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Sample records for quelques philosophies contemporaines

  1. Sandbox Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alexis

    1979-01-01

    The Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children, a nonprofit organization at Montclair State College in New Jersey, is dedicated to improving children's thinking skills and to training future elementary school teachers in the art of philosophical inquiry. (JMD)

  2. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and Economic Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…

  3. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  4. Philosophy Rediscovered: Exploring the Connections between Teaching Philosophies, Educational Philosophies, and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2009-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements reflect our personal values, connect us to those with shared values in the larger teaching community, and inform our classroom practices. In this article, we explore the often-overlooked foundations of teaching philosophies, specifically philosophy and historical educational philosophies. We review three elements of…

  5. Educational Non-Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…

  6. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  7. Philosophy of Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2003-01-01

    Lists advantages and disadvantages of statewide testing. Presents examples of highly specific objectives, as emphasized by realism as a philosophy of education. Considers the advantages idealism/perennialism, as a philosophy of instruction, has in a quality reading curriculum. (SG)

  8. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  9. Philosophy in Primary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just mentioned. The result…

  10. Philosophy of Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review essay J.J. Chambliss assesses the current state of the field of philosophy of education through analysis of four recent edited compilations: Randall Curren's "A Companion to Philosophy of Education"; Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish's "The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education"; Wilfred Carr's "The…

  11. John White on Philosophy of Education and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.

  12. Philosophy as Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jim

    2008-01-01

    How best to introduce philosophical ideas? Is the best and only way by studying the history of philosophy and its rational arguments and discussions? But can literature, usually hived off from philosophy, be used instead and can this be as effective as rational argument? This paper explores these questions. First it considers a text which…

  13. Philosophy with Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  14. Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the anxieties being expressed in the UK and elsewhere about the lack of impact that philosophy now has on education are nothing other than the inevitable manifestation of a fundamental intellectual disorder deeply rooted in our contemporary understanding of the philosophy of education. In trying to substantiate this claim,…

  15. Opening Philosophy to the World: Derrida and Education in Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burik, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…

  16. Philosophy of Education as Philosophy: A Metaphilosophical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, George

    2007-01-01

    What is the philosophical status of the philosophy of education? Is it philosophy, no different from the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind? Much depends on where these latter derive their philosophical bona fides from. There are two ways of viewing the matter. On one account, they are subdivisions of the veritable philosophy…

  17. The future of philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, J R

    1999-01-01

    There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. PMID:10670025

  18. 'Mind' in Indian philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Venkoba

    2002-10-01

    The place of mind in the philosophical systems of India is briefly discussed. The philosophies selected are - Vedas, Upanishads, Six systems of philosophies (saddarsanas), Gita and materialistic school of Carvaaka. That mind is of subtle physical nature and that self is postulated as higher than mind in the hierarchy is being pointed out. Mind can be man's own friend to elevate him or his foe debasing him. Modern neuro - science and the ancient materialistic schools do not subscribe to the existence of self. An integrated approach extending beyond the mind in psychiatric care is suggested. Scientific and technological advances do not necessarily preclude a transcendent (spiritual) dimension to the total care. PMID:21206593

  19. The Revolutions in English Philosophy and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article was first published in 1982 in "Educational Analysis" (4, 75-91) and republished in 1998 (Hirst, P. H., & White, P. (Eds.), "Philosophy of education: Major themes in the analytic tradition," Vol. 1, "Philosophy and education, Part 1," pp. 61-78. London: Routledge). I was then a lecturer in philosophy of education at Sheffield…

  20. Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, and the Education of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario O.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the scope and nature of the philosophy of education, emphasizing its importance in teacher education. The role of philosophy of education has become blurred with constant requests for practical, immediate answers in the field of education. A theoretico-speculative approach to the philosophy of education can benefit teacher education. (SM)

  1. Philosophy of Hutterite Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The approximately 15,000 Hutterites living in the United States and Canada have a long history of development. Their founder, Jacob Hutter, became a martyr in 1536 in what is now Czechoslovakia. From Czechoslovakia, the Hutterites moved to the Ukraine in 1770 and to the United States in 1874. Hutterite philosophy emphasizes both modern and…

  2. Language Arts Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Dolch, E.W.

    This document articulates a philosophy of language arts that is based on the teacher's recognition of the need for an idividualized rate of growth for each child. Writing is presented as a personal and practical means of communication, and writing skills are listed that should be taught in the writing program. The goals for an effective creative…

  3. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology.

  4. My Teaching Learning Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punjani, Neelam Saleem

    2014-01-01

    The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…

  5. Isocrates' Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazloff, Debra

    Isocrates of ancient Greece attempted to create a wise and educated person in his school, not just an orator. His philosophy centered around the fact that teaching speech is not an exact science, but an art of opinions and beliefs that will educate the student to make sensible choices in life and speech, demonstrate a noble character, and be…

  6. Philosophy and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  7. Plato's Philosophy of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In the article, Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon asks, Did Plato have a philosophy of listening, and if so, what was it? Listening is the counterpart of speaking in a dialogue, and it is no less important. Indeed, learning from the dialogue is less likely to occur as people participate unless listening as well as speaking takes place. Haroutunian-Gordon…

  8. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. PMID:27465488

  9. Philosophies of Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    There are selected philosophies of reading instruction which are relevant in providing for individual differences among learners. These need to be studied in-depth by reading teachers in order to best provide for each pupil in the classroom. Pupils differ from each other in reading achievement, interests, and purposes, and it is a challenge to…

  10. Children and Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    Adults should introduce children to philosophy very young. By reading and discussing philosophic themes, children's natural philosophic talents turn toward real life issues. Parents can help children develop more reflective responses to life by playing thinking games, listening to children's comments, exploring philosophic questions when reading…

  11. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  12. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe treatments for a…

  13. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  14. Philosophy, Polemics, Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to comment upon the use of polemical argument in philosophy of education and education. Like Foucault, I believe that a whole morality is at stake because polemical argument obfuscates the search for truth at the expense of truth and the other's veracity, integrity and dignity. The use of polemics is illustrated by two…

  15. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-10-28

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O&M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O&M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades.

  16. Technology and Teaching Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?" While a…

  17. Philosophy's Roles in Afrocentric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verharen, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses whether or not to introduce philosophy in K-12 Afrocentric schools, recommending that Afrocentric educators take into account public education's aversion to philosophy, challenging Plato's and Aristotle's arguments against philosophizing before age 30. Encourages Afrocentric educators to formulate an explicit Afrocentric philosophy,…

  18. Philosophy of Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2007-01-01

    Each teacher of social studies teacher needs to possess a philosophy of teaching and learning. Philosophy provides guidance and direction in choosing objectives, learning activities, and assessment procedures. Each philosophy to be discussed will possess differences in meaning and implementation. It is salient to understand relevant philosophical…

  19. Teaching Philosophy of Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsfold, Victor L.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews three books as potential philosophy of education textbooks: "Philosophical Documents in Education" (Ronald F. Reed, Ed. and Tony W. Johnson, Ed.); "Key Concepts in the Philosophy of Education" (Christopher Winch and John Gingell); and "Educational Philosophy: A History from the Ancient World to Modern America" (Edward J.Power). The paper…

  20. Philosophy for Children Kenyan Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odierna, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    It was the last day of Philosophy 492, the author's college course dedicated to teaching the principles and strategies of philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i. Months before she joined the Philosophy 492 class, she was asked to join Emerging Humanity as a volunteer in a project that focused on enhancing the classroom environments at the…

  1. The Philosophy of University Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  2. Immanent philosophy of X.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Robin Findlay

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I examine the relationship between historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, and indeed scientists themselves. I argue that (i) they co-habit a shared intellectual territory (science and its past); and (ii) they should be able to do so peacefully, and with mutual respect, even if they disagree radically about how to describe the methods and results of science. I then go on to explore some of the challenges to mutually respectful cohabitation between history, philosophy and sociology of science. I conclude by identifying a familiar kind of project in the philosophy of science which seeks to explore the worldview of a particular scientific discipline, and argue that it too has a right to explore the shared territory even though some historians and sociologists may find it methodologically suspect.

  3. Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Angela

    2012-01-01

    When the author was first introduced to philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i, it made her cringe. She wasn't sure what it was all about, but it reminded her of a miserable past experience of sitting in a circle. Sitting in circles is the sort of activity that she tries to avoid in life. She was told that Dr. Thomas Jackson, aka Dr. J, would guide…

  4. Newton and scholastic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.

  5. Newton and scholastic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Dmitri

    2016-03-01

    This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors. PMID:26593733

  6. Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, and Counseling Ethics: Not an Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several decades, increased attention has been given to ethics in the preparation of counselors and psychologists. With that increase comes a number of voices calling for exposure to and integration of not only moral philosophy but other areas of philosophy to enhance understanding and provide a foundation for counseling practice. The…

  7. Towards Intercultural Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Heesoon; Eppert, Claudia; Scott, Charles; Tait, Saskia; Nguyen, Tram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an understanding of philosophy of education as cultural and intercultural work and philosophers of education as cultural and intercultural workers. In our view, the discipline of philosophy of education in North America is currently suffering from measures of insularity and singularity. It is vital that we justly and…

  8. Kaupapa Maori, Philosophy and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…

  9. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  10. Jacques Maritain's Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Education: A Relationship Secured Through Experience and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    Jacques Maritain's philosophy of history and philosophy of education both deal with the singularity of experience and the universality of reason. The philosophy of history is subordinated to moral philosophy; the philosophy of education is subordinated to metaphysics. Although Maritain's philosophies reflect a Christian world view, they can make a…

  11. Philosophy of clinical psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently

  12. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  13. A Philosophy of Learning Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Melissa Shindel, assistant principal of Patuxent Valley Middle School in Jessup, Maryland, and 2009 NASSP/Virco National Assistant Principal of the Year. In this interview, Shindel shares her philosophy and experience.

  14. TCMS operations and maintenance philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, David P.; Griffin, Rock E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the basic philosophies of operating and maintaining the Test, Control, and Monitor System (TCMS) equipment. TCMS is a complex and sophisticated checkout system. Operations and maintenance processes developed to support it will be based upon current experience, but will be focused on the specific needs of TCMS in support of Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) and related activities. An overview of the operations and maintenance goals and philosophies are presented. The assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concepts and interfaces for operation, on-line maintenance, off-line support, and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) personnel training on all TCMS equipment located at KSC are described.

  15. Grading Philosophy Survey, Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1989, a survey was conducted at Catonsville Community College to establish a consensus about the underlying philosophy governing the college's grading policy. The survey respondents included 167 full-time or adjunct faculty members, 15 student personnel professionals, 8 administrators, and 6 library, media, or telecommunications professionals.…

  16. Assessing Different Philosophies of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Many different philosophies of education have been recommended for improving the public schools. A look at the history of education in the United States shows that the one certainty is change. A perennial question is how high standards should be set. Related questions are those of aligning learning opportunities with the standards and constructing…

  17. Experiential Education: Democratizing Educational Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnich, Elizabeth Kamarck

    1999-01-01

    Looks at some of the philosophical positions, especially Pragmatism, that ground and inform the traditions of experiential education, examining hierarchical philosophy and experiential education, egalitarian pragmatism and experiential education (using Jane Addams as an example), and Dewey's theory of education as expressed in "Democracy and…

  18. A Critique of Linguistic Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundle, C. W. K.

    The author's main purposes in this work are "to exhibit linguistic philosophy as an aberration, to show that its practitioners have often done very badly what they claim to be doing, and to advocate the return to the non-linguistic tasks which philosophers had been tackling for 2,500 years." The first half of the volume is concerned with…

  19. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  20. Reclaiming Philosophy for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper notes the decline in philosophy of education in educational studies from its heyday in the 1970s and 1980s. The explanation is manifold, but includes the more utilitarian and managerial concerns which find less room for the questioning of assumptions distinctive of philosophical enquiry. The paper then uses the Nuffield Review of 14-19…

  1. Mathematical History, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, Michael

    2007-01-01

    History of mathematics occupies itself describing processes of growth and development, whereas philosophy of mathematics is concerned with questions of justification. Both play an essential role within the educational context. But there is a problem because genuine historical studies necessitate ever greater particularity whereas mathematics and…

  2. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  3. Academic Writing, Genres and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the underlying genres of philosophy focusing especially on their pedagogical forms to emphasize the materiality and historicity of genres, texts and writing. It focuses briefly on the history of the essay and its relation to the journal within the wider history of scientific communication, and comments on the standardized forms…

  4. Marxism: Exposure to Another Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Timothy J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Urges exposure of college students to different philosophies and world views. Describes the reasoning, preparation, and experience of having a Marxist representative speak to a class on comparative education. Insists that the teacher cannot present an adversary's arguments as a believer would. Argues that exposure to other views produces critical…

  5. On the Teaching of Political Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, James V.

    1991-01-01

    Reflects on the teaching of political philosophy. Reviews political philosophy throughout the ages and discusses the questions raised by philosophers. Finds the modern university to be conformist and argues writing is freer and more permanent than teaching. (NL)

  6. Philosophy, Exposure, and Children: How to Resist the Instrumentalisation of Philosophy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    The use of philosophy in educational programmes and practices under such names as philosophy for children, philosophy with children, or the community of philosophical enquiry, has become well established in many countries around the world. The main attraction of the educational use of philosophy seems to lie in the claim that it can help children…

  7. Is Philosophy of Education a Historical Mistake? Connecting Philosophy and Education Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of "philosophy of education". To substantiate this point, I look into…

  8. Philosophy 323, Readings in Asian Thought. Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurdle, Burton G., Jr.

    A survey course syllabus of Asian philosophy is presented. For each period of dates in the semester course, a reading assignment was made, discussion topics and questions proposed, and supplementary readings and sources suggested. The course focused on Indian philosophy, Buddhism and Hinduism, and Chinese philosophy, specifically Confucian…

  9. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  10. Educational Studies and the Map of Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldane, John

    2012-01-01

    One figure who was transitional between educational philosophy and philosophy of education, and who by his industry and prominence laid the foundation for the London school of analytical philosophers of education, was Louis Arnaud Reid who was appointed at the London Institute of Education to the first UK professorship in the philosophy of…

  11. Public School Superintendent Philosophies and Their Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, John

    2012-01-01

    Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today's existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by…

  12. Philosophy of Education and Other Educational Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    This article largely agrees with John White's characterizations of the relationships among philosophy of education, philosophy more generally, and the conventional world. It then extends what White identifies as the fundamental problem that should now be occupying philosophy of education--the irreconcilable opposition between education for…

  13. Philosophy of Philosophy: Making the Connection between Philosophy and Pedagogy for Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Thelma J.

