polarisation configuration confirm the theoretical results.

  17. Low-Frequency Mode Activity of Heme: Femtosecond Coherence Spectroscopy of Iron Porphine Halides and Nitrophorin

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Minoru; Gruia, Flaviu; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Montfort, William R.; Maes, Estelle M.; Champion, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The low-frequency mode activity of metalloporphyrins has been studied for iron porphine-halides (Fe(P)(X), X = Cl, Br) and nitrophorin 4 (NP4) using femtosecond coherence spectroscopy (FCS) in combination with polarized resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). It is confirmed that the mode symmetry selection rules for FCS are the same as for Raman scattering and that both Franck-Condon and Jahn-Teller mode activities are observed for Fe(P)(X) under Soret resonance conditions. The DFT-calculated low-frequency (20-400 cm-1) modes, and their frequency shifts upon halide substitution, are in good agreement with experimental Raman and coherence data, so that mode assignments can be made. The doming mode is located at ~80 cm-1 for Fe(P)(Cl) and at ~60 cm-1 for Fe(P)(Br). NP4 is also studied with coherence techniques, and the NO-bound species of ferric and ferrous NP4 display a mode at ~30-40 cm-1 that is associated with transient heme doming motion following NO photolysis. The coherence spectra of three ferric derivatives of NP4 with different degrees of heme ruffling distortion are also investigated. We find a mode at ~60 cm-1 whose relative intensity in the coherence spectra depends quadratically on the magnitude of the ruffling distortion. To quantitatively account for this correlation, a new “distortion-induced” Raman enhancement mechanism is presented. This mechanism is unique to low-frequency “soft modes” of the molecular framework that can be distorted by environmental forces. These results demonstrate the potential of FCS as a sensitive probe of dynamic and functionally important nonplanar heme vibrational excitations that are induced by the protein environmental forces or by the chemical reactions in the aqueous phase. PMID:18597456

  18. Normal mode analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and resonance raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuming; Wang, Hongxin; George, Simon J; Smith, Matt C; Adams, Michael W W; Jenney, Francis E; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, Ercan E; Zhao, Jiyong; Yoda, Y; Dey, Abishek; Solomon, Edward I; Cramer, Stephen P

    2005-10-26

    We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the Fe(S(cys))(4) site in reduced and oxidized rubredoxin (Rd) from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf). The oxidized form has also been investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy. In the oxidized Rd NRVS, strong asymmetric Fe-S stretching modes are observed between 355 and 375 cm(-1); upon reduction these modes shift to 300-320 cm(-1). This is the first observation of Fe-S stretching modes in a reduced Rd. The peak in S-Fe-S bend mode intensity is at approximately 150 cm(-1) for the oxidized protein and only slightly lower in the reduced case. A third band occurs near 70 cm(-1) for both samples; this is assigned primarily as a collective motion of entire cysteine residues with respect to the central Fe. The (57)Fe partial vibrational density of states (PVDOS) were interpreted by normal mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields. The three main bands were qualitatively reproduced using a D(2)(d) Fe(SC)(4) model. A C(1) Fe(SCC)(4) model based on crystallographic coordinates was then used to simulate the splitting of the asymmetric stretching band into at least 3 components. Finally, a model employing complete cysteines and 2 additional neighboring atoms was used to reproduce the detailed structure of the PVDOS in the Fe-S stretch region. These results confirm the delocalization of the dynamic properties of the redox-active Fe site. Depending on the molecular model employed, the force constant K(Fe-S) for Fe-S stretching modes ranged from 1.24 to 1.32 mdyn/A. K(Fe-S) is clearly diminished in reduced Rd; values from approximately 0.89 to 1.00 mdyn/A were derived from different models. In contrast, in the final models the force constants for S-Fe-S bending motion, H(S-Fe-S), were 0.18 mdyn/A for oxidized Rd and 0.15 mdyn/A for reduced Rd. The NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.

  19. Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of Higgs mode in s-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Shimano, Ryo

    2017-02-01

    We review our recent experiments of ultrafast dynamics in s-wave superconductors Nb1-x Ti x N by using nonlinear terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. The free oscillation of the Higgs mode, i.e. the amplitude mode of the superconducting order parameter, is observed after instantaneous injection of quasiparticles at the superconducting gap edge by an intense monocycle THz pulse. The ultrafast nonequilibrium dynamics of the order parameter under the strong AC driving field with the photon energy tuned below the superconducting gap is also investigated. A resonant nonlinear interaction between the Higgs mode and the electromagnetic field is revealed, as manifested by an efficient THz third-harmonic generation from the superconductor.

  20. Probing the Pairing Interaction and Multiple Bardasis-Schrieffer Modes Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, S.; Maier, T. A.; Böhm, T.; Hackl, R.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    In unconventional superconductors, understanding the form of the pairing interaction is the primary goal. In this regard, Raman spectroscopy is a very useful tool, as it identifies the ground state and also the subleading pairing channels by probing collective modes. Here, we propose a general theory for a multiband Raman response and identify new features in the spectrum that can provide a robust test for a pairing theory. We identify multiple Bardasis-Schrieffer type collective modes and connect the weights of these modes to the subleading gap structures within a microscopic pairing theory. While our conclusions are completely general, we apply our approach to interpret the specific case of B1 g Raman scattering in hole-doped BaFe2 As2 .

  1. Visualization of Vibrational Modes in Real Space by Tip-Enhanced Non-Resonant Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Sai; Tian, Guangjun; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-18

    We present a general theory to model the spatially resolved non-resonant Raman images of molecules. It is predicted that the vibrational motions of different Raman modes can be fully visualized in real space by tip-enhanced non-resonant Raman scattering. As an example, the non-resonant Raman images of water clusters were simulated by combining the new theory and first-principles calculations. Each individual normal mode gives rise its own distinct Raman image, which resembles the expected vibrational motions of the atoms very well. The characteristics of intermolecular vibrations in supermolecules could also be identified. The effects of the spatial distribution of the plasmon as well as nonlinear scattering processes were also addressed. Our study not only suggests a feasible approach to spatially visualize vibrational modes, but also provides new insights in the field of nonlinear plasmonic spectroscopy.

  2. Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Plochocka, P; Fischer, B; Helm, H; Uhd Jepsen, P

    2002-01-01

    We present well-resolved absorption spectra of biological molecules in the far-IR (FIR) spectral region recorded by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). As an illustrative example we discuss the absorption spectra of benzoic acid, its monosubstitutes salicylic acid (2-hydroxy-benzoic acid), 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in the spectral region between 18 and 150 cm(-1). The spectra exhibit distinct features originating from low-frequency vibrational modes caused by intra- or intermolecular collective motion and lattice modes. Due to the collective origin of the observed modes the absorption spectra are highly sensitive to the overall structure and configuration of the molecules, as well as their environment. The THz-TDS procedure can provide a direct fingerprint of the molecular structure or conformational state of a compound.

  3. A study of the eigenvectors of the low-frequency vibrational modes in crystalline adenosine via high pressure Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A; Pinnick, David A; Anderson, A

    2014-12-01

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the vibrational modes of crystalline adenosine at 295 K by evaluating the logarithmic derivative of the vibrational frequency with respect to pressure: [Formula: see text]. Crystalline samples of molecular materials such as adenosine will have vibrational modes that are localized within a molecular unit ("internal" modes) as well as modes in which the molecular units vibrate against each other ("external" modes). The value of the logarithmic derivative is found to be a diagnostic probe of the nature of the eigenvector of the vibrational modes. Stretching modes which are predominantly internal to the molecule have low logarithmic derivatives while external modes have higher logarithmic derivatives. Particular interest is paid to the low-frequency (≤150 cm(-1)) modes. Based on the pressure dependence of its logarithmic derivative, a mode near 49 cm(-1) is identified as internal mode. The other modes below 400 cm(-1) have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being either (1) modes which are mainly external, meaning that the molecules of the unit cell vibrate against each other in translational or librational motions (or linear combinations thereof), or (2) torsional or bending modes involving a large number of atoms, mainly within a molecule. The modes above 400 cm(-1) all have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being mainly internal modes.

  4. Effects of nonlinear forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Das, Soma; Sreeram, P A; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the effects of nonlinear tip-sample forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. The jumps and hysteresis observed in the vibration amplitude (A) versus tip-sample distance (h) curves have been traced to bistability in the resonance curve. A numerical analysis of the basic dynamic equation was used to explain the hysteresis in the experimental curve. It has been found that the location of the hysteresis in the A-h curve depends on the frequency of the forced oscillation relative to the natural frequency of the cantilever.

  5. A sample holder for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids in transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Gavrila, Gianina; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    A novel sample holder for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquids in transmission mode based on sample cells with x-ray transparent silicon nitride membranes is introduced. The sample holder allows for a reliable preparation of ultrathin liquid films with an adjustable thickness in the nm-μm range. This enables measurements of high quality x-ray absorption spectra of liquids in transmission mode, as will be shown for the example of liquid H(2)O, aqueous solutions of 3d-transition metal ions and alcohol-water mixtures. The fine structure of the x-ray absorption spectra is not affected by the sample thickness. No effects of the silicon nitride membranes were observed in the spectra. It is shown how an inhomogeneous thickness of the sample affects the spectra and how this can be avoided.

  6. Resolving fine spectral features in lattice vibrational modes using femtosecond coherent spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, A.; Mokim, M.; Ganikhanov, F.

    2016-02-01

    We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm-1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm-1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm-1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm-1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.

  7. Characterizing Anharmonic Vibrational Modes of Quinones with Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Jenée D; Nite, Jacob M; Krummel, Amber T

    2015-07-23

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational modes of three quinones--benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone. The vibrations of interest were in the spectral range of 1560-1710 cm(-1), corresponding to the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. Coupling between the vibrational modes is indicated by the cross peaks in the 2D IR spectra. The diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicities range from 4.6 to 17.4 cm(-1) for the quinone series. In addition, there is significant vibrational coupling between the in-plane carbonyl and ring stretching vibrations. The diagonal anharmonicity, off-diagonal anharmonicity, and vibrational coupling constants are reported for benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, and anthraquinone.

  8. Anharmonic vibrational modes of nucleic acid bases revealed by 2D IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chunte Sam; Jones, Kevin C; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2011-10-05

    Polarization-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of the purine and pyrimadine base vibrations of five nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) were acquired in D(2)O at neutral pH in the frequency range 1500-1700 cm(-1). The distinctive cross-peaks between the ring deformations and carbonyl stretches of NMPs indicate that these vibrational modes are highly coupled, in contrast with the traditional peak assignment, which is based on a simple local mode picture such as C═O, C═N, and C═C double bond stretches. A model of multiple anharmonically coupled oscillators was employed to characterize the transition energies, vibrational anharmonicities and couplings, and transition dipole strengths and orientations. No simple or intuitive structural correlations are found to readily assign the spectral features, except in the case of guanine and cytosine, which contain a single local CO stretching mode. To help interpret the nature of these vibrational modes, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and found that multiple ring vibrations are coupled and delocalized over the purine and pyrimidine rings. Generally, there is close correspondence between the experimental and computational results, provided that the DFT calculations include explicit waters solvating hydrogen-bonding sites. These results provide direct experimental evidence of the delocalized nature of the nucleotide base vibrations via a nonperturbative fashion and will serve as building blocks for constructing a structure-based model of DNA and RNA vibrational spectroscopy.

  9. A study of the eigenvectors of the vibrational modes in crystalline cytidine via high-pressure Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott A; Pinnick, David A; Anderson, A

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the vibrational modes of crystalline cytidine at 295 K and high pressures by evaluating the logarithmic derivative of the vibrational frequency ω with respect to pressure P: [Formula: see text]. Crystalline samples of molecular materials have strong intramolecular bonds and weak intermolecular bonds. This hierarchy of bonding strengths causes the vibrational optical modes localized within a molecular unit ("internal" modes) to be relatively high in frequency while the modes in which the molecular units vibrate against each other ("external" modes) have relatively low frequencies. The value of the logarithmic derivative is a useful diagnostic probe of the nature of the eigenvector of the vibrational modes because stretching modes (which are predominantly internal to the molecule) have low logarithmic derivatives while external modes have higher logarithmic derivatives. In crystalline cytidine, the modes at 85.8, 101.4, and 110.6 cm(-1) are external in which the molecules of the unit cell vibrate against each other in either translational or librational motions (or some linear combination thereof). All of the modes above 320 cm(-1) are predominantly internal stretching modes. The remaining modes below 320 cm(-1) include external modes and internal modes, mostly involving either torsional or bending motions of groups of atoms within a molecule.

  10. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: general dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.

  11. First laboratory results of SPHERE/IRDIS dual-band imaging and long slit spectroscopy modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, Arthur; Langlois, Maud; Martinez, Patrice; Le Mignant, David; Dohlen, Kjetil; Moutou, Claire; Gry, Cécile; Madec, Fabrice

    2012-09-01

    IRDIS is one of the science sub-systems of VLT/SPHERE dedicated to the detection and characterization of giant exoplanets at large orbital radii with high-contrast direct imaging. It offers a unique set of observational modes including dual-band imaging (DBI) with very low differential aberrations, and long slit spectroscopy (LSS) coupled with a classical Lyot coronograph that will be used to obtain spectra at low (R = ~50) and medium (R = ~500) resolution. During the past year, IRDIS has been integrated and tested in laboratory in a standalone configuration, and it has recently been integrated on the full SPHERE bench including the calibration unit, the common path optics and the extreme AO system. We present the first analysis of data obtained during laboratory tests of IRDIS in the DBI mode, both in standalone and with the full SPHERE bench, but without simulated seeing and AO correction. We show the first performance estimates of spectral differential imaging with IRDIS in H-band, which is used to attenuate the speckle noise induced by the instrumental aberrations. Similarly, for the LSS mode we present the first application of the spectral deconvolution data analysis method to attenuate the speckle noise on IRDIS data. Finally we compare these results to simulations that were performed during the development phase of the instrument.

  12. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.

  13. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; ...

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify themore » findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.« less

  14. Mode Coupling in Plasmonic Heterodimers Probed with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Flauraud, Valentin; Bernasconi, Gabriel D; Butet, Jérémy; Alexander, Duncan T L; Martin, Olivier J F; Brugger, Juergen

    2017-03-14

    While plasmonic antennas composed of building blocks made of the same material have been thoroughly studied, recent investigations have highlighted the unique opportunities enabled by making compositionally asymmetric plasmonic systems. So far, mainly heterostructures composed of nanospheres and nanodiscs have been investigated, revealing opportunities for the design of Fano resonant nanostructures, directional scattering, sensing and catalytic applications. In this article, an improved fabrication method is reported that enables precise tuning of the heterodimer geometry, with interparticle distances made down to a few nanometers between Au-Ag and Au-Al nanoparticles. A wide range of mode energy detuning and coupling conditions are observed by near field hyperspectral imaging performed with electron energy loss spectroscopy, supported by full wave analysis numerical simulations. These results provide direct insights into the mode hybridization of plasmonic heterodimers, pointing out the influence of each dimer constituent in the overall electromagnetic response. By relating the coupling of non-dipolar modes and plasmon-interband interaction with the dimer geometry, this work facilitates the development of plasmonic heterostructures with tailored responses, beyond the possibilities offered by homodimers.

  15. DNA interaction with DAPI fluorescent dye: Force spectroscopy decouples two different binding modes.

    PubMed

    Reis, L A; Rocha, M S

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we use force spectroscopy to investigate the interaction between the DAPI fluorescent dye and the λ-DNA molecule under high (174 mM) and low (34 mM) ionic strengths. Firstly, we have measured the changes on the mechanical properties (persistence and contour lengths) of the DNA-DAPI complexes as a function of the dye concentration in the sample. Then, we use recently developed models in order to connect the behavior of both mechanical properties to the physical chemistry of the interaction. Such analysis has allowed us to identify and to decouple two main binding modes, determining the relevant physicochemical (binding) parameters for each of these modes: minor groove binding, which saturates at very low DAPI concentrations ( CT ∼ 0.50 μM) and presents equilibrium binding constants of the order of ∼10(7) M(-1) for the two ionic strengths studied; and intercalation, which starts to play a significant role only after the saturation of the first mode, presenting much smaller equilibrium binding constants (∼10(5) M(-1) ).

  16. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE) for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR) channels and four voltage-readout (VR) channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm2, is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between −6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μA. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm2. The chip consumes between 530 μA and 690 μA per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis. PMID:27463721

  17. Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B M; Walther, M; Uhd Jepsen, P

    2002-11-07

    The far-infrared dielectric function of a wide range of organic molecules is dominated by vibrations involving a substantial fraction of the atoms forming the molecule and motion associated with intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrations. Due to their collective nature such modes are highly sensitive to the intra- and intermolecular structure and thus provide a unique fingerprint of the conformational state of the molecule and effects of its environment. We demonstrate the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for recording the far-infrared (0.5-4.0 THz) dielectric function of the four nucleobases and corresponding nucleosides forming the building blocks of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). We observe numerous distinct spectral features with large differences between the molecules in both frequency-dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction. Assisted by results from density-functional calculations we interpret the origin of the observed resonances as vibrations of hydrogen bonds between the molecules.

  18. Mode-dependent dispersion in Raman line shapes: Observation and implications from ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Umapathy, S.; Mallick, B.; Lakshmanna, A.

    2010-07-14

    Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) enables one to obtain the vibrational structural information of molecular systems including fluorescent materials. URLS, a nonlinear process analog to stimulated Raman gain, involves a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond broadband white light continuum. Under nonresonant condition, the Raman response appears as a negative (loss) signal, whereas, on resonance with the electronic transition the line shape changes from a negative to a positive through a dispersive form. The intensities observed and thus, the Franck-Condon activity (coordinate dependent), are sensitive to the wavelength of the white light corresponding to a particular Raman frequency with respect to the Raman pump pulse wavelength, i.e., there is a mode-dependent response in URLS.

  19. Mapping inhibitor binding modes on an active cysteine protease via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gregory M; Balouch, Eaman; Goetz, David H; Lazic, Ana; McKerrow, James H; Craik, Charles S

    2012-12-18

    Cruzain is a member of the papain/cathepsin L family of cysteine proteases, and the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We report an autoinduction methodology that provides soluble cruzain in high yields (>30 mg/L in minimal medium). These increased yields provide sufficient quantities of active enzyme for use in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based ligand mapping. Using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, we also examined the solution-state structural dynamics of the enzyme in complex with a covalently bound vinyl sulfone inhibitor (K777). We report the backbone amide and side chain carbon chemical shift assignments of cruzain in complex with K777. These resonance assignments were used to identify and map residues located in the substrate binding pocket, including the catalytic Cys25 and His162. Selective [(15)N]Cys, [(15)N]His, and [(13)C]Met labeling was performed to quickly assess cruzain-ligand interactions for a set of eight low-molecular weight compounds exhibiting micromolar binding or inhibition. Chemical shift perturbation mapping verified that six of the eight compounds bind to cruzain at the active site. Three different binding modes were delineated for the compounds, namely, covalent, noncovalent, and noninteracting. These results provide examples of how NMR spectroscopy can be used to screen compounds for fast evaluation of enzyme-inhibitor interactions to facilitate lead compound identification and subsequent structural studies.

  20. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  1. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  2. Assignment of the Internal Vibrational Modes of C70 by Inelastic Neutron Scattering Spectroscopy and Periodic-DFT.

    PubMed

    Refson, Keith; Parker, Stewart F

    2015-10-01

    The fullerene C70 may be considered as the shortest possible nanotube capped by a hemisphere of C60 at each end. Vibrational spectroscopy is a key tool in characterising fullerenes, and C70 has been studied several times and spectral assignments proposed. Unfortunately, many of the modes are either forbidden or have very low infrared or Raman intensity, even if allowed. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy is not subject to selection rules, and all the modes are allowed. We have obtained a new INS spectrum from a large sample recorded at the highest resolution available. An advantage of INS spectroscopy is that it is straightforward to calculate the spectral intensity from a model. We demonstrate that all previous assignments are incorrect in at least some respects and propose a new assignment based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) that successfully reproduces the INS, infrared, and Raman spectra.

  3. Spatially resolved localized vibrational mode spectroscopy of carbon in liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown gallium arsenide wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Waifan.

    1988-04-01

    Substitutional carbon on an arsenic lattice site is the shallowest and one of the most dominant acceptors in semi-insulating Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs. However, the role of this acceptor in determining the well known W'' shape spatial variation of neutral EL2 concentration along the diameter of a LEC wafer is not known. In this thesis, we attempt to clarify the issue of the carbon acceptor's effect on this W'' shaped variation by measuring spatial profiles of this acceptor along the radius of three different as-grown LEC GaAs wafers. With localized vibrational mode absorption spectroscopy, we find that the profile of the carbon acceptor is relatively constant along the radius of each wafer. Average values of concentration are 8 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, 1.1 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, and 2.2 {times} 10E15 cm{sup -3}, respectively. In addition, these carbon acceptor LVM measurements indicate that a residual donor with concentration comparable to carbon exists in these wafers and it is a good candidate for the observed neutral EL2 concentration variation. 22 refs., 39 figs.

  4. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 1,2-Difluoroethane in a Molecular Beam: A Case Study of Vibrational Mode-Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-29

    Spectroscopy of 1,2- Difluoroethane in a Molecular Beam: A Case Study of Vibrational Mode-Coupling by Steven W. Mork, C. Cameron Miller, and Laura A...and sale; its distribution is unlimited. 92-14657 l9lll l l l , II a HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF 1,2- DIFLUOROETHANE IN A MOLECULAR BEAM: A CASE...14853-1301 Abstract The high resolution infrared spectrum of 1,2- difluoroethane (DFE) in a molecular beam has been obtained over the 2978-2996 cm-1

  5. Mode specific excited state dynamics study of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene from ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Khokan; Kayal, Surajit; Ariese, Freek; Beeby, Andrew; Umapathy, Siva

    2017-02-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) and Ultrafast Raman Loss Spectroscopy (URLS) have been applied to reveal the excited state dynamics of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB), a model system for one-dimensional molecular wires that have numerous applications in opto-electronics. It is known from the literature that in the ground state BPEB has a low torsional barrier, resulting in a mixed population of rotamers in solution at room temperature. For the excited state this torsional barrier had been calculated to be much higher. Our femtosecond TA measurements show a multi-exponential behaviour, related to the complex structural dynamics in the excited electronic state. Time-resolved, excited state URLS studies in different solvents reveal mode-dependent kinetics and picosecond vibrational relaxation dynamics of high frequency vibrations. After excitation, a gradual increase in intensity is observed for all Raman bands, which reflects the structural reorganization of Franck-Condon excited, non-planar rotamers to a planar conformation. It is argued that this excited state planarization is also responsible for its high fluorescence quantum yield. The time dependent peak positions of high frequency vibrations provide additional information: a rapid, sub-picosecond decrease in peak frequency, followed by a slower increase, indicates the extent of conjugation during different phases of excited state relaxation. The CC triple (-C≡C-) bond responds somewhat faster to structural reorganization than the CC double (>C=C<) bonds. This study deepens our understanding of the excited state of BPEB and analogous linear pi-conjugated systems and may thus contribute to the advancement of polymeric "molecular wires."

  6. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of the trans-HOCO radical in the OH stretching mode.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Buckingham, Grant T; Nesbitt, David J

    2013-12-19

    Rovibrational spectroscopy of the fundamental OH stretching mode of the trans-HOCO radical has been studied via sub-Doppler high-resolution infrared laser absorption in a discharge slit-jet expansion. The trans-HOCO radical is formed by discharge dissociation of H2O to form OH, which then combines with CO and cools in the Ne expansion to a rotational temperature of 13.0(6) K. Rigorous assignment of both a-type and b-type spectral transitions is made possible by two-line combination differences from microwave studies, with full rovibrational analysis of the spectrum based on a Watson asymmetric top Hamiltonian. Additionally, fine structure splittings of each line due to electron spin are completely resolved, thus permitting all three ε(aa), ε(bb), ε(cc) spin-rotation constants to be experimentally determined in the vibrationally excited state. Furthermore, as both a- and b-type transitions for trans-HOCO are observed for the first time, the ratio of transition dipole moment projections along the a and b principal axes is determined to be μ(a)/μ(b) = 1.78(5), which is in close agreement with density functional quantum theoretical predictions (B3LYP/6-311++g(3df,3pd), μ(a)/μ(b) = 1.85). Finally, we note the energetic possibility in the excited OH stretch state for predissociation dynamics (i.e., trans-HOCO → H + CO2), with the present sub-Doppler line widths providing a rigorous upper limit of >2.7 ns for the predissociation lifetime.

  7. Mode specific excited state dynamics study of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene from ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy, Khokan; Kayal, Surajit; Ariese, Freek; Beeby, Andrew; Umapathy, Siva

    2017-02-14

    Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) and Ultrafast Raman Loss Spectroscopy (URLS) have been applied to reveal the excited state dynamics of bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB), a model system for one-dimensional molecular wires that have numerous applications in opto-electronics. It is known from the literature that in the ground state BPEB has a low torsional barrier, resulting in a mixed population of rotamers in solution at room temperature. For the excited state this torsional barrier had been calculated to be much higher. Our femtosecond TA measurements show a multi-exponential behaviour, related to the complex structural dynamics in the excited electronic state. Time-resolved, excited state URLS studies in different solvents reveal mode-dependent kinetics and picosecond vibrational relaxation dynamics of high frequency vibrations. After excitation, a gradual increase in intensity is observed for all Raman bands, which reflects the structural reorganization of Franck-Condon excited, non-planar rotamers to a planar conformation. It is argued that this excited state planarization is also responsible for its high fluorescence quantum yield. The time dependent peak positions of high frequency vibrations provide additional information: a rapid, sub-picosecond decrease in peak frequency, followed by a slower increase, indicates the extent of conjugation during different phases of excited state relaxation. The CC triple (-C≡C-) bond responds somewhat faster to structural reorganization than the CC double (>C=C<) bonds. This study deepens our understanding of the excited state of BPEB and analogous linear pi-conjugated systems and may thus contribute to the advancement of polymeric "molecular wires."

  8. Optical Dark-Field and Electron Energy Loss Imaging and Spectroscopy of Symmetry-Forbidden Modes in Loaded Nanogap Antennas.

    PubMed

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew A; Long, James P; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, B S

    2015-06-23

    We have produced large numbers of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanogap antennas using a scalable electrochemical approach and systematically characterized the spectral and spatial character of their plasmonic modes with optical dark-field scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy with principal component analysis, and full wave simulations. The coordination of these techniques reveal that these nanostructures support degenerate transverse modes which split due to substrate interactions, a longitudinal mode which scales with antenna length, and a symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode. This gap-localized transverse mode arises from mode splitting of transverse resonances supported on both antenna arms and is confined to the gap load enabling (i) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material and (ii) the possibility of tuning the antenna resonance via active modulation of the gap material's optical properties. The resonant position of this symmetry-forbidden mode is sensitive to gap size, dielectric strength of the gap material, and is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multifunctional components many seek.

  9. Understanding the vibrational mode-specific polarization effects in femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McAnally, Michael O; Guo, Yinsheng; Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-11-15

    Optically heterodyne-detected femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy (OHD-FRIKES) was observed in neat cyclohexane. In this Letter, an examination of the effect of the Raman pump ellipticity on the multiplex OHD-FRIKES spectra is discussed. The Raman pump ellipticity scanned OHD-FRIKES results reproduce anomalous observables from previous OHD-FRIKES experiments and suggest new methods of tracking transient vibrational mode polarization in complex systems.

  10. Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.

    PubMed

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian

    2012-09-14

    Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.

  11. SPHERE/IRDIS: final performance assessment of the dual-band imaging and long slit spectroscopy modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; Langlois, M.; Dohlen, K.; Zurlo, A.; Moutou, C.; Costille, A.; Gry, C.; Madec, F.; Le Mignant, D.; Gluck, Laurence; Sauvage, J.-F.

    2014-07-01

    The near-infrared imager and spectrograph IRDIS is one of the three science sub-systems of VLT/SPHERE dedicated to the detection and characterization of giant exoplanets at large orbital radii. It offers a wide range of observational modes including dual-band imaging (DBI) with very low differential aberrations, and long slit spectroscopy (LSS) coupled with a classical Lyot coronagraph at low (R = ~50) and medium (R = ~330) resolution. Over the course of 2012 and 2013, IRDIS has been extensively tested in laboratory during the integration and optimization of the SPHERE system. At the beginning of 2014, the instrument has been shipped to Chile and has been reintegrated at the Paranal observatory. We present here a detailed summary of the performance of the DBI and LSS modes obtained in laboratory. We provide a wide range of results covering different observing conditions and setups for the DBI mode, and we show that the instrument reaches the technical specifications in terms of contrast. We also identify some of the limitations that prevent going down much further in contrast while testing in the laboratory. For the LSS mode, we present results obtained both at low and medium resolution in the main setups that will be offered to future users. We demonstrate that the LSS mode will provide a useful characterization tool for the planets detected in DBI mode. Finally, we present the first results obtained on-sky during the first commissioning run of SPHERE at the VLT.

  12. Tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of an injection-locked TEA CO2 laser. [ozone absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser by an injection technique using a CW waveguide laser as the master oscillator is reported. With the experimental arrangement described, in which the waveguide laser frequency is tuned to correspond to one of the oscillating longitudinal modes of the TEA laser, single-longitudinal-mode operation was achieved with no apparent reduction in the TEA output energy, on various CO2 lines with frequency offsets from the line center as large as 300 MHz. The capability of this technique for high-resolution spectroscopy or atmospheric lidar studies is demonstrated by the recording of the absorption spectrum of a strong ozone line.

  13. Edge mode spectroscopy and imaging for film edge properties in magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Lithography is an act of violence. Often, films are almost entirely obliterated by patterning, leaving only nanostructures behind with film edges that have borne the brunt of the damage, edges that carry with them the scars of energetic ion bombardment, reactive ions, liftoff and exposure to ambient conditions. In this talk, I will present a variation on ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy that can provide insight into the magnetic properties of film edges in magnetic nanostructures. The method relies on the non-uniformity of the magnetic field in patterned-film nanostructures that are magnetized in-plane, specifically, the low-field regions that form near where the magnetization is directed normal to the edge. In these regions, localized precession forms as trapped spin wave modes, and the resonance condition of these modes serves as an indicator of the edge properties. I will present modeling and measurements on a 500 nm diameter, 25 nm thick Permalloy disk to illustrate the method. Micromagnetic modeling of this disk predicts a main mode that is nearly uniform across the sample and three localized edge modes with higher resonance fields. The spectra measured with various tip positions and mode imaging are consistent with the modeling results. In addition to a strong center mode, three distinct edge modes are observed when the tip is near the disk edge. For a symmetric disk, the modeling predicts that the edge mode resonances are identical on the two opposite edges. However, the measured edge mode resonances on opposite edges of the disk are detected at different resonance fields, suggesting inhomogeneity of the edge properties. By rotating the applied field, we control the position of the localized edge mode along the edge of the disk and confirm that the edge mode resonance field has a strong angular dependence, showing that edge mode properties can vary significantly in a nominally circular disk.

  14. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy at a conical intersection: A two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia

    2016-12-01

    The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.

  15. Multi-species sensing using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared interband cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, S.; Northern, J. H.; Gras, B.; Ewart, P.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Canedy, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    The application of an interband cascade laser, ICL, to multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the mid-infrared region is reported. Measurements of individual mode linewidths of the ICL, derived from the pressure dependence of lineshapes in MUMAS signatures of single, isolated, lines in the spectrum of HCl, were found to be in the range 10-80 MHz. Multi-line spectra of methane were recorded using spectrally limited bandwidths, of approximate width 27 cm-1, defined by an interference filter, and consist of approximately 80 modes at spectral locations spanning the 100 cm-1 bandwidth of the ICL output. Calibration of the methane pressures derived from MUMAS data using a capacitance manometer provided measurements with an uncertainty of 1.1 %. Multi-species sensing is demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene and formaldehyde in a gas mixture. Individual partial pressures of the three gases are derived from best fits of model MUMAS signatures to the data with an experimental error of 10 %. Using an ICL, with an inter-mode interval of ~10 GHz, MUMAS spectra were recorded at pressures in the range 1-10 mbar, and, based on the data, a potential minimum detection limit of the order of 100 ppmv is estimated for MUMAS at atmospheric pressure using an inter-mode interval of 80 GHz.

  16. Zero-mode clad waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2005-07-12

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  17. Efficient anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy for large molecules using local-mode coordinates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Steele, Ryan P

    2014-09-14

    This article presents a general computational approach for efficient simulations of anharmonic vibrational spectra in chemical systems. An automated local-mode vibrational approach is presented, which borrows techniques from localized molecular orbitals in electronic structure theory. This approach generates spatially localized vibrational modes, in contrast to the delocalization exhibited by canonical normal modes. The method is rigorously tested across a series of chemical systems, ranging from small molecules to large water clusters and a protonated dipeptide. It is interfaced with exact, grid-based approaches, as well as vibrational self-consistent field methods. Most significantly, this new set of reference coordinates exhibits a well-behaved spatial decay of mode couplings, which allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of mode couplings and increased computational efficiency. Convergence can typically be reached by including modes within only about 4 Å. The local nature of this truncation suggests particular promise for the ab initio simulation of anharmonic vibrational motion in large systems, where connection to experimental spectra is currently most challenging.

  18. Efficient anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy for large molecules using local-mode coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Steele, Ryan P.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a general computational approach for efficient simulations of anharmonic vibrational spectra in chemical systems. An automated local-mode vibrational approach is presented, which borrows techniques from localized molecular orbitals in electronic structure theory. This approach generates spatially localized vibrational modes, in contrast to the delocalization exhibited by canonical normal modes. The method is rigorously tested across a series of chemical systems, ranging from small molecules to large water clusters and a protonated dipeptide. It is interfaced with exact, grid-based approaches, as well as vibrational self-consistent field methods. Most significantly, this new set of reference coordinates exhibits a well-behaved spatial decay of mode couplings, which allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of mode couplings and increased computational efficiency. Convergence can typically be reached by including modes within only about 4 Å. The local nature of this truncation suggests particular promise for the ab initio simulation of anharmonic vibrational motion in large systems, where connection to experimental spectra is currently most challenging.

  19. Efficient anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy for large molecules using local-mode coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Steele, Ryan P.