    This paper supports the idea that teacher preparation programs must create reflective, field-based opportunities that help preservice teachers make connections between educational philosophies and classroom practices. It uses first-hand experiences from one class to introduce the subject matter. The paper discusses the trouble that preservice…

  14. Philosophy of biology. Is there still a need for philosophy?

    PubMed

    Graziano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we now focus on critically examining the theoretical and methodological conceptual foundations in the particular field of science of the living, namely the philosophy of biology. The latter seems to draw attention to two disparate disciplines in methods and scope of interest. On the one hand there seems to be a point of view that considers the cognitive phenomenon in question in a way so as to say "abstract", i.e. as something that seeks to determine the nature or essence, to use a term dear to many philosophers. On the other hand, there is a point of view that considers these phenomena in the actual place, the result of a process caused by the cognitive system of the subject, if the latter, of course, does not mean that they are human beings. We will argue that the two approaches do not represent two distinct planes of research: in fact philosophy takes on a main task, namely helping to lay the foundations for a philosophy of nature capable of meeting first a completeness, that is, to describe and explain what is special in all the different layers of the different natural systems.

  15. A history of erotic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth. PMID:19308838

  16. [Towards a philosophy of medication].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Medicine and philosophy: where do these concepts intersect? From a biopolitical standpoint, the scope of this essay is to highlight the existence of new challenges for those who deal with the issue of pharmaceuticalization in contemporary society. The analyses revealed that essentially technical approaches are insufficient to confront issues such as: the exorbitant profits from the sale of medication; the disproportionate ratio of these amounts with the number of new innovative molecules; and the difficulty of access to the few new drugs. It would seem to be the opportune moment for adopting a more critical stance for drafting a philosophy of medication in the field of public health with the establishment of areas of resistance to the omnipresent pharmacotherapeutic onslaught. After all, medication is not a constitutive element that is isolated from human life; although, it has become a central component in the management of contemporary life, its adequate use requires the exercise of in-depth introspection. PMID:26331513

  17. A history of erotic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  18. Cluster randomization and political philosophy.

    PubMed

    Chwang, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy.

  19. Philosophy for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W. ); Redd, L. )

    1993-01-10

    The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. Design'' addresses minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities.

  20. Quantum physics without quantum philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zanghì, Nino

    Quantum philosophy, a peculiar twentieth-century malady, is responsible for most of the conceptual muddle plaguing the foundations of quantum physics. When this philosophy is eschewed, one naturally arrives at Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schrödinger's equation for a nonrelativistic system of particles when we merely insist that 'particles' means particles. While distinctly non-Newtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. The quantum formalism emerges when measurement situations are analyzed according to this theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the paradoxes and perplexities so often associated with quantum theory simply evaporate.

  1. Foundations for a natural science of philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1999-01-01

    The functional relations among philosophy, science, technology, and intuition are examined. Those domains are each defined as behaviors, and each of them is then classified either as verbal, nonverbal, or both. Finally, those classes of behavior are organized into one integral behavioral system. The concept of a science of philosophy is introduced. A science and technology of philosophy are not only possible but necessary. Such an approach to the discipline of philosophy could lead to a new disciplinary structure for philosophy. Philosophy could be taught in academic departments as a verbal behavioral science. The discipline of behaviorology provides the foundations necessary to capacitate the traditional discipline of philosophy as a science and technology of verbal behavior commensurate with its potential cultural mission. PMID:22477161

  2. Philosophy of Science and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels. For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on…

  3. Philosophy of Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Walter

    2012-08-01

    This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on education changed; you may think of quite different schools of philosophy, from Marxist or positivist to such exotic but at some places influential philosophic positions like that of Rudolph Steiner; of course, you may limit the subject to special fields like epistemology, theory of scientific methodology, or, what has become fashionable recently, sociology of knowledge which may have a considerable bearing on physics teaching (Collins and Shapin 1983; Jung 1985). Again we may think of the topic treated by a philosopher, a scientist, an educationalist, a teacher, which would mean quite a difference. I am trying here to speak as an educationalist, with the physics teacher in mind: this is my vocational perspective as someone who educates physics teachers. Of course, our main concern is the contribution of science, especially physics, to general education, which integrates many of the special topics mentioned. Philosophy of science comes in because it is not at all clear what science and physics is, and what of it should be taught, and how such chosen parts should be taught. I also take this opportunity to give an idea of the longstanding tradition of this discussion in Germany, connected with names like Wagenshein, Litt, Heisenberg and many others.

  4. Moving beyond: a generative philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Riegel, B; Omery, A; Calvillo, E; Elsayed, N G; Lee, P; Shuler, P; Siegal, B E

    1992-01-01

    Philosophies of science are perhaps the most covert yet significant forces influencing the direction of change within disciplines. Although the era of logical positivism has waned for many disciplines, newer philosophies may not be satisfactory, especially for the applied disciplines. This article describes an alternative philosophy of science with special significance for nursing. This philosophy was influenced by several of the major existing philosophies, but especially by the paradigmatic view espoused by Thomas Kuhn. The generative philosophy of science was named because of its focus on generating growth among the applied disciplines. Members of these disciplines study questions with social significance and human application. This article defines major concepts, describes relationships among concepts and discusses implications for the development of nursing science and the nursing discipline. PMID:1601452

  5. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. PMID:24268930

  6. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win.

  7. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy.

  8. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win. PMID:18447188

  9. Philosophy for the rest of cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Nigel; Chemero, Anthony; Turvey, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive science has always included multiple methodologies and theoretical commitments. The philosophy of cognitive science should embrace, or at least acknowledge, this diversity. Bechtel's (2009a) proposed philosophy of cognitive science, however, applies only to representationalist and mechanist cognitive science, ignoring the substantial minority of dynamically oriented cognitive scientists. As an example of nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science, we describe strong anticipation as a model for circadian systems (Stepp & Turvey, 2009). We then propose a philosophy of science appropriate to nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science.

  10. Librarianship and the Philosophy of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Ken R.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the nature of information and the field of librarianship. Topics include library philosophy; and library practice, including authority, cataloging, classification, epistemology, logic, ontology, and mind. (LRW)

  11. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  12. Medicine in John Locke's philosophy.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A

    1990-12-01

    John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.

  13. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    PubMed

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  14. Come Back Martin, A Lot of Stuff Is Forgiven: Philosophy of Technology and Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    It is the thesis of this work that the intellectual and social movements of the sixties beyond conservatism, classical liberalism, new liberalism, and various versions of Left philosophy have generated a space for the construction of a neoteric philosophy. The neoteric influence of today's reality points out that philosophy must move beyond…

  15. What Is Philosophy "for" Children, What Is Philosophy "with" Children--After Matthew Lipman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy; Kennedy, David

    2011-01-01

    Philosophy for Children arose in the 1970s in the US as an educational programme. This programme, initiated by Matthew Lipman, was devoted to exploring the relationship between the notions "philosophy" and "childhood", with the implicit practical goal of establishing philosophy as a full-fledged "content area" in public schools. Over 40 years, the…

  16. School and the Limits of Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…

  17. Hard Times: Philosophy and the Fundamentalist Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2005-01-01

    A close reading of Gradgrind's opening monologue of Hard Times by Charles Dickens will provide the starting off point for an examination of the role and place of philosophy in the music curriculum. The Gradgrind philosophy finds easy parallel to current thinking in American education. In the fundamentalist imagination, sources of ambiguity must be…

  18. Philosophy for Young Children: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaut, Berys; Gaut, Morag

    2011-01-01

    Co-written by a professor of philosophy and a practising primary school teacher, "Philosophy for Young Children" is a concise, practical guide for teachers. It contains detailed session plans for 36 philosophical enquiries--enough for a year's work--that have all been successfully tried, tested and enjoyed with young children from the age of three…

  19. Does Philosophy of Education Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The apparently simple question, "Does philosophy of education have a future?", is without a simple answer. Like so many other questions, it all depends on what we mean, and in this case, what we mean by the expression "philosophy of education". I shall look at it in all of three ways: as a social institution, as an academic…

  20. Philosophy of Education and the Deweyan Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Rene Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" suggesting that Deweyan philosophy of education is not the whole of philosophy of education, noting difficulties with the Deweyan view with which Arcilla is concerned, discussing problems with Arcilla's analysis of both the Deweyan view and the…

  1. Immanuel Kant, his philosophy and medicine.

    PubMed

    Wiesing, Urban

    2008-06-01

    The article examines the statements made by Immanuel Kant with reference to medicine as well as the impact of his philosophy on medicine. It describes the initial reaction of Kantian philosophy on medicine in the late 18th and early 19th century and its influence in the late 20th century. PMID:17712609

  2. Philosophy of Education, 1973-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinek, James John, Ed.

    The compiled proceedings of an annual meeting of the Far Western Philosophy of Education Society focus on the theme of the future. A presidential address suggests definitions of "future" and investigates how philosophy of education professionals can participate and contribute to futures. Several of the twenty-four papers, all reproduced with…

  3. Taking Africana Existential Philosophy of Education Seriously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Dwayne A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay addresses the concerns educators and philosophers of education might have about an Africana existential philosophy of education by first defining Africana existential philosophy. Then, it performs a brief phenomenological investigation of the lived experiences of persons of African descent in the United States. This essay concludes by…

  4. Thomas Reid and Philosophy with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Fiachra

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale for doing philosophy with children. It suggests a rationale that differs from more usual arguments supporting philosophy with children--for such reasons as that it will enhance problem solving-skills or will help pupils' thinking to be more logical. These worthy objectives are not denied but only considered somewhat…

  5. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies. PMID:20431689

  6. Between the Lines: Philosophy, Text and Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In doing philosophy we need to be aware of the awkwardness of thinking in terms of having a method, still more any kind of "methodology". Instead we might consider the different ways in which philosophy has been conceived in terms of contrasts: for example between the written and the spoken word, between exposition and dialogue, and between--in…

  7. For Philosophy of Education in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The time has come to re-assess the role that Philosophy has to play in the education of teachers, both at the beginning of and during their careers. The currently fashionable craft conception of teaching is inadequate as a preparation for a career in teaching. Philosophy of Education has an important role to play in preparing for a career in…

  8. Claims of Philosophy, Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a response to Richard Pring's "Reclaiming Philosophy for Educational Research," which appears in this issue. While it provides broad support for the case for the importance of philosophy in the study of education that Pring advances, it seeks to refine and to extend this. It does this through a consideration of three sets of claims.…

  9. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  10. Philosophy in Schools: A Catholic School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…

  11. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.

  12. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful. PMID:26935056

  13. [Jena philosophies of nature around 1800].

    PubMed

    Breidbach, O

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the situation and the outline of positions in philosophy of nature in Jena about 1800, in focusing on research other than the key figures Schelling and Hegel. In 1789, Schelling introduced philosophy of nature into the course program of Jena University. Already in 1800, two young scientists--a mathematician (Fischer) and a physiologist--reacted, announcing lectures on Schellingian topics. But only in late 1802, younger philosophers offered courses on those topics. From 1802 onwards, lectures were announced by Schad, Krause, Henrici, Hegel, Oken and the botanist Schelver. Apart from the Fisher lecture from 1800, the program of these presentations was based on Schellingian principles. Analyses of the ideas of Schad, Krause and Schelver show that, about 1800, philosophy of nature in Jena conserved basic ideas of the early philosophy of nature of Schelling. Thus, philosophy of nature in this period of Jena University seemed to follow just one line of reasoning. PMID:11068513

  14. [The discourse of psychosis in contemporary philosophy].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The preoccupation of philosophy with madness can be traced back till the Greek antiquity. For many philosophers like Descartes psychotic phenomena were symbols for the fragility of human mental powers, while others like Plato or Nietzsche saw madness as a way to escape the constraints of rationality. After 1960 three direction of contemporary philosophy dealt with the topics madness--schizophrenia--psychosis: Following Nietzsche and Bataille, Foucault as well as Deleuze and Guattari considered schizophrenia as the societal oppressed reverse of modern rationality, a notion which had a strong influence on the anti-psychiatric movement. Philosophical phenomenology primarily focussed on ontological problems of the psychotic existence. Finally Philosophy of Mind, the modern Anglo-American version of analytical philosophy, analyzed the logical coherence of psychotic inferences and experiences. Especially the insights of analytical philosophy may be important for a more sophisticated interpretation of psychopathological research as well as of the new findings of neuroscience.

  15. Environmental philosophy: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts.

  16. Philosophy and models in critical care nursing.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, L

    1994-09-01

    In 1991 a new philosophy and nursing model was developed in the adult intensive care unit. A team approach over several months, through the exploration of attitudes, values and beliefs, gave rise to the unit philosophy. The philosophy identified the beliefs of the nursing team which then, along with identified knowledge and goals for practice, directed us towards an appropriate nursing model. The Mead model, an adaptation from Roper, Logan & Tierney's model, was chosen and then adapted further. We believe the resulting model, although not perfect, guides our practice, reflects our beliefs, and is practical and 'user friendly'.

  17. On the philosophy of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George Francis Rayner

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of significant issues in the philosophy of cosmology, starting off by emphasizing the uniqueness of the universe and the way models are used in description and explanation. It then considers, basic limits on observations; the need to test alternatives; ways to test consistency; and implications of the uniqueness of the universe as regards distinguishing laws of physics from contingent conditions. It goes on to look at the idea of a multiverse as a scientific explanation of facts about fine-tuning, in particular considering criteria for a scientific theory and for justifying unseen entities. It considers the relation between physical laws and the natures of existence, and emphasizes limits on our knowledge of the physics relevant to the early universe (the physics horizon), and the non-physical nature of some claimed infinities. The final section looks briefly at deeper issues, commenting on the scope of enquiry of cosmological theory and the limits of science in relation to the creation of the universe.

  18. Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism. To Mario, with gratitude.

  19. Eco-Philosophy and Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolimowski, Henryk

    1988-01-01

    Criticizes the Deep Ecology Movement as a new ecological world view. Discusses the limits of this philosophy including its views of destiny, evolution and cosmology. Concludes that although its intentions are admirable, Deep Ecology leaves too much unanswered. (CW)

  20. Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.

  1. What can philosophy do for psychiatry?

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Kenneth WM; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This article illustrates the practical impact of recent developments in the philosophy of psychiatry in five key areas: patient-centred practice, new models of service delivery, neuroscience research, psychiatric education, and the organisation of psychiatry as an international science-led discipline focused on patient care. We conclude with a note on the role of philosophy in countering the stigmatisation of mental disorder. PMID:16633476

  2. Philosophy of astrobiology: some recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2015-09-01

    We present some recent developments in philosophy of astrobiology which illustrate usefulness of philosophy to astrobiology. We cover applications of Aristotelian views to definition of life, of Priest's dialetheism to the question if viruses are alive, and various thought experiments in regard to these and other astrobiology issues. Thought experiments about the survival of life in the Solar system and about the role of viruses at the beginning and towards the end of life are also described.

  3. Philosophy and the Music Teacher: Challenging the Way We Think.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1990-01-01

    Defines philosophy of music education, its importance, and how to develop a personal philosophy of music education. Emphasizes that music philosophy undergirds the music curriculum. States that the nature of music philosophy is ecletic, and emerges by addressing the challenges of the discipline. (GG)

  4. Assembling Reminders for Educational Research: Wittgenstein on Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Ludwig Wittgenstein's insights on the nature of philosophy have changed philosophy in general and the philosophy of education specifically. This essay discusses Wittgenstein's philosophy about the connection between language and life form, describes Wittgenstein's constructive philosophical account of how meaning and understanding are possible,…

  5. John Wilson's Confused "Perspectives on the Philosophy of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In his "Perspectives on the Philosophy of Education" John Wilson laments the confusion that surrounds the current state of the philosophy of education. Unlike other branches of philosophy, he claims, it is not clear what the philosophy of education is about, and a snapshot of current work in the field reveals its lack of coherence. To remedy this…

  6. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  7. Philosophy as an Academic Discipline: The Changing Place of Philosophy in an Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    Various kinds of philosophical instruction in England and Europe since the middle ages are reviewed. It is noted that the search for the common element behind modern philosophy curricula leads back into history, and that modern philosophy as a discipline incorporates its earlier institutional forms. (LBH)

  8. Isabel Maitland Stewart's philosophy of education.

    PubMed

    Donahue, M P

    1983-01-01

    Isabel Maitland Stewart developed the first course dealing specifically with the teaching of nursing. The purpose of this study was to determine the essential principles of Stewart's philosophy of general and nursing education and to determine the significance and influence of John Dewey on her philosophy. Documents were collected, classified, and examined using content analysis. Quotations from Stewart's writings were categorized according to the nature of man; standards; means, ends, and goals; learning; and education. These were examined topically and from the standpoint of their identification with contemporary philosophical thought, particularly pragmatism. Conclusions are based on the interpretation of Stewart's direct statements. She was progessivist and utilitarian in her ethical view. Such a philosophy is closely allied with pragmatism and, more specifically, pragmatic realism.

  9. The philosophies of psychiatry: empirical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Alan S G

    2013-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a surge in cross-disciplinary work in philosophy and psychiatry. Much of this work is necessarily abstract whilst those working in the area are aware of the necessity of relating the theoretical and conceptual work to the vagaries of day-to-day practice. But given the diverse methods and aims of philosophy and psychiatry, crossing the 'communication gap' between the two disciplines is easier said than done. In this article different methods of bridging this gap are presented and commented upon. A number of research studies are reviewed with an eye to the potential they display to develop interdisciplinary theory. An empirical approach to philosophy of practice with special attention to ordinary language use is proposed as a fruitful may forward. PMID:22752587

  10. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    PubMed

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  11. Spacecraft load, design and test philosophies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The development of spacecraft loads, design and test philosophies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) during the past 25 years is presented. Examples from the JPL's Viking, Voyager and Galileo spacecraft are used to explain the changes in philosophy necessary to meet the program requirements with a reduction in cost and schedule. Approaches to validate mathematical models of large structures which can't be ground tested as an overall system because of size and/or adverse effects of terrestrial conditions such as gravity are presented.

  12. An outline of object-oriented philosophy.

    PubMed

    Harman, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article summarises the principles of object-oriented philosophy and explains its similarities with, and differences from, the outlook of the natural sciences. Like science, the object-oriented position avoids the notion (quite common in philosophy) that the human-world relation is the ground of all others, such that scientific statements about the world would only be statements about the world as it is for humans. But unlike science, object-oriented metaphysics treats artificial, social, and fictional entities in the same way as natural ones, and also holds that the world can only be known allusively rather than directly.

  13. Philosophy as the Opening for Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstrom, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider some reasons why philosophy, in its current highly pluralist state, can be a valuable means of creating, with the help of divine grace, an opening for faith. My paper begins with (1) the challenging conceptual diversity that besets the very idea of Catholic higher education, i.e., the theme of this issue of…

  14. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  15. Personalized, Programed Philosophy: Helping Students Build Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Gregory A.; Bailey, George W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a philosophy course offered at East Carolina University through the Special Studies Program for marginally-admissable students. The program uses selected readings from Russell, James, Sartre, and others and the Personalized System of Instruction to build critical thinking, reading, and study skills, while introducing students to the…

  16. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation. PMID:27550463

  17. Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

  18. Rousseau's Philosophy of Transformative, "Denaturing" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Rousseau's political philosophy presents the great legislator as a civic educator who must over time transform naturally self-loving egoists into citizens animated by a general will without destroying freedom. This is an educational process which is "denaturing" but which aims to produce autonomous adults who can ultimately say to their teacher…

  19. Reflections on Futures for Music Education Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the International Society for Philosophy of Music Education (ISPME). The ISPME is creating and institutionalizing a forum that can nurture and critique ideas and practices and sustain the work of philosophical reflection in music education over the longer term. It has begun to build an international team of…

  20. Teaching Political Philosophy and Academic Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Shalit, Avner

    2005-01-01

    Should lecturers who teach political philosophy hide their personal political beliefs? This question becomes interesting when lecturers face what seems to be morally repugnant policies, such as massive human rights violations. In such cases is there a conflict between a lecturer's civic and political obligations and his/her academic and…

  1. Feminist Philosophy of Science: "Standpoint" and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crasnow, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist philosophy of science has been criticized on several counts. On the one hand, it is claimed that it results in relativism of the worst sort since the political commitment to feminism is "prima facie" incompatible with scientific objectivity. On the other hand, when critics acknowledge that there may be some value in work that feminists…

  2. Philosophy and Religious Studies Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Ernest; And Others

    An initial review of philosophy and religious studies programs in the state university system of Florida was conducted in 1983-84. This is a report of the five year follow-up review conducted to assess the progress made in response to the original recommendations and to report on current program status. A systemwide overview with recommendations…

  3. Philosophy for Children: Towards Pedagogical Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Rosie; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical inquiry (Lipman, Sharp & Oscanyan, 1980) has the capacity to push boundaries in teaching and learning interactions with students and improve teacher's pedagogical experiences (Scholl, Nichols, Burgh, 2008). This paper focuses on the potential for Philosophy to foster pedagogical transformation. Two groups of primary school teachers,…

  4. Developing a Personal Philosophy of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Cuneen, Jacquelyn

    2001-01-01

    Suggests five questions to initiate critical reflection, followed by five steps to guide the development of a personal philosophy of sport. The five questions (upon which the five steps are based) include examining the basis for one's values, what one values in sport, and what values are exhibited by others in the sport. Sample ethical dilemmas…

  5. Personal Philosophies of Teaching: A False Promise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, college and university faculty are asked to articulate their personal philosophies of teaching when they are reviewed for reappointment, tenure, or promotion. For many faculty members, the task is unfamiliar and daunting. It forces them to articulate what they typically take for granted--their beliefs about knowledge and learning and…

  6. Dancing Composition: Pedagogy and Philosophy as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    For philosopher Gilles Deleuze, the work of philosophy consists of affirmatively and artistically creating and reworking concepts in response to real-life problems in an ongoing process that invites new perspectives and ways of thinking. Carol Matthews's music composition pedagogical practices reflect these processes, arguing that they demonstrate…

  7. Who Needs Philosophy in Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallini, M. Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the invaluable contribution of philosophy in physical education can mean the difference between a "roll out the ball" mentality and one that will change the lives of students forever. What good is an educated mind if it is housed in an unfit body? The more that physical education teachers in training understand the critical role they…

  8. Moral Philosophy, Disability, and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, E. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Disability and dependence are integral to the human experience and yet have been largely marginalized or denigrated within Western philosophy. Joining a growing counter narrative from the disability studies movement, several mainstream moral philosophers are helping to redress this error. In this essay, the author discusses ideas from four such…

  9. An outline of planetary geoscience. [philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A philosophy for planetary geoscience is presented to aid in addressing a number of major scientific questions; answers to these questions should constitute the basic geoscientific knowledge of the solar system. However, any compilation of major questions or basic knowledge in planetary geoscience involves compromises and somewhat arbitrary boundaries that reflect the prevalent level of understanding at the time.

  10. Curriculum Development: Philosophy, Objectives, and Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sally A.; Lawrence, Rena M.

    1983-01-01

    The most critical elements of any nursing curriculum are the philosophy, objectives, conceptual framework, and level objectives. All aspects of each of these elements need to be systematically organized and carefully articulated to provide a firm foundation upon which a curriculum can be developed. (Author)

  11. Philosophy, Rhetoric, Literacy Criticism: (Inter)views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A., Ed.

    In addition to a foreword by Clifford Geertz and an introduction by Patricia Bizzell, this book features 12 essays by rhetoric and composition scholars responding to interviews with prominent scholars outside the discipline. The commentaries in the book entertain a range of topics, including language, rhetoric, philosophy, feminism and literary…

  12. Contemporary Development of Marxist Philosophy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ouyang

    2002-01-01

    There are many points of interest pertaining to the development of Marxist philosophy in contemporary China. This paper will focus on the following areas and problems: (1) the debate about the criterion of truth; (2) Marxist philosophical textbook reform; (3) the inquiry into the human agent and subjectivity; (4) Marxism and Confucianism; (5) Deng…

  13. Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to complexity theory, this paper considers how various themes in the field relate to the philosophical study of education. Issues and questions introduced include the challenge of complexity theory for the philosophy of education--and, conversely, some critical challenges for complexity theory from educational…

  14. Kazakh Philosophy: From Abai to Shakarim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydykov, Yerlan B.; Nysanbayev, Abdumalik N.; Kurmanbaev, Erbol A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of Shakarim--a follower of Abai--on Kazakh philosophy, his worldview and opinion of existential issues. The specifics of the problem under consideration required taking a synthetic approach to the use of various methods in this research. A synthesis of dialectical, metaphysical, rational,…

  15. Philosophy for Children as an Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välitalo, Riku; Juuso, Hannu; Sutinen, Ari

    2016-01-01

    During the past 40 years, the Philosophy for Children movement has developed a dialogical framework for education that has inspired people both inside and outside academia. This article concentrates on analysing the historical development in general and then taking a more rigorous look at the recent discourse of the movement. The analysis proceeds…

  16. John Dewey on Philosophy and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Maughn; Granger, David

    2012-01-01

    John Dewey was not a philosopher of education in the now-traditional sense of a doctor of philosophy who examines educational ends, means, and controversies through the disciplinary lenses of epistemology, ethics, and political theory, or of agenda-driven schools such as existentialism, feminism, and critical theory. Rather, Dewey was both an…

  17. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    PubMed

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation.

  18. Derrida's Right to Philosophy, Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, a tribute to Jacques Derrida's educational efforts at expanding access to current work in philosophy, John Willinsky examines his efforts as both a public right and an element of academic freedom that bear on the open access movement today. Willinsky covers Derrida's extension and outreach work with the Groupe de Recherches pour…

  19. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  20. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students. PMID:26379267

  1. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students.

  2. An Analysis of Judging Philosophies in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John D.; Matlon, Ronald J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes current judging philosophies in academic debate and attempts to define policymaking, hypothesis testing, stock issues, and "tabula rasa" judging philosophies by examining the responses of judges so labeled to specific judging situations. (JMF)

  3. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students. PMID:26379267

  4. Reflections on Beardsley's "Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Monroe Beardsley's "Aesthetics" was published the year the author was a junior philosophy major at the University of California, Berkeley, and by the end of that academic year, the author had completed semester courses in the history of ancient as well as modern philosophy, logic, ethics, and the philosophy of religion. The requirements remaining…

  5. Making Philosophy of Science Education Practical for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, F. J. J. M.; van Berkel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Philosophy of science education can play a vital role in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. In order to fulfill this role a philosophy of science education should be made practical for teachers. First, multiple and inherently incomplete philosophies on the teacher and teaching on what, how and why should be…

  6. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  7. The Relationship between Philosophy and Evidence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Gina; Brighouse, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the ways that philosophy and evidence interact in the exploration of normative questions in philosophy of education. First, the authors provide a description of reflective equilibrium, a central method in normative philosophizing. They proceed to describe three tasks of normative philosophy, each of which requires engagement…

  8. Educational Philosophy in China: A Centennial Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Youquan; Chi, Yanjie

    2007-01-01

    Educational philosophy in China during the 20th century started with the introduction of John Dewey's educational philosophy thoughts, followed by the dissemination of Marxism thoughts of education, and initially established the framework of educational philosophy as an academic discipline. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in…

  9. "Whys" and "Hows" of Using Philosophy in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2014-01-01

    The article elaborates and exemplifies a potential categorization of the reasons for using philosophy, in particular the philosophy of mathematics, in mathematics education and approaches to doing so-the so-called "whys" and "hows". More precisely, the "whys" are divided into the two categories of "philosophy as…

  10. "Inside-out Pedagogy": Theorising Pedagogical Transformation through Teaching Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective interview study focused on the impact that training and implementation of Philosophy, in Lipman's tradition of Philosophy for Children, had on the pedagogy of 14 primary teachers at one school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to document the impact of teaching Philosophy on pedagogy, the resources required to…

  11. What Is Our First Philosophy in Mathematics Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul

    2012-01-01

    What are the theoretical foundations of mathematics education? Recently disciplines other than mathematics and psychology have grown in importance, including philosophy. But which branch of philosophy is the most fundamental for mathematics education? In this article, I consider the claims of five branches of philosophy to be our "first…

  12. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  13. Philosophy of Science, with Special Consideration Given to Behaviorism as the Philosophy of the Science of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that critically examines the foundations, assumptions, methods, products, and implications of the activity called science. The present sketch reviews the historical development of the philosophy of science, representative individuals in the field, and topics of long-standing interest. The…

  14. Philosophy and Quantum Mechanics in Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiech, Gesche

    Research in physics has its impact on world view; physics influences the image of nature. On the other hand philosophy thinks about nature and the role of man. The insight that philosophy might indicate the frontiers of human possibilities of thought makes it highly desirable to teach these aspects in physics education. One of the most exciting examples is quantum theory which v. Weizsäcker called a fundamental philosophical advance. I give some hints to implementing philosophical aspects into a course on quantum theory. For this purpose I designed a dialogue between three philosophers - from the Antique, the Enlightenment and a quantum philosopher - discussing results of quantum theory on the background of important philosophical terms. Especially the views of Aristotle are reviewed. This idea has been carried out in a supplementary course on quantum theory for interested teacher students and for in-service training of teachers.

  15. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics.

  16. Philosophy, psychology, physics and practice of ki.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2009-06-01

    Ki (in Japanese) or Qi (in Chinese) is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are 'non-linearity' and 'holistic' approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a 'Ki-beam' carries 'entropy' (or information), which is different from 'energy'. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week) of practice. PMID:18955316

  17. Physics, philosophy, and the nature of reality.

    PubMed

    Maudlin, Tim

    2015-12-01

    Both science and philosophy have been characterized as seeking to understand the nature of reality. They are sometimes even pitted against each other, suggesting that the success of science undermines the relevance of philosophy. But attending to the sort of understanding or explanation being sought offers a different picture: contemporary physics as practiced sometimes fails to provide a clear physical account of the world. This lies at the root of the dissatisfaction with standard quantum theory expressed by Einstein, Schrödinger, and John Bell. As an example, close consideration of Schrödinger's famous cat example suggests that physicists often have missed his point. What a philosophical disposition can contribute is not alternative physics, but rather the sort of careful attention to argument needed to extract a physical picture from a mathematical formalism.