    2014-09-14

    This article presents a general computational approach for efficient simulations of anharmonic vibrational spectra in chemical systems. An automated local-mode vibrational approach is presented, which borrows techniques from localized molecular orbitals in electronic structure theory. This approach generates spatially localized vibrational modes, in contrast to the delocalization exhibited by canonical normal modes. The method is rigorously tested across a series of chemical systems, ranging from small molecules to large water clusters and a protonated dipeptide. It is interfaced with exact, grid-based approaches, as well as vibrational self-consistent field methods. Most significantly, this new set of reference coordinates exhibits a well-behaved spatial decay of mode couplings, which allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of mode couplings and increased computational efficiency. Convergence can typically be reached by including modes within only about 4 Å. The local nature of this truncation suggests particular promise for the ab initio simulation of anharmonic vibrational motion in large systems, where connection to experimental spectra is currently most challenging.

  20. Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

  1. Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

  2. Qualitative analysis of collective mode frequency shifts in L-alanine using terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taulbee, Anita R; Heuser, Justin A; Spendel, Wolfgang U; Pacey, Gilbert E

    2009-04-01

    We have observed collective mode frequency shifts in deuterium-substituted L-alanine, three of which have previously only been calculated. Terahertz (THz) absorbance spectra were acquired at room temperature in the spectral range of 66-90 cm(-1), or 2.0-2.7 THz, for L-alanine (L-Ala) and four L-Ala compounds in which hydrogen atoms (atomic mass = 1 amu) were substituted with deuterium atoms (atomic mass = 2 amu): L-Ala-2-d, L-Ala-3,3,3-d(3), L-Ala-2,3,3,3-d(4), and L-Ala-d(7). The absorbance maxima of two L-Ala collective modes in this spectral range were recorded for multiple spectral measurements of each compound, and the magnitude of each collective mode frequency shift due to increased mass of these specific atoms was evaluated for statistical significance. Calculations were performed which predict the THz absorbance frequencies based on the estimated reduced mass of the modes. The shifts in absorbance maxima were correlated with the location(s) of the substituted deuterium atom(s) in the L-alanine molecule, and the atoms contributing to the absorbing delocalized mode in the crystal structure were deduced using statistics described herein. The statistical analyses presented also indicate that the precision of the method allows reproducible frequency shifts as small as 1 cm(-1) or 0.03 THz to be observed and that these shifts are not random error in the measurement.

  3. Soft-mode spectroscopy in cubic BaTiO3 by hyper-Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, H.; Sanjurjo, J. A.; Rossbroich, G.

    1982-11-01

    Hyper-Raman scattering from cubic BaTiO3 is studied to clarify the controversies about the low-frequency dielectric response in this material. Applying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we obtain the imaginary part ɛ''(Ω) of the dielectric function in the wave-number range from 3 to 150 cm-1. ɛ''(Ω) can be adequately described by a classical single-oscillator dispersion formula. In approaching the Curie temperature, we find a continuous decrease of the mode frequency Ω0. The relative damping constant γΩ0 exceeds 2, so that the mode may be referred to as intermediate between oscillator and relaxator. Because of the high damping ɛ''(Ω) can be formally written as the sum of two overdamped oscillator contributions. This would lead to the concept of a soft-mode saturation and an extra dispersion mechanism as has been recently inferred from the far-infrared reflectivity spectrum. However, we do not find any evidence for this mode splitting and, so far, regard it as artificial.

  4. Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect

    McAuslan, D. L.; Korystov, D.; Longdell, J. J.

    2011-06-15

    We perform an investigation into the properties of Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} whispering-gallery-mode resonators as a first step toward achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity QED with rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. Direct measurement of cavity QED parameters are made using photon echoes, giving good agreement with theoretical predictions. By comparing the ions at the surface of the resonator to those in the center, it is determined that the physical process of making the resonator does not negatively affect the properties of the ions. Coupling between the ions and resonator is analyzed through the observation of optical bistability and normal-mode splitting.

  5. Precision single mode fibre integral field spectroscopy with the RHEA spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, Adam D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Feger, Tobias; Bento, Joao; Schwab, Christian; Coutts, David W.; Guyon, Olivier; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon

    2016-08-01

    The RHEA Spectrograph is a single-mode echelle spectrograph designed to be a replicable and cost effective method of undertaking precision radial velocity measurements. Two versions of RHEA currently exist, one located at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia (450 - 600nm wavelength range), and another located at the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, USA (600 - 800 nm wavelength range). Both instruments have a novel fibre feed consisting of an integral field unit injecting light into a 2D grid of single mode fibres. This grid of fibres is then reformatted into a 1D array at the input of the spectrograph (consisting of the science fibres and a reference fibre capable of receiving a white-light or xenon reference source for simultaneous calibration). The use of single mode fibres frees RHEA from the issue of modal noise and significantly reduces the size of the optics used. In addition to increasing the overall light throughput of the system, the integral field unit allows for cutting edge science goals to be achieved when operating behind the 8.2m Subaru Telescope and the SCExAO adaptive optics system. These include, but are not limited to: resolved stellar photospheres; resolved protoplanetary disk structures; resolved Mira shocks, dust and winds; and sub-arcsecond companions. We present details and results of early tests of RHEA@Subaru and progress towards the stated science goals.

  6. Libration induced stretching mode excitation for pump-probe spectroscopy in pure liquid water.

    PubMed

    Amir, Wafa; Gallot, Guilhem; Hache, François

    2004-10-22

    We developed an experimental approach to study pure liquid water in the infrared and avoid thermal effects. This technique is based on libration induced stretching excitation of water molecules. A direct correspondence between frequencies within the libration and OH stretching bands is demonstrated. Energy diffusion is studied in pure liquid water by measuring wave packet dynamics of OH stretching vibrator with infrared femtosecond spectroscopy. Wave packet dynamics reveals ultrafast energy dynamics and reflects 130 fs intermolecular energy transfer between water vibrators. Energy diffusion is almost two orders of magnitude faster than self diffusion in water.

  7. Asymptotic quasinormal frequencies of different spin fields in spherically symmetric black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H. T.

    2006-01-15

    We consider the asymptotic quasinormal frequencies of various spin fields in Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In the Schwarzschild case, the real part of the asymptotic frequency is ln3 for the spin 0 and the spin 2 fields, while for the spin 1/2, the spin 1, and the spin 3/2 fields it is zero. For the nonextreme charged black holes, the spin 3/2 Rarita-Schwinger field has the same asymptotic frequency as that of the integral spin fields. However, the asymptotic frequency of the Dirac field is different, and its real part is zero. For the extremal case, which is relevant to the supersymmetric consideration, all the spin fields have the same asymptotic frequency, the real part of which is zero. For the imaginary parts of the asymptotic frequencies, it is interesting to see that it has a universal spacing of 1/4M for all the spin fields in the single-horizon cases of the Schwarzschild and the extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. The implications of these results to the universality of the asymptotic quasinormal frequencies are discussed.

  8. Key hydride vibrational modes in [NiFe] hydrogenase model compounds studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Shafaat, Hannah S; Weber, Katharina; Petrenko, Taras; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-11-05

    Hydrogenase proteins catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons. While many enzymatic states of the [NiFe] hydrogenase have been studied extensively, there are multiple catalytically relevant EPR-silent states that remain poorly characterized. Analysis of model compounds using new spectroscopic techniques can provide a framework for the study of these elusive states within the protein. We obtained optical absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of (dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)Fe(CO)(3) and [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H)Fe(CO)(3)][BF(4)], which are structural and functional model compounds for the EPR-silent Ni-SI and Ni-R states of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. The studies presented here use RR spectroscopy to probe vibrational modes of the active site, including metal-hydride stretching vibrations along with bridging ligand-metal and Fe-CO bending vibrations, with isotopic substitution used to identify key metal-hydride modes. The metal-hydride vibrations are essentially uncoupled and represent isolated, localized stretching modes; the iron-hydride vibration occurs at 1530 cm(-1), while the nickel-hydride vibration is observed at 945 cm(-1). The significant discrepancy between the metal-hydride vibrational frequencies reflects the slight asymmetry in the metal-hydride bond lengths. Additionally, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were carried out to obtain theoretical RR spectra of these compounds. On the basis of the detailed comparison of theory and experiment, the dominant electronic transitions and significant normal modes probed in the RR experiments were assigned; the primary transitions in the visible wavelengths represent metal-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Inherent properties of metal-hydride vibrational modes in resonance Raman spectra and DFT calculations are discussed together with the prospects of observing such vibrational modes in metal-hydride-containing proteins. Such a

  9. High resolution main-ion charge exchange spectroscopy in the DIII-D H-mode pedestal

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Haskey, S. R.; Kaplan, D. H.

    2016-09-12

    A new high spatial resolution main-ion (deuterium) charge-exchange spectroscopy system covering the tokamak boundary region has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen new edge main-ion charge-exchange recombination sightlines have been combined with nineteen impurity sightlines in a tangentially viewing geometry on the DIII-D midplane with an interleaving design that achieves 8 mm inter-channel radial resolution for detailed profiles of main-ion temperature, velocity, charge-exchange emission, and neutral beam emission. At the plasma boundary, we find a strong enhancement of the main-ion toroidal velocity that exceeds the impurity velocity by a factor of two. Furthermore, the unique combination of experimentally measured main-ion and impurity profiles provides a powerful quasi-neutrality constraint for reconstruction of tokamak H-mode pedestals.

  10. High resolution main-ion charge exchange spectroscopy in the DIII-D H-mode pedestal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Haskey, S. R.; Kaplan, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    A new high spatial resolution main-ion (deuterium) charge-exchange spectroscopy system covering the tokamak boundary region has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen new edge main-ion charge-exchange recombination sightlines have been combined with nineteen impurity sightlines in a tangentially viewing geometry on the DIII-D midplane with an interleaving design that achieves 8 mm inter-channel radial resolution for detailed profiles of main-ion temperature, velocity, charge-exchange emission, and neutral beam emission. At the plasma boundary, we find a strong enhancement of the main-ion toroidal velocity that exceeds the impurity velocity by a factor of two. The unique combination of experimentally measured main-ion and impurity profiles provides a powerful quasi-neutrality constraint for reconstruction of tokamak H-mode pedestals.

  11. High resolution main-ion charge exchange spectroscopy in the DIII-D H-mode pedestal

    DOE PAGES

    Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; ...

    2016-09-12

    A new high spatial resolution main-ion (deuterium) charge-exchange spectroscopy system covering the tokamak boundary region has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen new edge main-ion charge-exchange recombination sightlines have been combined with nineteen impurity sightlines in a tangentially viewing geometry on the DIII-D midplane with an interleaving design that achieves 8 mm inter-channel radial resolution for detailed profiles of main-ion temperature, velocity, charge-exchange emission, and neutral beam emission. At the plasma boundary, we find a strong enhancement of the main-ion toroidal velocity that exceeds the impurity velocity by a factor of two. Furthermore, the unique combination of experimentally measuredmore » main-ion and impurity profiles provides a powerful quasi-neutrality constraint for reconstruction of tokamak H-mode pedestals.« less

  12. Terahertz imaging of composite materials in reflection and transmission mode with a time-domain spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørgârd, Trygve R.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Haakestad, Magnus W.

    2016-02-01

    A fiber-coupled Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system based on photoconductive antennas, pumped by a 100-fs fiber laser, has been used to characterize materials in transmission and reflection mode. THz images are acquired by mounting the samples under investigation on an x-y stage, which is stepped through the beam while the transmitted or reflected THz waveform is captured. The samples include a carbon fiber epoxy composite and a sandwich-structured composite panel with an aramid fiber honeycomb core in between two skin layers of fiberglass reinforced plastic. The former has an artificially induced void, and from a comparison of recorded reflected time-domain signals, with and without the void, a simple model for the structure of the composite is proposed that describes the time-domain signals reasonably well.

  13. Reflectance-mode interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy quantifies brain absorption, scattering, and blood flow index in vivo.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Dawid; Kholiqov, Oybek; Srinivasan, Vivek J

    2017-02-01

    Interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy (iNIRS) is a new technique that measures time-of-flight- (TOF-) resolved autocorrelations in turbid media, enabling simultaneous estimation of optical and dynamical properties. Here, we demonstrate reflectance-mode iNIRS for noninvasive monitoring of a mouse brain in vivo. A method for more precise quantification with less static interference from superficial layers, based on separating static and dynamic components of the optical field autocorrelation, is presented. Absolute values of absorption, reduced scattering, and blood flow index (BFI) are measured, and changes in BFI and absorption are monitored during a hypercapnic challenge. Absorption changes from TOF-resolved iNIRS agree with absorption changes from continuous wave NIRS analysis, based on TOF-integrated light intensity changes, an effective path length, and the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Thus, iNIRS is a promising approach for quantitative and noninvasive monitoring of perfusion and optical properties in vivo.

  14. Complete assignment of the vibrational modes of C60 by inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and periodic-DFT.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stewart F; Bennington, Stephen M; Taylor, Jon W; Herman, Henryk; Silverwood, Ian; Albers, Peter; Refson, Keith

    2011-05-07

    In this paper we exploit the complementarity of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectroscopies with ab initio calculations to generate an updated assignment of the vibrational modes of C(60). We have carried out periodic-DFT calculations of the high temperature face centred cubic phase modelled as the standard structure and also of the low temperature simple cubic phase, the latter for the first time. Our assignment differs from all previous work, however, it is the only one that is able to successfully reproduce the INS spectrum in terms of both transition energies and intensities. In addition to the INS spectrum we are also able to quantitatively simulate the major features of the infrared and Raman spectra in the high temperature phase and the infrared spectrum in the low temperature phase.

  15. An Analytical Model for Top-Hat Long Transient Mode-Mismatched Thermal Lens Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaeian, M.; Rezaei, H.

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that a top-hat excitation beam gives rise to a more sensitive signal for the thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). Recently, a numerical model has been presented for a top- hat excitation beam in a dual-beam mod-mismatched TLS [Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1464-1466 (2008)]. In this work, we present a full analytical version of this model. Our model was based on a new solution of time-dependent heat equation for a finite radius cylindrical sample exposed to a top-hat excitation laser beam. The Fresnel diffraction integration method was then used to calculate on-axis probe-beam intensity variations due to thermal lensing by taking the aberrant nature of the thermal lens into account. The model was confirmed with experimental data of LSCAS-2 with an excellent agreement.

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy and mode identification in non-radially pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Wright, D. J.; Zima, W.; Cottrell, P. L.; De Cat, P.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopic data of a sample of non-radially pulsating stars with the HERCULES spectrograph on the 1.0-m telescope at the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We have developed and used a new technique which cross- correlates stellar spectra with scaled delta function templates to obtain high signal-to-noise representative spectral line profiles for further analysis. Using these profiles, and employing the Fourier Parameter Fit method, we have been able to place constraints on the degree, ℓ, and azimuthal order, m, of the non-radial pulsation modes in one β Cephei star, V2052 Oph and two γ Doradus stars, QW Pup and HD 139095.

  17. a Study of Vibrational Mode Coupling in 2-FLUOROETHANOL and 1,2-DIFLUOROETHANE Using High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mork, Steven Wayne

    High resolution infrared spectroscopy was used to examine intramolecular vibrational interactions in 2 -fluoroethanol (2FE) and 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE). A high resolution infrared spectrophotometer capable of better than 10 MHz spectral resolution was designed and constructed. The excitation source consists of three lasers: an argon-ion pumped dye laser which pumps a color -center laser. The infrared beam from the color-center laser is used to excite sample molecules which are rotationally and vibrationally cooled in a supersonic molecular beam. Rovibrational excitation of the sample molecules is detected by monitoring the kinetic energy of the molecular beam with a bolometer. The high resolution infrared spectrum of 2FE was collected and analyzed over the 2977-2990 cm^ {-1}^ectral region. This region contains the asymmetric CH stretch on the fluorinated carbon. The spectrum revealed extensive perturbations in the rotational fine structure. Analysis of these perturbations has provided a quantitative measure of selective vibrational mode coupling between the C-H stretch and its many neighboring dark vibrational modes. Interestingly, excitation of the C-H stretch is known to induce a photoisomerization reaction between 2FE's Gg^' and Tt conformers. Implications of the role of mode coupling in the reaction mechanism are also addressed. Similarly, the high resolution infrared spectrum of DFE was collected and analyzed over the 2978-2996 cm ^{-1}^ectral region. This region contains the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Perturbations in the rotational fine structure indicate vibrational mode coupling to a single dark vibrational state. The dark state is split by approximately 19 cm^{-1} due to tunneling between two identical gauche conformers. The coupling mechanism is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C-plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. The coupled vibrational

  18. Inspiral-merger-ringdown (2, 0) mode waveforms for aligned-spin black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    Based on spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition, the (2,+/- 2) modes dominate the gravitational waveforms generated by binary black holes. Several recent works found that other modes including (l,0) ones are also important to gravitational wave data analysis. For aligned-spin binaries, these (l,0) modes are related to the memory effect of gravitational wave. Based on the post-Newtonian analysis, quasi-normal modes analysis and the results of numerical relativity simulations, we present a full inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for the (2,0) mode generated by binary black holes. Our model includes the quasinormal ringing part and includes the effect of a black hole’s spin. It is complementary to the previous results.

  19. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

    2001-07-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio.

  20. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, G J; Friensehner, A F; Glebov, V Y; Hargrove, D R; Hatchett, S P; Izumi, N; Lerche, R A; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Sibernagel, C; Stoeckl, C

    2001-06-19

    As part of a laser fusion diagnostic development program, we have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.8 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.5 mA/W at 1000 V/mm (2 to 6x times higher than reported values for natural Type IIa diamond). These detector characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to TCC, and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and y rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. However, the data we have taken show that the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) noise could be a limiting factor in performance. Determining the degree to which this noise can be shielded will be an important subject of future tests.

  1. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of the two lowest fundamental modes of 1,1-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andy; Thompson, Christopher D.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Plathe, Ruth; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Barros, Joanna; McNaughton, Don

    2013-08-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum (50-600 cm-1) of 1,1-difluoroethane was recorded using the high-resolution infrared AILES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. A ro-vibrational assignment was performed on the lowest wavenumber, low intensity 181 0 and 171 0 modes, yielding band centres of 224.241903 (10) cm-1 and 384.252538 (13) cm-1, respectively. A total of 965 and 2031 FIR transitions were assigned to the 181 0 and 171 0 fundamentals, respectively. Previously measured pure rotational transitions from the upper states were included into the respective fits to yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. The 182 1 hot band was observed within the fundamental band, with 369 FIR transitions assigned and co-fitted with the fundamental to give a band centre of 431.956502 (39) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The 182 0 overtone was observed with 586 transitions assigned and fitted to give a band centre of 431.952763 (23) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The difference in energy is attributed to a torsional splitting of 0.003740 (45) cm-1 in the ν 18 = 2 state. Two hot bands originating from the ν 18 = 1 and ν 17 = 1 states were observed within the 171 0 fundamental.

  2. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy Slit-Jet Cooled Hydroxymethyl Radical (CH_2OH): CH Symmetric Stretching Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxymethyl radical (CH_2OH) plays an important role in combustion and environmental chemistry as a reactive intermediate. Reisler's group published the first rotationally resolved spectroscopy of CH_2OH with determined band origins for fundamental CH symmetric stretch state, CH asymmetric stretch state and OH stretch state, respectively. Here CH_2OH was first studied via sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy in a slit-jet supersonic discharge expansion source. Rotationally resolved direct absorption spectra in the CH symmetric stretching mode were recorded. As a result of the low rotational temperature and sub-Doppler linewidths, the tunneling splittings due to the large amplitude of COH torsion slightly complicate the spectra. Each of the ground vibration state and the CH symmetric stretch state includes two levels. One level, with a 3:1 nuclear spin statistic ratio for Ka=0+/Ka=1+, is labeled as ``+". The other tunneling level, labeled as ``-", has Ka=0-/Ka=1- states with 1:3 nuclear spin statistics. Except for the Ka=0+ ← 0+ band published before, more bands (Ka=1+ ← 1+, Ka=0- ← 0- and Ka=1- ← 1-) were identified. The assigned transitions were fit to a Watson A-reduced symmetric top Hamiltonian to improve the accuracy of the band origin of CH symmetric state. The rotational parameters for both ground and CH symmetric stretch state were well determined. L. Feng, J. Wei and H. Reisler, J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol. 108. M. A. Roberts, E. N. Sharp-Williams and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 7042-7049

  4. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-14

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water.

  5. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water.

  6. Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herink, G.; Jalali, B.; Ropers, C.; Solli, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Mode-locked lasers have enabled some of the most precise measurements ever performed, from attosecond time-domain spectroscopy to metrology with frequency combs. However, such extreme precision belies the complexity of the underlying mode-locking dynamics. This complexity is particularly evident in the emergence of the mode-locked state, an intrinsically singular, non-repetitive transition. Many details of mode-locking are well understood, yet conventional spectroscopy cannot resolve the nascent dynamics in passive mode-locking on their natural nanosecond timescale, the single pulse period. Here, we capture the pulse-resolved spectral evolution of a femtosecond pulse train from the initial fluctuations, recording ∼900,000 consecutive periods. We directly observe critical phenomena on timescales from tens to thousands of roundtrips, including the birth of the broadband spectrum, accompanying wavelength shifts and transient interference dynamics described as auxiliary-pulse mode-locking. Enabled by the time-stretch transform, the results may impact laser design, ultrafast diagnostics and nonlinear optics.

  7. Tuning the instability in static mode atomic force spectroscopy as obtained in an AFM by applying an electric field between the tip and the substrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soma; Raychaudhuri, A K; Sreeram, P A; Dietzel, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated experimentally the role of cantilever instabilities in determination of the static mode force-distance curves in presence of a dc electric field. The electric field has been applied between the tip and the sample in an atomic force microscope working in ultra-high vacuum. We have shown how an electric field modifies the observed force (or cantilever deflection)-vs-distance curves, commonly referred to as the static mode force spectroscopy curves, taken using an atomic force microscope. The electric field induced instabilities shift the jump-into-contact and jump-off-contact points and also the deflection at these instability points. We explained the experimental results using a model of the tip-sample interaction and quantitatively established a relation between the observed static mode force spectroscopy curves and the applied electric field which modifies the effective tip-sample interaction in a controlled manner. The investigation establishes a way to quantitatively evaluate the electrostatic force in an atomic force microscope using the static mode force spectroscopy curves.

  8. Spectroscopy of Kerr Black Holes with Earth- and Space-Based Interferometers.

    PubMed

    Berti, Emanuele; Sesana, Alberto; Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-02

    We estimate the potential of present and future interferometric gravitational-wave detectors to test the Kerr nature of black holes through "gravitational spectroscopy," i.e., the measurement of multiple quasinormal mode frequencies from the remnant of a black hole merger. Using population synthesis models of the formation and evolution of stellar-mass black hole binaries, we find that Voyager-class interferometers will be necessary to perform these tests. Gravitational spectroscopy in the local Universe may become routine with the Einstein Telescope, but a 40-km facility like Cosmic Explorer is necessary to go beyond z∼3. In contrast, detectors like eLISA (evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) should carry out a few-or even hundreds-of these tests every year, depending on uncertainties in massive black hole formation models. Many space-based spectroscopical measurements will occur at high redshift, testing the strong gravity dynamics of Kerr black holes in domains where cosmological corrections to general relativity (if they occur in nature) must be significant.

  9. Spectroscopy of Kerr black holes with Earth- and space-based interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Emanuele; Sesana, Alberto; Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the potential of present and future interferometric gravitational-wave detectors to test the Kerr nature of black holes through ``gravitational spectroscopy,'' i.e. the measurement of multiple quasinormal mode frequencies from the remnant of a black hole merger. Using population synthesis models of the formation and evolution of stellar-mass black hole binaries, we find that Voyager-class interferometers will be necessary to perform these tests. Gravitational spectroscopy in the local Universe may become routine with the Einstein Telescope, but a 40-km facility like Cosmic Explorer is necessary to go beyond z 3 . In contrast, eLISA-like detectors should carry out a few - or even hundreds - of these tests every year, depending on uncertainties in massive black hole formation models. Many space-based spectroscopical measurements will occur at high redshift, testing the strong gravity dynamics of Kerr black holes in domains where cosmological corrections to general relativity (if they occur in nature) must be significant. NSF CAREER Grant No. PHY-1055103, NSF Grant No. PHY-1607130, FCT contract IF/00797/2014/CP1214/CT0012.

  10. Spectroscopy of Kerr Black Holes with Earth- and Space-Based Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Emanuele; Sesana, Alberto; Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the potential of present and future interferometric gravitational-wave detectors to test the Kerr nature of black holes through "gravitational spectroscopy," i.e., the measurement of multiple quasinormal mode frequencies from the remnant of a black hole merger. Using population synthesis models of the formation and evolution of stellar-mass black hole binaries, we find that Voyager-class interferometers will be necessary to perform these tests. Gravitational spectroscopy in the local Universe may become routine with the Einstein Telescope, but a 40-km facility like Cosmic Explorer is necessary to go beyond z ˜3 . In contrast, detectors like eLISA (evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) should carry out a few—or even hundreds—of these tests every year, depending on uncertainties in massive black hole formation models. Many space-based spectroscopical measurements will occur at high redshift, testing the strong gravity dynamics of Kerr black holes in domains where cosmological corrections to general relativity (if they occur in nature) must be significant.

  11. Softening of infrared-active mode of perovskite BaZrO{sub 3} proved by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Helal, M. A.; Mori, T.; Kojima, S.

    2015-05-04

    The low-frequency infrared-active optical modes were studied in a barium zirconate, BaZrO{sub 3}, single crystal with the perovskite structure using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were accurately determined in the frequency range between 0.2 and 2.7 THz. Upon cooling from room temperature to 8 K, the lowest-frequency TO1 mode at 2.32 THz showed a pronounced softening to 1.94 THz. The real part of the dielectric constant at 0.5 THz determined by THz-TDS obeys Barrett's relation, and the existence of a plateau confirms that the quantum effects lead to saturation of the soft mode frequencies of the TO1 and TO2 modes below ≈20 K. This is reminiscent of incipient ferroelectrics with the perovskite structure such as CaTiO{sub 3}.

  12. Broadband Spectroscopy of CO_2 Bands Near 2 μm Using a Femtosecond Mode-Locked Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Andrew; Maser, Daniel L.; Ycas, Gabriel; Diddams, Scott; Newbury, Nathan R.; Coddington, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The optical frequency comb provided in the output of a femtosecond, mode-locked laser has been employed for many applications, including broadband spectroscopic measurements of trace gases using a variety of detection techniques. One environmentally significant trace gas is CO_2, which has characteristic absorption bands near 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. Continuous wave (cw) lasers have typically been used to measure CO_2 at atmospheric-level concentrations. However, a broadband frequency comb source can provide rapid, simultaneous and accurate measurements of multiple transitions without the need for mechanical scanning or frequency tuning. Previously, precision broadband spectroscopy was performed on CO_2 bands near 1.6 μm. However, the CO_2 absorption bands near 2 μm have nearly a ten-fold increase in line strength compared to the bands near 1.6 μm, making the 2 μm bands attractive candidates for precision measurements of CO_2 with improved signal-to-noise and reduced uncertainty. Here, broadband quantitative spectroscopy of CO_2 bands near 2 μm is pursued. The source that was developed consists of an Er:fiber oscillator, Er:doped fiber amplifier, and highly nonlinear optical fiber, which generates a broadband spectrum spanning from 1 to 2.2 μm with an average power of 270 mW. Over 70 mW of the optical power is contained in the 1.8-2.2 μm region relevant to the CO_2 measurement. After generation, the laser light is passed through laboratory gas cells or open air where the absorption features from the sample gas are imprinted onto the laser light. Initial detection efforts involve a virtually imaged phased array- (VIPA-)based spectrometer whose output is subsequently imaged on a InSb array detector. The bandwidth of the measured spectrum is 50 nm, limited by the size of the detector array. The characteristics of the spectrometer, including the detection limits and temporal resolution, will be presented. In addition, the progress towards the use of the present

  13. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  14. Detection of OH stretching mode of CH3OH chemisorbed on Ni3+ and Ni4+ by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Okawa, Ryuji; Ichihashi, Masahiko; Kondow, Tamotsu; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2007-08-09

    Structures of nickel cluster ions adsorbed with methanol, Ni3+ (CH3OH)m (m = 1-3) and Ni4+ (CH3OH)m (m = 1-4) were investigated by using infrared photodissociation (IR-PD) spectroscopy based on a tandem-type mass spectrometer, where they were produced by passing Ni3,4+ through methanol vapor under a multiple collision condition. The IR-PD spectra were measured in the wavenumber region between 3100 and 3900 cm-1. In each IR-PD spectrum, a single peak was observed at a wavenumber lower by approximately 40 cm-1 than that of the OH stretching vibration of a free methanol molecule and was assigned to the OH stretching vibrations of the methanol molecules in Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m. The photodissociation was analyzed by assuming that Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m dissociate unimolecularly after the photon energy absorbed by them is statistically distributed among the accessible modes of Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m. In comparison with the calculations performed by the density functional theory, it is concluded that (1) the oxygen atom of each methanol molecule is bound to one of the nickel atoms in Ni3,4+ (defined as molecular chemisorption), (2) the methanol molecules in Ni3,4+ (CH3OH)m do not form any hydrogen bonds, and (3) the cross section for demethanation [CH4 detachment from Nin+ (CH3OH)] is related to the electron density distribution inside the methanol molecule.

  15. Decoding Mode-mixing in Black-hole Merger Ringdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal extraction of information from gravitational-wave observations of binary black-hole coalescences requires detailed knowledge of the waveforms. Current approaches for representing waveform information are based on spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition. Higher-order harmonic modes carrying a few percent of the total power output near merger can supply information critical to determining intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the binary. One obstacle to constructing a full multi-mode template of merger waveforms is the apparently complicated behavior of some of these modes; instead of settling down to a simple quasinormal frequency with decaying amplitude, some |m| = modes show periodic bumps characteristic of mode-mixing. We analyze the strongest of these modes the anomalous (3, 2) harmonic mode measured in a set of binary black-hole merger waveform simulations, and show that to leading order, they are due to a mismatch between the spherical harmonic basis used for extraction in 3D numerical relativity simulations, and the spheroidal harmonics adapted to the perturbation theory of Kerr black holes. Other causes of mode-mixing arising from gauge ambiguities and physical properties of the quasinormal ringdown modes are also considered and found to be small for the waveforms studied here.

  16. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  17. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  18. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCl[subscript 4] v[subscript 1] Mode: Theoretical Prediction of Isotopic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique, yet it is often missing from the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum. Tetrachloromethane (CCl[subscript 4]) is the ideal molecule for an introductory vibrational spectroscopy experiment and the symmetric stretch vibration contains fine structure due to isotopic variations…

  19. Size and environment dependence of surface phonon modes of gallium arsenide nanowires as measured by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spirkoska, D; Abstreiter, G; Fontcuberta I Morral, A

    2008-10-29

    Gallium arsenide nanowires were synthesized by gallium-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. By varying the growth time, nanowires with diameters ranging from 30 to 160 nm were obtained. Raman spectra of the nanowire ensembles were measured. The small linewidth of the optical phonon modes agree with an excellent crystalline quality. A surface phonon mode was also revealed, as a shoulder at lower frequencies of the longitudinal optical mode. In agreement with the theory, the surface mode shifts to lower wavenumbers when the diameter of the nanowires is decreased or the environment dielectric constant increased.

  20. Study of collective radial breathing-like modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes: combination of continuous two-dimensional membrane theory and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshov, Dmitry I.; Avramenko, Marina V.; Than, Xuan-Tinh; Michel, Thierry; Arenal, Raul; Paillet, Matthieu; Rybkovskiy, Dmitry V.; Osadchy, Alexander V.; Rochal, Sergei B.; Yuzyuk, Yuri I.; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Radial breathing modes (RBMs) are widely used for the atomic structure characterization and index assignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from resonant Raman spectroscopy. However, for double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), the use of conventional ωRBM(d) formulas is complicated due to the van der Waals interaction between the layers, which strongly affects the frequencies of radial modes and leads to new collective vibrations. This paper presents an alternative way to theoretically study the collective radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of DWNTs and to account for interlayer interaction, namely the continuous two-dimensional membrane theory. We obtain an analytical ωRBLM(do,di) relation, being the equivalent of the conventional ωRBM(d) expressions, established for SWNTs. We compare our theoretical predictions with Raman data, measured on individual index-identified suspended DWNTs, and find a good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, we show that the interlayer coupling in individual DWNTs strongly depends on the interlayer distance, which is manifested in the frequency shifts of the RBLMs with respect to the RBMs of the individual inner and outer tubes. In terms of characterization, this means that the combination of Raman spectroscopy data and predictions of continuous membrane theory may give additional criteria for the index identification of DWNTs, namely the interlayer distance.

  1. Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Sam Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah

    2014-07-07

    Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer α emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical γ discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

  2. Noninvasive Vibrational Mode Spectroscopy of Ion Coulomb Crystals through Resonant Collective Coupling to an Optical Cavity Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dantan, A.; Marler, J. P.; Albert, M.; Guenot, D.; Drewsen, M.

    2010-09-03

    We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them.

  3. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  4. Cubic-tetragonal transition in KMnF3: IR hard-mode spectroscopy and the temperature evolution of the (precursor) order parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Huali

    2009-08-01

    Precursor effects were observed in KMnF3 using infrared hard-mode spectroscopy. The intensity of the infrared-active mode near 265 cm-1 follows the thermodynamic order parameter, Q, in the tetragonal phase (I4/mcm). An additional weak signal is found in the cubic phase (Pm\\bar {3}m ). The order parameter step at To = 185.95 K (L = 0.129 J g-1) is smeared with excess intensity due to the tetragonal short range order extending to T>215 K. The intensity follows the predictions of Landau theory with a defect field Gdefect = -hQ, h = 6 J mol-1. The observed excess intensities are compared with the appearance of precursor elastic softening. It is concluded that the precursor softening and the local tetragonal short range order are likely to be related to an extended defect structure, such as a tweed pattern, which may be stabilized by extrinsic defects.

  5. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Pablant, N. A.; Stagner, L.

    2016-09-26

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region in H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. Finally, these challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model. Published by AIP Publishing.

  6. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; ...

    2016-03-07

    Here, we evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathodematerials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the NiL3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathodematerials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the NiL edge whichmore » is far from the O K edge.« less

  7. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; Zhou, Haoshen; Okabayashi, Jun; Ban, Chunmei; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Mizokawa, Takashi; Chen, Gang; Achkar, Andrew J.; Hawthron, David G.; Regier, Thomas Z.; Wadati, Hiroki

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  8. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Pablant, N. A.; Stagner, L.

    2016-11-01

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region in H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. These challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model.

  9. Investigation of the terahertz vibrational modes of ZIF-8 and ZIF-90 with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nicholas Y; Ruggiero, Michael T; Orellana-Tavra, Claudia; Tian, Tian; Bond, Andrew D; Korter, Timothy M; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-11-18

    We present experimental and computational evidence that gate-opening modes for zeolitic imidazole frameworks can be observed at terahertz frequencies. Our work highlights the critical importance to correctly optimise the crystal structure prior to computational lattice dynamics analysis. The results support the hypothesis that the low energy vibrational modes do indeed play a significant role in host-guest interactions for ZIFs, such as gas loading.

  10. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (ℓ=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (ℓ=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that—in contrast to previous predictions in the literature—the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  11. Influence of surface hydroxylation on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane growth mode during chemical functionalization of GaN Surfaces: an angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Arranz, A; Palacio, C; García-Fresnadillo, D; Orellana, G; Navarro, A; Muñoz, E

    2008-08-19

    A comparative study of the chemical functionalization of undoped, n- and p-type GaN layers grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was carried out. Both types of samples were chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a well-established silane-based approach for functionalizing hydroxylated surfaces. The untreated surfaces as well as those modified by hydroxylation and APTES deposition were analyzed using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Strong differences were found between the APTES growth modes on n- and p-GaN surfaces that can be associated with the number of available hydroxyl groups on the GaN surface of each sample. Depending on the density of surface hydroxyl groups, different mechanisms of APTES attachment to the GaN surface take place in such a way that the APTES growth mode changes from a monolayer to a multilayer growth mode when the number of surface hydroxyl groups is decreased. Specifically, a monolayer growth mode with a surface coverage of approximately 78% was found on p-GaN, whereas the formation of a dense film, approximately 3 monolayers thick, was observed on n-GaN.

  12. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Kambara, Ohki; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Sasaki, Tetsuo

    2014-05-07

    The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D(*) have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D(*) simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D(*) data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D(*) produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D(*).

  13. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculation of anthracene: Effect of dispersion force on the vibrational modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Kambara, Ohki; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Sasaki, Tetsuo

    2014-05-01

    The phonon modes of molecular crystals in the terahertz frequency region often feature delicately coupled inter- and intra-molecular vibrations. Recent advances in density functional theory such as DFT-D* have enabled accurate frequency calculation. However, the nature of normal modes has not been quantitatively discussed against experimental criteria such as isotope shift (IS) and correlation field splitting (CFS). Here, we report an analytical mode-decoupling method that allows for the decomposition of a normal mode of interest into intermolecular translation, libration, and intramolecular vibrational motions. We show an application of this method using the crystalline anthracene system as an example. The relationship between the experimentally obtained IS and the IS obtained by PBE-D* simulation indicates that two distinctive regions exist. Region I is associated with a pure intermolecular translation, whereas region II features coupled intramolecular vibrations that are further coupled by a weak intermolecular translation. We find that the PBE-D* data show excellent agreement with the experimental data in terms of IS and CFS in region II; however, PBE-D* produces significant deviations in IS in region I where strong coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrations contributes to normal modes. The result of this analysis is expected to facilitate future improvement of DFT-D*.

  14. Gap-mode enhancement on MoS2 probed by functionalized tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alajlan, Abdulrahman M.; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Zhang, Zhenrong; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2016-09-01

    Surface enhancement of molecular spectroscopic signals has been widely used for sensing and nanoscale imaging. Because of the weak electromagnetic enhancement of Raman signals on semiconductors, it is motivating but challenging to study the electromagnetic effect separately from the chemical effects. We report tip-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on Au and bulk MoS2 substrates using a metallic tip functionalized with copper phthalocyanine molecules and demonstrate similar gap-mode enhancement on both substrates. We compare the experimental results with theoretical calculations to confirm the gap-mode enhancement on MoS2 using a well-established electrostatic model. The functionalized tip approach allows for suppressing the background and is ideal for separating electromagnetic and chemical enhancement mechanisms on various substrates. Our results may find a wide range of applications in MoS2-based devices, sensors, and metal-free nanoscale bio-imaging.

  15. Dynamic and polychromatic SPR leaky-mode spectroscopy with Teflon AF films on silver for chemo-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsek, R. P.; Franke, Hilmar; Caron, Serge; Galarneau, Pierre

    1998-12-01

    The reflectivity of a polymer film on top of a thin metal layer is usually recorded for a fixed wavelength and the TM polarization as a function of the angle of incidence. This angular spectrum contains the surface plasmon resonance due to the metal layer and the leaky modes caused by the waveguide resonances of the polymer film. Here we investigated the reflectivity spectrum of such a multilayer for a white light source as a function of the wavelength at a constant angle of incidence. The leaky mode resonances on the wavelength scale have been detected. Dynamic measurements of the reflectivity of such a multilayer at constant angle and constant wavelength have been demonstrated for vapors of Toluene as an example. The realization of compact and simple devices using this technique is possible.

  16. High resolution spectroscopy of 1,2-difluoroethane in a molecular beam: A case study of vibrational mode-coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mork, Steven W.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.

    1992-09-01

    The high resolution infrared spectrum of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) in a molecular beam has been obtained over the 2978-2996 cm-1 spectral region. This region corresponds to the symmetric combination of asymmetric C-H stretches in DFE. Observed rotational fine structure indicates that this C-H stretch is undergoing vibrational mode coupling to a single dark mode. The dark mode is split by approximately 19 cm-1 due to tunneling between the two identical gauche conformers. The mechanism of the coupling is largely anharmonic with a minor component of B/C plane Coriolis coupling. Effects of centrifugal distortion along the molecular A-axis are also observed. Analysis of the fine structure identifies the dark state as being composed of C-C torsion, CCF bend, and CH2 rock. Coupling between the C-H stretches and the C-C torsion is of particular interest because DFE has been observed to undergo vibrationally induced isomerization from the gauche to trans conformer upon excitation of the C-H stretch.

  17. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  18. Part-per-trillion level SF6 detection using a quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor with single-mode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Patimisco, Pietro; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Bernacki, Bruce E; Kriesel, Jason

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 μm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-IR fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor. The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and microresonator tubes. SF(6) was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7×10(-10) W·cm(-1)/Hz(1/2).

  19. Infrared complex refractive index measurements and simulated reflection mode infrared absorption spectroscopy of shock-compressed polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Moore, D S; McGrane, S D; Funk, D J

    2004-05-01

    Thin film interference effects complicate the interpretation of reflection-mode infrared absorption spectra obtained in shock-compressed thin film materials and must be carefully accounted for in any analysis attempting to unravel shock-induced energy transfer or reactivity. We have calculated such effects for spectrally simple model systems and also, to the extent possible, for real systems such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and nitrocellulose (NC). We have utilized angle-dependent infrared (IR) reflectometry to obtain the ambient spectral complex index for PMMA and NC for use in the calculations and to interpret experiments. A number of counter-intuitive spectral effects are observed versus film thickness and during uniaxial shock compression: absorption band shifts, changes of shape, and changes in both absolute and relative peak intensities. The film thickness effects can be predicted by thin film interference alone, while additional assumptions are required to predict the effects due to shock compression. Since it is very difficult to obtain the complex index in the shock state, we made very simple assumptions regarding the change in vibrational spectra upon shock load-ing. We illustrate general thin film interference effects that could be expected and compare them to experimental results for the antisymmetric NO2 stretch mode of NC.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of the amide I mode of N-methylacetamide in solid hydrogen at 2-4 K.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Leif O; Anderson, David T

    2011-11-24

    We report high-resolution (0.05 cm(-1)) FTIR spectra of the fundamental and first overtone of the amide I mode of trans-N-methylacetamide (NMA) trapped in solid molecular hydrogen (SMH) at cryogenic temperatures with low (0.03%) and high (55%) ortho-hydrogen (oH(2)) concentrations. NMA-doped SMH samples with high oH(2) concentrations are nearly free from inhomogeneous broadening, permitting the measured amide I homogeneous line width of 1.268(8) cm(-1) to be used to place a lower limit on the vibrational lifetime of 4.19(3) ps. Direct observation of the amide I overtone allows the harmonic vibrational frequency ω(e) = 1726.6(5) cm(-1) and the anharmonicity constant ω(e)x(e) = 8.5(2) cm(-1) to be determined for NMA isolated in SMH samples with low oH(2) concentrations.

  1. A versatile setup for ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy of coherent collective modes in strongly correlated quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Edoardo; Mann, Andreas; Borroni, Simone; Arrell, Christopher; van Mourik, Frank; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide temperature range. By combining high temporal resolution and a broad detection window, this apparatus can investigate the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is a distinctive characteristic of correlated electron systems. Using a single-shot readout array detector at frame rates of 10 kHz allows resolving coherent oscillations with amplitudes <10−4. We demonstrate its operation on the charge-transfer insulator La2CuO4, revealing coherent phonons with frequencies up to 13 THz and providing access into their Raman matrix elements. PMID:27990455

  2. High-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the Coriolis coupled ground state and ν7 mode of ketenimine.

    PubMed

    Bane, Michael K; Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Medcraft, Chris; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-06-21

    High resolution FTIR spectra of the short lived species ketenimine have been recorded in the regions 390-1300 cm(-1) and 20-110 cm(-1) using synchrotron radiation. Two thousand six hundred sixty transitions of the ν(7) band centered at 693 cm(-1) and 126 far-IR rotational transitions have been assigned. Rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the ν(7) mode were determined and local Fermi and b-axis Coriolis interactions with 2ν(12) are treated. A further refinement of the ground state, ν(12) and ν(8) parameters was also achieved, including the treatment of previously unrecognized ac-axis and ab-axis second order perturbations to the ground state.

  3. Phonon Mode Transformation Across the Orthohombic-Tetragonal Phase Transition in a Lead Iodide Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3: A Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Approach.

    PubMed

    La-o-Vorakiat, Chan; Xia, Huanxin; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph A; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth; Chia, Elbert E M

    2016-01-07

    We study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. The carrier mobility values calculated from the low-temperature phonon mode frequencies, via two theoretical approaches, are found to agree reasonably with the experimental value (∼2000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) from a previous time-resolved THz spectroscopy work. Thus, we have established a possible link between terahertz phonon modes and the transport properties of perovskite-based solar cells.

  4. Studies of redox reactions in electro-active proteins using optical impedance spectroscopy at single-mode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xue; Mendes, Sergio B.

    2013-09-01

    An electro-active platform based on a single-mode integrated optical waveguide over-coated with a 13-nm indium tin oxide film was developed for highly sensitive investigations on the kinetics of redox reactions from a sub-monolayer of cytochrome-c proteins. Optical impedance spectra (with and without cytochrome-c proteins present in the spectroelectrochemical flow-cell) were measured with the single-mode integrated optical waveguide for a 10-mV ac electric potential modulation. Significant changes in the ac component of the optical baseline response were observed, and a new analysis was developed to factor out the working electrode effects and deliver accurate results for the Faradaic process. Faradaic current density and active surface coverage were reconstructed at several modulation frequencies. As small as 7x10-14 mole/cm2 of cytochrome-c proteins were detected under such electric potential modulation leading to a faradaic current of about 200 nA/cm2. Such level of faradaic current is extremely difficult to be isolated by other electrochemical techniques (e.g. electrical impedance measurements) due to the strong background created by an always present electric double layer. We were able to achieve those detection limits because the optical signal is immune to those events and can be tuned solely to the Faradaic process. This highly sensitive and accurate strategy of spectro-electrochemistry is proved powerful for measurements of extreme small amount of electro-active proteins and has the potential to be used in many other important electrochemical processes.

  5. Interface and growth-mode characterization of Ce/Fe and CeH≊2/Fe multilayers by x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, F.; Steins, M.; Kacsich, T.; Felsch, W.

    1993-07-01

    The detailed structural characterization of ion beam sputtered Ce/Fe and CeH≊2/Fe multilayers offers the possibility for a better understanding of their magnetic properties. In the case of the Ce/Fe multilayers the extension of the interface, as one of the most important features, is determined to 5-7 Å by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the small-angle x-ray scattering diagrams. Below a critical thickness of ≊24 Å Fe grows in an amorphous structure. Here the interface extension is enhanced. In contrast all CeH≊2/Fe multilayers show nearly abrupt interfaces. X-ray scattering experiments at higher angles in reflection and transmission mode provide information about the crystal structure, the texture, and the lateral dimensions of the grains in the samples. Depths profiles of the multilayers are generated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, which confirm the well-ordered periodic structures. Surprisingly indications of an island-like growth mode of the Fe layers onto the Ce and CeH≊2 layers could be resolved by using this procedure.

  6. Cubic-tetragonal transition in KMnF(3): IR hard-mode spectroscopy and the temperature evolution of the (precursor) order parameter.

    PubMed

    Salje, Ekhard K H; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Huali

    2009-08-19

    Precursor effects were observed in KMnF(3) using infrared hard-mode spectroscopy. The intensity of the infrared-active mode near 265 cm(-1) follows the thermodynamic order parameter, Q, in the tetragonal phase (I4/mcm). An additional weak signal is found in the cubic phase ([Formula: see text]). The order parameter step at T(o) = 185.95 K (L = 0.129 J g(-1)) is smeared with excess intensity due to the tetragonal short range order extending to T>215 K. The intensity follows the predictions of Landau theory with a defect field G(defect) = -hQ, h = 6 J mol(-1). The observed excess intensities are compared with the appearance of precursor elastic softening. It is concluded that the precursor softening and the local tetragonal short range order are likely to be related to an extended defect structure, such as a tweed pattern, which may be stabilized by extrinsic defects.

  7. Far-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Phonon Modes in Amorphous and Crystalline Epitaxial GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragaglia, V.; Holldack, K.; Boschker, J. E.; Arciprete, F.; Zallo, E.; Flissikowski, T.; Calarco, R.

    2016-06-01

    A combination of far-infrared and Raman spectroscopy is employed to investigate vibrational modes and the carrier behavior in amorphous and crystalline ordered GeTe-Sb2Te3 alloys (GST) epitaxially grown on Si(111). The infrared active GST mode is not observed in the Raman spectra and vice versa, indication of the fact that inversion symmetry is preserved in the metastable cubic phase in accordance with the Fm3 space group. For the trigonal phase, instead, a partial symmetry break due to Ge/Sb mixed anion layers is observed. By studying the crystallization process upon annealing with both the techniques, we identify temperature regions corresponding to the occurrence of different phases as well as the transition from one phase to the next. Activation energies of 0.43 eV and 0.08 eV for the electron conduction are obtained for both cubic and trigonal phases, respectively. In addition a metal-insulator transition is clearly identified to occur at the onset of the transition between the disordered and the ordered cubic phase.

  8. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; ...

    2016-09-26

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region inmore » H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. Finally, these challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model. Published by AIP Publishing.« less

  9. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; Zhou, Haoshen; Okabayashi, Jun; Ban, Chunmei; Glans, Per -Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Mizokawa, Takashi; Chen, Gang; Achkar, Andrew J.; Hawthron, David G.; Regier, Thomas Z.; Wadati, Hiroki

    2016-03-07

    Here, we evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathodematerials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the NiL3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathodematerials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the NiL edge which is far from the O K edge.

  10. Far-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Phonon Modes in Amorphous and Crystalline Epitaxial GeTe-Sb2Te3 Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bragaglia, V.; Holldack, K.; Boschker, J. E.; Arciprete, F.; Zallo, E.; Flissikowski, T.; Calarco, R.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of far-infrared and Raman spectroscopy is employed to investigate vibrational modes and the carrier behavior in amorphous and crystalline ordered GeTe-Sb2Te3 alloys (GST) epitaxially grown on Si(111). The infrared active GST mode is not observed in the Raman spectra and vice versa, indication of the fact that inversion symmetry is preserved in the metastable cubic phase in accordance with the Fm3 space group. For the trigonal phase, instead, a partial symmetry break due to Ge/Sb mixed anion layers is observed. By studying the crystallization process upon annealing with both the techniques, we identify temperature regions corresponding to the occurrence of different phases as well as the transition from one phase to the next. Activation energies of 0.43 eV and 0.08 eV for the electron conduction are obtained for both cubic and trigonal phases, respectively. In addition a metal-insulator transition is clearly identified to occur at the onset of the transition between the disordered and the ordered cubic phase. PMID:27340085

  11. Observation of multiple vibrational modes in ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with molecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Foley, E T; Klingsporn, J M; Sonntag, M D; Valley, N A; Dieringer, J A; Seideman, T; Schatz, G C; Hersam, M C; Van Duyne, R P

    2012-10-10

    Multiple vibrational modes have been observed for copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) adlayers on Ag(111) using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Several important new experimental features are introduced in this work that significantly advance the state-of-the-art in UHV-TERS. These include (1) concurrent sub-nm molecular resolution STM imaging using Ag tips with laser illumination of the tip-sample junction, (2) laser focusing and Raman collection optics that are external to the UHV-STM that has two cryoshrouds for future low temperature experiments, and (3) all sample preparation steps are carried out in UHV to minimize contamination and maximize spatial resolution. Using this apparatus we have been able to demonstrate a TERS enhancement factor of 7.1 × 10(5). Further, density-functional theory calculations have been carried out that allow quantitative identification of eight different vibrational modes in the TER spectra. The combination of molecular-resolution UHV-STM imaging with the detailed chemical information content of UHV-TERS allows the interactions between large polyatomic molecular adsorbates and specific binding sites on solid surfaces to be probed with unprecedented spatial and spectroscopic resolution.

  12. High resolution spectroscopy of jet cooled phenyl radical: The ν1 and ν2 a1 symmetry C-H stretching modes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J

    2016-07-28

    A series of CH stretch modes in phenyl radical (C6H5) has been investigated via high resolution infrared spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution (∼60 MHz) in a supersonic discharge slit jet expansion. Two fundamental vibrations of a1 symmetry, ν1 and ν2, are observed and rotationally analyzed for the first time, corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch excitation at the ortho/meta/para and ortho/para C atoms with respect to the radical center. The ν1 and ν2 band origins are determined to be 3073.968 50(8) cm(-1) and 3062.264 80(7) cm(-1), respectively, which both agree within 5 cm(-1) with theoretical anharmonic scaling predictions based on density functional B3LYP/6-311g++(3df,3dp) calculations. Integrated band strengths for each of the CH stretch bands are analyzed, with the relative intensities agreeing remarkably well with theoretical predictions. Frequency comparison with previous low resolution Ar-matrix spectroscopy [A. V. Friderichsen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001)] reveals a nearly uniform Δν ≈ + 10-12 cm(-1) blue shift between gas phase and Ar matrix values for ν1 and ν2. This differs substantially from the much smaller red shift (Δν ≈ - 1 cm(-1)) reported for the ν19 mode, and suggests a simple physical model in terms of vibrational mode symmetry and crowding due to the matrix environment. Finally, the infrared phenyl spectra are well described by a simple asymmetric rigid rotor Hamiltonian and show no evidence for spectral congestion due to intramolecular vibrational coupling, which bodes well for high resolution studies of other ring radicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In summary, the combination of slit jet discharge methods with high resolution infrared lasers enables spectroscopic investigation of even highly reactive combustion and interstellar radical intermediates under gas phase, jet-cooled (Trot ≈ 11 K) conditions.

  13. High resolution spectroscopy of jet cooled phenyl radical: The ν1 and ν2 a1 symmetry C-H stretching modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Nesbitt, David J.

    2016-07-01

    A series of CH stretch modes in phenyl radical (C6H5) has been investigated via high resolution infrared spectroscopy at sub-Doppler resolution (˜60 MHz) in a supersonic discharge slit jet expansion. Two fundamental vibrations of a1 symmetry, ν1 and ν2, are observed and rotationally analyzed for the first time, corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric CH stretch excitation at the ortho/meta/para and ortho/para C atoms with respect to the radical center. The ν1 and ν2 band origins are determined to be 3073.968 50(8) cm-1 and 3062.264 80(7) cm-1, respectively, which both agree within 5 cm-1 with theoretical anharmonic scaling predictions based on density functional B3LYP/6-311g++(3df,3dp) calculations. Integrated band strengths for each of the CH stretch bands are analyzed, with the relative intensities agreeing remarkably well with theoretical predictions. Frequency comparison with previous low resolution Ar-matrix spectroscopy [A. V. Friderichsen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1977 (2001)] reveals a nearly uniform Δν ≈ + 10-12 cm-1 blue shift between gas phase and Ar matrix values for ν1 and ν2. This differs substantially from the much smaller red shift (Δν ≈ - 1 cm-1) reported for the ν19 mode, and suggests a simple physical model in terms of vibrational mode symmetry and crowding due to the matrix environment. Finally, the infrared phenyl spectra are well described by a simple asymmetric rigid rotor Hamiltonian and show no evidence for spectral congestion due to intramolecular vibrational coupling, which bodes well for high resolution studies of other ring radicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In summary, the combination of slit jet discharge methods with high resolution infrared lasers enables spectroscopic investigation of even highly reactive combustion and interstellar radical intermediates under gas phase, jet-cooled (Trot ≈ 11 K) conditions.

  14. N-H stretching modes around 3300 wavenumber from peptide backbones observed by chiral sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Wang, Zhuguang; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the molecular origin of the chiral sum frequency generation (SFG) signals of proteins and peptides at interfaces in the N-H stretching vibrational region. The N-H stretching can be a probe for investigating structural and functional properties of proteins, but remains technically difficult to analyze due to the overlapping with the O-H stretching of water molecules. Chiral SFG spectroscopy offers unique tools to study the N-H stretching from proteins at interfaces without interference from the water background. However, the molecular origin of the N-H stretching signals of proteins is still unclear. This work provides a justification of the origin of chiral N-H signals by analyzing the vibrational frequencies, examining chiral SFG theory, studying proton (hydrogen/deuterium) exchange kinetics, and performing optical control experiments. The results demonstrate that the chiral N-H stretching signals at ~3300 cm(-1) originate from the amide group of the protein backbones. This chiral N-H stretching signal offers an in situ, real-time, and background-free probe for interrogating the protein structures and dynamics at interfaces at the molecular level.

  15. Determination of 3D molecular orientation by concurrent polarization analysis of multiple Raman modes in broadband CARS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical description is presented about a new analysis method to determine three-dimensional (3D) molecular orientation by concurrently analyzing multiple Raman polarization profiles. Conventional approaches to polarization Raman spectroscopy are based on single peaks, and their 2D-projected polarization profiles are limited in providing 3D orientational information. Our new method analyzes multiple Raman profiles acquired by a single polarization scanning measurement of broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS). Because the analysis uses only dimensionless quantities, such as intensity ratios and phase difference between multiple profiles, the results are not affected by sample concentration and the system response function. We describe how to determine the 3D molecular orientation with the dimensionless observables by using two simplified model cases. In addition, we discuss the effect of orientational broadening on the polarization profiles in the two model cases. We find that in the presence of broadening we can still determine the mean 3D orientation angles and, furthermore, the degree of orientational broadening. PMID:26561197

  16. Forced translocation of DNA hairpins through a tight molecular nanopore studied by atomic force microscopy in force-spectroscopy mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Brian Alan

    The transit of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) through a molecular nanopore has been studied by pulling a beta-cyclodextrin ring over single stranded DNA using an atomic force microscope. After an exhaustive search, it was determined that n-propyl silane surface provides the most reliable background surface for performing force spectroscopy of DNA. A versatile rotaxane complex was formed between a hydrophobic molecule and cyclodextrin. DNA was then added to this complex to form a DNA rotaxane. The cyclodextrin is covalently linked by a molecular tether to the force probe, which both pulls on the cyclodextrin and reads off the forces required for passage of the DNA. The bases do not provide an obstacle to the passage of the cyclodextrin, but hairpins represent large barriers to transit, and analysis of the pulling kinetics show the opening rates of the hairpins. The utility of the system was determined by investigating the kinetics of the analogous biological system with two unusual hairpins: Unusually stable hairpins (consisting of the bases CTTG in the loop) and sequences with CTG repeats motifs. CTTG hairpins prove to be completely impassable both to reverse transcriptase and the cyclodextrin, while CTG repeats pass with an ease appropriate to their bulk measurements, but still enough force to stall a polymerase enzyme proving that the kinetic analysis is alone responsible for the stalling.

  17. Monitoring Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Approach Curves with Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy – Towards a Novel Current-Independent Positioning Mode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy in the 3–20 µm range (MIR) has been combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) for in situ spectroscopic detection of electrochemically induced localized surface modifications using an ultramicroelectrode (UME). In this study, a novel current-independent approach for positioning the UME in aqueous electrolyte solution is presented using either changes of IR absorption intensity associated with borosilicate glass (BSG), which is used as shielding material of the UME wire, or by monitoring IR changes of the water spectrum within the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to displacement of water molecules in the volume between the sample surface and the UME within the evanescent field. The experimental results show that the UME penetrates into the exponentially decaying evanescent field in close vicinity (a few µm) to the ATR crystal surface. Hence, the resulting intensity changes of the IR absorption spectra for borosilicate glass (increase) and for water (decrease), can be used to determine the position of the UME relative to the ATR crystal surface independent of the current measured at the UME. PMID:20329757

  18. Deposition and immersion mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect atmospheric transport and global climate. Previously, it has been suggested that there is one characteristic ice nucleation efficiency for all volcanic ash, regardless of its composition, when accounting for surface area; however, this claim is derived from data from only two volcanic eruptions. In this work, we have studied the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (basaltic ash, Guatemala), Soufrière Hills (andesitic ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Oruanui euption, rhyolitic ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. In the present study, we find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice from 225-235 K at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.01, comparable to the mineral dust proxy kaolinite. Since depositional ice nucleation will be more important at colder temperatures, fine volcanic ash may represent a global source of cold-cloud ice nuclei. For immersion freezing relevant to mixed-phase clouds, however, only the Oruanui ash exhibited heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  19. Empirical mode decomposition analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy muscular signals to assess the effect of physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Joy Martis, Roshan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Meiburger, Kristen M; De Luca, Riccardo; Petraroli, Giuliana; Liboni, William

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that may cause major problems to several physiological systems. Exercise has proven to be very effective in the prevention, management and improvement of this pathology in patients. Muscle metabolism is often studied with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a noninvasive technique that can measure changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb) and reduced hemoglobin (HHb) of tissues. These NIRS signals are highly non-stationary, non-Gaussian and nonlinear in nature. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used as a nonlinear adaptive model to extract information present in the NIRS signals. NIRS signals acquired from the tibialis anterior muscle of controls and type 2 diabetic patients are processed by EMD to yield three intrinsic mode functions (IMF). The sample entropy (SE), fractal dimension (FD), and Hurst exponent (HE) are computed from these IMFs. Subjects are monitored at the beginning of the study and after one year of a physical training programme. Following the exercise programme, we observed an increase in the SE and FD and a decrease in the HE in all diabetic subjects. Our results show the influence of physical exercise program in improving muscle performance and muscle drive by the central nervous system in the patients. A multivariate analysis of variance performed at the end of the training programme also indicated that the NIRS metabolic patterns of controls and diabetic subjects are more similar than at the beginning of the study. Hence, the proposed EMD technique applied to NIRS signals may be very useful to gain a non-invasive understanding of the neuromuscular and vascular impairment in diabetic subjects.

  20. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, A K; Konovalov, A N; Ul'yanov, V A

    2014-04-28

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 10{sup 2}) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  1. Direct observation of the anchoring process during the adsorption of fibrinogen on a solid surface by force-spectroscopy mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerlé, J.; Altmann, S. M.; Maaloum, M.; Hörber, J. K. H.; Heinrich, L.; Voegel, J.-C.; Schaaf, P.

    1999-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy in a force-spectroscopy mode has been used to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process of fibrinogen molecules on a silica surface. An original “approach/retraction” cycle of the tip/surface was used for this purpose. Fibrinogen molecules were adsorbed on the atomic force microscopy tip and were brought into contact with the silica surface for different interaction times varying from 5 to 2,000 ms. Multiple consecutive ruptures were observed. The mean number of ruptures nr per cycle increases steadily with the interaction time as well as the mean strength fr which varies from 300 pN for 5 ms to 1,400 pN for 2,000 ms. The minimal interaction time for a fibrinogen molecule to bind strongly to a silica surface during an adsorption process appears to lie between 50 and 200 ms. The histograms of the distances between two consecutive ruptures in one cycle exhibit maxima around 20–25 nm. This length is comparable to the characteristic distance between D and E globules of one fibrinogen molecule and suggests that fibrinogen molecules mainly adsorb through their D and E globules. PMID:10359776

  2. Time-resolved thermal lens spectroscopy with a single-pulsed laser excitation beam: an analytical model for dual-beam mode-mismatched experiments.

    PubMed

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamidreza; Ghalambor-Dezfouli, Abdolmohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed laser beam excitations are more commonly used in thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) than continuous-wave (CW) ones, because CW excitations limit the measurement to linear absorption processes [J. Opt. A5, 256 (2003)]. In this work, we present a new and full analytical model for a single-pulsed laser excitation dual-beam mode-mismatched TLS for low absorption solid-state and liquid samples. Our model has been based on a new solution of time-dependent heat equation for a finite-radius cylindrical sample exposed to a single-pulsed excitation laser beam. For low absorbent samples, unlike previous models, all aberration terms associated in the thermal lens were taken into account in Fresnel integration. Besides, the model provides a full analytical mathematical expression for the temperature rise, normalized signal intensity, and Z-scan photothermal lens signal. The model was confirmed with experimental data of distilled deionized water with excellent agreement. Therefore, the model allows us to extract thermo-optical properties of samples in an analytical and more accurate way.

  3. Phonon Mode Transformation across the Orthohombic-Tetragonal Phase Transition in a Lead-Iodide Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3: a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Elbert E. M.; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Kadro, Jeannette; Salim, Teddy; Zhao, Daming; Ahmed, Towfiq; Lam, Yeng Ming; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Marcus, Rudolph; Michel-Beyerle, Maria-Elisabeth

    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5-3 THz) and temperature (20-300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb-I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Grant No. SCI58-003), Singapore MOE Tier 1 (RG13/12, RG123/14), ONR, ARO, NTU Biophysics Center, LANL LDRD, LANL CINT.

  4. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  5. Comparative study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission, attenuated total reflection, and total reflection modes for the analysis of plastics in the cultural heritage field.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Marcello; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Galeotti, Monica; Marchiafava, Veronica; Pizzo, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed within the framework of two research projects dealing with the conservation of contemporary artworks. The first is the Seventh Framework Project (FP7) of the European Union, Preservation of Plastic ARTefacts in Museum Collections (POPART), spanning years 2008-2012, and the second is the Italian project funded by the Tuscan Region, Preventive Conservation of Contemporary Art (Conservazione Preventiva dell'Arte Contemporanea (COPAC)), spanning 2011-2013. Both of these programs pointed out the great importance of having noninvasive and portable analytical techniques that can be used to investigate and characterize modern and contemporary artworks, especially those consisting of synthetic polymers. Indeed, despite the extensive presence of plastics in museum collections, there is still a lack of analytical tools for identifying, characterizing, and setting up adequate conservation strategies for these materials. In this work, the potentials of in situ and noninvasive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, implemented by means of portable devices that operate in reflection mode, are investigated with a view to applying the results in large-scale surveys of plastic objects in museums. To this end, an essential prerequisite are the reliability of spectral data acquired in situ and the availability of spectral databases acquired from reference materials. A collection of polymeric samples, which are available commercially as ResinKit, was analyzed to create a reference spectral archive. All the spectra were recorded using three FT-IR configurations: transmission (trans), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and total reflection (TR). A comparative evaluation of the data acquired using the three instrumental configurations is presented, together with an evaluation of the similarity percentages and a discussion of the critical cases.

  6. Identification of the Excited-State C═C and C═O Modes of trans-β-Apo-8'-carotenal with Transient 2D-IR-EXSY and Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Mariangela; Ragnoni, Elena; Lapini, Andrea; Kardaś, Tomasz M; Ratajska-Gadomska, Boźena; Foggi, Paolo; Righini, Roberto

    2015-05-07

    Assigning the vibrational modes of molecules in the electronic excited state is often a difficult task. Here we show that combining two nonlinear spectroscopic techniques, transient 2D exchange infrared spectroscopy (T2D-IR-EXSY) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), the contribution of the C═C and C═O modes in the excited-state vibrational spectra of trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal can be unambiguously identified. The experimental results reported in this work confirm a previously proposed assignment based on quantum-chemical calculations and further strengthen the role of an excited state with charge-transfer character in the relaxation pathway of carbonyl carotenoids. On a more general ground, our results highlight the potentiality of nonlinear spectroscopic methods based on the combined use of visible and infrared pulses to correlate structural and electronic changes in photoexcited molecules.

  7. Experimental demonstration of mode-selective phonon excitation of 6H-SiC by a mid-infrared laser with anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2013-10-28

    Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.

  8. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Static Normal Mode Analysis: The C-H Region of DMSO as a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Sean A.; Ueltschi, Tyler W.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Mifflin, Amanda L.; Hess, Wayne P.; Wang, Hongfei; Cramer, Christopher J.; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-03-03

    Carbon-hydrogen (C-H) vibration modes serve as key probes in the chemical iden- tication of hydrocarbons and in vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spec- *troscopy of hydrocarbons at the liquid/gas interface. Their assignments pose a chal- lenge from a theoretical viewpoint. In this work, we present a detailed study of the C-H stretching region of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using a new Gaussian basis set- based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) module that we have implemented in the NWChem computational chemistry program. By combining AIMD simulations and static normal mode analysis, we interpret experimental infrared and Raman spectra and explore the role of anharmonic effects in this system. Our anharmonic normal mode analysis of the in-phase and out-of-phase symmetric C-H stretching modes chal- lenges the previous experimental assignment of the shoulder in the symmetric C-H stretching peak as an overtone or Fermi resonance. In addition, our AIMD simulations also show signicant broadening of the in-phase symmetric C-H stretching resonance, which suggests that the experimentally observed shoulder is due to thermal broadening of the symmetric stretching resonance.

  9. High-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the ν6 and Coriolis perturbation allowed ν10 modes of ketenimine.