  18. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    PubMed

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots.

  19. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    PubMed

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots. PMID:27550457

  20. Philosophy, Psychology, Physics and Practice of Ki

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Ki (in Japanese) or Qi (in Chinese) is the key concept in Eastern medicine, Eastern philosophy, as well as in martial arts. We explain the philosophical and psychological background of Ki. We emphasize that the unique aspects of Eastern philosophy are ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach. We then present physics aspect of Ki. Our experiments demonstrated that a ‘Ki-beam’ carries ‘entropy’ (or information), which is different from ‘energy’. We introduce our experience of having taught Ki to 37 beginners in the United States through the Nishino Breathing Method. If beginners had martial arts training or a strong background in music or dance, about half of them could sense Ki within 10 weeks (1 h class per week) of practice. PMID:18955316

  1. MCNP4A: Features and philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes MCNP, states its philosophy, introduces a number of new features becoming available with version MCNP4A, and answers a number of questions asked by participants in the workshop. MCNP is a general-purpose three-dimensional neutron, photon and electron transport code. Its philosophy is ``Quality, Value and New Features.`` Quality is exemplified by new software quality assurance practices and a program of benchmarking against experiments. Value includes a strong emphasis on documentation and code portability. New features are the third priority. MCNP4A is now available at Los Alamos. New features in MCNP4A include enhanced statistical analysis, distributed processor multitasking, new photon libraries, ENDF/B-VI capabilities, X-Windows graphics, dynamic memory allocation, expanded criticality output, periodic boundaries, plotting of particle tracks via SABRINA, and many other improvements. 23 refs.

  2. Parts Engineering Experiences, Philosophies and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is the presentation viewgraphs of the NASA presentations to NASDA, outlining the philosophy and trends of the experiences with engineering parts. Included in the presentations: are (1) the assurance of COTS boards for Space flight, and (2) Peer Review for Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) GPS flight receivers EEE parts. The emphasis is on the methods for qualification of available parts for space flight.

  3. Doctors' attitudes, medical philosophy, and political views.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, R E; Allery, L

    1986-04-12

    A survey of 507 British physicians in different specialties was conducted to investigate their attitudes on various medico-moral and practice issues. There were few substantial differences among the specialty groups in their responses to questions concerning specific bioethical and practical issues. However, the groups differed substantially in political outlook and general medical philosophy. Ranged from the most right wing and technological to the most left wing and humanistic were the following groups: surgeons, hospital physicians, women physicians, general practitioners, and psychiatrists.

  4. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a). PMID:26143599

  5. Philosophy and the practice of Bayesian statistics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Andrew; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2015-01-01

    A substantial school in the philosophy of science identifies Bayesian inference with inductive inference and even rationality as such, and seems to be strengthened by the rise and practical success of Bayesian statistics. We argue that the most successful forms of Bayesian statistics do not actually support that particular philosophy but rather accord much better with sophisticated forms of hypothetico-deductivism. We examine the actual role played by prior distributions in Bayesian models, and the crucial aspects of model checking and model revision, which fall outside the scope of Bayesian confirmation theory. We draw on the literature on the consistency of Bayesian updating and also on our experience of applied work in social science. Clarity about these matters should benefit not just philosophy of science, but also statistical practice. At best, the inductivist view has encouraged researchers to fit and compare models without checking them; at worst, theorists have actively discouraged practitioners from performing model checking because it does not fit into their framework. PMID:22364575

  6. Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a).

  7. Philosophy and the practice of Bayesian statistics.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Andrew; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2013-02-01

    A substantial school in the philosophy of science identifies Bayesian inference with inductive inference and even rationality as such, and seems to be strengthened by the rise and practical success of Bayesian statistics. We argue that the most successful forms of Bayesian statistics do not actually support that particular philosophy but rather accord much better with sophisticated forms of hypothetico-deductivism. We examine the actual role played by prior distributions in Bayesian models, and the crucial aspects of model checking and model revision, which fall outside the scope of Bayesian confirmation theory. We draw on the literature on the consistency of Bayesian updating and also on our experience of applied work in social science. Clarity about these matters should benefit not just philosophy of science, but also statistical practice. At best, the inductivist view has encouraged researchers to fit and compare models without checking them; at worst, theorists have actively discouraged practitioners from performing model checking because it does not fit into their framework.

  8. How philosophy of medicine has changed medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Robert M

    2006-12-01

    The celebration of thirty years of publication of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provides an opportunity to reflect on how medical ethics has evolved over that period. The reshaping of the field has occurred in no small part because of the impact of branches of philosophy other than ethics. These have included influences from Kantian theory of respect for persons, personal identity theory, philosophy of biology, linguistic analysis of the concepts of health and disease, personhood theory, epistemology, and political philosophy. More critically, medicine itself has begun to be reshaped. The most fundamental restructuring of medicine is currently occurring--stemming, in part, from the application of contemporary philosophy of science to the medical field. There is no journal more central to these critical events of the past three decades than The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. PMID:17162729

  9. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit. PMID:16792118

  10. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  11. Pragmatism: a practical philosophy for environmental scientists.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Challenges to the credibility of the scientific community make it particularly important for environmental scientists to understand the bases for the authority of their science. We argue that pragmatism provides a defensible and effective scientific philosophy. It provides a transparent basis for justifying belief and a set of practices and concepts for inference. It makes the scientific community the author of scientific truth, which has implications for the opening of science in the age of social media and the communication of consensus positions on important issues. We describe how pragmatism acknowledges the social aspect of science without losing the scientific tradition of critical thinking.

  12. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  13. Identifying Your Educational Philosophy: Development of the Philosophies Held by Instructors of Lifelong-Learners (PHIL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    The Philosophies Held by Instructors of Lifelong-learners (PHIL) was developed to identify a respondent's preference for one of the major schools of philosophical thought: Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, or Reconstructionism. Using the pool of items from an established instrument, its final form and content validity were determined…

  14. The philosophy of modelling or does the philosophy of biology have any use?

    PubMed Central

    Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2012-01-01

    Biologists in search of answers to real-world issues such as the ecological consequences of global warming, the design of species' conservation plans, understanding landscape dynamics and understanding gene expression make decisions constantly that are based on a ‘philosophical’ stance as to how to create and test explanations of an observed phenomenon. For better or for worse, some kind of philosophy is an integral part of the doing of biology. Given this, it is more important than ever to undertake a practical assessment of what philosophy does mean and should mean to biologists. Here, I address three questions: should biologists pay any attention to ‘philosophy’; should biologists pay any attention to ‘philosophy of biology’; and should biologists pay any attention to the philosophy of biology literature on modelling? I describe why the last question is easily answered affirmatively, with the proviso that the practical benefits to be gained by biologists from this literature will be directly proportional to the extent to which biologists understand ‘philosophy’ to be a part of biology, not apart from biology. PMID:22144380

  15. Philosophy of science and the diagnostic process.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian H; Beebee, Helen; Lasserson, Daniel S

    2013-10-01

    This is an overview of the principles that underpin philosophy of science and how they may provide a framework for the diagnostic process. Although philosophy dates back to antiquity, it is only more recently that philosophers have begun to enunciate the scientific method. Since Aristotle formulated deduction, other modes of reasoning including induction, inference to best explanation, falsificationism, theory-laden observations and Bayesian inference have emerged. Thus, rather than representing a single overriding dogma, the scientific method is a toolkit of ideas and principles of reasoning. Here we demonstrate that the diagnostic process is an example of science in action and is therefore subject to the principles encompassed by the scientific method. Although a number of the different forms of reasoning are used readily by clinicians in practice, without a clear understanding of their pitfalls and the assumptions on which they are based, it leaves doctors open to diagnostic error. We conclude by providing a case example from the medico-legal literature in which diagnostic errors were made, to illustrate how applying the scientific method may mitigate the chance for diagnostic error.

  16. Quelques diagnostics X pour les expériences d'interaction laser-matière

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, advances in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion research have been on the rise. This report provides a description of the experimental techniques which are used to study the interaction of laser light with matter and high density plasmas. To understand the physical processes involved in this interaction, we need high performance instrumentation (diagnostics) for the observation of X-ray radiation in the energy range from a few eV to a few keV. This paper is divided into three chapters: the first part describes the metrology of the diagnostics developed around various X-ray sources (synchrotron, laser-produced-plasmas, ...), the second part synthesizes theoretical and experimental X-ray optics studies. It shows the interest for applications such as X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging, the third part is a review of the use of advances X-ray imaging diagnostics in laser-produced plasma physics experiments. Ce rapport est une revue de travaux réalisés au CEA/DAM de 1990 à 1999, dans le cadre de la fusion thermonucléaire inertielle par laser. Il est relatif aux techniques expérimentales utilisées pour l'étude de l'interaction du rayonnement laser avec la matière et des plasmas à très haute densité d'énergie. La compréhension de cette physique a nécessité le développement d'une instrumentation de premier plan notamment de diagnostics dans le domaine des rayonsX. Il est articulé en trois chapitres: la première concerne la métrologie de ces diagnostics réalisée auprès de différentes sources de rayonnement X (synchrotron, plasma laser, tube RX...), la seconde synthétise les études théoriques et expérimentales d'optiques RX et montre comment ces optiques ont trouvé des applications directes en instrumentationX (spectroscopie, imagerie) auprès des lasers, la troisième est une revue des diagnostics marquants d'imagerie, de radiographieX, ayant un intérêt pour la physique des plasmas, à travers quelques expériences.

  17. Minimum Competencies for Teaching Undergraduate Sport Philosophy Courses. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Although sport philosophy is considered to be a sub-discipline with its own unique body of knowledge, sport philosophy is more commonly offered as a single course rather than a degree program. Therefore, these guidelines are offered specifically for the teaching of a single course at the undergraduate level. In order to be effective, the course…

  18. Wrestling with Philosophy: Improving Scholarship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2004-01-01

    Method is usually viewed as completely separate from philosophy or theory, focusing instead on techniques and procedures of interviewing, focus groups, observation, or statistical analysis. Several texts on methodology published recently have added significant sections on philosophy, such as Creswell's (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research…

  19. The Importance of Teaching a Win-Win Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Alan J.

    Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for individuals to…

  20. Simone de Beauvoir: The Philosophy of Lived Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Simone de Beauvoir, best known outside France as a leading modern feminist theorist, is also recognized as a writer of literature, philosophy, and drama. In this essay, James D. Marshall aims to present Beauvoir, not as a mere entry in the history of French philosophy, nor as an under-laborer to Jean-Paul Sartre, but as someone who has important…

  1. Three Kinds of Political Engagement for Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisch, George

    2009-02-01

    In responding to critics and reviewers of my book, How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science, I attempt to identify some misleading conventional wisdom about the place of values in philosophy of science and then offer three distinct ways in which philosophers of science can engage their work with ongoing social and political currents.

  2. Why Compulsory Science Education Should "Not" Include Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, P.

    2008-01-01

    Like many readers of this journal, I have long been an advocate of having science students introduced to philosophy of science. In particular, influenced by the Philosophy for Children movement founded by Matthew Lipman, I have advocated such an introduction as early as possible and have championed early secondary school as an appropriate place.…

  3. Relationships between the Philosophy of Science and Didactics of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo, Merce; Galagovsky, Lydia

    2002-01-01

    Presents a theoretical classification of relationships between the philosophy of science and didactics of science, based on the metadiscursive nature which philosophy and didactics share. Describes five different relationships between the two disciplines: material, instrumental, explanatory, rhetorical, and metatheoretical. (Author/MM)

  4. When Science Studies Religion: Six Philosophy Lessons for Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    It is an unfortunate fact of academic life that there is a sharp divide between science and philosophy, with scientists often being openly dismissive of philosophy, and philosophers being equally contemptuous of the naivete of scientists when it comes to the philosophical underpinnings of their own discipline. In this paper I explore the…

  5. Curriculum Guide for Philosophy: Social Sciences 10-20-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The document presents an introduction to the study of philosophy. It is intended as an aid to secondary school social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement programs which help students understand the relevance of philosophy and appreciate philosophical thought. The document is presented in four sections--a general introduction…

  6. Finding Our Philosophy in the Career Services Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Discusses counseling philosophies and their uses from the 1970's to the present. Offers that since few career counselors strictly lean toward one philosophy over the other, they should be sure they understand these leanings. This understanding will make it more likely for counselors to become significant contributors to a meaningful professional…

  7. Thinking Images: Doing Philosophy in Film and Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades film and video have been steadily infiltrating the philosophy curriculum at colleges and universities. Traditionally, teachers of philosophy have not made much use of "audiovisual aids" in the classroom beyond the chalk board or overhead projector, with only the more adventurous playing audiotapes, for example, or…

  8. Domain 1: Philosophy and Ethics National Standards for Sport Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianne C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing a sound coaching philosophy and displaying ethical behavior is the backbone of effective coaching at any level. Coaches cannot communicate the standards of behavior they expect from their athletes or coaching staff if they have not identified the priorities and values associated with their coaching philosophy. When reflecting on Domain…

  9. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey. Cambridge Companions to Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Molly

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey (1859-1952) was a major figure of the American cultural and intellectual landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. While not the originator of American pragmatism, he was instrumental to its articulation as a philosophy and the spread of its influence beyond philosophy to other disciplines. His prolific writings encompass…

  10. African Philosophy of Education: The Price of Unchallengeability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsthemke, Kai; Enslin, Penny

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the notion of an African Philosophy of Education emerged with the advent of post-apartheid education and the call for an educational philosophy that would reflect this renewal, a focus on Africa and its cultures, identities and values, and the new imperatives for education in a postcolonial and post-apartheid era. The idea of an…

  11. Interaction between Philosophy of Education and Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bim-Bad, Boris Michailovich; Egorova, Lioudmila Ivanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article attempts to analyse the interaction between philosophy of education and teaching practice. Such area of learning as "philosophy of education" is defined, genesis and dynamics of practice as universals of human existence are traced; such concepts as "practice," "teaching practice" are analysed in view of…

  12. The Current Status of the Philosophy of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Peter; Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of biology today is one of the most exciting areas of philosophy. It looks critically across the life sciences, teasing out conceptual issues and difficulties bringing to bear the tools of philosophical analysis to achieve clarification and understanding. This essay surveys work in all of the major directions of research:…

  13. Using the Pragmatic Progressive Philosophy in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Marsha L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a pragmatic approach of progressive philosophy when educating adult learners utilizes the knowledge of history, to connect reality with current experiences through facilitated learning. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to show how adult education that uses a pragmatic progressive philosophy encompasses adult experiences,…

  14. Preparing Students to Write a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Cheryl; Schneider, Paige P.; Johnson, Corey W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a process for guiding students through the writing of a Professional Philosophy of Recreation Paper and a one-page philosophy statement suitable for use in students' professional portfolios. The authors describe how the review of recreation education literature, scholarship on teaching and learning, and assessment of student…

  15. Three Kinds of Political Engagement for Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisch, George

    2009-01-01

    In responding to critics and reviewers of my book, "How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science," I attempt to identify some misleading conventional wisdom about the place of values in philosophy of science and then offer three distinct ways in which philosophers of science can engage their work with ongoing social and political currents.

  16. Elusive Rivalry? Conceptions of the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2010-01-01

    What is analytical philosophy of education (APE)? And what has been its place in the history of the subject over the past 50 years? In a recent essay in "Ethics and Education" (Vol. 2, No. 2, October 2007) on 'Rival conceptions of the philosophy of education', Paul Standish described a number of features of APE. Relying on both historical and…

  17. Reflections: The Philosophies of Health Educators of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyrer, Mary K., Ed.; Nolte, Ann E., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The chapters of this "monograph" reflect the philosophies of 14 health educators who represent a variety of work settings: (1) "This I Believe: A Philosophy of Health Education" (Loren B. Bensley, Jr.); (2) "Educating about Health" (William B. Cissell); (3) "Some Guiding Principles on Health and Health Education: A Philosophical Statement"…

  18. Leisure and Ethics: Reflections on the Philosophy of Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Gerald S., Ed.

    This publication seeks to capture the character and content of thought with respect to the long-standing discussion in academic settings of leisure and philosophy. The book is organized into three sections. The first, "Reflections on the Philosophy of Leisure," includes the following papers: "Introduction: Leisure and the Perfection of…

  19. Teaching and Doing Philosophy of Education: The Question of Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suissa, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the practice of teaching philosophy, and particularly philosophy of education, in a higher education context. Starting from a critical discussion of some of the literature on teaching and learning in higher education, I introduce the notions of philosophical style and temperament and suggest that exploring these notions, the…

  20. Behavior-Analytic Instruction for Children with Autism: Philosophy Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the philosophical underpinnings of applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism. It discusses the three interrelated levels of behavior analysis (technology, science, and philosophy), and the three pillars of behavioral philosophy: empiricism, pragmatism, and selectionism. The amelioration, rather than…

  1. Philosophy of Vocational Education in China: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, Carsten; Chen, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Chinese educational philosophy has been dominated by Confucianism and, since 1949, by Marxism. However, rapid industrialization, ideological demands, and loyalty to traditions have now led to a situation where various Western philosophies have been adopted into vocational education in hopes of moving the country forward without…

  2. 2007 SOPHE Presidential Address: Discovering a Philosophy of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    While we have several hallmarks of a mature profession, does this include a well-articulated "Philosophy of Health Education?" High-order questions should be important to both practitioners and researchers in health education. This address outlines why it is important for us to have a philosophy of health education, an approach that we could take…

  3. The Christian Philosophy of Education and Christian Religious Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario O.

    2000-01-01

    Maintains that the discipline of the philosophy of education can make an important contribution to the discipline of Christian religious education, as both are concerned with the dimensions of an integral education. Examines five first principles to show the unity between a Christian philosophy of education and a Christian religious education.…

  4. Philosophy for Children as the Wind of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I want to analyse the meaning of education for democracy and thinking as this is generally understood by Philosophy for Children. Although we may be inclined to applaud Philosophy for Children's emphasis on children, critical thinking, autonomy and dialogue, there is reason for scepticism too. Since we are expected as a matter of…

  5. Challenges of Environmental Problems to the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Moricmichi

    2015-01-01

    We live in an age in which the destruction of the environment has become a major concern. However, until recently, environmental problems have not become a major issue for the philosophy of education. The reason for this is that for a very long time the philosophy of education was intimately related to the concept of nature as the foundation and…

  6. Curriculum for Teachers: Four Traditions within Pedagogical Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2007-01-01

    This article draws upon the history of teacher education to provide an introduction to four competing pedagogical philosophies. These four philosophies battled for control over curriculum for teachers during the period from 1890 to 1930. I begin by defining curriculum for teachers to include the liberal, the professional, and the experiential…

  7. Philosophy, Art or Pedagogy? How Should Children Experience Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doddington, Christine

    2014-01-01

    There are various programmes currently advocated for ways in which children might encounter philosophy as an explicit part of their education. An analysis of these reveals the ways in which they are predicated on views of what constitutes philosophy. In the sense in which they are inquiry based, purport to encourage the pursuit of puzzlement and…

  8. Feminist philosophy of science: `standpoint' and knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasnow, Sharon

    2008-11-01

    Feminist philosophy of science has been criticized on several counts. On the one hand, it is claimed that it results in relativism of the worst sort since the political commitment to feminism is prima facie incompatible with scientific objectivity. On the other hand, when critics acknowledge that there may be some value in work that feminists have done, they comment that there is nothing particularly feminist about their accounts. I argue that both criticisms can be addressed through a better understanding of the current work in feminist epistemology. I offer an examination of standpoint theory as an illustration. Harding and Wylie have suggested ways in which the objectivity question can be addressed. These two accounts together with a third approach, ‘model-based objectivity’, indicate there is a clear sense in which we can understand how a standpoint theory both contributes to a better understanding of scientific knowledge and can provide a feminist epistemology.

  9. Cockpit automation - In need of a philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Concern has been expressed over the rapid development and deployment of automatic devices in transport aircraft, due mainly to the human interface and particularly the role of automation in inducing human error. The paper discusses the need for coherent philosophies of automation, and proposes several approaches: (1) flight management by exception, which states that as long as a crew stays within the bounds of regulations, air traffic control and flight safety, it may fly as it sees fit; (2) exceptions by forecasting, where the use of forecasting models would predict boundary penetration, rather than waiting for it to happen; (3) goal-sharing, where a computer is informed of overall goals, and subsequently has the capability of checking inputs and aircraft position for consistency with the overall goal or intentions; and (4) artificial intelligence and expert systems, where intelligent machines could mimic human reason.

  10. Symmetries and the philosophy of language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, Neil

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I consider the role of exact symmetries in theories of physics, working throughout with the example of gravitation set in Newtonian spacetime. First, I spend some time setting up a means of thinking about symmetries in this context; second, I consider arguments from the seeming undetectability of absolute velocities to an anti-realism about velocities; and finally, I claim that the structure of the theory licences (and perhaps requires) us to interpret models which differ only with regards to the absolute velocities of objects as depicting the same physical state of affairs. In defending this last claim, I consider how ideas and resources from the philosophy of language may usefully be brought to bear on this topic.

  11. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  12. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  13. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  14. Making Philosophy of Science Education Practical for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, F. J. J. M.; van Berkel, B.

    2015-04-01

    Philosophy of science education can play a vital role in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. In order to fulfill this role a philosophy of science education should be made practical for teachers. First, multiple and inherently incomplete philosophies on the teacher and teaching on what, how and why should be integrated. In this paper we describe our philosophy of science education (ASSET approach) which is composed of bounded rationalism as a guideline for understanding teachers' practical reasoning, liberal education underlying the why of teaching, scientific perspectivism as guideline for the what and educational social constructivism as guiding choices about the how of science education. Integration of multiple philosophies into a coherent philosophy of science education is necessary but not sufficient to make it practical for teachers. Philosophies are still formulated at a too abstract level to guide teachers' practical reasoning. For this purpose, a heuristic model must be developed on an intermediate level of abstraction that will provide teachers with a bridge between these abstract ideas and their specific teaching situation. We have developed and validated such a heuristic model, the CLASS model in order to complement our ASSET approach. We illustrate how science teachers use the ASSET approach and the CLASS model to make choices about the what, the how and the why of science teaching.

  15. Philosophy and concepts of modern spine surgery.

    PubMed

    José-Antonio, Soriano-Sánchez; Baabor-Aqueveque, Marcos; Silva-Morales, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of improving pain and neurological deficit in the practice of spine surgery is changing for a more ambitious goal, namely to improve the overall quality of life and the future of patients through three major actions (1) preserving the vertebral anatomical structures; (2) preserving the paravertebral anatomical structures; and (3) preserving the functionality of the segment. Thus, three new concepts have emerged (a) minimal surgery; (b) minimal access surgery; and (c) motion preservation surgery. These concepts are covered in a new term, minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) The term "MISS" is not about one or several particular surgical techniques, but a new way of thinking, a new philosophy. Although the development of minimally invasive spine surgery is recent, its application includes all spine segments and almost all the existing conditions, including deformities.Evidence-based medicine (EBM), a term coined by Alvan Feinstein in the 1960s (Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 564-579; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 757-781; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 944-965; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 1162-1193.), emphasizes the possibility of combining art and science following the strict application of scientific methods in the treatment of patients (Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 944-965; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 1162-1193.), which may represent the advantages of objectivity and rationality in the use of different treatments (Fig. 11). However, EBM has many obvious defects, especially in spine surgery it is almost impossible to develop double-blind protocols (Andersson G, Bridwell K, Danielsson A, et al (2007) Spine 32: S64-S65.). In most cases, the only evidence one can find in the literature is the lack of evidence (Resnick D (2007) Spine 32:S15-S19.), however, the lack of evidence does not mean its absence. Only then, with a

  16. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human

  17. Philosophy and concepts of modern spine surgery.

    PubMed

    José-Antonio, Soriano-Sánchez; Baabor-Aqueveque, Marcos; Silva-Morales, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of improving pain and neurological deficit in the practice of spine surgery is changing for a more ambitious goal, namely to improve the overall quality of life and the future of patients through three major actions (1) preserving the vertebral anatomical structures; (2) preserving the paravertebral anatomical structures; and (3) preserving the functionality of the segment. Thus, three new concepts have emerged (a) minimal surgery; (b) minimal access surgery; and (c) motion preservation surgery. These concepts are covered in a new term, minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) The term "MISS" is not about one or several particular surgical techniques, but a new way of thinking, a new philosophy. Although the development of minimally invasive spine surgery is recent, its application includes all spine segments and almost all the existing conditions, including deformities.Evidence-based medicine (EBM), a term coined by Alvan Feinstein in the 1960s (Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 564-579; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 757-781; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 944-965; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 1162-1193.), emphasizes the possibility of combining art and science following the strict application of scientific methods in the treatment of patients (Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 944-965; Feinstein A (1964) Annals of Internal Medicine 61: 1162-1193.), which may represent the advantages of objectivity and rationality in the use of different treatments (Fig. 11). However, EBM has many obvious defects, especially in spine surgery it is almost impossible to develop double-blind protocols (Andersson G, Bridwell K, Danielsson A, et al (2007) Spine 32: S64-S65.). In most cases, the only evidence one can find in the literature is the lack of evidence (Resnick D (2007) Spine 32:S15-S19.), however, the lack of evidence does not mean its absence. Only then, with a

  18. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyma, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

  19. Nursing values and science: toward a science philosophy.

    PubMed

    Gortner, S R

    1990-01-01

    Several premises are proposed for nursing science philosophy in contrast to nursing practice philosophy. These include human understanding, a critical tradition that views science as public knowledge, and use of observation, rationality, explanation, and prediction as a guide to therapy. No argument is made for or against a particular philosophy of science (e.g., positivist, historicist, critical theorist). The debates on the fit of philosophic paradigms with research strategies may soon run their course on the North American continent, as they appear to have done in Scandinavia.

  20. Norne tests new Norwegian development technologies, philosophies

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The world's largest ship-shaped floating production facility will mine hydrocarbons trapped below 1,246-ft, harsh Norwegian waters at the Norne field. An innovative development philosophy involving functional specifications and life-of-field bench marking will ensure costs and lead time to first oil are minimized. The Block 6608/10 Norne field is the largest discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf in more than a decade. The field extends for 6.2 miles, is 1.24 miles wide and sits 124 miles west of the mid-Norway coast in 1,246-ft waters. Well No. 6608/10-2 first penetrated the Norne reservoir in December 1991. Appraisal well 6608/10-3 was drilled in 1993 and proved the field's northerly extension. Based on results from those two wells, a development project began last year. To improve project economics and company performance, a clear objective was established to reduce investment costs by 25%--30% compared to the current established level in Norway. The Norne organization is working on a Plan for Development and Operation to be submitted to Norwegian authorities later this year so that final approval can be obtained in early 1995.

  1. Philosophy of Quantum Information and Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Alisa; Jaeger, Gregg

    2010-06-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Quantum Entanglement and Nonlocality: 1. Nonlocality beyond quantum mechanics Sandu Popescu; 2. Entanglement and subsystems, entanglement beyond subsystems, and all that Lorenza Viola and Howard Barnum; 3. Formalism locality in quantum theory and quantum gravity Lucien Hardy; Part II. Quantum Probability: 4. Bell's inequality from the contextual probabilistic viewpoint Andrei Khrennikov; 5. Probabilistic theories: what is special about quantum mechanics? Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; 6. What probabilities tell about quantum systems, with application to entropy and entanglement John Myers and Hadi Madjid; 7. Bayesian updating and information gain in quantum measurements Leah Henderson; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Schumacher information and the philosophy of physics Arnold Duwell; 9. From physics to information theory and back Wayne Myrvold; 10. Information, immaterialism, and instrumentalism: old and new in quantum information Chris Timpson; Part IV. Quantum Communication and Computing: 11. Quantum computation: where does the speed-up come from? Jeff Bub; 12. Quantum mechanics, quantum computing and quantum cryptography Tai Wu.

  2. The bioethical principles and Confucius' moral philosophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, D F-C

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines whether the modern bioethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice proposed by Beauchamp and Childress are existent in, compatible with, or acceptable to the leading Chinese moral philosophy-the ethics of Confucius. The author concludes that the moral values which the four prima facie principles uphold are expressly identifiable in Confucius' teachings. However, Confucius' emphasis on the filial piety, family values, the "love of gradation", altruism of people, and the "role specified relation oriented ethics" will inevitably influence the "specification" and application of these bioethical principles and hence tend to grant "beneficence" a favourable position that diminishes the respect for individual rights and autonomy. In contrast, the centrality of respect for autonomy and its stance of "first among equals" are more and more stressed in Western liberal viewpoints. Nevertheless, if the Confucian "doctrine of Mean" (chung-yung) and a balanced "two dimensional personhood" approach are properly employed, this will require both theorists and clinicians, who are facing medical ethical dilemmas, of searching to attain due mean out of competing moral principles thus preventing "giving beneficence a priority" or "asserting autonomy must triumph".

  3. Developing and Implementing an REU Program Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaDue, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Each individual REU and REU-like program takes place in different fields, in unique contexts, with unique individuals, some of whom are different each year. Because of this, copying program elements from one year to another, or from another program, may not recreate outcomes. Having an underlying program philosophy, or approach to the program, creates the conditions for innovation and creativity to provide new spark to a program each year. As a former REU participant in a nuclear physics REU, and now an adult learning scientist, the director of the National Weather Center REU Program focuses on clarifying goals and outcomes of the program to the participants, and adapting the program each year to best help each participant learn research skills, reflect upon their experiences with research, and find leads to careers that would suit them well. How decisions are made regarding what types of activities to do every year will be contrasted with how other activities are created or adapted according to the needs of the unique individual students. Consideration is also given toward trends in the field, such as exposing participants to whatever current lively discussions are taking place locally or in the broader field.