    PubMed

    Bane, Michael K; Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Appadoo, Dominique R T; McNaughton, Don

    2011-12-14

    High-resolution FTIR spectra of the short lived species ketenimine have been recorded in the region 700-1300 cm(-1) and over 1500 transitions of the ν(10) and ν(6) modes have been assigned. Effective rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters for the v(10) = 1 and v(6) = 1 (excluding K(a) = 5) states were determined by co-fitting transitions, and treating strong a- and c-axis Coriolis interactions between them. Other perturbations attributed to interactions with the v(8) = 2 and v(12) = 1 + v(8) = 1 dark-states were also observed and treated. The ν(10) transitions are predicted to be inherently very weak, but are enhanced by an intensity stealing effect with the highly IR active ν(6) mode. A mechanism for this intensity stealing in ketenimine is also detailed.

  10. Transforming Fabry-Pérot resonances into a Tamm mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia

    2012-12-01

    We propose an optical structure composed of two metal nanolayers enclosing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror. The structure is an open photonic system whose bound modes are coupled to external radiation. We apply the special theoretical treatment based on inversion symmetry of the structure to classify its resonances. We show that the structure supports resonances transitional between Fabry-Pérot modes and Tamm plasmons. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Pérot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures with sub-skin-depth metal films, are determined by the hybrid quasinormal modes of the open nonconservative structure under consideration. The results can find a broad range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics, including the possibility of coherent control over optical fields in the class of structures similar to the one proposed here.

  11. Linking structure and vibrational mode coupling using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy: A comparison of gauche and trans 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. Cameron; Stone, Stephen C.; Philips, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The high-resolution infrared spectrum of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane in a molecular beam was collected over the 2975-2994 cm-1 spectral region. The spectral region of 2975-2981 cm-1 contains a symmetric C-H stretching vibrational band of the gauche conformer containing the 35Cl isotope. The spectral region of 2985-2994 cm-1 contains three vibrational bands of the trans conformer. Two of the three bands are assigned as an antisymmetric C-H stretch of each of the two different chlorine isotopes. The third band is assigned as a symmetric C-H stretch of the 35Cl isotope. The gauche conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed doublet patterns similar to those previously observed in 1,2-difluoroethane. The model for 1,2-difluoroethane is further refined in the present work. These refinements suggest that the coupling dark state in 1,2-difluoroethane is composed of 1 quantum C-H bend, 1 quantum C-C stretch, and 12 quanta of torsion. For 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane the dark state could not be identified due to a small data set. The trans conformer of 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane showed no evidence of mode coupling in the three vibrational bands. Including 2-fluoroethanol in this series of molecules, the extent of vibrational mode coupling did not correlate with the density of states available for coupling. Therefore, density of states alone is insufficient to explain the observed trend. A correlation was observed between the degree of intramolecular interaction and vibrational mode coupling.

  12. Molecular Structures, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Normal-Mode Analysis of M(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) Dimetallatetraynes. Observation of Strongly Mixed Metal-Metal and Metal-Ligand Vibrational Modes.

    PubMed

    John, Kevin D.; Miskowski, Vincent M.; Vance, Michael A.; Dallinger, Richard F.; Wang, Louis C.; Geib, Steven J.; Hopkins, Michael D.

    1998-12-28

    The nature of the skeletal vibrational modes of complexes of the type M(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (M = Mo, W; R = H, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) has been deduced. Metrical data from X-ray crystallographic studies of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) reveal that the core bond distances and angles are within normal ranges and do not differ in a statistically significant way as a function of the alkynyl substituent, indicating that their associated force constants should be similarly invariant among these compounds. The crystal structures of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CBu(t)())(4)(PMe(3))(4) are complicated by 3-fold disorder of the Mo(2) unit within apparently ordered ligand arrays. Resonance-Raman spectra ((1)(delta-->delta) excitation, THF solution) of Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) and its isotopomers (PMe(3)-d(9), C&tbd1;CSiMe(3)-d(9), (13)C&tbd1;(13)CSiMe(3)) exhibit resonance-enhanced bands due to a(1)-symmetry fundamentals (nu(a) = 362, nu(b) = 397, nu(c) = 254 cm(-)(1) for the natural-abundance complex) and their overtones and combinations. The frequencies and relative intensities of the fundamentals are highly sensitive to isotopic substitution of the C&tbd1;CSiMe(3) ligands, but are insensitive to deuteration of the PMe(3) ligands. Nonresonance-Raman spectra (FT-Raman, 1064 nm excitation, crystalline samples) for the Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CSiMe(3))(4)(PMe(3))(4) compounds and for Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CR)(4)(PMe(3))(4) (R = H, D, Me, Bu(t)(), SiMe(3)) and W(2)(C&tbd1;CMe)(4)(PMe(3))(4) exhibit nu(a), nu(b), and nu(c) and numerous bands due to alkynyl- and phosphine-localized modes, the latter of which are assigned by comparisons to FT-Raman spectra of Mo(2)X(4)L(4) (X = Cl, Br, I; L = PMe(3), PMe(3)-d(9))(4) and Mo(2)Cl(4)(AsMe(3))(4). Valence force-field normal-coordinate calculations on the model compound Mo(2)(C&tbd1;CH)(4)P(4), using core force constants transferred from a calculation

  13. First high-efficiency and high-resolution (R=80,000) NIR spectroscopy with high-blazed Echelle grating: WINERED HIRES modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, Shogo; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Sukegawa, Takashi; Kondo, Sohei; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Fukue, Kei; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Watase, Ayaka; Takenaka, Keiichi; Asano, Akira; Yasui, Chikako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-08-01

    WINERED is a PI-type 0.9 - 1.35 μm high-resolution spectrograph developed by the Laboratory of Infrared highresolution Spectrograph (LiH) of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory at Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan. The scope of WINERED is to realize a high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph with both wide coverage and high sensitivity. WINERED provides three observational modes called as the Wide, Hires-Y and Hires-J modes. The Wide mode simultaneously covers the z, Y and J-bands in a single exposure with R ≡ λ/Δλ = 28,000 and was commissioned for the 1.3 m Araki Telescope of Koyama Astronomical Observatory in 2013. We have been building alternative observational modes "Hires-Y" and "Hires-J", providing R = 80,000 spectra in the Y- and J-bands, respectively. There are two choices for realizing a compact spectrograph with a high spectral resolution of R ≧ 50,000: an immersion grating (IG) or a highblazed echelle grating (HBG). Investigating the availabilities of both optical devices, we selected an HBG solution for λ < 1.5 μm because can be realized with currently available technology in earlier time. The optical parameters of WINERED's HBGs are as follows: groove pitch = 90.38 μm, blaze angle = 79.32 °, and apex angle = 88°, which are determined to minimize vignetting in the optical system as well as aberrations with the spectral resolution of R = 80,000. Custom HBGs were made by CANON Inc. Because of the size the size limitation in fabrication process, we decided to use a mosaicked grating consisting of two HBGs. The alignment tolerances of the two HBGs are very tight (< 0.5 arcsec for the parallelism between grooves of the two gratings and 1.5 arcsec for the flatness between the two grating surfaces). To enable these fine alignments, we designed a grating holder with an adjustment mechanism with sub-μm positional resolution. We adapted cordierite CO-220 as the material for the grating holder, thereby reducing the misalignment generated by

  14. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; ...

    2012-11-05

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as wellmore » as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. Furthermore, the technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II.« less

  15. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glockner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-11-05

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. Furthermore, the technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II.

  16. Investigations on the Q and CT Bands of Cytochrome c Submonolayer Adsorbed on an Alumina Surface Using Broadband Spectroscopy with Single-Mode Integrated Optical Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S; Hoops, Geoffrey C; Aslan, Mustafa M; Byard, Courtney L; Mendes, Sergio B

    2009-05-14

    In this work, we report experimental results on the molar absorptivity of cytochrome c adsorbed at different submonolayer levels onto an aluminum oxide waveguide surface; our data show a clear dependence of the protein optical properties on its surface density. The measurements were performed using the broadband, single-mode, integrated optical waveguide spectroscopic technique, which is an extremely sensitive tool able to reach submonolayer levels of detection required for this type of studies. This investigation focuses on the molar absorptivity at the Q-band (centered at 525 nm) and, for the first time to our knowledge, the weak charge transfer (CT) band (centered at 695 nm) of surface-adsorbed cyt c. Polarized light in the spectral region from 450 to 775 nm was all-coupled into an alumina thin film, which functioned as a single-mode planar optical waveguide. The alumina thin-film waveguide used for this work had a thickness of 180 nm and was deposited on a glass substrate by the atomic layer deposition process. The protein submonolayer was formed on the alumina waveguide surface through electrostatic adsorption from an aqueous buffer solution at neutral pH. The optical properties of the surface-adsorbed cyt c were investigated for bulk protein concentrations ranging from 5 nM to 8200 nM in the aqueous buffer solution. For a protein surface density of 2.3 pmol/cm(2), the molar absorptivity measured at the charge transfer band was 335 M(-1) cm(-1), and for a surface density of 15 pmol/cm(2) was 720 M(-1) cm(-1), which is much closer to the value of cyt c dissolved in an aqueous neutral buffer (830 M(-1) cm(-1)). The modification of the protein molar absorptivity and its dependence on the surface density can most likely be attributed to conformational changes of the surface-adsorbed species.

  17. Basaltic glass formed from hydrovolcanism and impact processes: Characterization and clues for detection of mode of origin from VNIR through MWIR reflectance and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Wright, S. P.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument on-board the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has measured a consistent X-ray amorphous component in drill core samples examined to-date, clearly demonstrating that X-ray amorphous materials are a significant fraction of the martian surface layer. Glasses are potential components of this amorphous material and in this study, basaltic tephras from several hydro- and glaciovolcanic centers, as well as impact melts from India's Lonar Crater, were examined using thin section petrography, visible and near-infrared reflectance and mid-wave infrared emission spectroscopy as well as measuring major and minor element chemistry of representative samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The objectives of this study have been to look for distinguishing characteristics between volcanic and impact glasses and to determine features that indicate whether the glasses are fresh or altered using methods available on current and planned Mars rovers. Spectral features in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) that can be used as indicators of alteration include the development of hydration features at 1.9 and ∼3 μm and a feature attributed to ferric oxide development at 0.48 μm. In the mid-wave infrared, it was observed that glass-rich tephra field samples did not display a broad, disordered glass feature near 9-10 μm (as is observed in pristine basaltic glasses) but rather a doublet with centers near 9.5 and 11 μm attributed in earlier work to incipient devitrification into SiO4 chain and sheet structures respectively. A tentative observation was made that the Si-O bending feature, observed in all the sample spectra near 22 μm was broader in the hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass samples than in the impact glass samples. Hydro- and glaciovolcanic glass-rich tephra samples were used as library spectra in linear deconvolution analyses of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES) surface spectral types. These

  18. Characterization of dopant diffusion within semiconducting polymer and small-molecule films using infrared-active vibrational modes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maliakal, Ashok J

    2013-09-11

    Understanding dopant diffusion within organic and polymeric semiconductors is of great importance toward the development of organic photovoltaic and electronic devices, many of which require layered structures with controlled doping profiles (e.g., p-n and p-i-n structures). The current paper demonstrates a new method to determine the diffusion and permeability coefficients for dopant diffusion within polymeric and small-molecule organic semiconductors using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and taking advantage of the intense IR-active vibrational bands created when dopants such as iodine accept charge from a semiconducting polymer to generate polaronic species. The diffusion and permeability coefficients for iodine within poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are determined to be 2.5×10(-11)±1.2×10(-11) cm2/s and 2.4×10(-8)±1.2×10(-8) cm2/s·atm, respectively. The approach is applied to P3HT/PCBM (1:1 mass ratio) films, and the diffusion and permeability coefficients through these composite films are determined to be 7.8×10(-11)±2.8×10(-11) cm2/s and 4.8×10(-8)±1.3×10(-8) cm2/s·atm, respectively. Finally, the approach is extended to determining iodine diffusion within the polycrystalline semiconductor tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) in a bilayer film with P3HT, and the diffusion coefficient of iodine through TPP is determined to be 7.1×10(-14)±1.1×10(-14) cm2/s. Although the current paper determines diffusion and permeability for the dopant iodine, this approach should be applicable to a wide array of dopants and polymeric and small-molecule semiconductors of interest in photovoltaic and electronic applications.

  19. MHD Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Fasoli, A; Testa, D; Sharapov, S; Berk, H L; Breizman, B; Gondhalekar, A; Mantsinen, M

    2004-03-23

    Experiments are conducted on the JET tokamak to assess the diagnostic potential of MHD active and passive spectroscopy, for the plasma bulk and its suprathermal components, using Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes (AEs) excited by external antennas and by energetic particles. The measurements of AE frequencies and mode numbers give information on the bulk plasma. Improved equilibrium reconstruction, in particular in terms of radial profiles of density and safety factor, is possible from the comparison between the antenna driven spectrum and that calculated theoretically. Details of the time evolution of the non-monotonic safety factor profile in advanced scenarios can be reconstructed from the frequency of ICRH-driven energetic particle modes. The plasma effective mass can be inferred from the resonant frequency of externally driven AEs in discharges with similar equilibrium profiles. The stability thresholds and the nonlinear development of the instabilities can give clues on energy and spatial distribution of the fast particle population. The presence of unstable AEs provides lower limits in the energy of ICRH generated fast ion tails. Fast ion pressure gradients and their evolution can be inferred from the stability of AEs at different plasma radial positions. Finally, the details of the AE spectrum in the nonlinear stage can be used to obtain information about the fast particle velocity space diffusion.

  20. THE {nu}{sub 8} BENDING MODE OF DIACETYLENE: FROM LABORATORY SPECTROSCOPY TO THE DETECTION OF {sup 13}C ISOTOPOLOGUES IN TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.

    2010-05-01

    The strong {nu}{sub 8} band of diacetylene at 627.9 cm{sup -1} has been investigated to improve the spectroscopic line data used to model the observations, particularly in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Spectra have first been recorded in the laboratory at 0.5 and 0.1 cm{sup -1} resolution and temperature as low as 193 K. Previous analysis and line lists present in the GEISA database appeared to be insufficient to model the measured spectra in terms of intensity and hot band features. To improve the situation and in order to be able to take into account all rovibrational transitions with a non-negligible intensity, a global analysis of C{sub 4}H{sub 2} has been carried out to improve the description of the energy levels up to E{sub v} = 1900 cm{sup -1}. The result is a new extensive line list which enables us to model very precisely the temperature variation as well as the numerous hot band features observed in the laboratory spectra. One additional feature, observed at 622.3 cm{sup -1}, was assigned to the {nu}{sub 6} mode of a {sup 13}C isotopologue of diacetylene. The {nu}{sub 8} bands of both {sup 13}C isotopomers were also identified in the 0.1 cm{sup -1} resolution spectrum. Finally, a {sup 13}C/C{sub 4}H{sub 2} line list was added to the model for comparison with the observed spectra of Titan. We obtain a clear detection of {sup 13}C monosubstituted diacetylene at 622.3 cm{sup -1} and 627.5 cm{sup -1} (blended {nu}{sub 8} bands), deriving a mean {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotopic ratio of 90 {+-} 8. This value agrees with the terrestrial (89.4, inorganic standard) and giant planet values (88 {+-} 7), but is only marginally consistent with the bulk carbon value in Titan's atmosphere, measured in CH{sub 4} by Huygens GCMS to be 82 {+-} 1, indicating that isotopic fractionation during chemical processing may be occurring, as suggested for ethane formation.

  1. A new, model-free calculation method to determine the coordination modes and distribution of copper(II) among the metal binding sites of multihistidine peptides using circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Osz, Katalin

    2008-12-01

    A new calculation method to determine microscopic protonation processes from CD spectra measured at different pH and Cu(II):ligand ratios was developed and used to give the relative binding strengths for the three histidines of hsPrP(84-114), a 31-mer polypeptide modeling the N-terminal copper(II) binding region of human (homo sapiens) prion protein. Mutants of hsPrP(84-114) with two or one histidyl residues have also been synthesized and their copper(II) complexes studied by CD spectroscopy. The 1-His models were analyzed first, and the molar CD spectra for the different coordination modes on the different histidines were calculated using the general computational program PSEQUAD. These spectra were deconvoluted into the sum of Gaussian curves and used as a first parameter set to calculate the molar spectra for the different coordination modes (3N and 4N coordination) and coordination positions (His85, His96 and His111) of the 2-His peptides. The calculation method therefore does not require the direct use of CD spectra measured in the smaller peptide models. This is a significant improvement over earlier calculation methods. In the same runs, the stepwise deprotonation pK(mic) values were refined and the pH-dependent distribution of copper(II) between the two histidines was determined. The results revealed the high, but different copper(II) binding affinities of the three separate histidines in the following order: His85 < His96His111. The calculation also showed that molar CD spectra which belong to the same coordination mode and coordination position in different ligands have very similar transition energies but different intensities. For this reason, direct transfer of molar CD spectra between different ligands may be a source of error, but the pK(mic) values and the copper(II) binding preferences are transferable from the 2-His peptides to the 3-His hsPrP(84-114).

  2. Interference between the Modes of an All-Dielectric Meta-atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, David A.

    2017-03-01

    The modes of silicon meta-atoms are investigated, motivated by their use as building blocks of Huygens metasurfaces. A model based on these modes is presented, giving a clear physical explanation of all features in the extinction spectrum. Counterintuitively, this model can show negative contributions to extinction, which are shown to arise from the interference between nonorthogonal modes. The direct and interference contributions to extinction are determined, showing that conservation of energy is preserved. The Huygens condition of matched electric- and magnetic-dipole moments leads to strong forward scattering and suppressed backscattering. It is shown that higher-order modes with appropriate symmetry generalize this condition, leading to multiple bands of directional scattering. The presented results are obtained using a robust approach to find the modes of nanophotonic scatterers, commonly referred to as quasinormal modes. By utilizing an integral formulation of Maxwell's equations, this work avoids the problem of normalizing diverging far fields, which other approaches require. The model and presented results are implemented in open-source code.

  3. Stoichiometry, vibrational modes, and structure of niobium(V) oxosulfato complexes in the molten Nb(2)O(5)-K(2)S(2)O(7)-K(2)SO(4) system studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Andreas L; Borup, Flemming; Berg, Rolf W; Boghosian, Soghomon

    2010-07-22

    The structural and vibrational properties of NbV oxosulfato complexes formed in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 and Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures with 0 spectroscopy under static equilibtrium at temperatures up to 700 degrees C. The spectral features for the binary Nb2O5-K2S2O7 molten system indicate that the dissolution of Nb2O5 proceeds with consumption of S2O72- leading to the formation of a NbV oxosulfato complex according to Nb2O5 + nS2O72- --> C2n-; a simple formalism exploiting the relative Raman band intensities is used for determining the stoichiometric coefficient, n, pointing to n = 3 and to the following reaction: Nb2O5 + 3S2O72- --> 2NbO(SO4)33-, which is consistent with the Raman spectra of the molten mixtures. Nb2O5 could be dissolved much easier when K2SO4 was present in an equimolar (1:1) SO42-/Nb ratio; the incremental presence of K2SO4 in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 melts induces composition effects in the Raman spectra that terminate when n(SO42-)/n(Nb) = 1. The composition effects and the temperature-dependent features of the Raman spectra obtained for Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures together with the spectral changes occurring upon freezing are accounted for by a Nb2O5.3K2S2O7.2K2SO4 stoichiometry for the complete reaction taking place: Nb2O5 + 3S2O72- + 2SO42- --> NbO(SO4)4S2O77- + NbO2(SO4)23-. The spectral data are discussed in terms of the most plausible structural models, for which consistent band assignments are made. The most characteristic Raman bands for the NbV oxosulfato complexes pertain to Nb=O modes: (i) at 937 cm-1 for the mono-oxo Nb=O mode of NbO(SO4)33-; (ii) at 958 cm-1 for the mono-oxo Nb=O mode of NbO(SO4)4S2O77-; and (iii) at 926 cm-1 for the symmetric dioxo Nb(=O)2 mode of NbO2(SO4)23-.

  4. Quarkonium spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Scharre, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    Recent experimental investigations of heavy quark-antiquark bound state systems are reviewed. Results from SPEAR on charmonium spectroscopy and from DORIS and CESR on bottomonium spectroscopy are presented. The current status of the search for top is also discussed.

  5. Theory of Acoustic Raman Modes in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, Timothy; Gordon, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis that associates the resonances of extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy [Wheaton et al., Nat. Photonics 9, 68 (2015)] with the collective modes of proteins. The theory uses the anisotropic elastic network model to find the protein acoustic modes, and calculates Raman intensity by treating the protein as a polarizable ellipsoid. Reasonable agreement is found between EAR spectra and our theory. Protein acoustic modes have been extensively studied theoretically to assess the role they play in protein function; this result suggests EAR spectroscopy as a new experimental tool for studies of protein acoustic modes.

  6. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  7. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  8. Chiroptical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunde, Kevin Edward

    1997-09-01

    The research presented here is of chiroptical spectroscopy. A new type of non-linear chiroptical spectroscopy, two-photon circular dichroism, is developed experimentally and theoretically. A theoretical formalism is developed to describe another new chiroptical spectroscopy, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism. An established type of chiroptical spectroscopy, time-resolved chiroptical luminescence, is applied to two new sets of subject systems. Journal articles related to these topics, as well as other research to which the author has contributed, are reproduced and included as appendices.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  10. Amateur Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, M.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Spectroscopy (see ASTRONOMICAL SPECTROSCOPY) has seen a revival of late. Pioneers in the 19th century such as Angelo Secchi and William Huggins observed spectra visually via large refractors under pristine skies. While the eye can comprehend the brilliant solar spectrum and a few brighter stars aided by a telescope, even low spectral dispersion greatly dilutes starlight. Photo-film can marginally ...

  11. Laser Spectroscopy and Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of a frequency comb, commonly generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser consists of several hundred thousand precisely evenly spaced spectral lines. Such laser frequency combs have revolutionized the art measuring the frequency of light, and they provide the long-missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks. The invention of the frequency comb technique has been motivated by precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom. The availability of commercial instruments is facilitating the evolution of new applications far beyond the original purpose. Laser combs are becoming powerful instruments for broadband molecular spectroscopy by dramatically improving the resolution and recording speed of Fourier spectrometers and by creating new opportunities for highly multiplexed nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon spectroscopy or coherent Raman spectroscopy. Other emerging applications of frequency combs range from fundamental research in astronomy, chemistry, or attosecond science to telecommunications and satellite navigation.

  12. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  13. Lifetimes of Hydrogen and Deuterium Related Vibrational Modes in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Budde, M.; Luepke, G.; Chen, E; Zhang, X.; Tolk, N. H.; Feldman, L. C.; Tarhan, E.; Ramdas, A. K.; Stavola, M.

    2001-10-01

    Lifetimes of hydrogen and deuterium related stretch modes in Si are measured by high-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy and transient bleaching spectroscopy. The lifetimes are found to be extremely dependent on the defect structure, ranging from 2 to 295 ps. Against conventional wisdom, we find that lifetimes of Si-D modes typically are longer than for the corresponding Si-H modes. The potential implications of the results on the physics of electronic device degradation are discussed.

  14. Soft acoustic mode in ferroelastic BiVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyuan, Gu; Copic, M.; Cummins, H. Z.

    1981-10-01

    Brillouin scattering spectroscopy of bismuth vanadate has revealed a soft acoustic mode which is characteristic of a proper ferroelastic phase transition. Raman scattering has revealed an optic mode which is doubly degenerate Eg in the paraelastic phase and splits into two Bg modes in the ferroelastic phase. The temperature dependence of the splitting is also consistent with a proper ferroelastic transition.

  15. Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, Jiří

    The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.

  16. Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Helen F.

    Raman spectroscopy has been used as a tool to study liquid crystals for several decades. There are several features that make Raman spectroscopy an important characterisation method. It is bond-specific, so can provide information about the interaction of liquid crystals with colloidal systems and can offer an insight into phase transitions. The polarization dependence of the scattering can be used to determine order parameters in liquid crystal systems. Finally, the relatively high spatial resolution of the technique (∽1 μm) can be used to explore spatiallydependent order in soft matter systems. This chapter describes the most important ways in which Raman spectroscopy can be used to reveal information about liquid crystal systems, illustrated by examples. Both the theoretical background and experimental considerations are described, providing a comprehensive introduction to anybody interested in using the technique to understand liquid crystal systems.

  17. Cometary spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.

    2011-04-01

    Cometary spectroscopy from the ultraviolet to the radio wavelength domain provides us with insights on the composition of the gases that are released by the cometary nuclei. While infrared to millimeter spectroscopy give access to the parent molecules that are released directly from the nucleus, visible spectroscopy enables observation of daughter species. Those "radicals" observable in the visible domain have more complex spectroscopic band-like structures and are mainly CN, C2, C3, NH2. Their spectroscopic signatures are easily accessible to amateur astronomers class equipment. Provided that carefully calibrated data are acquired, some simple calculation can readily be done to convert the line intensities into comet molecular outgassing rates and thus provide interesting physical data on comets. In addition to broadband dust measurements, the interested amateur can produce valuable scientific data on comets that will always be welcome from the professional community and certainly useful as the monitoring of comets activity is always essential.

  18. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  19. Grain Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  20. Capillary wave spectroscopy on ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzke, J.; Rathke, B.; Will, S.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids by Capillary Wave Spectroscopy (CWS, Surface Light Scattering). This technique probes a specific mode of thermally excited surface waves giving information on surface tension and viscosity. In ferrofluids we detect a transition from propagating surface modes to overdamped ones depending on the particle concentration and strength and the orientation of an externally applied magnetic field. We interprete this effect as caused by an increase of the liquid viscosity with an increasing particle concentration and field-strength. Changing the relative orientation of the scattering vector and magnetic field shows that the viscous properties of ferrofluids in a magnetic field are anisotropic. Figs 8, Refs 12.

  1. Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, H.; Yoneda, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Shimizu, F.

    2010-02-01

    Anderson localization of matter-waves in a controlled disorder: a quantum simulator? / A. Aspect ... [et al.] -- Squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Gross ... [et al.] -- New physics in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates / Y. Kawaguchi, H. Saito, and M. Ueda -- Observation of vacuum fluctuations in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Klempt ... [et al.] -- Negative-index media for matter waves / F. Perales ... [et al.] -- Entanglement of two individual atoms using the Rydberg blockade / A. Browaeys ... [et al.] -- Array of mesoscopic ensembles on a magnetic atom chip / A. F. Tauschinsky ... [et al.] -- Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to primary clock / A. Amy-Klein ... [et al.] -- Metastable helium: lifetime measurements using cold atoms as a test of QED / K. G. H. Baldwin ... [et al.] -- Optical lattice clocks with single occupancy bosons and spin-polarized fermions toward 10[symbol] accuracy / M. Takamoto ... [et al.] -- Frequency measurements of Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical standards / W. M. Itano ... [et al.] -- Switching of light with light using cold atoms inside a hollow optical fiber / M. Bajcsy ... [et al.] -- Room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry / K. Jensen ... [et al.] -- Components for multi-photon non-classical state preparation and measurement / G. Puentes ... [et al.] -- Quantum field state measurement and reconstruction in a cavity by quantum nondemolition photon counting / M. Brune ... [et al.] -- XUV frequency comb spectroscopy / C. Gohle ... [et al.] -- Ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse train with absolute-phase control produced by an adiabatic raman process / M. Katsuragawa ... [et al.] -- Strongly correlated bosons and fermions in optical lattices / S. Will ... [et al.] -- Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold bose gases in optical lattices / L. Fallani ... [et al.] -- Synthetic quantum many-body systems / C. Guerlin ... [et al

  2. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1988-06-15

    The period of this review is from late 1985 to late 1987. During this time over 6000 papers have been published in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to new areas of study. This article covers only those papers that are relevant to the analytical chemist and this necessitates a highly selective approach. There are some areas that have been the subject of many papers with relatively few being of analytical interest. In such cases the reader is referred to appropriate reviews which are detailed in this section.

  3. The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer in polycarbonate by application of an online coupling of size exclusion chromatography in stopped flow mode with pyrolysis gas chromatography time of flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brander, Eric; Wold, Christian

    2014-10-03

    The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer (Uvinul 3030™) in an unknown polycarbonate sample was achieved through the application of SEC-Py-TOF-GCMS. A size exclusion column optimized to achieve resolution in the lower mass range was applied to allow the fractionation of an individual additive peak. A commercially available sampling interface was operated in stop flow mode and fractions were pyrolyzed to allow chromatographic separation of the fragments of the otherwise non-volatile stabilizer. After identification on the basis of accurate mass and elemental composition of the additive the quantification was compared using the available SEC-UV and SEC-PY-GC-TOFMS data. The resulting method provided a high degree of certainty in identification and flexibility in quantification expected to be applicable to other additives of similar volatilities or functional class.

  4. Dual Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.; Picqué, N.

    2010-06-01

    The advent of laser frequency combs a decade ago has already revolutionized optical frequency metrology and precision spectroscopy. Extensions of laser combs from the THz region to the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray frequencies are now under exploration. Such laser combs have become enabling tools for a growing tree of applications, from optical atomic clocks to attosecond science. Recently, the millions of precisely controlled laser comb lines that can be produced with a train of ultrashort laser pulses have been harnessed for highly multiplexed molecular spectroscopy. Fourier multi-heterodyne spectroscopy, dual comb spectroscopy, or asynchronous optical sampling spectroscopy with frequency combs are emerging as powerful new spectroscopic tools. Even the first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. Longer recording times allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. The spectral structure of sharp lines of a laser comb can be very useful even in the recording of broadband spectra without sharp features, as they are e.g. encountered for molecular gases or in the liquid phase. A second frequency comb of different line spacing permits the generation of a comb of radio frequency beat notes, which effectively map the optical spectrum into the radio frequency regime, so that it can be recorded with a single fast photodetector, followed by digital signal analysis. In the time domain, a pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser excites some molecular medium at regular time intervals. A second pulse train of different repetition

  5. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  6. Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Ditlbacher, Harald; Hohenester, Ulrich; Hohenau, Andreas; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

    2012-11-14

    We map the complete plasmonic spectrum of silver nanodisks by electron energy loss spectroscopy and show that the mode which couples strongest to the electron beam has radial symmetry with no net dipole moment. Therefore, this mode does not couple to light and has escaped from observation in optical experiments. This radial breathing mode has the character of an extended two-dimensional surface plasmon with a wavenumber determined by the circular disk confinement. Its strong near fields can impact the hybridization in coupled plasmonic nanoparticles as well as couplings with nearby quantum emitters.

  7. Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollberg, Leo; Bergquist, James Charles; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Degenerate gases. Probing vortex pair sizes in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless regime on a two-dimensional lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates / V. Schweikhard ... [et al.]. Interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in random potentials / P. Bouyer ... [et al.]. Towards quantum magnetism with ultracold atoms in optical lattices / I. Bloch -- Precision measurement and fundamental physics. T-violation and the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the mercury atom / E. N. Fortson -- Quantum information and control I. Quantum information processing and ramsey spectroscopy with trapped ions / C. F. Roos ... [et al.]. Quantum non-demolition counting of photons in a cavity / S. Haroche ... [et al.] -- Ultra-fast control and spectroscopy. Frequency-Comb- assisted mid-infrared spectroscopy / P. de Natale ... [et al.] -- Precision measurement and applications. Precision gravity tests by atom interferometry / G. M. Tino ... [et al.] -- Novel spectroscopic applications. On a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio / W. Ubachs ... [et al.] -- Quantum information and control II. Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles / H. Krauter ... [et al.] -- Degenerate Fermi gases. An atomic Fermi gas near a P-wave Feshbach resonance / D. S. Jin, J. P. Gaebler and J. T. Stewart. Bragg scattering of correlated atoms from a degenerate Fermi gas / R. J. Ballagh, K. J. Challis and C. W. Gardiner -- Spectroscopy and control of atoms and molecules. Stark and Zeeman deceleration of neutral atoms and molecules / S. D. Hogan ... [et al.]. Generation of coherent, broadband and tunable soft x-ray continuum at the leading edge of the driver laser pulse / A. Jullien ... [et al.]. Controlling neural atoms and photons with optical conveyor belts and ultrathin optical fibers / D. Meschede. W. Alt and A. Rauschenbeutel -- Spectroscopy on the small scale. Wide-field cars-microscopy / C. Heinrich ... [et al.]. Atom nano-optics and nano-lithography / V. I. Balykin ... [et al

  8. Femtosecond resolution of soft mode dynamics in structural phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, Thomas P.; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Nelson, Keith A.; Garrett, Mark H.; Jensen, Hans P.; Warde, Cardinal

    1992-01-01

    The microscopic pathway along which ions or molecules in a crystal move during structural phase transition can often be described in terms of a collective vibrational mode of the lattice. In many cases, this mode, called a 'soft' phonon mode because of its characteristically low frequency near the phase transition temperature, is difficult to characterize through conventional frequency-domain spectroscopies such as light or neutron scattering. A femtosecond time-domain analog of light-scattering spectroscopy called impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) has been used to examine the soft modes of two perovskite ferroelectric crystals. The low-frequency lattice dynamics of KNbO3 and BaTiO3 are clarified in a manner that permits critical evaluation of microscopic models for their ferroelectric transitions. The results illustrate the advantages of ISRS over conventional Raman spectroscopy of low-frequency, heavily damped soft modes.

  9. Solvent effects on the a sub g C double bond C stretching mode in the 2 sup 1 A sub g sup minus excited state of. beta. -carotene and two derivatives: Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, T.; Hayashi, H. Univ. of Tokyo ); Tasumi, M. ); Atkinson, G.H. Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem )

    1991-04-18

    Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectra in the C{double bond}C stretching region are presented for {beta}-carotene and two of its derivatives, {beta}-apo-8{prime}-carotenal and ethyl {beta}-apo-8{prime}-carotenoate. The solvent effects on the Franck-Condon-active a{sub g} C{double bond}C stretching mode in the {sup 1}A{sub g}{sup {minus}} ground state (S{sub 0}) and the 2{sup 1}A{sub g}{sup {minus}} excited state (S{sub 1}) of each carotenoid are described. The C{double bond}C stretching frequencies in S{sub 1} are affected by the solvent and show a correlation with the absorption maxima of the S{sub 2} ({sup 1}B{sub u}{sup +}) {l arrow} S{sub 0} transition, while those in S{sub 0} are not significantly affected. These results are interpreted in terms of the vibronic coupling among the S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, and S{sub 2} electronic states, the solvent effect on the energy of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, and the structures of carotenoid molecules.