  4. The new quality philosophy and management's role

    SciTech Connect

    Narath, A.

    1991-06-01

    This talk is about leadership. Leaders are people at every level in an organization who believe in change and are energized by it. They understand the difficult realities of competitive existence. They motivate and challenge. They provide positive reinforcement -- but are never satisfied with their achievements because opportunities for further improvement are never exhausted. Today, leadership is more important than ever because operating environments are changing at an unprecedented rate. The causes are geopolitical, economic, technological, etc. In fact, everything we know about nature tells us that change is inevitable. History shows quite clearly that human progress is not possible without change. Yet, humans crave stability and permanence. As a consequence, success often leads to complacency. But, demise is inevitable for those who protect the status quo. There exists a growing national awareness that global competitive pressures are forcing on American industry the need for ever higher levels of performance. And, similar forces are necessitating improved performance in DOE's nuclear weapons complex. Today, quality takes on a much larger meaning than it has traditionally. It is attention to cost, schedule and product performance that characterize the modern Quality ethic. This paper discusses the manager's role and the new Quality philosophy. 11 figs.

  5. Blood transfusion safety: a new philosophy.

    PubMed

    Franklin, I M

    2012-12-01

    Blood transfusion safety has had a chequered history, and there are current and future challenges. Internationally, there is no clear consensus for many aspects of the provision of safe blood, although pan-national legislation does provide a baseline framework in the European Union. Costs are rising, and new safety measures can appear expensive, especially when tested against some other medical interventions, such as cancer treatment and vaccination programmes. In this article, it is proposed that a comprehensive approach is taken to the issue of blood transfusion safety that considers all aspects of the process rather than considering only new measures. The need for an agreed level of safety for specified and unknown risks is also suggested. The importance of providing care and support for those inadvertently injured as a result of transfusion problems is also made. Given that the current blood safety decision process often uses a utilitarian principle for decision making--through the calculation of Quality Adjusted Life Years--an alternative philosophy is proposed. A social contract for blood safety, based on the principles of 'justice as fairness' developed by John Rawls, is recommended as a means of providing an agreed level of safety, containing costs and providing support for any adverse outcomes.

  6. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  7. An Introduction to the Teaching of Hegel's Political Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widulski, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Hegel's teaching is often omitted or considered summarily in political philosophy courses. In order to reduce these difficulties, an introductory discussion of Hegel's political thought in the context of a dialogue is presented. (RM)

  8. How can philosophy be a true cognitive science discipline?

    PubMed

    Bechtel, William

    2010-07-01

    Although philosophy has been only a minor contributor to cognitive science to date, this paper describes two projects in naturalistic philosophy of mind and one in naturalistic philosophy of science that have been pursued during the past 30 years and that can make theoretical and methodological contributions to cognitive science. First, stances on the mind-body problem (identity theory, functionalism, and heuristic identity theory) are relevant to cognitive science as it negotiates its relation to neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience. Second, analyses of mental representations address both their vehicles and their contents; new approaches to characterizing how representations have content are particularly relevant to understanding the relation of cognitive agents to their environments. Third, the recently formulated accounts of mechanistic explanation in philosophy of science both provide perspective on the explanatory project of cognitive science and may offer normative guidance to cognitive science (e.g., by providing perspective on how multiple disciplinary perspectives can be integrated in understanding a given mechanism).

  9. Ideas in Context and the Idea of Renaissance Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Celenza, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    This contribution to the symposium marking the publication of the 100th volume in the series Ideas in Context (Cambridge University Press) assesses the significance of the series for work on Renaissance philosophy.

  10. EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND RELIGION DEPARTMENT, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL ALLMETAL TABLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND RELIGION DEPARTMENT, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL ALL-METAL TABLE, LAMP, AND WINDSOR CHAIR - Free Library of Philadelphia, Central Library, 1901 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. The Humanist Bias in Western Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.

  12. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic: evolving worldviews and modern foundation☆

    PubMed Central

    Senzon, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to trace the foundations of DD Palmer's sense of self and philosophy of chiropractic to its sources in modern Western philosophy as well as current metatheories about modernity. Discussion DD Palmer's sense of self was indicative of a modern self. A modern self is characterized as a self that developed after the Western Enlightenment and must come to terms with the insights of modernity such as Cartesian dualism, Spinoza's substance, Rousseau's expressivism, and Kant's critiques. It is argued that Palmer's philosophy can be viewed as part of the this tradition alongside his involvement in the 19th century American metaphysical religious culture, which was itself a response to these challenges of the modern self of modernity. Conclusion Palmer's development of chiropractic and its philosophy was a reaction to the challenges and promises of modernity. PMID:22693479

  13. On the way to a philosophy of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    This Thesis argues the case that a philosophy of science education is required for improving science education as a research field as well as curriculum and teacher pedagogy. It seeks to re-think science education as an educational endeavor by examining why past reform efforts have been only partially successful, including why the fundamental goal of achieving scientific literacy after several "reform waves" has proven to be so elusive. The identity of such a philosophy is first defined in relation to the fields of philosophy, philosophy of science, and philosophy of education. Considering science education as a research discipline it is emphasized a new field should be broached with the express purpose of developing a discipline-specific "philosophy of science education" (largely neglected since Dewey). A conceptual shift towards the philosophy of education. is needed, thereto, on developing and demarcating true educational theories which could in addition serve to reinforce science education's growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. Two educational metatheories are contrasted, those of Kieran Egan and the Northern European Bildung tradition, to illustrate the task of such a philosophy. Egan's cultural-linguistic metatheory is presented for two primary purposes: it is offered as a possible solution to the deadlock of the science literacy conceptions within the discipline; regarding practice, examples are provided how it can better guide the instructional practice of teachers, specifically how it reinforces the work of other researchers in the History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) reform movement who value narrative in learning science. Considering curriculum and instruction, a philosophy of science education is conceptualized as a "second order" reflective capacity of the teacher. This notion is aligned with Shulman's idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. It is argued that for educators the nature of science learning

  14. The Current Status of the Philosophy of Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takacs, Peter; Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of biology today is one of the most exciting areas of philosophy. It looks critically across the life sciences, teasing out conceptual issues and difficulties bringing to bear the tools of philosophical analysis to achieve clarification and understanding. This essay surveys work in all of the major directions of research: evolutionary theory and the units/levels of selection; evolutionary developmental biology; reductionism; ecology; the species problem; teleology; evolutionary epistemology; evolutionary ethics; and progress. There is a comprehensive bibliography.

  15. Management philosophies as applied to major NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    A definition of 'management philosophies' is discussed explaining the position of NASA in the planning and control of space programs and technology. The impact of these philosophies on the Apollo and Saturn 1 programs are described along with the need for the Saturn 5 spacecraft and launch site development. Case studies are included and describe unscheduled events where management decisions were necessary to keep programs on track.

  16. Philosophy of Erwin Schroedinger: a diachronic view of Schroedinger's thoughts

    SciTech Connect

    Melgar, M.F.

    1988-03-01

    There is no agreement within the scientific community about the philosophy of Schroedinger. Some people think that he was a realist, while others defend him as an idealist. In this paper we study a number of Schroedinger's works and we show that the epithets of realist and idealist do not do him justice. Toward the end we conclude that it would be more adequate to place him in the trend known as the philosophy of immanence.

  17. Mario Bunge, Systematic Philosophy and Science Education: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2012-10-01

    Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in 1919 and is now in his mid-90s. He studied atomic physics and quantum mechanics with Guido Beck (1903-1988), an Austrian refugee and student of Heisenberg. Additionally he studied modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater becoming the first South American philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise on Philosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of the Enlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planks of the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, the value of rationality, and respect for individuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy of science, educational research and science teaching are recognised, and at a time when `grand narratives' are thought both undesirable and impossible—it is salutary to appraise the fruits of one person's pursuit of the `Big' scientific and philosophical picture or grand narrative. In doing so this special issue brings together philosophers, physicists, biologists, sociologists, logicians, cognitive scientists, economists and mathematicians to examine facets of Mario Bunge's systematic philosophy and to appraise its contribution to important issues in current philosophy and, by implication, education.

  18. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic: evolving worldviews and premodern roots☆

    PubMed Central

    Senzon, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The philosophy of chiropractic can be framed as an attempt to correct the problems inherited from the Western Enlightenment. Its origins can be found in the long tradition of Western philosophy. The purpose of this article is to describe in a broad context chiropractic’s roots in premodernity and establish the structural and hermeneutical differences between chiropractic’s original philosophical ideas and those of premodern philosophers. Discussion The worldview or cultural mindset the philosophy arose from must be situated in the context of its time, the birth of the unique postmodern worldview, aperspectival consciousness, and the modern sense of self. This is accomplished by exploring several metatheories about the development of the self through history, with an emphasis on the premodern roots to the chiropractic terms; Universal Intelligence and Innate Intelligence. By contextualizing the philosophy of chiropractic in terms of a structural genealogy of the self and of ideas, a new approach to philosophy in chiropractic emerges. Conclusion Without accounting for chiropractic’s origins as a reflection of the unique time, place, and culture, in terms of the evolution of worldviews through history, any approach to construct or reconstruct a philosophy of chiropractic will potentially miss the seminal feature of chiropractic’s emergence. PMID:22693478

  19. The Place of Philosophy in the Training of Teachers: Peters Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1964, Richard Peters examined the place of philosophy in the training of teachers. He considered three things: Why should philosophy of education be included in the training of teachers; What portion of philosophy of education should be included; How should philosophy be taught to those training to be teachers. This article explores the context…

  20. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Studies in Mathematics Education Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul

    This book discusses both the philosophy of mathematics and of mathematics education. The first part is a critique of existing approaches and a new philosophy of mathematics. Chapters include: (1) "A Critique of Absolutist Philosophies of Mathematics," (2) "The Philosophy of Mathematics Reconceptualized," (3) "Social Constructivism as a Philosophy…

  1. Rethinking "Ukama" in the Context of "Philosophy for Children" in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndofirepi, Amasa Philip; Shanyanana, Rachel N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a critical conceptual exploration of the contribution of the "ukama" ethic in the context of "Philosophy for Children" (The "Philosophy for Children" movement is also variously known as "philosophy in schools," "philosophy with children" and "philosophical inquiry in the…

  2. Celebrating Moderate Dualism in the Philosophy of Education: A Reflection on the Hirst-Carr Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    The position of the philosophy of education in theoretical or practical philosophy was the main subject of debate between Paul Hirst and Wilfred Carr. In his support for practical philosophy, Carr argues that in order to bridge the theory/practice gap and deconstruct the illusory intactness of philosophy of education from developments in the…

  3. Finding Our Roots: An Exercise for Creating a Personal Teaching Philosophy Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2009-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements clarify why we do what we do in the classroom, and the process of drafting a philosophy offers an opportunity for developmental reflection. Personal teaching philosophies can be grounded in the shared foundation of historical educational philosophies. The authors offer here for facilitators a reflective card-sort…

  4. [Planned dairy herd health. I: General philosophy].

    PubMed

    Lourens, D C; Coubrough, R I

    1985-09-01

    A dairy herd health programme may be defined as a planned and co-ordinated approach which aims at achieving and maintaining optimal herd health, production and reproduction, the implementation of which is governed by sound economic principles. The object of this article is to present and discuss some facets of the background philosophy of the concept of herd health, and look at some of the pitfalls and shortcomings of their application in practice. In terms of production levels achieved in other developed countries, South Africa lags behind. While factors such as climate, environment, feed quality, and basic livestock potential may play a role in this difference, the single most important factor is undoubtedly the managemental approach. Modern livestock production requires a shift in emphasis of veterinary involvement towards a herd approach which promotes increased cost-effective production. The veterinarian forms part of a production team which, apart from himself, includes the farmer, farm labour and the animal scientist. The veterinarian has a key role in this endeavour. Through his basic training he is well equipped to serve as a co-ordinator of the massive flow of information being generated. To do this effectively he must be able to work with, advise and communicate with people at various levels of management as well as with the labour force. While optimal co-operation of each team member is cardinal to the success of such a programme, no progress will be made unless the farmer is convinced of the viability of the undertaking, and indeed has the managerial skills to implement any directive or recommendation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4078844

  5. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  6. Where Have We Come from and Where Are We Going? A Review of Past Student Affairs Philosophies and an Analysis of the Current Student Learning Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Jeff A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews three of the most widely-known guiding philosophies of student affairs for the past 65 years. The article analyzes the rise, dominance, and fall of the student services and student development philosophies and then explores the emergence of student learning as a guiding philosophy. The results of two research studies on the…

  7. A process for updating a philosophy of education statement.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    Most health education specialists have been introduced to the idea of having a philosophy of education statement. Although some in the field have been writing about this career development exercise, little has been written about the process of developing one's philosophy of education statement. This brief essay explains a sample process health education specialists can use to create or update their philosophy of education statement. The author gives a firsthand account of a systematic, disciplined, intellectually liberating, and reflective approach to articulating one's philosophy of education statement, by considering the writings of select intellectual giants who have acted on human experience, thought, and practice in education. A philosophy of education statement should be useful to any health education specialist regardless of type of work, site, position in the organization, population served, or health topic. The resultant updated and precisely written statement serves to sharpen a health education specialist's future role as a health educator, as well as contribute to his or her journey in lifelong learning.

  8. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  9. Re-writing Popper's philosophy of science for systematics.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Popper's philosophy of science by cladists in their battle against evolutionary and numerical taxonomy. Three schools of biological systematics fiercely debated each other from the late 1960s: evolutionary taxonomy, phenetics or numerical taxonomy, and phylogenetic systematics or cladistics. The outcome of that debate was the victory of phylogenetic systematics/cladistics over the competing schools of thought. To bring about this "cladistic turn" in systematics, the cladists drew heavily on the philosopher K.R. Popper in order to dress up phylogenetic systematics as a hypothetico-deductivist, indeed falsificationist, research program that would put an end to authoritarianism. As the case of the "cladistic revolution" demonstrates, scientists who turn to philosophy in defense of a research program read philosophers with an agenda in mind. That agenda is likely to distort the philosophical picture, as happened to Popper's philosophy of science at the hands of cladists. PMID:19579707

  10. William Whewell's philosophy of architecture and the historicization of biology.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Aleta

    2016-10-01

    William Whewell's work on historical science has received some attention from historians and philosophers of science. Whewell's own work on the history of German Gothic church architecture has been touched on within the context of the history of architecture. To a large extent these discussions have been conducted separately. I argue that Whewell intended his work on Gothic architecture as an attempt to (help) found a science of historical architecture, as an exemplar of historical science. I proceed by analyzing the key features of Whewell's philosophy of historical science. I then show how his architectural history exemplifies this philosophy. Finally, I show how Whewell's philosophy of historical science matches some developments in a science (biological systematics) that, in the mid-to late-nineteenth century, came to be reinterpreted as a historical science. I comment briefly on Whewell as a potential influence on nineteenth century biology and in particular on Darwin.