  10. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 ..mu..m were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO/sub 2/ laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m/sup 2//g at 1087 cm/sup -1/. The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -1/. The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations.

  11. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Quantum Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillaux, François

    These lecture-notes are meant to provide newcomers with an overview of the impact of vibrational spectroscopy in the field of nonlinear dynamics of atoms and molecules, in the perspective of energy localization. In the introduction, the terminology of nonlinear excitations and tentative experimental evidences are briefly recalled in a brief historical perspective. The basic principles of vibrational spectroscopy are presented in section 11 for infrared, Raman and inelastic neutron scattering. The potentialities for each technique to probing energy localization are discussed. In section 12, nonlinear dynamics in isolated molecules are treated within the framework of normal versus local mode representations. It is shown that these complementary representations are not necessarily distinctive of weak versus strong anharmonicity, in the context of chemical complexity. It is emphasized that local modes and energy localization are totally independent concepts. In section 4, examples of nonlinear dynamics in crystals are reviewed: multiphonon bound states, strong coupling between phonons and electrons probed with resonance Raman, local modes and quantum rotation in one-dimension probed with inelastic neutron scattering, strong coupling in hydrogen-bonded crystals and self-trapping probed with time-resolved vibrational-spectroscopy. The extended character of eigenstates in crystals free of impurities and disorder, the nature of the interaction of periodic lattices with plane waves, the Franck-Condon principle and the particle-wave duality in the quantum regime are key factors preventing observation of energy localization. It is shown that free spatially-localized nondissipative classical waves give rise to free pseudoparticles that behave as planar waves in the quantum regime. In conclusion, a clear demonstration that energy localization corresponds to eigenstates is eagerly expected for further evidencing these states with vibrational spectroscopy.

  12. Tuning vibrational mode localization with frequency windowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Talbot, Justin J.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Local-mode coordinates have previously been shown to be an effective starting point for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy calculations. This general approach borrows techniques from localized-orbital machinery in electronic structure theory and generates a new set of spatially localized vibrational modes. These modes exhibit a well-behaved spatial decay of anharmonic mode couplings, which, in turn, allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of couplings and increased computational efficiency. Fully localized modes, however, have been found to lead to unintuitive mixtures of characteristic motions, such as stretches and bends, and accordingly large bilinear couplings. In this work, a very simple, tunable localization frequency window is introduced, in order to realize the transition from normal modes to fully localized modes. Partial localization can be achieved by localizing only pairs of modes within this traveling frequency window, which allows for intuitive interpretation of modes. The optimal window size is suggested to be a few hundreds of wave numbers, based on small- to medium-sized test systems, including water clusters and polypeptides. The new sets of partially localized coordinates retain their spatial coupling decay behavior while providing a reduced number of potential energy evaluations for convergence of anharmonic spectra.

  13. Free electron laser mode dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Shidong

    The University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM) Fox-Smith project opens a door for great research opportunities to the fields of high resolution infrared laser spectroscopy, quantum optics, coherent x-ray production and new and fundamental applications of phase-locked pulse trains and coherent frequency combs. An understanding of FEL mode dynamics is essential for facilitating this multimirror laser cavity design and improving laser performance for applications. Of particular interest is the nonlinear mode competition and mode evolution in the time domain which can give insight understanding of FELs' mode spectrum evolution. In this dissertation, I report the first thorough investigation and analysis of the nonlinear mode competition and mode evolution from the small signal regime through deep saturation using a time domain full particle simulation code based on the fundamental FEL equations of motion. It is found that the passive eigenmode theory of multimirror resonator FEL is not fully applicable in the large signal saturated regime. Extreme mode competition at the midpoint-phase offset versus beamsplitter reflectance indicating enhanced single mode operation is also discovered. In addition, matrix analysis including the proper form of the FEL gain saturation and the phase of the complex gain is also performed. This dissertation, for the first time known to the author, proposes a Michelson configuration which couples every third pulse. The feasibility and performance of the proposed configuration is elaborately investigated. An experimental design for evaluating the extreme mode competition effect discovered during the course of this dissertation research is described, based on the Mark V FEL in the current Michelson and the proposed new Michelson configurations. Finally, I report the construction and calibration of a Fox-Smith beamsplitter using a rotatable birefringent sapphire plate. High assembly precision is achieved. The angular beam wander caused by the rotation

  14. Amateur spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, M. V.

    1998-06-01

    (The 1997 Presidential Address to the British Astronomical Association.) Auguste Comte is remembered for an unfortunate remark. In 1825 he said the chemical composition of stars would never be revealed. Within a decade or so the heart of the atom was being explored in remote stars through the science of spectroscopy. In simplistic terms one can regard the atom as a miniature solar system, but with the novel option that electrons (representing planets) having the ability to 'jump' from one orbit to another. In 'falling' to a lower orbit a photon of light of precise wavelength is released to travel outwards. When the electron 'jumps' to a higher orbit a photon of light is absorbed. This is taking place on a vast scale which we observe as lines in the spectrum - their position and prominence relates to the particular atomic element, temperature and pressure within the stellar atmosphere. It is beyond the scope of this Address to discuss the various processes that affect spectra, or to provide a mathematical explanation which can be found elsewhere. In any case the lack of a deep understanding does not preclude enjoyable or useful observations. Methods and results from amateurs conducting such observations are discussed in this paper.

  15. SIMP spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3 → 2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e + e - colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing `hidden valley' phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  16. Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    N'Gom, Moussa; Ringnalda, Jan; Mansfield, John F; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Norris, Theodore B

    2008-10-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons in individual silver nanowires and gold nanorods is investigated by means of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The transverse and longitudinal modes of these nanostructures are resolved, and the size variation of the plasmon peaks is studied. The effect of electromagnetic coupling between closely spaced nanoparticles is also observed. Finally, the relation between energy-loss measurements and optical spectroscopy of nanoparticle plasmon modes is discussed.

  17. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  18. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  19. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  20. Spectroscopy of the Heaviest Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Roderick

    2009-10-01

    The specific ``magic'' proton and neutron numbers, representing major spherical shell gaps, beyond 208Pb are a matter of considerable debate. It is well established that nuclei near Z=100, N=152 (252Fm) have well-deformed prolate shapes. By performing prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy on deformed transfermium nuclei we can learn about the single-particle structure, shell gaps, pairing correlations, and excitation modes in the heaviest nuclei. After a brief overview of state-of-the-art measurements, I will describe recent results from experiments at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory which use the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). I will then discuss the prospects of a new generation of spectroscopy measurements on the heaviest elements when the BGS is used in conjunction with the GRETINA gamma--ray tracking array.

  1. Chiroptical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurst, Jerome E.

    1995-09-01

    A brief review of the literature, and Chemical and Engineering News in particular, reveals that the determination and use of optical activity is of increasing importance in today's commercial and research laboratories. The classical technique is to measure [alpha]D using a manual or recording polarimeter to provide a single value, the specific rotation at 589 nm. A spectropolarimeter can be used to determine optical activity through the UV-Visible spectrum (Optical Rotatory Dispersion [ORD]). At wavelengths far removed from electronic absorption bands, optical activity arises from circular birefringence, or the difference in the refractive index for left- and right-circularly polarized light; i.e., nL - nR does not equal zero for chiral materials. If the optical activity is measured through an absorption band, complex behavior is observed (a Cotton Effect curve). At an absorption band, chiral materials exhibit circular dichroism (CD), or a difference in the absorption of left- and right-circularly polarized light; epsilon L minus epsilon R does not equal zero. If the spectropolarimeter is set for the measurement of CD spectra, one observes what appears to be a UV-Vis spectrum except that some absorption bands are positive while others may be negative. Just as enantiomers have specific rotations that are equal and opposite at 589 nm (sodium D line), rotations are equal and opposite at all wavelengths, and CD measurements are equal and opposite at all wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the ORD curves for the enantiomeric carvones while Figure 2 contains the CD curves. The enantiomer of carvone that has the positive [alpha]D is obtained from caraway seeds and is known to have the S-configuration while the R-enantiomer is found in spearmint oil. Figure 1. ORD of S-(+)- and R-(-)-carvones Figure 2. CD of S-(+)- and R-(-)-carvones While little can be done to correlate stereochemistry with [alpha]D values, chiroptical spectroscopy (ORD and/or CD) often can be used to assign

  2. Evanescent optical fluorescence excitation: the role of photonic mode density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Bernhard; Sato, Akihiro; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we will discuss a few basic concepts concerning the use of evanescent optical fields for the excitation of fluorescent chromophores placed near the interface. The observation of enhanced fluorescence from chromophores excited by surface plasmon and waveguide modes will be presented and discussed. We attribute the enhancement to the near-field interaction between the chromophores and the increased photonic mode density by surface plasmon and waveguide modes. We determined limits of detection (LOD) of DNA hybridisation using the same sensor architecture by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) and optical waveguide fluorescence spectroscopy (OWFS). Both SPFS and OWFS techniques have the same detection principle using an enhanced electromagnetic field to excite fluorophores and make it possible to monitor DNA hybridisation in real-time with high sensitivity. The relative photonic mode density of each mode was calculated under the resonance condition, and these values are reflected in the LOD values.

  3. Limiter H-mode experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.E. ); Bretz, N.L.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Cohen, S.A.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; LeBlanc, B.; Manos, D.M.; Meade, D.; Paul, S.F.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Towner, H.H.; Wieland, R.M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bateman, G.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Co

    1991-05-01

    Limiter H-modes with centrally peaked density profiles have been obtained in TFTR using a highly conditioned graphite limiter. The transition to these centrally peaked H-modes takes place from the supershot to the H-mode rather than the usual L- to H-mode transition observed on other tokamaks. Bidirectional beam heating is required to induce the transition. Density peaking factors, n{sub e}(0)/, greater than 2.3 are obtained and at the same time the H-mode characteristics are similar to those of limiter H-modes on other tokamaks, while the global confinement, {tau}{sub E}, can be >2.5 times L-mode scaling. The transport analysis of the data shows that transport in these H-modes is similar to that of supershots within the inner 0.6 m core of the plasma, but the stored electron energy (calculated using measured values of T{sub e} and n{sub e}) is higher for the H-mode at the plasma edge. Microwave scattering data for the edge plasma shows broad spectra at k = 5.5 cm{sup {minus}1} which begin at the drop in D{sub {alpha}} radiation and are strongly shifted in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. At the same time, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) shows a coherent mode near the boundary which propagates in the ion direction with m = 15--20 at 20--30 kHz. During the ELM event these apparent rotations cease and Mirnov fluctuations in the frequency range of 50--500 kHz increase in intensity. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Neutron Speed Echo Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioffe, A.

    Neutron speed echo (NSPE) technique is in a way a generalization of the neutron spin echo (NSE) technique. Similar to NSE spectrometers, the resolution of such NSPE spectrometer is extremely high and is not connected with the monochromatization of the incoming beam. However, in contrast to NSE spectrometers, the operation of proposed spectrometer does not necessarily require a polarized neutron beam. Such decoupling the polarization and the resolution is in clear contrast to NSE technique. Because the resolution of a NSPE spectrometer can be a few orders higher than the resolution of NSE spectrometers, one can achieve the energy resolution of about 10-14 eV by the use of ultra cold neutrons; a fact that can be used in some fundamental physics experiments. Though the scattering on the sample impose limitations on the resolution of a NSPE spectrometer, the use of the proposed technique in a low-resolution mode can be useful in the combination with triple-axis spectrometers and allow for the significant improvement of their energy resolution, however, without the use of polarized neutrons. This fact opens new possibilities for the study of magnetic phenomena in solids, where the NSE method is principally not applicable because of the neutron precession in the sample, especially by combining polarization analysis with high-resolution spectroscopy. The proposed technique also allows for an easy implementation of the principle of the NSE focusing, when the resolution ellipse is aligned along a dispersion curve.

  5. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Wilfred R

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  6. Development of a novel mixed hemimicelles dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene for the separation and preconcentration of fluoxetine in different matrices before its determination by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry and mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Elahe; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Abbasi, Amir; Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Behjat, Abbas

    2016-01-28

    This study aims at developing a novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of fluoxetine before its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on combination of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction and dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene as a sorbent. The magnetic graphene was synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The retained analyte was eluted using a 100 μL mixture of methanol/acetic acid (9:1) and converted into fluoxetine-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The analyte was then quantified by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry as well as mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). The factors affecting the separation, preconcentration and determination of fluoxetine were investigated and optimized. With a 50 mL sample and under optimized conditions using the spectrophotometry technique, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.4-60.0 μg L(-1), a detection limit of 0.21 μg L(-1), an enrichment factor of 167, and a relative standard deviation of 2.1% and 3.8% (n = 6) at 60 μg L(-1) level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. However, with thermal lens spectrometry and a sample volume of 10 mL, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.05-300 μg L(-1), a detection limit of 0.016 μg L(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 3.8% and 5.6% (n = 6) at 60 μg L(-1) level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and environmental water samples.

  7. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  8. Spectroscopy of the amide-I modes of acetanilide

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Scott, A.C.; Johnston, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Raman measurements were made on acetanilide (N-phenyl-acetamide). Data are presented of the integrated intensity of the 1650 cm/sup /minus/1/ band as a function of temperature. The experimental procedures and data reduction were highly rigorous and are believed to be to most reliable data available. A concise theory of polaron states is presented and used to interpret the data. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  10. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  11. Coherent Raman spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.

    1986-01-01

    In collaboration with NASA/Langley Research Center, a truly nonintrusive and nonseeding method for measuring supersonic molecular flow parameters was proposed and developed at Colorado State University. The feasibility of this Raman Doppler Velocimetry (RDV), currently operated in a scanning mode, was demonstrated not only in a laboratory environment at Colorado State University, but also in a major wind tunnel at NASA/Langley Research Center. The research progress of the RDV development is summarized. In addition, methods of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy and single-pulse coherent Raman spectroscopy are investigated, respectively, for measurements of high-pressure and turbulent flows.

  12. Streaming tearing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  13. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency and the like, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  14. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications.

  16. Single-Mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  17. Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyan, Mehmet A.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy standoff detection of threat chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Felix-Rivera, Hilsamar; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2011-06-01

    Spectroscopy based standoff detection systems: Raman and FTIR have been tested for detection of threat chemicals, including highly energetic materials, homemade explosives, explosives formulations and high explosives mixtures. Other threat chemicals studied included toxic industrial compounds (TIC) and chemical agent simulants. Microorganisms and biological threat agent simulants have also been detected at standoff distances. Open Path FTIR has been used to detect vapors and chemicals deposited on metal surfaces at μg/cm2 levels at distances as far as 30 m in active mode and 60 m in passive mode. In the case of Raman telescope, standoff distances for acetonitrile and ammonium nitrate were 140 m.

  19. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, Ralf; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert; Gruhler, Nico; Pernice, Wolfram

    2015-07-27

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of newberyite, hannayite and struvite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Weier, Matt L.; Martens, Wayde N.; Henry, Dermot A.; Mills, Stuart J.

    2005-11-01

    The phosphate minerals hannayite, newberyite and struvite have been studied by Raman spectroscopy using a thermal stage. Hannayite and newberyite are characterised by an intense band at around 980 cm -1 assigned to the v symmetric stretching vibration of the HPO 4 units. In contrast the symmetric stretching mode is observed at 942 cm -1 for struvite. The Raman spectra are characterised by multiple v anti-symmetric stretching bands and v and v bending modes indicating strong distortion of the HPO 4 and PO 4 units. Hannayite and newberyite are defined by bands at 3382 and 3350 cm -1 attributed to HOPO 3 vibrations and hannayite and struvite by bands at 2990, 2973 and 2874 assigned to NH 4+ bands. Raman spectroscopy has proven most useful for the analysis of these 'cave' minerals where complex paragenetic relationships exist between the minerals.

  1. Ordinary electromagnetic mode instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. Z.

    1974-01-01

    The instability of the ordinary electromagnetic mode propagating perpendicular to an external magnetic field is studied for a single-species plasma with ring velocity distribution. The marginal instability boundaries for both the purely growing mode and the propagating growing modes are calculated from the instability criteria. The dispersion characteristics for various sets of plasma parameters are also given. The typical growth rates are of the order of the cyclotron frequency.

  2. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  3. SAMPEX special pointing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Flatley, Thomas W.; Leoutsakos, Theodore

    1995-01-01

    A new pointing mode has been developed for the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. This pointing mode orients the instrument boresights perpendicular to the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field in regions of low field strength and parallel to the field lines in regions of high field strength, to allow better characterization of heavy ions trapped by the field. The new mode uses magnetometer signals and is algorithmically simpler than the previous control mode, but it requires increased momentum wheel activity. It was conceived, designed, tested, coded, uplinked to the spacecraft, and activated in less than seven months.

  4. Sensitivity Limits of Nanomechanical Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaney, P. Alex

    2009-03-01

    The sensitivity limit of the recently proposed chemical sensing method, nanomechanical resonance spectroscopy (NRS) ootnotetextP.A. Greaney and J.C. Grossman, Nano Letters, 8, 2648-2652, (2008)., is investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The NRS method exploits the preferential transfer of energy between resonant modes, using an array of nanomechanical resonators to interrogate the vibrational spectrum of an analyte directly. We report on the effects of solvent and complex analytes.

  5. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Losby, J E; Fani Sani, F; Grandmont, D T; Diao, Z; Belov, M; Burgess, J A J; Compton, S R; Hiebert, W K; Vick, D; Mohammad, K; Salimi, E; Bridges, G E; Thomson, D J; Freeman, M R

    2015-11-13

    A universal, torque-mixing method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by magnetic induction, the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured in sensitive broadband spectroscopy, here using a resonant mechanical torque sensor. Unlike induction, the torque amplitude allows equilibrium magnetic properties to be monitored simultaneously with the spin dynamics. Comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature reveal assisted switching between magnetization states and mode-dependent spin resonance interactions with nanoscale surface imperfections. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex three-dimensional spin textures. The flexibility of microelectromechanical and optomechanical devices combined with broad generality and capabilities of torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers great opportunities for development of integrated devices.

  6. Optical Spectroscopy at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaoping

    Recent advances in material science and fabrication techniques enabled development of nanoscale applications and devices with superior performances and high degree of integration. Exotic physics also emerges at nanoscale where confinement of electrons and phonons leads to drastically different behavior from those in the bulk materials. It is therefore rewarding and interesting to investigate and understand material properties at the nanoscale. Optical spectroscopy, one of the most versatile techniques for studying material properties and light-matter interactions, can provide new insights into the nanomaterials. In this thesis, I explore advanced laser spectroscopic techniques to probe a variety of different nanoscale phenomena. A powerful tool in nanoscience and engineering is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Its capability in atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy unveiled the mystical quantum world of atoms and molecules. However identification of molecular species under investigation is one of the limiting functionalities of the STM. To address this need, we take advantage of the molecular `fingerprints' - vibrational spectroscopy, by combining an infrared light sources with scanning tunneling microscopy. In order to map out sharp molecular resonances, an infrared continuous wave broadly tunable optical parametric oscillator was developed with mode-hop free fine tuning capabilities. We then combine this laser with STM by shooting the beam onto the STM substrate with sub-monolayer diamondoids deposition. Thermal expansion of the substrate is detected by the ultrasensitive tunneling current when infrared frequency is tuned across the molecular vibrational range. Molecular vibrational spectroscopy could be obtained by recording the thermal expansion as a function of the excitation wavelength. Another interesting field of the nanoscience is carbon nanotube, an ideal model of one dimensional physics and applications. Due to the small light absorption with

  7. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  8. Excursions through KK modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  9. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  10. Excursions through KK modes

    SciTech Connect

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  11. Vibrational modes of aminothiophenol: a TERS and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Merlen, A; Chaigneau, M; Coussan, S

    2015-07-15

    We report Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) mapping and Density Functional (DFT) calculations of aminothiophenol (ATP) grafted on a gold surface. The TERS mapping has demonstrated Raman modes of (ATP) and its dimerised derivative Dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). This feature confirms that the plasmon activated chemical reaction of ATP has occurred during TERS measurements. In some specific part of the samples some unidentified Raman modes are observed. We suggest that they could come from intermediate species formed during the conversion of ATP into DMAB. These modes are compared with calculated Raman spectra of some possible intermediate species. These results confirm the high potentiality of TERS measurements for nanochemistry.

  12. Relating normal vibrational modes to local vibrational modes: benzene and naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Kalescky, Robert; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    Local vibrational modes can be directly derived from normal vibrational modes using the method of Konkoli and Cremer (Int J Quant Chem 67:29, 1998). This implies the calculation of the harmonic force constant matrix F (q) (expressed in internal coordinates q) from the corresponding Cartesian force constant matrix f (x) with the help of the transformation matrix U = WB (†)(BWB (†))(-1) (B: Wilson's B-matrix). It is proven that the local vibrational modes are independent of the choice of the matrix W. However, the choice W = M (-1) (M: mass matrix) has numerical advantages with regard to the choice W = I (I: identity matrix), where the latter is frequently used in spectroscopy. The local vibrational modes can be related to the normal vibrational modes in the form of an adiabatic connection scheme (ACS) after rewriting the Wilson equation with the help of the compliance matrix. The ACSs of benzene and naphthalene based on experimental vibrational frequencies are discussed as nontrivial examples. It is demonstrated that the local-mode stretching force constants provide a quantitative measure for the C-H and C-C bond strength.

  13. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  14. Drug analysis by Raman and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huong, P V

    1986-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy is described for application to drug analysis and investigation. Possibilities and limits are mentioned for qualitative and quantitative analyses as well as for studies of structure and interactions. Some principal interaction modes, such as hydrogen bonding, proton transfer, charge transfer and ion-molecule attraction, are shown to explain drug reactivity. Illustrations are given based on several drug families, in particular vitamins, anti-depressants, cardio-active and anticancer drugs.

  15. BATSE spectroscopy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Bansal, Sandhia; Basu, Anju; Brisco, Phil; Cline, Thomas L.; Friend, Elliott; Laubenthal, Nancy; Panduranga, E. S.; Parkar, Nuru; Rust, Brad

    1992-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Spectroscopy Analysis System (BSAS) is the software system which is the primary tool for the analysis of spectral data from BATSE. As such, Guest Investigators and the community as a whole need to know its basic properties and characteristics. Described here are the characteristics of the BATSE spectroscopy detectors and the BSAS.

  16. Supersymmetric mode converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  17. Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimano, Ryo

    The behavior of superconductors far from equilibrium has been intensively studied over decades. Goals of these studies are the elucidation of bosonic fluctuations essential for the pairing mechanisms, the manifestation of competing orders or hidden phases, and the optical manipulation of superconductivity. The study of collective modes is crucially important for these perspectives as it provides the information on the dynamics of order parameters in non-equilibirium states. Generally, collective modes in ordered phases associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking are classified into 1) gapless phase modes and 2) gapped amplitude modes. In superconductors, the phase mode is eaten by gauge field, according to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. The remaining amplitude mode is recently termed as Higgs mode from its analogy to the Higgs boson in particle physics. Despite its long history of investigation, unambiguous observation of Higgs mode has remained elusive. This is because the Higgs mode does not have a charge nor electric dipole and therefore it does not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. Here we report on our recent observation of Higgs mode in s-wave superconductors by using THz-pump and THz-probe spectroscopy technique. After nonadiabatic excitation near the superconducting gap energy with monocycle THz pulses, Higgs mode was observed as oscillations in the transmission of THz probe pulse. The resonant nonlinear coupling between the Higgs mode and coherent radiation field was also discovered, resulting in an efficient third order harmonic generation of the incident THz radiation. The extension of experiments to multiband superconductors and unconventional superconductors will be discussed. Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors.

  18. Linear and Nonlinear Molecular Spectroscopy with Laser Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picque, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The regular pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser can give rise to a comb spectrum of millions of laser modes with a spacing precisely equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. They are now becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, including molecular spectroscopy. Recent experiments of multi-heterodyne frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy (also called dual-comb spectroscopy) have demonstrated that the precisely spaced spectral lines of a laser frequency comb can be harnessed for new techniques of linear absorption spectroscopy. The first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential of dual-comb spectroscopy without moving parts for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex broad spectral bandwidth molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Michelson-based Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. The resolution improves proportionally to the measurement time. Therefore longer recordings allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. Moreover, since laser frequency combs involve intense ultrashort laser pulses, nonlinear interactions can be harnessed. Broad spectral bandwidth ultra-rapid nonlinear molecular spectroscopy and imaging with two laser frequency combs is demonstrated with coherent Raman effects and two-photon excitation. Real-time multiplex accessing of hyperspectral images may dramatically expand the range of applications of nonlinear microscopy. B. Bernhardt et al., Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010); A. Schliesser et al. Nature Photonics 6, 440-449 (2012); T. Ideguchi et al. arXiv:1201.4177 (2012) T

  19. Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    McCluskey, Matthew D.

    1997-06-01

    Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

  20. Mode specific photoionization dynamics in polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbone, Gerald Jeffery

    2002-11-01

    The work presented in this dissertation presents new work on polyatomic photoionization. In these investigations, the broad range behavior of both allowed and forbidden vibrational modes in linear triatomic systems were studied to understand mode specific aspects of photoionization. The current study is made possible by the experimental strategy of exploiting high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and the high brightness of third generation synchrotron radiation sources. The data is taken typically tens of eV's past the ionization potential. The strategy that I employ is to probe alternative vibrational modes which are frequently affected differently following resonant ionization. Such vibrationally resolved data can be used to understand how the correlation between vibration and electron energy reveals microscopic insights into the photoelectron scattering process. Moreover, the mode specific behavior contains a wealth of information not only regarding allowed transitions, but also contains information on how forbidden transitions gain surprising amounts of intensity. A previously overlooked mechanism for the appearance of forbidden nontotally symmetric vibrations was discovered---resonantly amplified vibronic symmetry breaking. The photoelectron the culprit for the symmetry breaking which induces the excitation of nominally forbidden vibrational excitations. In a more general sense, these results will demonstrate that some fundamental spectroscopic approximations are not always valid, and can lead to surprising consequences.

  1. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Jose, P.; Lado, J. L.; Aguado, R.; Guinea, F.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2015-10-01

    A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS) and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s -wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene's zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  2. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  3. Laser Spectroscopy of Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-15

    AD-F161 00? LASER SPECTROSCOPY OF PLASMASMU CALIFORNIA NIY 1/1 BEKEEY J N DAILY 15 MAR 6? AFOSit-TR-6?-9?44 AFOSi-OS-0E? UNL SIFIF Z F//G2/9 M 22.5...TITLE (Inluded Secuity Clusifeation) 61102F 2308 I A3 Laser Spectroscopy of Plasmas ____________ % 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(hI John W. Daily 13.. TYPE OF...Con Eanue on everse if neceuary and idenety by bioc* numInboen During the past year, work was initiated to develop novel advanced laser spectroscopy

  4. Evolution of Plasmonic Metamolecule Modes in the Quantum Tunneling Regime.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Jonathan A; Garcia-Etxarri, Aitzol; Aguirregabiria, Garikoitz; Esteban, Ruben; Narayan, Tarun C; Koh, Ai Leen; Aizpurua, Javier; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2016-01-26

    Plasmonic multinanoparticle systems exhibit collective electric and magnetic resonances that are fundamental for the development of state-of-the-art optical nanoantennas, metamaterials, and surface-enhanced spectroscopy substrates. While electric dipolar modes have been investigated in both the classical and quantum realm, little attention has been given to magnetic and other "dark" modes at the smallest dimensions. Here, we study the collective electric, magnetic, and dark modes of colloidally synthesized silver nanosphere trimers with varying interparticle separation using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This technique enables direct visualization and spatially selective excitation of individual trimers, as well as manipulation of the interparticle distance into the subnanometer regime with the electron beam. Our experiments reveal that bonding electric and magnetic modes are significantly impacted by quantum effects, exhibiting a relative blueshift and reduced EELS amplitude compared to classical predictions. In contrast, the trimer's electric dark mode is not affected by quantum tunneling for even Ångström-scale interparticle separations. We employ a quantum-corrected model to simulate the effect of electron tunneling in the trimer which shows excellent agreement with experimental results. This understanding of classical and quantum-influenced hybridized modes may impact the development of future quantum plasmonic materials and devices, including Fano-like molecular sensors and quantum metamaterials.

  5. Whispering-mode waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnit, N. A.

    Properties of a relatively new type of waveguide structure of potential use of confining infrared radiation to a small mode volume over long path lengths are reviewed. A single guiding surface with curvature radius rho and band radius R allows propagation of a near-grazing incidence whispering mode of transverse width approximately (lambda square root of rho R/pi) sup 1/2 and radial width approximately 1/2 (sq lambda R)/sup 1/3. For sufficiently large rho, the loss per revolution for TE mode propagation is approximately pi A/sub N/, where A/sub N/ is the normal-incidence reflection loss. Results on a number of prototype structures in general agreement with these considerations are described.

  6. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors.

  7. Whispering Bloch modes

    PubMed Central

    Craster, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate eigenvalue problems for the planar Helmholtz equation in open systems with a high order of rotational symmetry. The resulting solutions have similarities with the whispering gallery modes exploited in photonic micro-resonators and elsewhere, but unlike these do not necessarily require a surrounding material boundary, with confinement instead resulting from the geometry of a series of inclusions arranged in a ring. The corresponding fields exhibit angular quasi-periodicity reminiscent of Bloch waves, and hence we refer to them as whispering Bloch modes (WBMs). We show that if the geometry of the system is slightly perturbed such that the rotational symmetry is broken, modes with asymmetric field patterns can be observed, resulting in field enhancement and other potentially desirable effects. We investigate the WBMs of two specific geometries first using expansion methods and then by applying a two-scale asymptotic scheme. PMID:27493564

  8. Infernal Fishbone Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B. White

    2003-02-11

    A new kind of fishbone instability associated with circulating energetic ions is predicted. The considered instability is essentially the energetic particle mode; it is characterized by m/n not equal to 1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The mode is localized inside the flux surface where the safety factor (q) is q* = m/n, its amplitude being maximum near q*. The instability arises in plasmas with small shear inside the q* surface and q(0) > 1. A possibility to explain recent experimental observations of the m = 2 fishbone oscillations accompanied by strong changes of the neutron emission during tangential neutral-beam injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] is shown.

  9. Probing vibrational anisotropy with nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, J. W.; Barabanschikov, A.; Oliver, A. G.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Sage, J. T.; Scheidt, W. R.

    2010-06-14

    A NRVS single-crystal study (NRVS=nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy) has provided detailed information on the in-plane modes of nitrosyl iron porphyrinate [Fe(oep)(NO)] (see picture; oep=octaethylporphyrin). The axial nitrosyl ligand controls the direction of the in-plane iron motion.

  10. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis microscopy beamline data acquisition system at ELETTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, C.; Krempaska, R.; Morrison, G. R.

    1996-07-01

    The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) microscopy data acquisition system enables the user to control the imaging and spectroscopy modes of operation of the beamline ESCA microscopy at ELETTRA. It allows the user to integrate all experiment, beamline and machine operations in one single environment. The system also provides simple data analysis for both spectra and images data to guide further data acquisition.

  11. Nanowires for THz Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    perturbations gives rise to modified behavior of slab plasmon and plasmon– polariton modes in confined geometries [3]. The conversion of...suggests that the emission originates from low-energy (acoustic) surface plasmon– polariton modes. To make these studies possible, we designed and

  12. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-07-30

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs.

  13. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  14. Spectroscopy - so what?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    The development of astronomical spectroscopy allowed amazing achievements in investigating the composition and motion of celestial bodies. But even beyond specific measurements and results, the fruitfulness and practice of spectroscopy had important ramifications on a more abstract level. This paper will discuss ways in which spectroscopy inspired or boosted new theories of the atom, life, and the Universe; redrew the boundaries among scientific disciplines; demonstrated the unity of terrestrial and celestial physical laws; changed what counted as scientific knowledge; and even revealed divine mysteries. Scientists and science writers from the first half-century of astronomical spectroscopy will be discussed, including James Clerk Maxwell, William Crookes, John Tyndall, Agnes Clerke, William Huggins and Norman Lockyer.

  15. Spectroscopy - so what?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The development of astronomical spectroscopy allowed amazing achievements in investigating the composition and motion of celestial bodies. But even beyond specific measurements and results, the fruitfulness and practice of spectroscopy had important ramifications on a more abstract level. This paper will discuss ways in which spectroscopy inspired or boosted new theories of the atom, life, and the universe; redrew the boundaries among scientific disciplines; demonstrated the unity of terrestrial and celestial physical laws; changed what counted as scientific knowledge; and even revealed divine mysteries. Scientists and science writers from the first half-century of astronomical spectroscopy will be discussed, including James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), John Tyndall, Agnes Clerke, William Huggins, and Norman Lockyer.

  16. Soft-mode spectroscopy in cubic (Ba0.8Sr0.2)Ti0.95(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.05O3 by hyper-Raman scattering and the mechanism of the phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabil, Dhifallah; Hehlen, Bernard; El Marssi, Mimoun; Mohamed, Dammak; Khemakhem, Hamadi

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a survey of soft modes and their relationship to structural phase transitions. After introducing the concept of a soft mode, the origin of softening is considered from a lattice-dynamical point. The Landau theory approach to structural transitions is then discussed, followed by a generalization of the soft-mode concept through the use of the dynamic order-parameter susceptibility. The hyper-Raman spectra in the cubic phase of (Ba0.8Sr0.2)Ti0.95(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.05O3 are studied with special emphasis on the lowest-frequency phonon mode. The spectral structure is found to change above the Curie temperature (303-873 K). Soft modes were put forward by Cochran and Anderson about 50 years ago as an explanation of structural phase transitions. Extending Landau's theory of phase transitions, their prediction was that the square of the frequency of the soft mode was proportional to ω0 (T) = C √{ T - TC } where Tc is the transition temperature.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-23

    and find new applications. A SENO 3 maturi ig undz:uanding of spin physics has allowed the de- 11 velopment of sophisticated techniques for assigning...structure of a fullerene Dist i S poial i9 derivative was determined. PAR" SENO3 I NMR spectroscopy continues to be invaluable as a routine 1i technique ...and SEN30 1s nucleic acids in solutions. The coverage of imaging and 7 spatially localized spectroscopy emphasizes technique de- 12 velopment and

  19. Spectroscopy of divertor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The requirements for divertor spectroscopy are treated with respect to instrumentation and observations on present machines. Emphasis is placed on quantitative measurements.of impurity concentrations from the interpretation of spectral line intensities. The possible influence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions on spectral line excitation in the divertor is discussed. Finally the use of spectroscopy for determining plasma temperature, density, and flows is examined.

  20. Spectroscopy of D Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Stefano

    2006-02-11

    The scenario of heavy quark meson spectroscopy underwent recently a major revolution, after the observation of BABAR and CLEO, confirmed by BELLE, of DsJ L=1 excited states, and by further evidences by SELEX. These experimental results have cast doubts on the incarnations of the ideas of Heavy Quark Effective Theory in heavy quark spectroscopy. I shall review the status of experimental data, discuss implications and sketch an outlook.

  1. Enhanced Vibrational Spectroscopies as Tools for Small Molecule Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Boujday, Souhir; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc; Srajer, Johannes; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In this short summary we summarize some of the latest developments in vibrational spectroscopic tools applied for the sensing of (small) molecules and biomolecules in a label-free mode of operation. We first introduce various concepts for the enhancement of InfraRed spectroscopic techniques, including the principles of Attenuated Total Reflection InfraRed (ATR-IR), (phase-modulated) InfraRed Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS/PM-IRRAS), and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (SEIRAS). Particular attention is put on the use of novel nanostructured substrates that allow for the excitation of propagating and localized surface plasmon modes aimed at operating additional enhancement mechanisms. This is then be complemented by the description of the latest development in Surface- and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopies, again with an emphasis on the detection of small molecules or bioanalytes. PMID:26343666

  2. Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930

  3. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  4. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  5. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths.

    PubMed

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Rieker, Gregory B; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C; Sinclair, Laura C; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2015-09-04

    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70,000 comb teeth spanning 233  cm(-1) across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO(2), CH(4), and H(2)O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10(-13) refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO(2). While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  6. One-dimensional frequency-based spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cygan, Agata; Wcisło, Piotr; Wójtewicz, Szymon; Masłowski, Piotr; Hodges, Joseph T; Ciuryło, Roman; Lisak, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in optical metrology have tremendously improved the precision and accuracy of the horizontal (frequency) axis in measured spectra. However, the vertical (typically absorbance) axis is usually based on intensity measurements that are subject to instrumental errors which limit the spectrum accuracy. Here we report a one-dimensional spectroscopy that uses only the measured frequencies of high-finesse cavity modes to provide complete information about the dispersive properties of the spectrum. Because this technique depends solely on the measurement of frequencies or their differences, it is insensitive to systematic errors in the detection of light intensity and has the potential to become the most accurate of all absorptive and dispersive spectroscopic methods. The experimental results are compared to measurements by two other high-precision cavity-enhanced spectroscopy methods. We expect that the proposed technique will have significant impact in fields such as fundamental physics, gas metrology and environmental remote sensing.

  7. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70 000 comb teeth spanning 233 cm-1 across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO2 , CH4 , and H2O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10-13 refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO2 . While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  8. Microfluidic devices for terahertz spectroscopy of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    George, Paul A; Hui, Wallace; Rana, Farhan; Hawkins, Benjamin G; Smith, A Ezekiel; Kirby, Brian J

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate microfluidic devices for terahertz spectroscopy of biomolecules in aqueous solutions. The devices are fabricated out of a plastic material that is both mechanically rigid and optically transparent with near-zero dispersion in the terahertz frequency range. Using a lowpower terahertz time-domain spectrometer, we experimentally measure the absorption spectra of the vibrational modes of bovine serum albumin from 0.5 - 2.5 THz and find good agreement with previously reported data obtained using large-volume solutions and a high-power free-electron laser. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of performing high sensitivity terahertz spectroscopy of biomolecules in aqueous solutions with detectable molecular quantities as small as 10 picomoles using microfluidic devices.

  9. Study Mode Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasan, Mani Le; Sargunan, Rajeswary

    This paper outlines a model of study mode negotiation between clients and English Language Training providers that has been developed at the University of Malaya, specifically related to English language writing skills as taught to corporate clients. Negotiation is used to reach decisions concerning the goals and methodology of learning to ensure…

  10. Two Modes of Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    This paper describes the essential difference between two modes of sexual relating: (1) a personal, outward style of interaction that is the natural extension of affection, tenderness, and companionship between two people; and (2) an impersonal, inward, more masturbatory expression in which sex is used primarily as a narcotic. The origins of…

  11. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  12. Theories and Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  13. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  14. Synthesize Modes and Correlate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee; Hensley, Daniel P.

    2005-10-01

    SMAC is an automated experimental modal parameter extraction package which determines the natural frequencies of vibration, viscous damping ratios and mode shapes from experimental accelerance frequency response functions (FRFs). It is written in the MATLAB interpretive matrix language and has a graphical user interface.

  15. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  16. List-mode likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; White, Timothy; Parra, Lucas C.

    2010-01-01

    As photon-counting imaging systems become more complex, there is a trend toward measuring more attributes of each individual event. In various imaging systems the attributes can include several position variables, time variables, and energies. If more than about four attributes are measured for each event, it is not practical to record the data in an image matrix. Instead it is more efficient to use a simple list where every attribute is stored for every event. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the concept of likelihood for such list-mode data. We present expressions for list-mode likelihood with an arbitrary number of attributes per photon and for both preset counts and preset time. Maximization of this likelihood can lead to a practical reconstruction algorithm with list-mode data, but that aspect is covered in a separate paper [IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published)]. An expression for lesion detectability for list-mode data is also derived and compared with the corresponding expression for conventional binned data. PMID:9379247

  17. Remote Spectroscopy in the Visible Using Fibers on the Optical Internet Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Rafael A. S.; de Oliveira, Anderson R.; Zilio, Sergio C.

    2010-01-01

    The work presented here demonstrates the feasibility of using the single-mode fibers of an optical Internet network to deliver visible light between separate laboratories as a way to perform remote spectroscopy in the visible for teaching purposes. The coupling of a broadband light source into the single-mode fiber (SMF) and the characterization…

  18. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  19. Characterization of Thalidomide using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, Penelope; Smith, Candace Y.

    2008-02-01

    Thalidomide is a potent anticancer therapeutic drug whose mechanism of action has not yet been elucidated. In this report, experimental Raman spectroscopy is used to determine and characterize the vibrational frequencies of the drug. These normal modes are then compared to their quantum mechanical counterparts, which have been computed using density functional theory. Upon analysis of the spectra, we found that there was a high level of agreement between the wavenumbers. As such, this spectroscopic technique may be a viable tool for examining the way in which this drug interacts with its target molecules.

  20. Long Range Surface Plasmon Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasry, Amal; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Surface plasmon modes, excited at the two sides of a thin metal layer surrounded by two (nearly) identical dielectric media interact via the overlap of their electromagnetic fields. This overlap results in two new-coupled modes, a short and a long-range surface plasmon (LRSP). We demonstrate that combining the LRSP optics with fluorescence spectroscopy can result in a huge enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to the enhanced optical field of the LRSP at the metal dielectric interface, and to its increased evanescent depth into the analyte. This was demonstrated for the detection of the fluorescence intensity of chromophore labeled protein bound to the surface sensor. Beside that, some fundamentals were studied leading to some interesting difference between SPFS and LRSPFS.

  1. Application of THz Vibrational Spectroscopy to Molecular Characterization and the Theoretical Fundamentals: An Illustration Using Saccharide Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    This work illustrates several theoretical fundamentals for the application of THz vibrational spectroscopy to molecular characterization in the solid state using two different types of saccharide systems as examples. Four subjects have been specifically addressed: (1) the qualitative differences in the molecular vibrational signatures monitored by THz and mid-IR vibrational spectroscopy; (2) the selection rules for THz vibrational spectroscopy as applied to crystalline and amorphous systems; (3) a normal mode simulation, using α-l-xylose as an example; and (4) a rigorous mode analysis to quantify the percentage contributions of the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations to the normal mode of interest.

  2. Optical spectroscopy of a nitrogen-hydrogen complex in ZnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, J.A.; Ager, J.W. III; Duxstad, K.J.; Haller, E.E. |; Taskar, N.R.; Dorman, D.R.; Olego, D.J.

    1994-02-01

    We have observed two local vibrational modes related to H bonded to N acceptors in ZnSe samples. grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The modes have been seen in both infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The new mode seen at 3194 cm{sup {minus}1} is assigned to an N-H stretching vibrational mode and the mode found at 783 cm{sup {minus}1} is tentatively assigned to an N-H wagging, vibrational mode. Polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to determine that the symmetry of the defect complex is C{sub 3v}, which implies that the H atom is in either a bonding or anti-bonding position.

  3. Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, S. M.; Higginbotham, A. P.; Madsen, M.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Nygård, J.; Krogstrup, P.; Marcus, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, with the departure from zero expected to be exponentially small as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity and atomic chains, with small amounts of mode splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majorana modes. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminium, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a ‘Majorana island’) that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometres, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half a micrometre of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometre, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help to explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.

  4. Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, S M; Higginbotham, A P; Madsen, M; Kuemmeth, F; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Krogstrup, P; Marcus, C M

    2016-03-10

    Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, with the departure from zero expected to be exponentially small as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity and atomic chains, with small amounts of mode splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majorana modes. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminium, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a 'Majorana island') that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometres, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half a micrometre of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometre, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help to explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.

  5. [Identification of B jade by Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zu, En-dong; Chen, Da-peng; Zhang, Peng-xiang

    2003-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool for identification of bleached and polymer-impregnated jadeites (so-called B jade). The major advantage of this system over classical methods of gem testing is the non-destructive identification of inclusions in gemstones and the determination of organic fracture filling in jade. Fissures in jadeites have been filled with oils and various resins to enhance their clarity, such as paraffin wax, paraffin oil, AB glue and epoxy resins. They show different peaks depending on their chemical composition. The characteristic spectrum ranges from 1,200-1,700 cm-1 to 2,800-3,100 cm-1. The spectra of resins show that they all have four strongest peaks related with phenyl: two C-C stretching modes at 1,116 and 1,609 cm-1, respectively, one C-H stretching mode at 3,069 cm-1, and a in-plane C-H bending mode at 1,189 cm-1. In addition, other two -CH2, -CH3 stretching modes at 2,906 and 2,869 cm-1, respectively, are very similar to paraffin. Therefore, the peaks at 1,116, 1,609, 1,189 and 3,069 cm-1 are important in distinguishing resin from paraffin, and we can identify B jade depending on them.

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for protein analysis: potential and challenges.

    PubMed

    López-Lorente, Ángela I; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy investigates the interaction of MIR photons with both organic and inorganic molecules via the excitation of vibrational and rotational modes, providing inherent molecular selectivity. In general, infrared (IR) spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to protein structure and structural changes via vibrational resonances originating from the polypeptide backbone or side chains; hence information on the secondary structure of proteins can be obtained in a label-free fashion. In this review, the challenges for IR spectroscopy for protein analysis are discussed as are the potential and limitations of different IR spectroscopic techniques enabling protein analysis. In particular, the amide I spectral range has been widely used to study protein secondary structure, conformational changes, protein aggregation, protein adsorption, and the formation of amyloid fibrils. In addition to representative examples of the potential of IR spectroscopy in various fields related to protein analysis, the potential of protein analysis taking advantage of miniaturized MIR systems, including waveguide-enhanced MIR sensors, is detailed.

  7. Sub-5-fs spectroscopy of a thiophene derivative with a quinoid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Zhuan; Otsubo, Tetsuo

    2006-07-01

    Sub-5-fs spectroscopy of a thiophene derivative with an electron donative and an acceptive moieties and quinoid structure provided the experimental evidence of dynamic mode coupling. It was shown that two out-of-plane bending modes mediate the dynamic mode coupling between 1469 and 1379 cm -1 and between 1603 and 1469 cm -1. These couplings are considered to be associated with geometrical relaxation relevant to the neutral bipolaron formation in all- s- trans polyacetylene.

  8. Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Maureen J.; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Batson, Philip E.

    2017-03-01

    Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons. Here we present spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes using an atom-wide electron beam. We find that the energy and the symmetry of the surface polariton phonon modes depend on the size of the nanocubes, and that they are localized to the surfaces of the nanocube. We also observe a limiting of bulk phonon scattering in the presence of surface phonon modes. Most phonon spectroscopies are selectively sensitive to either surface or bulk excitations; therefore, by demonstrating the excitation of both bulk and surface vibrational modes using a single probe, our work represents advances in the detection and visualization of spatially confined surface and bulk phonons in nanostructures.

  9. Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Maureen J; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Batson, Philip E

    2017-03-22

    Imaging of vibrational excitations in and near nanostructures is essential for developing low-loss infrared nanophotonics, controlling heat transport in thermal nanodevices, inventing new thermoelectric materials and understanding nanoscale energy transport. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy has previously been used to image plasmonic behaviour in nanostructures in an electron microscope, but hitherto it has not been possible to map vibrational modes directly in a single nanostructure, limiting our understanding of phonon coupling with photons and plasmons. Here we present spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes using an atom-wide electron beam. We find that the energy and the symmetry of the surface polariton phonon modes depend on the size of the nanocubes, and that they are localized to the surfaces of the nanocube. We also observe a limiting of bulk phonon scattering in the presence of surface phonon modes. Most phonon spectroscopies are selectively sensitive to either surface or bulk excitations; therefore, by demonstrating the excitation of both bulk and surface vibrational modes using a single probe, our work represents advances in the detection and visualization of spatially confined surface and bulk phonons in nanostructures.

  10. High precision, medium flux rate CZT spectroscopy for coherent scatter imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel A.; Hassan, Mehadi; Brady, David J.; Iniewski, Kris

    2016-05-01

    CZT detectors are primary candidates for many next-generation X-ray imaging systems. These detectors are typically operated in either a high precision, low flux spectroscopy mode or a low precision, high flux photon counting mode. We demonstrate a new detector configuration that enables operation in a high precision, medium flux spectroscopy mode, which opens the potential for a variety of new applications in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and baggage scanning. In particular, we describe the requirements of a coded aperture coherent scattering X-ray system that can perform fast imaging with accurate material discrimination.

  11. Dual mode laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, William D., Jr. (Inventor); Donaldson, Ralph W. (Inventor); Anderson, Alma G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) which is capable of operating with a small focus diameter for analyzing fluid flows at low velocity with high spatial resolution, or with a larger focus diameter to measure fluid flows at higher velocities accurately. More particularly, this is an LDV in which a simple reversal of a lens pair will allow it to operate in the two focus diameter modes.

  12. High-resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules.

    PubMed

    Laman, N; Harsha, S Sree; Grischkowsky, D; Melinger, Joseph S

    2008-02-01

    Low-frequency vibrational modes of biological molecules consist of intramolecular modes, which are dependent on the molecule as a whole, as well as intermolecular modes, which arise from hydrogen-bonding interactions and van der Waals forces. Vibrational modes thus contain important information about conformation dynamics of biological molecules, and can also be used for identification purposes. However, conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) often result in broad, overlapping features that are difficult to distinguish. The technique of waveguide THz-TDS has been recently developed, resulting in sharper features. For this technique, an ordered polycrystalline film of the molecule is formed on a metal sample plate. This plate is incorporated into a metal parallel-plate waveguide and probed via waveguide THz-TDS. The planar order of the film reduces the inhomogeneous broadening, and cooling of the samples to 77K reduces the homogenous broadening. This combination results in the line-narrowing of THz vibrational modes, in some cases to an unprecedented degree. Here, this technique has been demonstrated with seven small biological molecules, thymine, deoxycytidine, adenosine, D-glucose, tryptophan, glycine, and L-alanine. The successful demonstration of this technique shows the possibilities and promise for future studies of internal vibrational modes of large biological molecules.

  13. Variable-Temperature Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Molecule Fluctuations and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Muller, Eric A; Kravtsov, Vasily; Sass, Paul M; Dreyer, Jens; Atkin, Joanna M; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-01-13

    Structure, dynamics, and coupling involving single-molecules determine function in catalytic, electronic or biological systems. While vibrational spectroscopy provides insight into molecular structure, rapid fluctuations blur the molecular trajectory even in single-molecule spectroscopy, analogous to spatial averaging in measuring large ensembles. To gain insight into intramolecular coupling, substrate coupling, and dynamic processes, we use tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) at variable and cryogenic temperatures, to slow and control the motion of a single molecule. We resolve intrinsic line widths of individual normal modes, allowing detailed and quantitative investigation of the vibrational modes. From temperature dependent line narrowing and splitting, we quantify ultrafast vibrational dephasing, intramolecular coupling, and conformational heterogeneity. Through statistical correlation analysis of fluctuations of individual modes, we observe rotational motion and spectral fluctuations of the molecule. This work demonstrates single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy beyond chemical identification, opening the possibility for a complete picture of molecular motion ranging from femtoseconds to minutes.

  14. Holographic tissue dynamics spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, David D.; An, Ran; Turek, John; Jeong, Kwan

    2011-08-01

    Tissue dynamics spectroscopy uses digital holography as a coherence gate to extract depth-resolved quasi-elastic dynamic light scattering from inside multicellular tumor spheroids. The temporal speckle contrast provides endogenous dynamical images of proliferating and hypoxic or necrotic tissues. Fluctuation spectroscopy similar to diffusing wave spectroscopy is performed on the dynamic speckle to generate tissue-response spectrograms that track time-resolved changes in intracellular motility in response to environmental perturbations. The spectrograms consist of several frequency bands that range from 0.005 to 5 Hz. The fluctuation spectral density and temporal autocorrelations show the signature of constrained anomalous diffusion, but with large fluctuation amplitudes caused by active processes far from equilibrium. Differences in the tissue-response spectrograms between the proliferating outer shell and the hypoxic inner core differentiate normal from starved conditions. The differential spectrograms provide an initial library of tissue-response signatures to environmental conditions of temperature, osmolarity, pH, and serum growth factors.

  15. Holographic tissue dynamics spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nolte, David D; An, Ran; Turek, John; Jeong, Kwan

    2011-08-01

    Tissue dynamics spectroscopy uses digital holography as a coherence gate to extract depth-resolved quasi-elastic dynamic light scattering from inside multicellular tumor spheroids. The temporal speckle contrast provides endogenous dynamical images of proliferating and hypoxic or necrotic tissues. Fluctuation spectroscopy similar to diffusing wave spectroscopy is performed on the dynamic speckle to generate tissue-response spectrograms that track time-resolved changes in intracellular motility in response to environmental perturbations. The spectrograms consist of several frequency bands that range from 0.005 to 5 Hz. The fluctuation spectral density and temporal autocorrelations show the signature of constrained anomalous diffusion, but with large fluctuation amplitudes caused by active processes far from equilibrium. Differences in the tissue-response spectrograms between the proliferating outer shell and the hypoxic inner core differentiate normal from starved conditions. The differential spectrograms provide an initial library of tissue-response signatures to environmental conditions of temperature, osmolarity, pH, and serum growth factors.

  16. Whispering Gallery Mode Thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Simone; Ramella, Chiara; Yu, Lili; Pirola, Marco; Fernicola, Vito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art whispering gallery mode (WGM) thermometer system, which could replace platinum resistance thermometers currently used in many industrial applications, thus overcoming some of their well-known limitations and their potential for providing lower measurement uncertainty. The temperature-sensing element is a sapphire-crystal-based whispering gallery mode resonator with the main resonant modes between 10 GHz and 20 GHz. In particular, it was found that the WGM around 13.6 GHz maximizes measurement performance, affording sub-millikelvin resolution and temperature stability of better than 1 mK at 0 °C. The thermometer system was made portable and low-cost by developing an ad hoc interrogation system (hardware and software) able to achieve an accuracy in the order of a few parts in 109 in the determination of resonance frequencies. Herein we report the experimental assessment of the measurement stability, repeatability and resolution, and the calibration of the thermometer in the temperature range from −74 °C to 85 °C. The combined standard uncertainty for a single temperature calibration point is found to be within 5 mK (i.e., comparable with state-of-the-art for industrial thermometry), and is mainly due to the employed calibration setup. The uncertainty contribution of the WGM thermometer alone is within a millikelvin. PMID:27801868

  17. Optical phonon modes in rhombohedral boron monosulfide under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cherednichenko, Kirill A.; Sokolov, Petr S.; Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kalinko, Aleksandr; Le Godec, Yann; Polian, Alain; Itié, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-14

    Raman spectra of rhombohedral boron monosulfide (r-BS) were measured under pressures up to 34 GPa at room temperature. No pressure-induced structural phase transition was observed, while strong pressure shift of Raman bands towards higher wavenumbers has been revealed. IR spectroscopy as a complementary technique has been used in order to completely describe the phonon modes of r-BS. All experimentally observed bands have been compared with theoretically calculated ones and modes assignment has been performed. r-BS enriched by {sup 10}B isotope was synthesized, and the effect of boron isotopic substitution on Raman spectra was observed and analyzed.

  18. Combined mode I and mode II fracture of monolithic ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behaviors of a coarse-grained silicon nitride, a fine-grained silicon nitride, and an alumina were investigated. These ceramics were fractured from two types of fracture initiating flaws: small surface flaws and large single edge precracks. The small surface flaws were introduced by Knoop indentation in flexural samples at various angles to the tensile stress direction and fractured in four-point bending. The samples with large precracks were fractured in the asymmetric four-point-bend geometry. The mixed-mode fracture toughness values obtained from the two flaw configurations were in good agreement with each other. All three ceramics displayed very similar mixed-mode fracture behavior, although their microstructures were not similar. Comparison of experimental data to mixed-mode fracture theories revealed that the minimum strain energy density theory best described the mixed-mode fracture behavior of all three ceramics.

  19. Spectroscopy of francium

    SciTech Connect

    Simsarian, J. E.; Grossman, J. S.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M.; Sprouse, G. D.; Zhao, W. Z.

    1999-01-15

    Francium is the least studied of the alkali atoms because it has no stable isotopes. We have performed precision spectroscopy on cold Fr atoms in a magneto optical trap. We have determined the location of the first two excited states of the S series by two-photon spectroscopy. We have measured the lifetimes of the 7p levels with a precision better than 0.5%. Our measurements test the many-body perturbation theory ab initio calculations of the dipole matrix element to very high accuracy in this relativistic alkali.

  20. Practical Amateur Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkin, Stephen F.

    Because today's amateur astronomical telescopes are both powerful and affordable, spectroscopy - once the province of professionals - is becoming more and more popular. Various spectroscopes, at prices to suit everyone, are now available "off the shelf". Practical Amateur Spectroscopy contains everything an amateur needs to grasp the basic principles, to begin observing, and to understand just what the spectra show. Contributions by leading practical amateurs from America and Europe cover a very wide range of amateur equipment and techniques. One even describes how an audio CD can be used to show solar emission and absorption lines!

  1. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Shiraishi, Maresuke E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  2. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio rv and the spectral index nv of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ2 between the vector and tensor models is Δχ2 = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create Script O(10-22)-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  3. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I⩾1/2 nuclei is presented.

  4. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I⩾1/2 nuclei is presented. PMID:21051249

  5. Accessing Phonon Polaritons in Hyperbolic Crystals by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tomadin, Andrea; Principi, Alessandro; Song, Justin C W; Levitov, Leonid S; Polini, Marco

    2015-08-21

    Recently studied hyperbolic materials host unique phonon-polariton (PP) modes. The ultrashort wavelengths of these modes, as well as their low damping, hold promise for extreme subdiffraction nanophotonics schemes. Polar hyperbolic materials such as hexagonal boron nitride can be used to realize long-range coupling between PP modes and extraneous charge degrees of freedom. The latter, in turn, can be used to control and probe PP modes. Here we analyze coupling between PP modes and plasmons in an adjacent graphene sheet, which opens the door to accessing PP modes by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). A rich structure in the graphene ARPES spectrum due to PP modes is predicted, providing a new probe of PP modes and their coupling to graphene plasmons.

  6. An investigation of the RWPE prostate derived family of cell lines using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baker, M J; Clarke, C; Démoulin, D; Nicholson, J M; Lyng, F M; Byrne, H J; Hart, C A; Brown, M D; Clarke, N W; Gardner, P

    2010-05-01

    Interest in developing robust, quicker and easier diagnostic tests for cancer has lead to an increased use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to meet that need. In this study we present the use of different experimental modes of infrared spectroscopy to investigate the RWPE human prostate epithelial cell line family which are derived from the same source but differ in their mode of transformation and their mode of invasive phenotype. Importantly, analysis of the infrared spectra obtained using different experimental modes of infrared spectroscopy produces similar results. The RWPE family of cell lines can be separated into groups based upon the method of cell transformation rather than the resulting invasiveness/aggressiveness of the cell line. The study also demonstrates the possibility of using a genetic algorithm as a possible standardised pre-processing step and raises the important question of the usefulness of cell lines to create a biochemical model of prostate cancer progression.

  7. Mode Tracker for Mode-Hop-Free Operation of a Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocki, Gerard; Tittel, Frank K.; Curl, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A mode-tracking system that includes a mode-controlling subsystem has been incorporated into an external-cavity (EC) quantum cascade laser that operates in a mid-infrared wavelength range. The mode-tracking system makes it possible to perform mode-hop-free wavelength scans, as needed for high-resolution spectroscopy and detection of trace gases. The laser includes a gain chip, a beam-collimating lens, and a diffraction grating. The grating is mounted on a platform, the position of which can be varied to effect independent control of the EC length and the grating angle. The position actuators include a piezoelectric stage for translation control and a motorized stage for coarse rotation control equipped with a piezoelectric actuator for fine rotation control. Together, these actuators enable control of the EC length over a range of about 90 m with a resolution of 0.9 nm, and control of the grating angle over a coarse-tuning range of +/-6.3deg and a fine-tuning range of +/-520 microrad with a resolution of 10 nrad. A mirror mounted on the platform with the grating assures always the same direction of the output laser beam.

  8. Solar p-Modes Modulated by Interior g-Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yu-Qing

    2001-08-01

    The process by which frequency modulations of solar p-modes with shorter periods (~5 minutes) occur because of the presence of solar interior g-modes with longer periods (greater than a few hours approximately) is studied. The key results of a model analysis are given. In addition to the effects of stochastic excitation, this modulation by g-modes would give rise to fine spectral structures in the form of frequency sideband peaks closely packed around individual p-modes (with narrow frequency intervals on the order of g-mode frequencies) rather than of separate g-mode spectral power peaks in the low-frequency bands. For those p-modes of low degree that penetrate deep into the solar interior, this effect of frequency modulation by interior g-modes (if they exist) should be more pronounced. Observationally, individual p-modes usually contain numerous fine peaks that have to be somehow modeled (or smoothed) in order to estimate p-mode frequencies, amplitudes, and line widths, etc. By carefully weeding out noises of various origins in high-resolution p-mode frequency spectra, one might be able to extract the desired signals of g-modes trapped in the solar interior that have so far evaded the scrutiny of advanced helioseismological experiments.

  9. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection and Burn Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, Mohammad Hassan

    Terahertz (THz) frequencies represent the last frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum to be investigated by scientists. One of the main attractions of investigating this frequency range is the richness of the spectral information that can be obtained using a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) setup. Many large molecule chemicals and polymers have vibrational and rotational modes in the THz frequencies. Study of these resonance modes has revealed a wealth of new information about the intermolecular structure, and its transformation during crystallization or polymerization process. This information helps researchers develop new materials to address problems such as efficient energy conversion in polymer solar cells. Moreover, similar signature-like terahertz modes can be used for stand-off identification of substances or for nondestructive evaluation of defects in industrial applications. Finally, terahertz spectroscopy has the potential to provide a safe and non-ionizing imaging modality to study cellular and molecular events in biological and biomedical applications. The high sensitivity of terahertz waves to attenuation by both bound and free water molecules can also provides a source of signal contrast for many future biomedical imaging and diagnostic applications. In this dissertation, we aim to study and develop three such applications of terahertz spectroscopy, which form the three axes of our work: rough-surface scattering mediated stand-off detection of chemicals, characterization of burn injuries using terahertz radiation, and a new electrically tunable bandpass filter device incorporating nano-material transparent electrodes that can enable fast terahertz spectroscopy in the frequency domain.

  10. MODE: Structural Test Article (STA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Masters, Brett

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE): Structural Test Article (STA) are presented. Topics covered include: MODE: structural test article motivation; hardware; sensors and actuators; experimental support module; data; preliminary results; supporting analysis program; and modeling approach.

  11. I-mode for ITER?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D. G.; Marmar, E.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Dominguez, A.; Greenwald, M.

    2011-10-01

    I-mode is a recently explored confinement regime that features a temperature pedestal and H-mode energy confinement, yet with L-mode particle confinement and no density pedestal nor large ELMs. Experiments on Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX-Upgrade show this leads to a stationary collisionless pedestal that inherently does not require ELMs for core impurity and particle control, possibly making I-mode an attractive operating regime for ITER where ELM heat pulses are expected to surpass material limits. We speculate as to how I-mode could be obtained, maintained and exploited for the ITER burning plasma physics mission. Issues examined include I-mode topology and power threshold requirements, pedestal formation, density control, avoiding H-mode, and the response of I-mode to alpha self-heating. Key uncertainties requiring further investigation are identified. Supported by the US DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. MODE: Structural Test Article (STA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Masters, Brett

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE): Structural Test Article (STA) are presented. Topics covered include: MODE: structural test article motivation; hardware; sensors and actuators; experimental support module; data; preliminary results; supporting analysis program; and modeling approach.

  13. Advanced Spectroscopy Technique for Biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan

    This chapter presents an overview of the applications of optical spectroscopy in biomedicine. We focus on the optical design aspects of advanced biomedical spectroscopy systems, Raman spectroscopy system in particular. Detailed components and system integration are provided. As examples, two real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems, one for skin cancer detection and the other for endoscopic lung cancer detection, and an in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy system for skin assessment are presented. The applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis of the skin, lung, colon, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and cervix are summarized.

  14. Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Dominic P. E.; Berry, Frank J.

    1986-12-01

    Preface; 1. Principles of Mössbauer spectroscopy Dominic P. E. Dickson and Frank J. Berry; 2. Mössbauer spectroscopy and the chemical bond R. V. Parish; 3. Mössbauer spectroscopy as a structural probe Gary J. Long; 4. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetic solids M. F. Thomas and C. E. Johnson; 5. Time-dependent effects and relaxation in Mössbauer spectroscopy S. Dattagupta; 6. The dynamics of nuclei studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy E. R. Bauminger and I. Nowik; References; Index.

  15. Spectroscopy with Supersonic Jets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Anne R.; Chandler, Dean W.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a new technique that enables spectroscopists to study gas phase molecules at temperatures below 1 K, without traditional cryogenic apparatus. This technique uses supersonic jets as samples for gas molecular spectroscopy. Highlighted are points in the theory of supersonic flow which are important for applications in molecular…

  16. FTIR Rotational Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ron; Henderson, Giles

    1987-01-01

    Presented are representative examples of the spectra and the analyses for a linear molecule (HC1), a symmetric top molecule (NH3), and an asymmetric top (H2O). Any combination of these projects could be incorporated in a physical chemistry or molecular spectroscopy laboratory. (RH)

  17. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  18. Identifying the spectroscopic modes of multiferroic BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Randy S.; Furukawa, Nobuo; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Miyahara, Shin

    2012-12-01

    We have identified the modes of multiferroic BiFeO3 measured by THz and Raman spectroscopies. Excellent agreement with the observed peaks is obtained by including the effects of easy-axis anisotropy along the direction of the electric polarization. By distorting the cycloidal spin state, anisotropy splits the Ψ±1 mode into peaks at 20 and 21.5 cm-1 and activates the lower Φ±2 mode at 27 cm-1 (T=200 K). An electromagnon is identified with the upper Ψ±1 mode at 21.5 cm-1. Our results also explain recent inelastic neutron-scattering measurements.

  19. Tunable continuous wave single-mode dye laser directly pumped by a diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanska, D.; Suski, M.; Furmann, B.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a tunable continuous wave single-mode ring dye laser (a modified version of Coherent model CR 699-21), directly optically pumped by an economy-class diode laser, has been set up. The laser was operated on Coumarin 498, and its generation profile covered part of the green spectral region not easily accessible in single-mode operation. The performance of the laser in both broad-band and single-mode operation regimes was studied. It was proved that optical pumping by diode lasers allows one to obtain single-mode operation of dye lasers that is sufficiently stable for high-resolution spectroscopy applications.

  20. Near-field techniques for probing collective modes of anisotropic superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, H. T.; Wu, J. S.; Jiang, B. Y.; Fei, Z.; Rodin, A. S.; Chapler, B.; McLeod, A. S.; Castro-Neto, A.; Lee, Y. S.; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) to characterize the collective mode spectrum of anisotropic superconductors. To probe the dispersion of collective modes with large in-plane momenta, specifically surface plasmons and guided wave modes, we model the real-space interference patterns of modes launched by the sharp s-SNOM tip and their reflections off physical and electronic boundaries. In addition, we show that s-SNOM spectroscopy allows for a direct probe of the c-axis superfluid density in underdoped anisotropic superconductors with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  1. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  2. Triple mode Cepheid masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. S.; Cox, A. N.; Hodson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Unconventional composition structures are proposed to explain the periods of the triple mode Cepheid aC And. A strong Cepheid wind appears to enrich helium in the convection zones down to about 60,000 K or 70,000 K. Then some downward partial mixing occurs to the bottom of a layer with about 1-q = .0005 of the stellar mass. It was found that AC And was not unlike anomalous Cepheids. However, masses of betwen one and two solar masses are suggested and the population is more likely a type two.

  3. Shear mode grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1989-04-24

    The thesis of this paper is that shear mode grinding of glass (1) occurs with abrasive particle sizes less than 1/mu/m, (2) that it is the mechanical limit of the the more common mechanical-chemical glass polishing, and (3) that the debris is insufficient in size to perform the function of eroding the binder in the grinding wheel and thus necessitates the addition of an abrasive and/or chemical additions to the coolant to effect wheel-dressing. 13 refs.

  4. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  5. Dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Obrsky, J.; Alexander, A.A.; Griffen, O.H.; Foster, J.S.; Shamblen, M.

    1980-12-31

    A dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and capable of sensing which type of target has been struck comprising a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom and later split upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by high and one by low impact deceleration. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains a pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.