  11. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  12. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse.

  13. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  14. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic: evolving worldviews and postmodern core☆

    PubMed Central

    Senzon, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to explore the postmodern, postrational, and postconventional core of DD Palmer's self-sense and philosophy. Discussion DD Palmer's self and philosophy can be viewed as a reaction to the self of modernity and its challenges of a fracture between mind and body, spirit, and nature. It is argued that Palmer's solution to these vexing problems facing the modern self was to use postrational and postconventional logic to overcome the dualisms. His philosophy resonates with similar postrational approaches, most notably, the German idealist Schelling. Conclusion It is argued that Palmer was one of the first postrational individuals in America and that chiropractic was an attempt at the first postrational health profession. PMID:22693480

  15. History, philosophy, and science teaching: The present rapprochement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper traces the use of, and arguments for, the history and philosophy of science in school science courses. Specific attention is paid to the British National Curriculum proposals and to the recommendations of the US Project 2061 curriculum guidelines. Some objections to the inclusion of historical material in science courses are outlined and answered. Mention is made of the Piagetian thesis that individual psychological development mirrors the development of concepts in the history of science. This introduces the topic of idealisation in science. Some significant instances are itemised where science education has, at its considerable cost, ignored work in philosophy of science. Arguments for the inclusion of the history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes are given. The paper finishes with a list of topical issues in present science education where collaboration between science teachers, historians, philosophers, and sociologists would be of considerable benefit.

  16. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse. PMID:17549604

  17. [Analytical philosophy or the search for a technological thought].

    PubMed

    Pascal, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the origins of analytical philosophy. It argues that the conditions under which it was thought out were similar to the conditions necessary for critical thinking - like the scientific inquiry that served as its model, analytical philosophy was based on the distinction between syntax and semantics. Resulting from logical analysis, this distinction was later essential to all systems of representation - works of art, human action, intellectual endeavours. This evolution reveals a major concern - the need for a technical tool for the critical mind.

  18. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    PubMed

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views.

  19. Restorative nursing: toward a philosophy of postmodern punishment.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Sally

    2003-07-01

    Nursing practice in correctional settings is ethically unique. Its premise is the contradiction between causing harm (the purpose of imprisonment) and acting for patients' good (the purpose of health care). I describe three ethical regions in which correctional nurses can practise, based on different philosophies: punishment as retribution, as rationality, and as paradox. Retribution and rationality resolve the ethical contradiction by relegating offenders to intractable otherness. Restorative nursing based on paradox is an oppositional practice that preserves the contradiction, making engagement possible between prisoner and nurse. Endorsement by nursing of one of the three philosophies of punishment could redefine care for the entire profession.

  20. Permanent Education and Creativity. Creativity as a Practical Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchodolski, Bogdan; Kuczynski, Janusz

    Two papers by Polish scientists are provided that correlate lifelong education with man's creative activity and explore creativity as a practical philosophy. In "Permanent Education and Creativity," Bogdan Suchodolski supports the connection between permanent education and man's creative activity. He suggests that civilization is at a crossroads…

  1. Marketing the "Total Newspaper": A New Philosophy for Newspaper Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirt, Paul S.

    The "total newspaper" concept is a new philosophy of newspaper management that emphasizes the interrelations within a newspaper's organizational structure and the interactions between the newspaper, its mission, and its market. During a time when more practitioners and educators are emphasizing specialization, the aim of this new approach to…

  2. Discipline-Based Philosophy of Education and Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This article concentrates on the necessity for teachers in just one discipline area, namely, science, having philosophical competence and using it to inform their professional life--in their classroom teaching, assessing and institutional engagements--in other words, having a philosophy of science teaching. This group of questions and issues might…

  3. Augustinian Philosophy: Between Critical Pedagogy and Neo-Scholasticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Emad N.

    2012-01-01

    Augustinian thoughts have been widely revered for their great influence on the development of Western philosophy. While most of St. Augustine's ideas were adapted in various fields of modern thought, his ideas on education have been rarely discussed. In reality, one should recognize that St. Augustine, being one of the greatest teachers of…

  4. Problems with Fallibilism as a Philosophy of Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John

    2011-07-01

    Much reference has been made to Paul Ernest's `philosophy of mathematics education' to legitimise a strong fallibilist trend in mathematics education. This article presents the argument that: (1) This philosophy makes unwarranted assumptions that have been taken as `given'. For example, that `absolutist' or `Platonist' views of mathematics necessarily imply the transmission model of teaching mathematics. (2) The very basis of this philosophy contains a contradiction: that mathematics cannot be separated from its social origins, yet mathematics has a logical necessity that is independent of its origin. (3) This philosophy downplays mathematics as a formal, academic system of knowledge in the attempt to promote a child-centred pedagogy or the mathematics of social practices. (4) Ernest's attempt to semiotically reduce proof to calculation is flawed. This article explores what is meant by fallibilism in relation to the views of many educationalists who appear not to like mathematics as a formal, academic body of knowledge and draws out the educational implications of these views.

  5. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  6. The Philosophy of Turkish National and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toprakci, Erdal; Buldu, Serkan; Bozpolat, Ebru; Oflaz, Gulcin; Dagdeviren, Iclal; Ture, Ersin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish whether the Basic Law of National Education and the Law of Higher Education, both of which give direction to the Turkish educational system, are based on any educational philosophy trends, and to what extent. For this purpose, both laws were investigated using the "document analysis" method. All the data obtained were…

  7. Access in Theory and Practice: American Indians in Philosophy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Katy Gray; Brown, Michael Patterson

    2003-01-01

    The American Indian Philosophical Association (AIPA) was created in May of 1998 by a group of American Indian philosophers; it grew out of the American Philosophical Association's (APA) Committee to Advance the Status of American Indians in Philosophy. It is associated with the APA but remains an autonomous organization dedicated to the…

  8. A Reconstruction of South African Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Defends a postmodern approach to philosophy of education which is argued to best provide guidance and context for dialogue in a culturally pluralistic society such as South Africa. The impetus for this defense of a postmodern approach is located in the challenge facing South Africa's education after the deligitimization of the Fundamental…

  9. The Power and Limits of Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on different conceptions of educational philosophy, their strengths and weaknesses. Against the backdrop of major alternatives, and the received view, delineated by RS Peters, John White's recent radically practical conception is critically assessed. Notwithstanding a pluralist answer to the question "What is, can…

  10. The Impact of Neuroscience on Music Education Advocacy and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Amber Dahlen

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines how philosophy and advocacy articles published between 2005 and 2010 were influenced by current neuroscience research. The contents of twelve journals were explored, resulting in the inclusion of forty-five articles in this analysis. Recently, there has been a growing interest in neuroscientific research on music.…

  11. Virtually Unpacking Your Backpack: Educational Philosophy and Pedagogical Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    In this autoethnographic, conceptual philosophical reflection, the author inquires: "Can my students and I, in a technologically mediated virtual space, harness the work of philosophy of education scholars to engage in a shared experience of (re)considering paths to sensitivity to diversity for equity and equality?" The author engages…

  12. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  13. Maternal Meta-Emotion Philosophy and Adolescent Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hunter, Erin C.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptoms, as well as general adolescent adjustment and the quality of parent-child interaction. Consistent with previous findings on children in the preschool period and middle childhood, it was expected that an emotion coaching meta-emotion…

  14. Cosmological Order as a Model for Navajo Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Pierce, Trudy

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of dynamic order in Navajo Creation and as a basis for Navajo philosophy. Identifies markers for the division of time (four Cardinal Light Phenomena), documents their depiction in sandpaintings, examines their symbolic representation in the hogan, and explores how temporal markers influence human thought and conduct. (SV)

  15. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their children an education…

  16. Place-Based Care Ethics: A Field Philosophy Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goralnik, Lissy; Dobson, Tracy; Nelson, Michael Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the need for a thoughtful and intentional pedagogy in experiential environmental learning that educates for empathetic relationships with humans, nonhuman others, and natural systems, or field philosophy. After discussing the tensions in various ecofeminist perspectives, we highlight relevant ecofeminist ideas and thread…

  17. Philosophy for Children in Hawaii: A Community Circle Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukey, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the many different "flavors" of philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i, one undeviating element involves the creation of a community for intellectually safe philosophical inquiry. The first step in this process is usually an activity in which the participants work together to fashion a "community ball". It's a process that Thomas…

  18. Listening as Embracing the Other: Martin Buber's Philosophy of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Mordechai Gordon interprets Martin Buber's ideas on dialogue, presence, and especially his notion of embracing in an attempt to shed some light on Buber's understanding of listening. Gordon argues that in order to understand Buber's conception of listening, one needs to examine this concept in the context of his philosophy of…

  19. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  20. Edification, Conversation, and Narrative: Rortyan Motifs for Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies and examines three main aims of Rorty's work and relates them to a program of action for philosophy of education. Central to Rorty's ideas is the concept of edification, the process of accounting for the events of one's life. (IAH)

  1. How Can Philosophy of Education Be Both Viable and Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Agrees with Rene Arcilla that philosophy of education is a marginalized discourse caught in the tension between academic (philosophical) credibility and practical (educational) relevance, suggesting that the greatest threat is in failing at both. The essay offers historical background and context for this debate, showing how it has recently…

  2. Operational excellence (six sigma) philosophy: Application to software quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on operational excellence philosophy of six sigma applied to software quality assurance. This report outlines the following: goal of six sigma; six sigma tools; manufacturing vs administrative processes; Software quality assurance document inspections; map software quality assurance requirements document; failure mode effects analysis for requirements document; measuring the right response variables; and questions.

  3. Promoting the Development of Graduate Students' Teaching Philosophy Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rowland, Freya E.; Distel, Christopher A.; Bauman, Jenise M.; Keppler, Mary L.; Kawarasaki, Yuta; McCarthy, Mirabai R.; Glover, Alicia; Salem, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Teaching philosophy statements typically improve over time with teaching experience and instructional self-knowledge. Graduate students without this experience and self-knowledge risk producing lackluster statements when applying for academic positions. This study identifies components of a biology education course that positively affected the…

  4. Payload test philosophy. [JPL views on qualification/acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindorf, T.

    1979-01-01

    The general philosophy of how JPL views payload qualification/acceptance testing for programs that are done either in-house or by contractors is described. Particular attention is given to mission risk classifications, preliminary critical design reviews, environmental design requirements, the thermal and dynamics development tests, and the flight spacecraft system test.

  5. Special Issue: Philosophy of Design, Design Education and Educational Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Borgmann, Albert; Mitcham, Carl; Waks, Leonard J.; Huyke, Hector J.; Kellner, Douglas; Feenberg, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Articles include: "Philosophy of Design, Design Education, and Educational Design: Introduction to the Special Issue"; "Opaque and Articulate Design"; "The Problem of Character in Design Education: Liberal Arts and Professional Specialization"; "'Dasein' Versus Design: The Problematics of Turning Making into Thinking"; "Donald Schon's Philosophy…

  6. Outstanding High School Coaches: Philosophies, Views, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glenn A.; Lutz, Rafer; Fredenburg, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the coaching philosophies, views, and practices of outstanding high school coaches of various male and female sports across the United States. The intention was to determine whether these coaches used unique or innovative techniques or strategies that contributed to their success and, if so, whether these…

  7. The Problem Method in Teaching Philosophy: A Praxiologic Educology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morkuniene, Jurate

    2005-01-01

    This is an attempt to clarify principally some fundamental ideas clustered around the concept of the formal conditions which would constitute a fruitful studying of philosophy. First, an ideal study situation would require the student to participate in the object-subject dialogue; philosophical studies are an active dialogue between the text and…

  8. Philosophy: Discipline Analysis. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Andrea

    This essay examines the ways in which philosophy, as a discipline, has been influenced by feminist scholarship in the field. It explains that in the 1970s feminist philosophers introduced questions regarding personal life and sexuality as matters for philosophical analysis, and that scholars began to challenge the notions of the Western canon.…

  9. European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

  10. Notes on Political Philosophy and Contemporary International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the post World War II development of the discipline of international relations, stating that it helped reinvigorate interest in the tradition of political philosophy. Examines shortcomings, such as its division into realist and idealist camps, and discusses the works and ideologies of people such as Morgenthau, Aron, and Beitz. (GEA)

  11. Rhetorical Transcendence Revisited: The "Thin Red Line" as Perennial Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Scott R.

    Fifteen years ago, J. H. Rushing published a seminal article addressing the fragmentation within contemporary society and the ways in which myths (films) may address this exigence. The exigence of fragmentation is relieved, according to her analysis, by mediated recourse to the perennial philosophy of monistic holism that is found across the…

  12. Human-centered automation: Development of a philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, Curtis; Billings, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information on human-centered automation philosophy is given in outline/viewgraph form. It is asserted that automation of aircraft control will continue in the future, but that automation should supplement, not supplant the human management and control function in civil air transport.

  13. A judge's three worlds: proof, philosophy, and the prison.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, E B

    1988-01-01

    Tensions between the world of science and the world of law may arise because of their differing viewpoints and philosophies. Disagreements may center around such questions as what constitutes proof, around human behavior, and around the use of the insanity defense in criminal cases. The just deserts model is examined and is criticized as being harsh and possibly unrealistic in today's society.