  6. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  7. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  8. Surface-Enhanced Impulsive Coherent Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Harra, Juha; Virkki, Matti; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Leng, Yuxin; Kauranen, Martti; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has attracted a lot of attention in molecular sensing because of the remarkable ability of plasmonic metal nanostructures to enhance the weak Raman scattering process. On the other hand, coherent vibrational spectroscopy triggered by impulsive excitation using ultrafast laser pulses provides complete information about the temporal evolution of molecular vibrations, allowing dynamical processes in molecular systems to be followed in “real time”. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate surface-enhanced impulsive vibrational spectroscopy. The vibrational modes of the ground and excited states of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)‑1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), spin-coated on a substrate covered with monodisperse silver nanoparticles, are impulsively excited with a sub-10 fs pump pulse and characterized with a delayed broad-band probe pulse. The maximum enhancement in the spectrally and temporally resolved vibrational signatures averaged over the whole sample is about 4.6, while the real-time information about the instantaneous vibrational amplitude together with the initial vibrational phase is preserved. The phase is essential to determine the vibrational contributions from the ground and excited states.

  9. Surface-Enhanced Impulsive Coherent Vibrational Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Harra, Juha; Virkki, Matti; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Leng, Yuxin; Kauranen, Martti; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has attracted a lot of attention in molecular sensing because of the remarkable ability of plasmonic metal nanostructures to enhance the weak Raman scattering process. On the other hand, coherent vibrational spectroscopy triggered by impulsive excitation using ultrafast laser pulses provides complete information about the temporal evolution of molecular vibrations, allowing dynamical processes in molecular systems to be followed in “real time”. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate surface-enhanced impulsive vibrational spectroscopy. The vibrational modes of the ground and excited states of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)−1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), spin-coated on a substrate covered with monodisperse silver nanoparticles, are impulsively excited with a sub-10 fs pump pulse and characterized with a delayed broad-band probe pulse. The maximum enhancement in the spectrally and temporally resolved vibrational signatures averaged over the whole sample is about 4.6, while the real-time information about the instantaneous vibrational amplitude together with the initial vibrational phase is preserved. The phase is essential to determine the vibrational contributions from the ground and excited states. PMID:27812020

  10. FRIDA integral field spectroscopy PSF quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 2 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. The image slicing is performed by a block of 30 cylindrical mirrors each of 400 μm width. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors that adapts the GTCAO corrected PSF to the slicer mirrors dimensions. To readapt the sliced PSF to the spectrograph input numerical aperture the IFU has an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. The AO PSF is bigger than the slice mirror dimensions and this produces diffraction effects. These diffraction effects combined with the intrinsic IFU and spectrograph aberrations produce the final instrumental PSF of the IFS mode. In order to evaluate the instrumental PSF quality of the FRIDA IFS, modeling simulations were performed by the ZEMAX Physical Optics Propagation (POP) module. In this work the simulations are described and the PSF quality and uniformity on a reconstructed IFS image is evaluated. It is shown the PSF quality of the IFS mode including the instrument manufacturing tolerances fulfills the specifications.

  11. The Aerosol Coarse Mode Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Adhikari, N.; Air, D.; Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the world show an aerosol volume distribution with a significant coarse mode and sometimes a dominant coarse mode. The large coarse mode is usually due to dust, but sea salt aerosol can also play an important role. However, in many field campaigns, the coarse mode tends to be ignored, because it is difficult to measure. This lack of measurements leads directly to a concomitant "lack of analysis" of this mode. Because, coarse mode aerosols can have significant effects on radiative forcing, both in the shortwave and longwave spectrum, the coarse mode -- and these forcings -- should be accounted for in atmospheric models. Forcings based only on fine mode aerosols have the potential to be misleading. In this paper we describe examples of large coarse modes that occur in areas of large aerosol loading (Mexico City, Barnard et al., 2010) as well as small loadings (Sacramento, CA; Kassianov et al., 2012; and Reno, NV). We then demonstrate that: (1) the coarse mode can contribute significantly to radiative forcing, relative to the fine mode, and (2) neglecting the coarse mode may result in poor comparisons between measurements and models. Next we describe -- in general terms -- the limitations of instrumentation to measure the coarse mode. Finally, we suggest a new initiative aimed at examining coarse mode aerosol generation mechanisms; transport and deposition; chemical composition; visible and thermal IR refractive indices; morphology; microphysical behavior when deposited on snow and ice; and specific instrumentation needs. Barnard, J. C., J. D. Fast, G. Paredes-Miranda, W. P. Arnott, and A. Laskin, 2010: Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 7325-7340. Kassianov, E. I., M. S. Pekour, and J. C. Barnard, 2012: Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing

  12. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  13. SAMPEX Spin Stabilized Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Dean C.; Markley, F. Landis; Watson, Todd P.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the first of the Small Explorer series of spacecraft, was launched on July 3, 1992 into an 82' inclination orbit with an apogee of 670 km and a perigee of 520 km and a mission lifetime goal of 3 years. After more than 15 years of continuous operation, the reaction wheel began to fail on August 18,2007. With a set of three magnetic torquer bars being the only remaining attitude actuator, the SAMPEX recovery team decided to deviate from its original attitude control system design and put the spacecraft into a spin stabilized mode. The necessary operations had not been used for many years, which posed a challenge. However, on September 25, 2007, the spacecraft was successfully spun up to 1.0 rpm about its pitch axis, which points at the sun. This paper describes the diagnosis of the anomaly, the analysis of flight data, the simulation of the spacecraft dynamics, and the procedures used to recover the spacecraft to spin stabilized mode.

  14. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  15. Single-Mode VISAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Kerry

    2007-11-28

    High energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments examine the properties of materials under extreme conditions. These experiments rely on the measurement of one or two velocities. These velocities are used to obtain Hugoniot relationships and thermodynamic equations of state. This methodology is referred to as 'velocimetry' and an instrument used to measure the shock wave is called a 'velocimeter' or a '(velocity) diagnostic'. The two most-widely used existing velocity diagnostics are; photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). PDV's advantages are a fast rise-time and ease of implementation but PDV has an upper velocity limit. Traditional implementations of VISAR have a rise time 10 times slower than PDV and are not easily implemented but are capable of measuring any velocity produced during HEDP experiments. This thesis describes a novel method of combining the positive attributes of PDV and VISAR into a more cost effective diagnostic called a Single-Mode VISAR (SMV). The new diagnostic will consist of PDV parts in a VISAR configuration. This configuration will enable the measurement of any velocity produced during shock physics experiments while the components used to build the diagnostic will give the diagnostic a fast rise time and make it easy to use. This thesis describes the process of building and testing the first single-mode VISAR. The tests include verifying the performance of the components and the diagnostic as a whole.

  16. Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Han, Fangyuan; Kong, Wei

    2010-10-28

    We report zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectroscopy of pyrene via resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization. Our analysis centers on the symmetry of the first electronically excited state (S(1)), its vibrational modes, and the vibration of the ground cationic state (D(0)). From comparisons between the observed vibrational frequencies and those from ab initio calculations at the configuration interaction singles level using the 6-311G (d,p) basis set, and based on other previous experimental and theoretical reports, we confirm the (1)B(2u) symmetry for the S(1) state. This assignment represents a reversal in the energy order of the two closely spaced electronically excited states from our theoretical calculation, and extensive configuration interactions are attributed to this result. Among the observed vibrational levels of the S(1) state, three are results of vibronic coupling due to the nearby second electronically excited state. The ZEKE spectroscopy obtained via the vibronic levels of the S(1) state reveals similar modes for the cation as those of the intermediate state. Although we believe that the ground ionic state can be considered a single electron configuration, the agreement between theoretical and experimental frequencies for the cation is limited. This result is somewhat surprising based on our previous work on cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small substituted aromatic compounds. Although a relatively small molecule, pyrene demonstrates its nonrigidity via several out-of-plane bending modes corresponding to corrugation of the molecular plane. The adiabatic ionization potential of neutral pyrene is determined to be 59 888 ± 7 cm(-1).

  17. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  18. Raman spectroscopy in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jorge Villar, Susana E; Edwards, Howell G M

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is proposed as a valuable analytical technique for planetary exploration because it is sensitive to organic and inorganic compounds and able to unambiguously identify key spectral markers in a mixture of biological and geological components; furthermore, sample manipulation is not required and any size of sample can be studied without chemical or mechanical pretreatment. NASA and ESA are considering the adoption of miniaturised Raman spectrometers for inclusion in suites of analytical instrumentation to be placed on robotic landers on Mars in the near future to search for extinct or extant life signals. In this paper we review the advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of complex specimens with relevance to the detection of bio- and geomarkers in extremophilic organisms which are considered to be terrestrial analogues of possible extraterrestial life that could have developed on planetary surfaces.

  19. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  20. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  1. Plasma Spectroscopy in ISTTOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Gomes, R. B.; Pereira, T.; Fernandes, H.; Sharakovski, A.

    2008-04-01

    Plasma spectroscopy is a well established technique for impurities study in fusion plasmas. A brief description of the several spectroscopic systems which have been in operation at ISTTOK is given. In ISTTOK a passive spectroscopy diagnostic system is being used to perform spectral and spatial characterization in the 300-850 nm wavelength range. The system used to perform that work consist essentially of a cooled CCD camera coupled to a half a meter imaging spectrograph with collection optics based on a multi-fiber set to allow for enhanced spatial resolution. Experimental data is shown underlining typical plasma fusion spectral lines and specific ISTTOK characteristics. A web based data access tool is presented that allows the spectral plasma survey in specific wavelength ranges. The information provided by this survey has been used to select suitable transmission filters for a diagnostic, currently under development, to measure Zeff parameter for ISTTOK plasmas. A description of this diagnostic is also presented.

  2. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  3. Low THz spectroscopy of some widely used explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Tatiana; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana

    2010-04-01

    We investigated resonance spectroscopic features from several widely used explosives materials including RDX and PETN in the low THz range with the goal of understanding the mechanism of interaction between radiation and material in the form of solid films, gels and dilute solutions (suspensions). FTIR spectroscopy was used to measure spectra in transmission and reflection modes. We demonstrated that very small amount of material with a simple sample preparation technique can be used still providing very accurate results. Spectral features are specific not only for main ingredients but for modifications with different plasticizers. The consistency of results for different amount of material was observed. Computational modeling confirmed the lowest frequency modes.

  4. Charm Baryon Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    B-factories Belle and BaBar during its operation made not only measurements connected with B-meson decays but also numerous observation and measurements in charm physics. In particular, their results on charm baryon decays and spectroscopy have enlarged and enriched the current picture of heavy flavour hadrons. In this talk we overview current status of charm baryons and their excited states.

  5. Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Steven T

    2008-03-31

    The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  6. Applications in Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    25 Chopping frequency vs. PA signal ... ..... 30 Concentration vs. PA signal .. ........ .. 35 III Photoacoustic Detection of Thin Films ...1,21, researchers today utilize PA spectroscopy to investigate the optical and thermal properties of solids (3,4] and solutions (5]. Reviews of the basic... optical properties , the thermal properties and the physical dimensions of the 2 sample, the cell, and the coupling gas. Studies to date have been somewhat

  7. Quantum Gravitational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Baessler, Stefan; Pignol, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    We report that one of the main goals for improving the accuracy of quantum gravitational spectroscopy with neutrons is searches for extra short-range fundamental forces. We discuss also any progress in all competing nonneutron methods as well as constraints at other characteristic distances. Among major methodical developments related to the phenomenon of gravitational quantum states are the detailed theoretical analysis and the planning experiments on observation of gravitational quantum states of antihydrogen atoms.

  8. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy of polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Calleja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    Polyaniline films (PANI) are being considered as attractive new galvanic sources, electrochromic displays, chemical sensors, etc. So far much work has been done to study their optical, electrochemical and electrical properties. However, there are still doubts about the basic electric conductivity mechanisms of PANI. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of water molecules and acid anions on the properties of PANI films by dielectric spectroscopy.

  10. Theory and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  11. Colloquium: Graphene spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.; Lanzara, A.; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies of electronic phenomena in graphene are reviewed. A variety of methods and techniques are surveyed, from quasiparticle spectroscopies (tunneling, photoemission) to methods probing density and current response (infrared optics, Raman) to scanning probe nanoscopy and ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Vast complimentary information derived from these investigations is shown to highlight unusual properties of Dirac quasiparticles and many-body interaction effects in the physics of graphene.

  12. Layman friendly spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    Affordable consumer grade spectroscopes (e.g. SCiO, Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE) are becoming more available to the general public. We introduce the concepts of spectroscopy to the public and K12 students and motivate them to delve deeper into spectroscopy in a dramatic participatory presentation and play. We use diffraction gratings, lasers, and light sources of different spectral properties to provide a direct experience of spectroscopy techniques. Finally, we invite the audience to build their own spectroscope--utilizing the APS SpectraSnapp cell phone application--and study light sources surrounding them in everyday life. We recontextualize the stigma that science is hard (e.g. ``Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They're Hard,'' The Wall Street Journal) by presenting the material in such a way that it demonstrates the scientific method, and aiming to make failure an impersonal scientific tool--rather than a measure of one's ability, which is often a reason for shying away from science. We will present lessons we have learned in doing our outreach to audiences of different ages. This work is funded by the APS Outreach Grant ``Captain, we have matter matters!'' We thank New Mexico Tech Physics Department and Physics Club for help and technical equipment.

  13. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  14. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  15. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  16. Stimulation of MHD Modes in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Labombard, B.; Lin, Y.; Parker, R. R.; Sears, J.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2010-11-01

    Active MHD (AMHD) spectroscopy involves stimulating MHD modes by external means to study the modes or diagnose the plasma. In many AMHD experiments, drive frequency is swept across a 100-200 kHz range in which modes are expected; this allows for robust techniques to detect resonant poles in the presence of direct pickup from the driver. However, there is flexibility in the drive mechanism. At Alcator, we have employed a parametric excitation method, amplitude-modulating the ICRF wave (80 MHz) with envelope signals in the AE frequency range (100's kHz). This builds off the ICRF beat technique used in JET in 1996 and ASDEX Upgrade in 2006, but is unique in its use of a single antenna, improving coherence. An advantage of this approach is its ability to couple to the plasma core. It also has high input power, though efficiency is limited by the Manley-Rowe relations. In initial experiments, we excited weak, stable modes in the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode band gap. We plan to explore this and other methods for coupling to various MHD-like modes, especially C-Mod's Quasi Coherent mode.

  17. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  18. Single-mode dispersive waves and soliton microcomb dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xu; Yang, Qi-Fan; Zhang, Xueyue; Yang, Ki Youl; Li, Xinbai; Vahala, Kerry

    2017-03-01

    Dissipative Kerr solitons are self-sustaining optical wavepackets in resonators. They use the Kerr nonlinearity to both compensate dispersion and offset optical loss. Besides providing insights into nonlinear resonator physics, they can be applied in frequency metrology, precision clocks, and spectroscopy. Like other optical solitons, the dissipative Kerr soliton can radiate power as a dispersive wave through a process that is the optical analogue of Cherenkov radiation. Dispersive waves typically consist of an ensemble of optical modes. Here, a limiting case is studied in which the dispersive wave is concentrated into a single cavity mode. In this limit, its interaction with the soliton induces hysteresis behaviour in the soliton's spectral and temporal properties. Also, an operating point of enhanced repetition-rate stability occurs through balance of dispersive-wave recoil and Raman-induced soliton-self-frequency shift. The single-mode dispersive wave can therefore provide quiet states of soliton comb operation useful in many applications.

  19. Adaptive mode control in few mode fibers and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashry, Islam; Lu, Peng; Xu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    With the development of mode-division-multiplexing (MDM), few mode fibers (FMFs) have found a wide range of applications in optical sensing and communications. However, how to precisely control the mode composition of optical signals in FMFs remains a difficult challenge. In this paper, we present an adaptive mode control method that can selectively excite the linearly polarized (LP) mode within the FMF. The method is based on using optical pulses reflected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for wavefront optimization. Two potential applications are discussed. First, we theoretically demonstrate the feasibility of large scale multiplexing of absorption based fiber optical sensors. Second, we discuss the possibility of using mode dependent loss to reconstruct the spatial distributions of absorptive chemicals diffused within a FMF.

  20. Mode-mode fiber interferometer with impact localization ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Oleg; Chapalo, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    In this publication we investigate distributed mode-mode fiber interferometer (MFI) with ability of external impact localization. It is based on bidirectional continuous selective excitation of multimode fiber (MMF) with increasing of launched modes quantity along the MMF from excitation point to the opposite end of fiber. Two photo detection systems register output signals from both directions. MFI output signal characteristics such as amplitude and spectrum width depend on excited modes quantity at the point of perturbation. Thus, every fiber point is characterized by two opposite direction signal parameters. Calculating these parameters' values makes it possible to localize the segment subjected by external impact. Experimental MFI setup include 3 MMF segments with 2 mode controllers among them which increase excited modes number from segment to segment. During the experiment, every MMF segment was subjected by arbitrary external perturbations and output signals were analyzed. Obtained results confirmed the ability of localization.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  2. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  3. Optimization of few-mode-fiber based mode converter for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiwei; Fu, Songnian; Zhang, Minming; Tang, M.; Shum, P.; Liu, Deming

    2013-10-01

    Few-mode-fiber (FMF) based mode division multiplexing (MDM) is a promising technique to further increase the transmission capacity of single mode fibers. We propose and numerically investigate a fiber-optical mode converter (MC) using long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated on the FMF by point-by-point CO2 laser inscription technique. In order to precisely excite three modes (LP01, LP11, and LP02), both untilted LPG and tilted LPG are comprehensively optimized through the length, index modulation depth, and tilt angle of the LPG in order to achieve a mode contrast ratio (MCR) of more than 20 dB with less wavelength dependence. It is found that the proposed MCs have obvious advantages of high MCR, low mode crosstalk, easy fabrication and maintenance, and compact size.

  4. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions.

    PubMed

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-14

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  5. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Coherent laser spectroscopy of matter utilizing waveguide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. I.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1990-07-01

    Some features of CARS spectroscopy in waveguide structures are investigated theoretically taking into account stimulated Raman amplification of a weak pump wave in the field of a strong wave and allowing for the phase matching. A four-photon intermode coupling which occurs under amplification conditions results in energy diffusion between different modes. General expressions for the intensities of the pump waves undergoing stimulated amplification and for the anti-Stokes signal are derived and analyzed.

  6. Waveguides having patterned, flattened modes

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-10-27

    Field-flattening strands may be added to and arbitrarily positioned within a field-flattening shell to create a waveguide that supports a patterned, flattened mode. Patterning does not alter the effective index or flattened nature of the mode, but does alter the characteristics of other modes. Compared to a telecom fiber, a hexagonal pattern of strands allows for a three-fold increase in the flattened mode's area without reducing the separation between its effective index and that of its bend-coupled mode. Hexagonal strand and shell elements prove to be a reasonable approximation, and, thus, to be of practical benefit vis-a-vis fabrication, to those of circular cross section. Patterned flattened modes offer a new and valuable path to power scaling.

  7. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korter, Timothy; Plusquellic, David; Hight Walker, Angela; Heilweil, Edwin

    2002-03-01

    A novel, continuous-wave (CW) terahertz spectrometer has been constructed to investigate the flexibility and dynamics of small biological molecules. Hydrogen bonding interactions, torsional vibrations, and conformational changes are expressed in this far-infrared region of the spectrum. Terahertz (THz) radiation (0 - 4 THz or 0 - 133 wavenumber) is generated at the difference frequency of two near-infrared pump lasers by optical heterodyne mixing at the surface of a solid-state photomixer. This spectrometer has been used to probe the low-frequency vibrational modes of several members of the vitamin B-complex including riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and biotin. Interpretation of these unique THz spectra has been aided by low-frequency Raman experiments as well as ab initio predictions for normal mode frequencies and intensities. Instrumental details, vitamin B-complex analyses, and preliminary results for myoglobin and other large biomolecules will be presented.

  8. Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; ...

    2015-05-08

    As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm-1) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and thus their frequencies show stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both themore » crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that the breathing modes have a harmonic behavior, in contrast to HF Raman modes which exhibit anharmonicity.« less

  9. Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2015-05-08

    As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm-1) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and thus their frequencies show stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both the crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that the breathing modes have a harmonic behavior, in contrast to HF Raman modes which exhibit anharmonicity.

  10. Size dependence of spin-wave modes in Ni80Fe20 nanodisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, P.; Kumar, D.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the radial and azimuthal spin-wave (SW) resonance modes in permalloy (Py: Ni80Fe20) disks at zero external magnetic field, as function of disk diameter and thickness, using broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observed, from both experimental and micromagnetic simulation results that the number of SW absorption peaks increases with disk diameter. Numerically calculated SW mode profiles revealed a characteristic minimum size, which does not scale proportionately with the increasing disk diameter. We show that higher order modes could thus be avoided with an appropriate choice of the disk diameter (smaller than the minimum mode size). Moreover, based on the mode profiles, the existence of azimuthal SW modes with even number of crests or troughs can be ruled out. These results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding as well as engineering of new magnonic devices.

  11. Raman study of the vibrational modes in ZnGeN2 (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, Eric W.; Hagemann, Mark; He, Keliang; Shan, Jie; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.; Kash, Kathleen

    2017-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopy study was carried out on ZnGeN2 hexagonal single crystal (0001)-oriented platelets obtained by reaction of gaseous ammonia with a Zn-Ge-Sn liquid alloy at 758 °C. The sample geometry allowed measurement of the A2 and A1 Raman modes. First-principles calculations of the spectra were carried out using an improved pseudopotential. Measurements with crossed polarizers yielded spectra that agreed well with first-principles calculations of the A2 modes. Measurements with parallel polarizers should in principle provide the A1 L modes. However, for most of the Raman modes, the LO-TO splitting was calculated to be smaller than could be resolved experimentally, and for the few modes which were predicted to have larger LO-TO splittings, the LO mode was not observed. This absence is tentatively explained in terms of overdamped LO-plasmon coupling.

  12. Optical spectroscopy study of Weyl Semimetal NbP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jeremy; Jiang, Yuxuan; Dun, Zhiling; Zhou, Haidong; Smirnov, Dmitry; Jiang, Zhigang

    Weyl semimetals have attracted much interest lately because of its unique band structure, where conduction band and valence band touch at discrete points. Here, we report on optical spectroscopy study of Weyl semimetal NbP, seeking evidence for the existence of Weyl fermions. Specifically, using Raman spectroscopy we investigate the anisotropic response of Raman-active phonon modes in NbP and compare with Quantum Espresso simulations. Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy in a high magnetic field up to 17.5T, we observe several Landau level transitions and compare with the theoretical model of three-dimensional massless Dirac/Weyl fermions. By combining our data with low-temperature magneto-transport measurement, the magnetic field dispersion of Landau levels in NbP is obtained.

  13. Application of spectral phase shaping to high resolution CARS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Postma, S; van Rhijn, A C W; Korterik, J P; Gross, P; Herek, J L; Offerhaus, H L

    2008-05-26

    By spectral phase shaping of both the pump and probe pulses in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy we demonstrate the extraction of the frequencies, bandwidths and relative cross sections of vibrational lines. We employ a tunable broadband Ti:Sapphire laser synchronized to a ps-Nd:YVO mode locked laser. A high resolution spectral phase shaper allows for spectroscopy with a precision better than 1 cm(-1) in the high frequency region around 3000 cm(-1). We also demonstrate how new spectral phase shaping strategies can amplify the resonant features of isolated vibrations to such an extent that spectroscopy and microscopy can be done at high resolution, on the integrated spectral response without the need for a spectrograph.

  14. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  15. Quasi-one-dimensional modes in strip plates: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arreola, A.; Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2014-01-14

    Using acoustic resonance spectroscopy we measure the elastic resonances of a strip rectangular plate with all its ends free. The experimental setup consist of a vector network analyzer, a high-fidelity audio amplifier, and electromagnetic-acoustic transducers. The one-dimensional modes are identified from the measured spectra by comparing them with theoretical predictions of compressional and bending modes of the plate modeled as a beam. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  16. Whispering gallery mode sensors

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Swaim, Jon D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to date to improve current detection limits. Proposals in this vein are numerous and range, for example, from plasmonic enhancements and active cavities to hybrid optomechanical sensors, which are already working in the shot noise limited regime. In parallel to furthering WGM sensitivity, efforts to improve the time resolution are beginning to emerge. We therefore summarize the techniques being pursued in this vein. Ultimately WGM sensors aim for real-world applications, such as measurements of force and temperature, or alternatively gas and biosensing. Each such application is thus reviewed in turn, and important achievements are discussed. Finally, we adopt a more forward-looking perspective and discuss the outlook of WGM sensors within both a physical and biological context and consider how they may yet push the detection envelope further. PMID:26973759

  17. Single nanowire extinction spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Vietmeyer, Felix; McDonald, Matthew P; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-10

    Here we show the first direct extinction spectra of single one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures obtained at room temperature utilizing a spatial modulation approach. (1) For these materials, ensemble averaging in conventional extinction spectroscopy has limited our understanding of the interplay between carrier confinement and their electrostatic interactions. (2-4) By probing individual CdSe nanowires (NWs), we have identified and assigned size-dependent exciton transitions occurring across the visible. In turn, we have revealed the existence of room temperature 1D excitons in the narrowest NWs.

  18. Spectroscopy of Stellar Coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laming, J. Martin

    I review the important spectroscopic results that have come from observations of stellar coronae, mainly by EUVE and ASCA, but also from HST. The plasma parameters that can be determined from such spectra include the electron density and temperature distributions, and relative element abundances. With high resolution spectra dynamical information can be obtained. Such parameters can then be used to put constraints on models of the heating and structure of stellar coronae. Throughout, I try to emphasise the similarities and differences between stellar coronal spectroscopy and that of the solar corona.

  19. THz-Raman spectroscopy for explosives, chemical, and biological detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriere, James T. A.; Havermeyer, Frank; Heyler, Randy A.

    2013-05-01

    Raman and Terahertz spectroscopy are both widely used for their ability to safely and remotely identify unknown materials. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional Raman spectroscopy typically measures molecular energy transitions in the 200-5000cm-1 region corresponding to sub-molecular stretching or bending transitions, while Terahertz spectroscopy measures molecular energy transitions in the 1-200cm-1 region (30GHz - 6THz) that correspond to low energy rotational modes or vibrational modes of the entire molecule. Many difficult to detect explosives and other hazardous chemicals are known to have multiple relatively strong transitions in this "Terahertz" (<200cm-1, <6THz) regime, suggesting this method as a powerful complementary approach for identification. However, THz signal generation is often expensive, many THz spectroscopy systems are limited to just a few THz range, and strong water absorption bands in this region can act to mask certain transitions if great care isn't taken during sample preparation. Alternatively, low-frequency or "THz-Raman" spectroscopy, which covers the ~5cm-1 to 200cm-1 (150GHz - 6 THz) regions and beyond, offers a powerful, compact and economical alternative to probe these low energy transitions. We present results from a new approach for extending the range of Raman spectroscopy into the Terahertz regime using an ultra-narrow-band volume holographic grating (VHG) based notch filter system. An integrated, compact Raman system is demonstrated utilizing a single stage spectrometer to show both Stokes and anti-Stokes measurements down to <10cm-1 on traditionally difficult to detect explosives, as well as other chemical and biological samples.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for molecular analysis of microbial cells.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Jesús J; Dittrich, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method to characterise chemical cell properties and identify the functional groups present in the cell wall is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Infrared spectroscopy is a well-established technique to identify functional groups in organic molecules based on their vibration modes at different infrared wave numbers. The presence or absence of functional groups, their protonation states, or any changes due to new interactions can be monitored by analysing the position and intensity of the different infrared absorption bands. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy is non-destructive and can be used to monitor the chemistry of living cells. Despite the complexity of the spectra, the elucidation of functional groups on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria has been already well documented in the literature. Recent advances in detector sensitivity have allowed the use of micro-FTIR spectroscopy as an important analytical tool to analyse biofilm samples without the need of previous treatment. Using FTIR spectroscopy, the infrared bands corresponding to proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, polyphosphate groups, and other carbohydrate functional groups on the bacterial cells can now be identified and compared along different conditions. Despite some differences in FTIR spectra among bacterial strains, experimental conditions, or changes in microbiological parameters, the IR absorption bands between approximately 4,000 and 400 cm(-1) are mainly due to fundamental vibrational modes and can often be assigned to the same particular functional groups. In this chapter, an overview covering the different sample preparation protocols for infrared analysis of bacterial cells is given, alongside the basic principles of the technique, the procedures for calculating vibrational frequencies based on simple harmonic motion, and the advantages and disadvantages of FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of microorganisms.

  1. Elucidation of intermediates and mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysis using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Savara, Aditya; Weitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has a long history as a tool for the identification of chemical compounds. More recently, various implementations of infrared spectroscopy have been successfully applied to studies of heterogeneous catalytic reactions with the objective of identifying intermediates and determining catalytic reaction mechanisms. We discuss selective applications of these techniques with a focus on several heterogeneous catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, deNOx, water-gas shift, and reverse-water-gas shift. The utility of using isotopic substitutions and other techniques in tandem with infrared spectroscopy is discussed. We comment on the modes of implementation and the advantages and disadvantages of the various infrared techniques. We also note future trends and the role of computational calculations in such studies. The infrared techniques considered are transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, sum-frequency generation, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance, infrared emission spectroscopy, photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Robert, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy may yield precise information on the conformation of, and on the interactions assumed by, the chromophores involved in the first steps of the photosynthetic process, whether isolated in solvents, embedded in soluble or membrane proteins, or, as shown recently, in vivo. By making use of this technique, it is possible, for instance, to relate the electronic properties of these molecules to their structure and/or the physical properties of their environment, or to determine subtle changes of their conformation associated with regulatory processes. After a short introduction to the physical principles that govern resonance Raman spectroscopy, the information content of resonance Raman spectra of chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules is described in this review, together with the experiments which helped in determining which structural parameter each Raman band is sensitive to. A selection of applications of this technique is then presented, in order to give a fair and precise idea of which type of information can be obtained from its use in the field of photosynthesis.

  3. Nanowire Electron Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian; Bronikowsky, Michael; Wong, Eric; VonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fablano

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy (NESS) has been proposed as the basis of a class of ultra-small, ultralow-power sensors that could be used to detect and identify chemical compounds present in extremely small quantities. State-of-the-art nanowire chemical sensors have already been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of compounds in femtomolar quantities. However, to date, chemically specific sensing of molecules using these sensors has required the use of chemically functionalized nanowires with receptors tailored to individual molecules of interest. While potentially effective, this functionalization requires labor-intensive treatment of many nanowires to sense a broad spectrum of molecules. In contrast, NESS would eliminate the need for chemical functionalization of nanowires and would enable the use of the same sensor to detect and identify multiple compounds. NESS is analogous to Raman spectroscopy, the main difference being that in NESS, one would utilize inelastic scattering of electrons instead of photons to determine molecular vibrational energy levels. More specifically, in NESS, one would exploit inelastic scattering of electrons by low-lying vibrational quantum states of molecules attached to a nanowire or nanotube.

  4. Vibronic Spectroscopy of Phenylvinylnitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Deepali N.; Navotnaya, Polina; Parobek, Alex; Clayton, Rachel; Vara, Vanesa Vaquero; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2012-06-01

    This talk will present results of a gas phase, jet-cooled vibronic spectroscopy study of phenylvinylnitrile (C_6H_5-CH=CH-C≡N, PVN). This molecule is seen as a potential photochemical precursor to nitrogen heteroaromatics, and therefore is particularly relevant to Titan's atmosphere, where nitriles exist in significant abundance. As a first step towards such photochemical studies, a fluorescence excitation spectrum of PVN spanning the range 33,500-35,840 cm- 1 (298.5-279.0 nm) has been recorded, and dispersed fluorescence spectra that uncover and characterize the vibronic activity have been acquired. The S_0-S_1 origin is a prominent band located at 33,826 cm- 1, and the excitation spectrum is characterized by significant vibronic activity leading to spectral congestion. Hole-burning in the region of 33,500-35,840 cm- 1 has also been completed, and the excitation spectrum can be assigned solely to (E)-PVN. As PVN is the nitrogen-containing counterpart to phenylvinylacetylene (PVA), a comparison of the vibronic spectroscopy between the two molecules will be made.

  5. Atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab investigation entitled Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) is designed to obtain fundamental information related to the chemistry and physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere using the techniques of infrared absorption spectroscopy. There are two principal objectives to be met. The first is the determination, on a global scale, of the compositional structure of the upper atmosphere and its spatial variability. The establishment of this variability represents the first step toward determining the characteristic residence times for the upper atmospheric constituents; the magnitudes of their sources and sinks; and, ultimately, an understanding of their effects on the stability of the stratosphere. The second objective is to provide the high-resolution, calibrated spectral information which is essential for the detailed design of advanced instrumentation for subsequent global monitoring of specific species found to be critical to atmospheric stability. This information will be disseminated in the form of a three dimensional atlas of solar absorption spectra obtained over a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes.

  6. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  7. Pressure-Gradient-Limiting Instability Dynamics in the H-mode Pedestal on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.

    2010-11-01

    Detailed 2D measurements of long-wavelength density fluctuations in the pedestal region with beam emission spectroscopy during the inter-ELM phase indicate two distinct bands of fluctuations propagating in opposite poloidal directions in the plasma frame: one lower frequency band (20-150 kHz) advects in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction (ion mode), and a higher frequency band (200-400 kHz) advects in the electron diamagnetic drift direction (electron mode). Interestingly, the mode amplitudes are modulated with the ELM cycle with the ion mode having some features qualitatively similar to those predicted for kinetic ballooning modes (KBM). Experiments have focused on determining the role of current and pressure gradient-driven instabilities in determining the H-mode pedestal structure. Detailed analysis of the temporal evolution reveals complex dynamics. The ion mode amplitude increases rapidly after an ELM and then saturates, consistent with the dynamics of the pedestal electron pressure, while the electron mode is quasi-stationary between ELMs. The decorrelation time of the ion mode is <5,s (τcxcs/a<=1), the radial correlation length is of order 10,ρi and the poloidal wave-number kθρi˜0.1. The mode velocity is comparable to the diamagnetic velocity. In related Quiescent H-mode experiments, pedestals with high electron pressure and high ExB shearing rates exhibit a set of high-frequency coherent modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic direction. These modes also exhibit KBM-like characteristics, but do not develop into fully turbulent structures. Numerical simulations are in progress to help identify the underlying instabilities and nature of these modes, and ultimately help validate nonlinear models of the H-mode pedestal structure.

  8. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  9. Theory of psychological adaptive modes.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Juha

    2016-05-01

    When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode. Cognitions and emotions during the adaptive mode are different than in a normal mental state. These altered cognitions and emotional reactions guide the individual to use the correct coping skills in order to deal with the stressor. Successful adaptation will cause the adaptive mode to fade off since the adaptive mode is no longer necessary, and the process as a whole will lead to raised well-being. However, if the adaptation process is inadequate, then the transformation period is prolonged, and the adaptive mode will turn into a dysfunctional state. Many psychiatric disorders are such maladaptive processes. The maladaptive processes can be turned into functional ones by using adaptive skills that are used in functional adaptive processes.

  10. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed.

  12. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Jiao, Hong; O'Keefe, Anthony

    2002-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced methods have been extended to fiber optics by use of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as reflectors. High-finesse fiber cavities were fabricated from FBGs made in both germanium/boron-co-doped photosensitive fiber and hydrogen-loaded Corning SMF-28 fiber. Optical losses in these cavities were determined from the measured Fabry-Perot transmission spectra and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. For a 10-m-long single-mode fiber cavity, ring-down times in excess of 2 ms were observed at 1563.6 nm, and individual laser pulses were resolved. An evanescent-wave access block was produced within a fiber cavity, and an enhanced sensitivity to optical loss was observed as the external medium's refractive index was altered.

  13. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  14. Heterodyne spectroscopy of polariton spinor interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, N.; Trebaol, S.; Wouters, M.; Portella-Oberli, M. T.; Deveaud, B.

    2014-11-01

    We report on spinor polariton interactions in GaAs based microcavities. This investigation is carried out by means of heterodyne polarized pump-probe spectroscopy. We show the dependence of the energy renormalization of the lower and upper polariton resonances with cavity detuning for different polariton densities. We use the exciton-photon based Gross-Pitaevskii equation to model the experiment for both lower and upper polariton modes. The theoretical results reproduce qualitatively the experimental observations revealing the magnitude and sign of the parallel and antiparallel spin interaction strength. We evidence the strong influence of the biexciton resonance on the antiparallel spin polariton energy shift and provide the exciton-biexciton coupling constant. We derive our results in the lower polariton basis using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, from which we express analytically the spinor polariton interactions and identify the clear role of the biexciton resonance.

  15. Isomer Spectroscopy of the Heaviest Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Roderick

    2009-05-01

    A new generation of experiments on the structure and properties of the heaviest elements is being performed in laboratories around the world. These studies are addressing fundamental questions such as the maximum mass and charge that a nucleus can attain. Long-lived high-K isomers are found in the region of prolate-deformed trans-fermium nuclei and by studying their decay one can learn about the single-particle structure, pairing correlations, and excitation modes of the heaviest nuclei. Recent decay spectroscopy experiments using the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have yielded a wealth of detailed new information on many nuclei in the trans-fermium region. I will discuss these new results and their implications.

  16. Subterahertz spectroscopy at He-3 temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, D. N.; Dordevic, S. V.; Singley, E. J.; Padilla, W. J.; Burch, K.; Elenewski, J. E.; Greene, L. H.; Morris, J.; Schickling, R.

    2003-11-01

    We report on the design and implementation of an instrument for spectroscopic studies of materials at sub-terahertz (THz) frequencies at temperatures down to 340 mK. We achieved consistent operation under these rather extreme conditions by coupling a modified Martin-Puplett interferometer to a single cryogenic unit housing two independently controlled He-3 platforms: one as a sample stage and the other for bolometric detectors. Both the optical scheme of the interferometer and detector layout are tailored for the use of the two-channel data acquisition mode which is especially advantageous for measurement of absolute values of reflectance as well as for high-resolution spectroscopy. We document the reliable performance of the sub-THz apparatus with several experiments exploring electrodynamics of both conventional and high-Tc superconductors.

  17. Array-based photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Autrey, S. Thomas; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chen, Yu

    2005-03-22

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. A photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array including a body having at least three recesses or affinity masses connected thereto is used in conjunction with a photoacoustic spectroscopy system. At least one acoustic detector is positioned near the recesses or affinity masses for detection of acoustic waves emitted from species of interest within the recesses or affinity masses.

  18. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders; Holmgaard, Tobias; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Wagner, Jakob B.; Pedersen, Kjeld; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-06-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5 nm. We argue that excitation of this mode, featuring very strong absorption, has a crucial role in experimental realizations of non-resonant light absorption by ultra-sharp convex grooves with fabrication-induced asymmetry. The occurrence of the antisymmetric GSP mode along with the fundamental GSP mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices.

  19. Optical spectroscopy of nanoscale and heterostructured oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senty, Tess R.

    Through careful analysis of a material's properties, devices are continually getting smaller, faster and more efficient each day. Without a complete scientific understanding of material properties, devices cannot continue to improve. This dissertation uses optical spectroscopy techniques to understand light-matter interactions in several oxide materials with promising uses mainly in light harvesting applications. Linear absorption, photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy are primarily used on europium doped yttrium vanadate nanoparticles, copper gallium oxide delafossites doped with iron, and cadmium selenide quantum dots attached to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Europium doped yttrium vanadate nanoparticles have promising applications for linking to biomolecules. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, it was shown that organic ligands (benzoic acid, 3-nitro 4-chloro-benzoic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) can be attached to the surface of these molecules using metal-carboxylate coordination. Photoluminescence spectroscopy display little difference in the position of the dominant photoluminescence peaks between samples with different organic ligands although there is a strong decrease in their intensity when 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid is attached. It is shown that this strong quenching is due to the presence of high-frequency hydroxide vibrational modes within the organic linker. Ultraviolet/visible linear absorption measurements on delafossites display that by doping copper gallium oxide with iron allows for the previously forbidden fundamental gap transition to be accessed. Using tauc plots, it is shown that doping with iron lowers the bandgap from 2.8 eV for pure copper gallium oxide, to 1.7 eV for samples with 1 -- 5% iron doping. Using terahertz transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, it was also determined that doping with iron reduces the charge mobility of the pure delafossite samples. A comparison of cadmium selenide

  20. Coherent radio-frequency detection for narrowband direct comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Anstie, James D; Perrella, Christopher; Light, Philip S; Luiten, Andre N

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate a scheme for coherent narrowband direct optical frequency comb spectroscopy. An extended cavity diode laser is injection locked to a single mode of an optical frequency comb, frequency shifted, and used as a local oscillator to optically down-mix the interrogating comb on a fast photodetector. The high spectral coherence of the injection lock generates a microwave frequency comb at the output of the photodiode with very narrow features, enabling spectral information to be further down-mixed to RF frequencies, allowing optical transmittance and phase to be obtained using electronics commonly found in the lab. We demonstrate two methods for achieving this step: a serial mode-by-mode approach and a parallel dual-comb approach, with the Cs D1 transition at 894 nm as a test case.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő

    2007-11-01

    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  2. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2015-09-01

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They arise in bounded gaseous and solid state plasmas, but the present work shows that very similar modes also exist in unbounded uniform plasmas. The antenna properties determine the mode structure. A simple antenna is a magnetic loop with dipole moment aligned either along or across the ambient background magnetic field B0. For such configurations, the wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma. The observed wave topology for a dipole along B0 is similar to that of an m = 0 helicon mode. It consists of a sequence of alternating whistler vortices. For a dipole across B0, an m = 1 mode is excited which can be considered as a transverse vortex which rotates around B0. In m = 0 modes, the field lines are confined to each half-wavelength vortex while for m = 1 modes they pass through the entire wave train. A subset of m = 1 field lines forms two nested helices which rotate in space and time like corkscrews. Depending on the type of the antenna, both m = + 1 and m = -1 modes can be excited. Helicons in unbounded plasmas also propagate transverse to B0. The transverse and parallel wave numbers are about equal and form oblique phase fronts as in whistler Gendrin modes. By superimposing small amplitude fields of several loop antennas, various antenna combinations have been created. These include rotating field antennas, helical antennas, and directional antennas. The radiation efficiency is quantified by the radiation resistance. Since helicons exist in unbounded laboratory plasmas, they can also arise in space plasmas.

  3. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed.

  4. Optical Spectroscopy of Nano Materials and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenhao

    In this thesis, nanostructures and nanomaterials ranging from 3D to OD will be studied compresively, by using optical methods. Firstly, for 3D and 2D nanomaterials, nanoporous zeolite crystals, such as AFI and AEL are introduced as host materials to accommodate diatomic iodine molecules. Polarized Raman spectroscopy is utilized to identify the two configurations of iodine molecules to stay in the channels of AEL: the lying mode (the bond of the two atoms is parallel to the direction of the channels) and the standing mode (the bond is perpendicular to the direction of the channels). The lying mode and standing mode are switchable and can be well controlled by the amount of water molecules inside the crystal, revealed by both molecule dynamics simulation and experiment observation. With more water molecules inside, iodine molecules choose to stay in the standing mode, while with less water molecules, iodine molecules prefer to lie along the channel. Therefore, the configurations of molecules could be precisely controlled, globally by the surrounding pressure and temperature, and locally by the laser light. Ii is believed that this easy and reversible control of single molecule will be valuable in nanostructured devices, such as molecular sieving or molecular detection. Secondly, for 1D case, the PL spectrum of ZnO nanowire under uniaxial strain is studied. When a ZnO nanowire is bent, besides the lattice constant induced bandgap change on the tensile and compressive sides, there is a piezoelectric field generated along the cross section. This piezoelectric potential, together with the bandgap changes induced by the deformation, will redistribute the electrons excited by incident photons from valence band to conduction band. As a result, the electrons occupying the states at the tensile side will largely outnumbered the ones at the compressive side. Therefore, the PL spectrum we collected at the whole cross section will manifest a redshift, other than the peak

  5. Narrowband Mid-infrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Anil K.; Schulmerich, Matthew; Ip, Jason; Yen, Gary; Cunningham, Brian T.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to develop mid-infrared (IR) spectrometers for applications in which the absorbance of only a few vibrational mode (optical) frequencies needs to be recorded; unfortunately, there are limited alternatives for the same. The key requirement is the development of a means to access discretely a small set of spectral positions from the wideband thermal sources commonly used for spectroscopy. We present here the theory, design and practical realization of a new class of filters in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral regions based on using guided mode resonances (GMR) for narrowband optical reflection. A simple, periodic surface-relief configuration is chosen to enable both a spectral response and facile fabrication. A theoretical model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis is developed, incorporating anomalous dispersion of filter materials in the mid-IR spectral region. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a set of four filters for a spectral region around the C-H stretching mode (2600–3000 cm−1) are fabricated and responses compared to theory. The reflectance spectra were well-predicted by the developed theory and results were found to be sensitive to the angle of incidence and dispersion characteristics of the material. In summary, the work reported here forms the basis for a rational design of filters that can prove useful for IR absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20527738

  6. CO2 Infrared Phonon Modes in Interstellar Ice Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ilsa R.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-11-01

    CO2 ice is an important reservoir of carbon and oxygen in star- and planet-forming regions. Together with water and CO, CO2 sets the physical and chemical characteristics of interstellar icy grain mantles, including desorption and diffusion energies for other ice constituents. A detailed understanding of CO2 ice spectroscopy is a prerequisite to characterize CO2 interactions with other volatiles both in interstellar ices and in laboratory experiments of interstellar ice analogs. We report laboratory spectra of the CO2 longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode in pure CO2 ice and in CO2 ice mixtures with H2O, CO, and O2 components. We show that the LO phonon mode position is sensitive to the mixing ratio of various ice components of astronomical interest. In the era of the James Webb Space Telescope, this characteristic could be used to constrain interstellar ice compositions and morphologies. More immediately, LO phonon mode spectroscopy provides a sensitive probe of ice mixing in the laboratory and should thus enable diffusion measurements with higher precision than has been previously possible.

  7. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of twisted multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhang, Xin; Ijäs, Mari; Han, Wen-Peng; Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Li, Xiao-Li; Jiang, De-Sheng; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2014-11-01

    Graphene and other two-dimensional crystals can be combined to form various hybrids and heterostructures, creating materials on demand with properties determined by the interlayer interaction. This is the case even for a single material, where multilayer stacks with different relative orientation have different optical and electronic properties. Probing and understanding the interface coupling is thus of primary importance for fundamental science and applications. Here we study twisted multilayer graphene flakes with multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy. We find a significant intensity enhancement of the interlayer coupling modes (C peaks) due to resonance with new optically allowed electronic transitions, determined by the relative orientation of the layers. The interlayer coupling results in a Davydov splitting of the C peak in systems consisting of two equivalent graphene multilayers. This allows us to directly quantify the interlayer interaction, which is much smaller compared with Bernal-stacked interfaces. This paves the way to the use of Raman spectroscopy to uncover the interface coupling of two-dimensional hybrids and heterostructures.

  8. Cellular biosensing using optical spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wax, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of light with biological cells can provide a unique tool for studying their biophysical properties. Optical spectroscopy of biological cells can reveal detailed information on their structure and dynamics in a way that is not possible with traditional microscopy techniques. Histological evaluation can only obtain a snapshot of the activity of individual cells, relying instead on large ensembles to develop a picture of their temporal evolution. On the other hand optical spectroscopy can be applied to cells with little to no preparation and can enable studies of the same live cells at extended time intervals. Our research group has developed a suite of optical spectroscopic tools to assess the structure and function of biological cells and modulation due to the onset of disease. The wavelength dependence of the interaction of cells with light provides information of cell features through elastic scattering across the visible and near infrared spectrum. Alternatively, the angular dependence of scattered light can also be used to reveal cell properties. We will discuss how both modes of elastic scattering can be used to evaluate cell status. Finally, the recent advances in the use of optical phase imaging to create contrast in nearly transparent biological cells will also be discussed as related to the role of this modality in biosensing.

  9. Recent edge CXRS measurements in I-mode and ELMy H-mode plasmas on C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, C.; Churchill, R. M.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D.; Diallo, A.

    2012-10-01

    A high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic is installed on Alcator C-Mod to measure edge profiles of B^5+ density, temperature, and flows and to deduce radial electric field profiles. As donor particles for CX, both hydrogen from a modulated diagnostic neutral beam and deuterium from a local gas puff are employed. While the former technique often suffers from low signal intensities near the LCFS, the latter can be complicated by contamination of the signal by molecular lines and cross-section effects. After discussing how these challenges are overcome in data analysis, we present recent measurements in regimes which have not extensively been investigated previously with edge CXRS on C-Mod. The first one is the I-mode regime, which is characterized by H-mode like energy confinement and L-mode like particle transport. Focusing on I-modes with unfavorable ion B x∇B drift, we study profile scalings with plasma parameters such as density, plasma current and heating power. The second regime is ELMy H-mode, where we explore the capabilities of the CXRS diagnostic to measure profile evolutions during and in between ELMs.

  10. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  11. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  12. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  13. Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Daniel R; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-05-04

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is an ultrafast nonlinear optical technique that provides vibrational structural information with high temporal (sub-50 fs) precision and high spectral (10 cm(-1) ) resolution. Since the first full demonstration of its capabilities ≈15 years ago, FSRS has evolved into a mature technique, giving deep insights into chemical and biochemical reaction dynamics that would be inaccessible with any other technique. It is now being routinely applied to virtually all possible photochemical reactions and systems spanning from single molecules in solution to thin films, bulk crystals and macromolecular proteins. This review starts with an historic overview and discusses the theoretical and experimental concepts behind this technology. Emphasis is put on the current state-of-the-art experimental realization and several variations of FSRS that have been developed. The unique capabilities of FSRS are illustrated through a comprehensive presentation of experiments to date followed by prospects.

  14. Computational multiheterodyne spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Hu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for high-resolution spectra to be measured over broad bandwidths, but an essential requirement for coherent integration is the availability of a phase reference. Usually, this means that the combs’ phase and timing errors must be measured and either minimized by stabilization or removed by correction, limiting the technique’s applicability. We demonstrate that it is possible to extract the phase and timing signals of a multiheterodyne spectrum completely computationally, without any extra measurements or optical elements. These techniques are viable even when the relative linewidth exceeds the repetition rate difference and can tremendously simplify any dual-comb system. By reconceptualizing frequency combs in terms of the temporal structure of their phase noise, not their frequency stability, we can greatly expand the scope of multiheterodyne techniques. PMID:27847870

  15. Protected subspace Ramsey spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, L.; Plankensteiner, D.; Ritsch, H.; Genes, C.

    2014-11-01

    We study a modified Ramsey spectroscopy technique employing slowly decaying states for quantum metrology applications using dense ensembles. While closely positioned atoms exhibit super-radiant collective decay and dipole-dipole induced frequency shifts, recent results [L. Ostermann, H. Ritsch, and C. Genes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 123601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.123601] suggest the possibility to suppress such detrimental effects and achieve an even better scaling of the frequency sensitivity with interrogation time than for noninteracting particles. Here we present an in-depth analysis of this "protected subspace Ramsey technique" using improved analytical modeling and numerical simulations including larger three-dimensional (3D) samples. Surprisingly we find that using subradiant states of N particles to encode the atomic coherence yields a scaling of the optimal sensitivity better than 1 /√{N } . Applied to ultracold atoms in 3D optical lattices we predict a precision beyond the single atom linewidth.

  16. Experimental study of lattice dynamics in individual semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes: Tangential G modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshov, D. I.; Tran, H. N.; Slabodyan, Yu. S.; Osadchii, A. V.; Roshal', S. B.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    The tangential G modes in individual semiconducting double-walled nanotubes have been examined via Raman spectroscopy over a wide laser excitation wavelength range. Individual suspended nanotubes have been synthesized via chemical vapor deposition. The ( n, m) chirality indices are determined via electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The pronounced shift in the tangential modes compared to the analogous modes of single-walled nanotubes has been observed in Raman spectra of double-walled nanotubes. The shift value is shown to depend on the interlayer distance and on the van der Waals interaction between the layers in a double-walled tube.

  17. Widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Li, Xiaohui; Luo, Jiaqi; Shum, Perry Ping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-06-06

    We demonstrated a widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser, with the widest tunable range of 136 nm, from 1842 to 1978 nm. Nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique is employed to enable mode-locking and the wavelength-tunable operation. The widely tunable range attributes to the NPE-induced transmission modulation and bidirectional pumping mechanism. Such kind of tunable mode-locked laser can find various applications in optical communications, spectroscopy, time-resolved measurement, and among others.

  18. Efficient coupling of starlight into single mode photonics using Adaptive Injection (AI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Barnaby; Cvetojevic, Nick; Gross, Simon; Arriola, Alexander; Tuthill, Peter; Lawrence, Jon; Richards, Samuel; Goodwin, Michael; Zheng, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Using single-mode fibres in astronomy enables revolutionary techniques including single-mode interferometry and spectroscopy. However, injection of seeing-limited starlight into single mode photonics is extremely difficult. One solution is Adaptive Injection (AI). The telescope pupil is segmented into a number of smaller subapertures each with size r0, such that seeing can be approximated as a single tip / tilt / piston term for each subaperture, and then injected into a separate fibre via a facet of a segmented MEMS deformable mirror. The injection problem is then reduced to a set of individual tip tilt loops, resulting in high overall coupling efficiency.

  19. Detecting the Amplitude Mode of Strongly Interacting Lattice Bosons by Bragg Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bissbort, Ulf; Hofstetter, Walter; Li Yongqiang

    2011-05-20

    We report the first detection of the Higgs-type amplitude mode using Bragg spectroscopy in a strongly interacting condensate of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. By the comparison of our experimental data with a spatially resolved, time-dependent bosonic Gutzwiller calculation, we obtain good quantitative agreement. This allows for a clear identification of the amplitude mode, showing that it can be detected with full momentum resolution by going beyond the linear response regime. A systematic shift of the sound and amplitude modes' resonance frequencies due to the finite Bragg beam intensity is observed.

  20. Widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Li, Xiaohui; Luo, Jiaqi; Shum, Perry Ping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser, with the widest tunable range of 136 nm, from 1842 to 1978 nm. Nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique is employed to enable mode-locking and the wavelength-tunable operation. The widely tunable range attributes to the NPE-induced transmission modulation and bidirectional pumping mechanism. Such kind of tunable mode-locked laser can find various applications in optical communications, spectroscopy, time-resolved measurement, and among others.

  1. Ultrafast redistribution of vibrational energy after excitation of NH stretching modes in DNA oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozich, V.; Szyc, Ł.; Nibbering, E. T. J.; Werncke, W.; Elsaesser, T.

    2009-04-01

    Vibrational relaxation after spectrally selective excitation within the NH stretching band of adenine-thymine base pairs in DNA oligomers was studied by subpicosecond infrared-pump/anti-Stokes Raman-probe spectroscopy. The decay of the different NH stretching vibrations populates distinct accepting modes in the NH bending range with a rise time of 0.6 ps that is close to the NH stretching decay times. The population of thymine fingerprint modes after excitation of the adenine antisymmetric NH 2 stretching mode points to an ultrafast excitation transfer to the thymine NH stretching vibration before relaxation. The nonequilibrium fingerprint populations decay on a time scale of several picoseconds.

  2. Widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiyu; Sun, Biao; Li, Xiaohui; Luo, Jiaqi; Shum, Perry Ping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a widely tunable Tm-doped mode-locked all-fiber laser, with the widest tunable range of 136 nm, from 1842 to 1978 nm. Nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique is employed to enable mode-locking and the wavelength-tunable operation. The widely tunable range attributes to the NPE-induced transmission modulation and bidirectional pumping mechanism. Such kind of tunable mode-locked laser can find various applications in optical communications, spectroscopy, time-resolved measurement, and among others. PMID:27263655

  3. Visible Light Spectroscopy of GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal is to understand the physical characteristics of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Our approach is to compare the observed reflectance as a function of wavelength with laboratory measurements of typical spacecraft surfaces to understand what the materials are likely to be. Because debris could be irregular in shape and tumbling at an unknown rate, rapid simultaneous measurements over a range of wavelengths are required. Acquiring spectra of optically faint objects with short exposure times to minimize these effects requires a large telescope. We describe optical spectroscopy obtained during 12-14 March 2012 with the IMACS imaging spectrograph on the 6.5-m 'Walter Baade' Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. When used in f/2 imaging mode for acquisition, this instrument has a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. After acquisition and centering of a GEO object, a 2.5 arc-second wide slit and a grism are moved into the beam for spectroscopy. We used a 200 l/mm grism blazed at 660 nm for wavelength coverage in the 500-900 nm region. Typical exposure times for spectra were 15-30 seconds. Spectra were obtained for five objects in the GEO regime listed as debris in the US Space Command public catalog, and one high area to mass ratio GEO object. In addition spectra were obtained of three cataloged IDCSP (Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program) satellites with known initial properties just below the GEO regime. All spectra were calibrated using white dwarf flux standards and solar analog stars. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris spectroscopy, and our initial results.

  4. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy of Protonated Azabenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Christopher S.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; Bieske, Evan; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Trevitt, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    Azabenzenes are derivatives of benzene containing between one and six nitrogen atoms. Protonated azabenzenes are the fundamental building blocks of many biomolecules, charge-transfer dyes, ionic liquids and fluorescent tags. However, despite their ubiquity, there exists limited spectroscopic data that reveals the structure, behaviour and stability of these systems in their excited states. For the case of pyridinium (C_5H_5N-H^+), the simplest azabenzene, the electronic spectroscopy is complicated by short excited state lifetimes, efficient non-radiative deactivation methods and limited fluorescence. Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation (PD) action spectroscopy provides new insight into the spectroscopic details, excited state behaviour and photodissociation processes of a series of protonated azabenzenes including pyridinium, diazeniums and their substituted derivatives. The room-temperature UV PD action spectra, often exhibiting vibronic detail,^b will be presented alongside PD mass spectra and the kinetic data from structurally-diagnostic ion-molecule reaction kinetics. Analysis of the spectra, with the aid of quantum chemical calculations, reveal that many azabenzenes prefer a non-planar excited state geometry reminiscent of the structures encountered in 'channel 3'-like deactivation of aromatics. The normal modes active in this isomerization contribute largely to the spectroscopy of the N-pyridinium ion as they build upon totally-symmetric vibronic transitions leading to repeating sets of closely-spaced spectral features. Hansen, C.S. et al.; J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 24:932-940 (2013) Hansen, C.S. et al.; J. Phys. Chem. A 117:10839-10846 (2013)

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H.

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  6. Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Genevieve B.

    The subject of this thesis is the fundamentals, implementation, and applications of Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS), an alternative dispersion spectroscopy technique that aims to overcome some limitations of absorption-based sensing. CLaDS preserves many of the benefits of dispersion sensing, namely baseline-free operation, immunity to received intensity, and linearity with sample concentration, and is fairly easy to implement without the need for stabilized interferometers, mode-locked lasers, and complex optical configurations required by many other dispersion-based sensors. First an introduction to CLaDS and a derivation of the spectroscopic signals are provided, highlighting fundamental similarities and differences to absorption-based sensing. Next the fundamental limit of CLaDS is investigated through analysis of the shot-noise limited performance under ideal operating conditions. This in turn allows for a theoretical and direct comparison to the shot-noise-limited performance of direct laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS). This investigation shows that when full spectral scan fitting of realistic unknown parameters for each technique is used, both techniques demonstrate the same efficiency of parameter extraction. Following this theoretical investigation of ideal CLaDS performance, the technical details, methods of implementation, and component-introduced limitations of real-world CLaDS systems are discussed. Also included is a discussion of the first demonstration of an optical heterodyne enhanced CLaDS technique (HE-CLaDS). To overcome some of the technical limitations imposed by system instability, a modulation based technique (CM-CLaDS) was developed; the theory, optimization and noise characteristics of which are detailed. Finally, several applications of CLaDS are provided. These include atmospheric sensing, distributed sensor networks, and fiber dispersion characterization, all of which aim at demonstrating the technical advantages of the

  7. Visible Light Spectroscopy of GEO Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K. J.; Barker, E. S.; Cardona, T.; Lederer, S. M.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-09-01

    Our goal is to understand the physical characteristics of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Our approach is to compare the observed reflectance as a function of wavelength with laboratory measurements of typical spacecraft surfaces to understand what the materials are likely to be. Because debris could be irregular in shape and tumbling at an unknown rate, rapid simultaneous measurements over a range of wavelengths are required. Acquiring spectra of optically faint objects with short exposure times to minimize these effects requires a large telescope. We describe optical spectroscopy obtained with two imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our first observing run was 12-14 March 2012 with the IMACS imaging spectrograph on the 'Walter Baade' telescope, which was followed by a run on 1-2 May 2012 on the 'Landon Clay' telescope. Both telescopes have spectrographs with an imaging mode for acquisition. After acquisition and centering of a GEO object, a slit and grism are moved into the beam for spectroscopy. We used low resolution grisms blazed near 600 nm for wavelength coverage in the 400-800 nm region. Typical exposure times for spectra were 15-30 seconds. Spectra were obtained for objects in the GEO regime listed as debris in the US Space Command public catalog, and one high area to mass ratio GEO object. In addition spectra were obtained of IDCSP (Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program) satellites with known initial properties just below the GEO regime. All spectra were calibrated using white dwarf flux standards and solar analog stars. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris spectroscopy, and our initial results. 1. This work is supported by NASAs Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA. 2. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th.; Sebald, H.

    2003-04-01

    In our large Aerosol Chamber at the FZ Jülich we apply HR FTIR absorption spectroscopy for the determination of trace gases. In the FTIR spectra we also observe broad absorptions of several 10 to a few 100 cm-1 widths that arise from species in the condensed aerosol phase: liquid H_2O, NO_3^-, SO_42-, HSO_4^-, or dicarboxylic acids. Moreover, the aerosol droplets caused extinctions over several 1000 cm-1 by IR scattering. This allows for in-situ observation of changes in the condensed aerosol phase e.g. on HNO_3 uptake, like the shift of the sulfate/bisulfate equilibrium or the growth by water condensation. The IR absorptions of the condensed aerosol phase provide useful extra information in process studies, if they can be quantified. Therefore the absorption cross section, respective, the absorption index which is the imaginary part of the complex refractive index is needed. We set up an aerosol flow tube in which IR spectroscopy on a 8 m light path and aerosol size distribution measurements in the range from 20 nm - 10 μm can be performed simultaneously. We measured sulfate aerosols at several relative humidities (dry, metastable, deliquescent). We will demonstrate an iterative procedure based on Mie calculations and Kramers Kronig transformation to retrieve the absorption index from the observed IR spectra and the corresponding size distribution (for dry ammonium sulfate). We will compare resulting absorption indices for aqueous sodium bisulfate aerosols at several relative humidties with thermodynamic model calculations for the Na^+/H^+/HSO_4^-/SO_42-/H_2O system.

  9. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  10. Physical view on migration modes

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility. PMID:26192136

  11. Physical view on migration modes.

    PubMed

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility.

  12. Spatiotemporal mode structure of nonlinearly coupled drift wave modes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Negrete, Jose Jr.; Bousselin, Guillaume; Brochard, Frederic; Bonhomme, Gerard; Oldenbuerger, Stella

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents full cross-section measurements of drift waves in the linear magnetized plasma of the Mirabelle device. Drift wave modes are studied in regimes of weakly developed turbulence. The drift wave modes develop azimuthal space-time structures of plasma density, plasma potential, and visible light fluctuations. A fast camera diagnostic is used to record visible light fluctuations of the plasma column in an azimuthal cross section with a temporal resolution of 10 {mu}s corresponding approximately to 10% of the typical drift wave period. Mode coupling and drift wave dispersion are studied by spatiotemporal Fourier decomposition of the camera frames. The observed coupling between modes is compared to calculations of nonlinearly coupled oscillators described by the Kuramoto model.

  13. Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Benjamin; Weber, Thorsten; Yalunin, Sergey V.; Kiel, Thomas; Matyssek, Christian; Sivis, Murat; Schäfer, Sascha; von Cube, Felix; Irsen, Stephan; Busch, Kurt; Ropers, Claus; Linden, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    We report the spatial mapping of surface plasmons on conical gold nanotips by electron energy loss spectroscopy. We observe standing-wave patterns resulting from reflections of the fundamental surface-plasmon mode at the nanotip apex. The experimental results are in very good agreement with numerical calculations using the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method and analytical computations based on a cylindrical mode expansion.

  14. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  15. Coupling characteristics between slot plasmonic mode and dielectric waveguide mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuai; Liu, Fang; Wan, Ruiyuan; Huang, Yidong

    2010-12-01

    A hybrid coupler composed of a slot plasmonic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide is proposed and its coupling characteristics are analyzed. The simulation results show that the ultra-small mode of the slot plasmonic waveguide can be excited efficiently by the dielectric waveguide mode within the coupling length of just several microns, which provides an interface between the slot plasmonic devices and dielectric devices. Meanwhile, based on this hybrid the coupler, a highly integrated refractive index sensor could be realized.

  16. Few-mode fiber technology for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    We review recent progress on few-mode fiber (FMF) technologies for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. First, we introduce fibers for use without and with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to compensate for modal crosstalk, and briefly report recent work on FMF for use without/with a MIMO DSP system. We next discuss in detail a fiber for MIMO transmission systems, and show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode operation and a low DMD while preventing the high index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. We finally describe our experimental results for a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode transmission line for use in a C + L band wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) MDM transmission with MIMO DSP.

  17. Double point contact single molecule absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, John Brooks

    Our primary objective with the presentation of this thesis is to utilize superconducting transport through microscopic objects to both excite and analyze the vibrational degrees of freedom of various molecules of a biological nature. The technique stems from a Josephson junction's ability to generate radiation that falls in the terahertz gap (≈ 10 THz) and consequently can be used to excite vibrational modes of simple and complex molecules. Analysis of the change in IV characteristics coupled with the differential conductance dIdV allows determination of both the absorption spectra and the vibrational modes of biological molecules. Presented here are both the theoretical foundations of superconductivity relevant to our experimental technique and the fabrication process of our samples. Comparisons between our technique and that of other absorption spectroscopy techniques are included as a means of providing a reference upon which to judge the merits of our novel procedure. This technique is meant to improve not only our understanding of the vibrational degrees of freedom of useful biological molecules, but also these molecule's structural, electronic and mechanical properties.

  18. Ultrafast broadband spectroscopy of crystalline bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, A A; Misochko, Oleg V; Chekalin, Sergei V

    2013-04-30

    Femtosecond spectroscopy in the wavelength range 0.4 - 2.3 {mu}m has been used to probe ultrafast electronic and lattice processes in bismuth. The photoresponse of a bismuth crystal is shown to comprise components with relaxation times of 1 ps, 7 ps, and {approx}1 ns. The electron-hole and electron-phonon interaction strengths in bismuth are found to depend significantly on the wave vector in the {Gamma}-T direction of the Brillouin zone. Comparison of the spectral dependences of the amplitudes of coherent E{sub g} and A{sub 1g} phonons and the corresponding dependences of the Raman scattering cross sections indicates that these phonon modes differ in generation mechanism. The generation of coherent A{sub 1g} phonons is mainly due to displacement of the equilibrium position of atoms in the crystal lattice in a nonequilibrium state. This process differs fundamentally from resonance Raman scattering responsible for the coherent excitation of low-symmetry phonon modes. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Rotationally resolved infrared spectroscopy of adamantane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirali, O.; Boudon, V.; Oomens, J.; Vervloet, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first rotationally resolved spectra of adamantane (C10H16) applying gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. High-resolution IR spectra are recorded in the 33-4500 cm-1range using as source of IR radiation both synchrotron radiation (at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron) as well as a classical globar. Adamantane is a spherical top molecule with tetrahedral symmetry (Td point group) and has no permanent dipole moment in its vibronic ground state. Of the 72 fundamental vibrational modes in adamantane, only 11 are IR active. Here we present rotationally resolved spectra for seven of them: ν30, ν28, ν27, ν26, ν25, ν24, and ν23. The typical rotational structure of spherical tops is observed and analyzed using the STDS software developed in the Dijon group, which provides the first accurate energy levels and rotational constants for seven fundamental modes. Rotational levels with quantum numbers as high as J = 107 have been identified and included in the fit leading to a typical standard deviation of about 10-3 cm-1.

  20. An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project designed to introduce infrared spectroscopy as a structure-determination technique. Students are introduced to infrared spectroscopy fundamentals then try to determine the identity of an unknown liquid from its infrared spectrum and molecular weight. The project demonstrates that only rarely can the identity of even simple…