  14. Rural Philosophy for Education: Wendell Berry's Tradition. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    This ERIC Digest reviews past and present rural educational philosophy, focusing on the views of Wendell Berry, a Kentucky farmer and novelist who in recent years has emerged as a leading American philosopher. The major difference underlying rural and urban living is the relationship of people with nature. Rural living is much more closely related…

  15. Mencius' Educational Philosophy and Its Contemporary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-chieh

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that Mencius' education is "holistic education" that aims at igniting the "silent revolution" from within one's inner mind-heart to be unfolded in society, state, and the world. Mencius' educational philosophy is based on his theory of human nature and his theory of self-cultivation. Mencius…

  16. Philosophy of Science, Critical Thinking and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article I explore a case for the inclusion of some aspects of critical thinking and of philosophy of science within science education that appeals to two commonly accepted aims of science education. Although motivated by reading Harvey Siegel's "Educating Reason" (1988), and emerging from his discussion there, the aspects I explore go…

  17. Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Maralee

    2011-01-01

    In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

  18. Humane Education and Humanistic Philosophy: Toward a New Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sydney Carroll; Beirne, Piers

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that humane education should be an integral part of humanistic philosophy. They outline 2 key components of a humane education: (a) an understanding of the sociological and psychological dimensions of animal abuse and (b) the cultivation of empathy for nonhuman animals. (Contains 41 references.) (Author)

  19. Jung's Psychology and Deleuze's Philosophy: The Unconscious in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semetsky, Inna; Delpech-Ramey, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that…

  20. Reasons and Underlying Philosophies for Living in the Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; And Others

    Six ideological types of rural residents were defined to represent empirically determined reasons and underlying philosophies for living in the country, addressing a need to look at aspects of the growing nonfarm contingent of rural population, especially as it concerns extension program needs. The types were descriptively named Committed Farmers,…

  1. The Paul Petzoldt Trivia Quiz: His Philosophy and Teaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark

    Paul Petzoldt, co-founder of the Wilderness Education Association (WEA), helped mold the profession of outdoor leadership as we know it today. After his death in 1999, numerous field journals, old speeches, and personal correspondence were salvaged in order to refresh, clarify, and preserve Petzoldt's philosophy and teaching methods. The…

  2. Alternative Education for the 21st Century: Philosophies, Approaches, Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A., Ed.; Woods, Glenys J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This is a unique collection of leading examples of education grounded in alternative philosophies and cultures--from initiatives to create more democratic schools, through Quaker, Buddhist, Islamic, Montessori and Steiner/Waldorf schools, to Maori and First Nations education in Canada and Palestinian Jewish schools in Israel. Aimed at educational…

  3. Plato's Philosophy of Education and the Common Core Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Madonna M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Plato's Philosophy of Education asking what he would say about the current Common Core initiative which is to better help students to become college and career ready. Plato would be in favor of the common core in as much as the standards are tied to specific skills needed in various career jobs as he was a proponent of…

  4. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  5. Philosophy of Education and the Psychology of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Part 1 of this paper discusses contributions made by diverse schools of thought in the philosophy of education to the development of a relevant social studies curriculum. The relevance of major philosophical approaches to teaching and learning is considered in light of the approaches' influences on instructors' teaching styles and students'…

  6. Dialogical Rhetoric: An Application of Martin Buber's Philosophy of Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaroff, Jeanine

    2000-01-01

    Postulates that the philosophy of dialogue developed by Martin Buber provides a coherent grounding for a dialogical/ontological rhetoric. Contrasts, respectively, instrumental and dialogical conceptions of the rhetorical situation and instrumental and dialogical characterizations of the rhetor, the rhetor's purposes and modes of influence.…

  7. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  8. Michel Serres: A Troubadour for Science, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2002-01-01

    Michel Serres is a provocative and unorthodox thinker, very little known in the English-speaking world, although he is one of the best-known contemporary French philosophers. Serres' interdisciplinary writing constructs themes that can be traced across literature, philosophy, science, mythology and painting, borrowing ideas and approaches from…

  9. Booker T. Washington's Philosophy of Black Education: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Walter Arthur Harris

    1992-01-01

    Reviews Booker T. Washington's philosophies on vocational and African-American education. Describes his considerable influence during his time, his holistic approach to vocational and applied technology, and his moral force. Offers six recommendations for current education based on Washington's thought, and describes briefly the work of programs…

  10. Educational Philosophy and the Challenge of Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Complexity theory challenges educational philosophy to reconsider accepted paradigms of teaching, learning and educational research. However, though attractive, not least because of its critique of positivism, its affinity to Dewey and Habermas, and its arguments for openness, diversity, relationships, agency and creativity, the theory is not…

  11. Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia: The Official Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the official record of The Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). The Society faces a number of continuing challenges. It maintains its record for holding conferences that meet the needs of its members, has resumed publication of conference proceedings, but this has largely been superseded by the placing of…

  12. Philosophy of Education and Economics: A Case for Closer Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little contemporary philosophy of education employs economic concepts directly. Even where issues such as marketisation of education are discussed there may be little clarification of underlying concepts. The paper argues that while much contemporary economic thinking on education may be philosophically naive, it is also the case that…

  13. Toward a Post-Institutional Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Kip

    2012-01-01

    In this presidential address, the author wants to argue that one should imagine the field of philosophy of education to be in or at least moving into a post-institutional moment. He will articulate caveats to this argument and hope that they will clarify his position and not render it timid or less interesting. First, the author wants to be clear…

  14. Toward a Philosophy of Instructional Technology: Thirty Years On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Makes a current assessment of the philosophy of instructional technology using a 1970 "British Journal of Educational Technology" (BJET) article as the basis of comparison. Discusses the influence of distance education, public acceptance of media and technology, and training by artificial intelligence in business and industry. (Author/LRW)

  15. Kant's Philosophy of Education: Between Relational and Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ana Marta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to view Kant's approach to education in the broader context of Kant's philosophy of culture and history as a process whose direction should be reflectively assumed by human freedom, in the light of man's moral vocation. In this context, some characteristic tensions of his enlightened approach to education appear. Thus,…

  16. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  17. Heidegger East and West: Philosophy as Educative Contemplation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David

    2015-01-01

    Resonances between Heidegger's philosophy and Eastern religious traditions have been widely discussed by scholars. The significance of Heidegger's thinking for education has also become increasingly clear over recent years. In this article I argue that an important aspect of Heidegger's work, the relevance of which to education is relatively…

  18. The borderlands between science and philosophy: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2008-03-01

    Science and philosophy have a very long history, dating back at least to the 16th and 17th centuries, when the first scientist-philosophers, such as Bacon, Galilei, and Newton, were beginning the process of turning natural philosophy into science. Contemporary relationships between the two fields are still to some extent marked by the distrust that maintains the divide between the so-called "two cultures." An increasing number of philosophers, however, are making conceptual contributions to sciences ranging from quantum mechanics to evolutionary biology, and a few scientists are conducting research relevant to classically philosophical fields of inquiry, such as consciousness and moral decision-making. This article will introduce readers to the borderlands between science and philosophy, beginning with a brief description of what philosophy of science is about, and including a discussion of how the two disciplines can fruitfully interact not only at the level of scholarship, but also when it comes to controversies surrounding public understanding of science.

  19. Philosophy and Education in Stoicism of the Roman Imperial Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reydams-Schils, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Stoics of the Roman Imperial period share the imperative that education should not focus on erudition for its own sake, but contribute to the pursuit of the good life as they define it in philosophical terms. Hence these later Stoics express similar concerns about the technical and theoretical aspects of philosophy as they do about…

  20. The Teaching of Philosophy: Renewed Rights and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egea-Kuehne, Denise

    2003-01-01

    After 12 years, the long overdue translation of Derrida's "Du droit a la philosophie" has just been made available in English. It is a collection of essays, interviews, and conferences produced by Derrida between 1974 and 1990. They focus on questions of education and research, in schools and universities, with a critical reflection on academic…

  1. Ourselves in Translation: Stanley Cavell and Philosophy as Autobiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a different approach to writing about oneself--Stanley Cavell's idea of philosophy as autobiography. In Cavell's understanding, the acknowledgement of the partiality of the self is an essential condition for achieving the universal. In the apparently paradoxical combination of the "philosophical" (which is traditionally connected…

  2. Writing a Statement of Teaching Philosophy: Fashioning a Framework for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a set of practical and philosophical guidelines for experienced and novice educators to use in crafting a statement of teaching philosophy. Delineates a definition, the elements, and the structure of a statement of teaching philosophy. (DDR)

  3. Environmental philosophy 2.0: ethics and conservation biology for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Odenbaugh, Jay

    2014-03-01

    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar's Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare.

  4. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space.

  5. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space. PMID:24974603

  6. John Dewey: Su filosofia y filosofia de la educacion (John Dewey: His Philosophy and Philosophy of Education). Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper forms part of an investigation about how the philosophy of John Dewey (1859-1952) can illuminate the practice of the teaching of English as a foreign language. The paper seeks to interpret and synthesize John Dewey's philosophical works to construct a "Deweyian lens" with which to analyze and evaluate the field of the teaching of…

  7. Philosophy and Adult Educators: An Inquiry into the Philosophy-Practice Link Using the PALS, EOQ, and PAEI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To explore philosophical predilections, the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), Educational Orientation Questionnaire, and Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory were administered to 111 adult education graduate students. The overall population was progressive on the PALS and scored close to reported means on the other tests. (SLD)

  8. Method, Philosophy of Education and the Sphere of the Practico-Inert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses a conception of the relation of philosophy to education that has come to be widely held in both general philosophy and philosophy of education. This view is approached here through the employment of Jean-Paul Sartre's notion of the "practico-inert" as the realm of consolidated social objects, part of which is the institution…

  9. Proceedings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickel, George W., Ed.; Owen, David B., Ed.

    These proceedings are composed of papers presented at the 1993 and 1994 Annual Meetings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society. The collection is divided into four parts. Part 1 includes: "Failure, Philosophy of Education, and the Music of the Spheres" (David B. Owen); "What Has Philosophy of Education Come To?" (Lawrence J. Dennis). Part…

  10. Skepticism and Education: In Search of Another Filial Tie of Philosophy to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2012-01-01

    As a way of participating in the discussion on the disciplinary nature of philosophy of education, this article attempts to find another distinctive way of relating philosophy to education for the studies in philosophy of education. Recasting philosophical skepticism, which has been dismissed by Dewey and Rorty in their critiques of modern…

  11. Critical Analysis: A Comparison of Critical Thinking Changes in Psychology and Philosophy Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…

  12. "In Charge of the Truffula Seeds": On Children's Literature, Rationality and Children's Voices in Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how philosophy can speak for children and how children can have a voice in philosophy and speak for philosophy. I argue that we should understand children as responsible rational individuals who are involved in their own philosophical inquiries and who can be involved in our own philosophical investigations--not because…

  13. The Dilemma of Philosophy of Education: "Relevance" or Critique? Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on several responses to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" asserting that Arcilla is correct and that there must be conversation between philosophy and education. The article recommends situated philosophy and concludes that demonstrating the viability of philosophy of education as a field,…

  14. Philosophy Goes to High School: An Inquiry into the Philosopher's Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Chad

    2013-01-01

    Prior to Matthew Lipman's Philosophy for Children program (P4C), philosophy had rarely, if ever, been placed in the American elementary school curriculum. Due to Lipman's pioneering efforts, children have been given opportunities to engage in philosophy. However, what is missing from this body of literature is an overall theory of…

  15. 25 CFR 36.10 - Standard I-Philosophy and goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard I-Philosophy and goals. 36.10 Section 36.10... § 36.10 Standard I—Philosophy and goals. (a) Each school shall develop a written mission statement and philosophy of education that addresses the accumulation of knowledge and development of skills,...

  16. 25 CFR 36.10 - Standard I-Philosophy and goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Standard I-Philosophy and goals. 36.10 Section 36.10... § 36.10 Standard I—Philosophy and goals. (a) Each school shall develop a written mission statement and philosophy of education that addresses the accumulation of knowledge and development of skills,...

  17. Classic and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Education. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Steven M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Now even more affordably priced in its second edition, "Classic and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Education" is ideal for undergraduate and graduate philosophy of education courses. Editor Steven M. Cahn, a highly respected contributor to the field, brings together writings by leading figures in the history of philosophy and notable…

  18. Framing a Philosophy of Environmental Action: Aldo Leopold, John Muir, and the Importance of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goralnik, Lissy; Nelson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    A philosophy of action consists of a theory about how and why we do things and what motivates us to act. By juxtaposing the theory of environmental action implied by the works and life of John Muir with the philosophy of action suggested by Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic, we will illuminate the importance of a philosophy of action in determining one's…

  19. Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…

  20. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  1. Dubois and Washington -- Opposite or Similar: An Evaluation of the Philosophies of Washington and Dubois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reedom, John Anthony

    Although comparative analysis of the philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois reveals significant differences in preferred solutions to problems of blacks in the United States, the philosophies of the two men are not as diametrically opposed as scholars have generally maintained. Washington's philosophy was one of conciliation…

  2. Styles of Halakhic Ruling: A Mapping in Light of Joseph Schwab's Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenak, Avinoam

    2007-01-01

    This article notes a profound connection between the philosophy of Jewish law (halakhah) and the research of meta-halakah on the one hand and the philosophy of education on the other hand. The connection is, in principle, exemplified through an encounter between the educational philosophy of Joseph Schwab and the Jewish law (halakhic responsa…

  3. The Role of Adult Education Philosophy in Facilitating the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milheim, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching philosophy is much more than just teaching style, or a framework for a course. It can be defined as one's beliefs about life that are carried out in his/her teaching practice, which serve as a foundation for his/her educational philosophies. The majority of literature addressing philosophies in adult education practice focus on how…

  4. The Implications for Science Education of Heidegger's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Science teaching always engages a philosophy of science. This article introduces a modern philosophy of science and indicates its implications for science education. The hermeneutic philosophy of science is the tradition of Kant, Heidegger, and Heelan. Essential to this tradition are two concepts of truth, truth as correspondence and truth as…

  5. Activating a Teaching Philosophy in Social Work Education: Articulation, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…

  6. 25 CFR 36.10 - Standard I-Philosophy and goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard I-Philosophy and goals. 36.10 Section 36.10... § 36.10 Standard I—Philosophy and goals. (a) Each school shall develop a written mission statement and philosophy of education that addresses the accumulation of knowledge and development of skills,...

  7. Assessing the Practicality and Relevance of Adventist Educational Philosophy in a Contemporary Education Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, W. Marc

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the key tenets of contemporary education philosophy and compares it to the principles of the Adventist educational philosophy. The intent is to determine whether Adventist educational philosophy aligns with the demands of contemporary education. In this vein, 10 key principles of contemporary education are first described.…

  8. Re-Thinking the Relevance of Philosophy of Education for Educational Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2014-01-01

    The overall question addressed in this article is,"What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?" The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy…

  9. 25 CFR 36.10 - Standard I-Philosophy and goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard I-Philosophy and goals. 36.10 Section 36.10... § 36.10 Standard I—Philosophy and goals. (a) Each school shall develop a written mission statement and philosophy of education that addresses the accumulation of knowledge and development of skills,...

  10. Etude de quelques fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien et de certaines propriétés de la diffusion unidimensionnelle en milieu aléatoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    This paper deals with functionals of Brownian motion that appear in various contexts, and with some properties of anomalous diffusion in a one-dimensional random environment. Section 2 explains why path integrals provide a powerful framework to compute probability distribution of functionals of Brownian motion. This approach is used to study winding properties of planar Brownian motion. Section 3 is devoted to an exponential functional of Brownian motion, which arise in particular in the study of transport properties of classical diffusion in a one-dimensional disordered system of finite length. This functional belongs to the field of multiplicative stochastic processes. Cet article porte sur l'étude des distributions de probabilité de quelques fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien qui interviennent dans divers contextes physiques. Le paragraphe 2 présente une méthode d'intégrale de chemin qui relieles distributions de probabilité de certaines fonctionnelles du mouvement brownien, à des fonctions de Green euclidiennes de la mécanique quantique. Cette approche permet notamment d'étudier certaines propriétés d'enroulementdu mouvement brownien plan, qu'il soit libre ou soumis à l'action d'un potentiel extérieur. Les fonctions d'échelle et les formes des lois asymptotiques à grand temps de l'enroulement autour d'un point dépendent des propriétés spectrales de basse énergied'une famille d'hamiltoniens contenant un potentiel vecteur de type Aharonov-Bohm.Le paragraphe 3 a pour l'objet l'étude de la loi de probabilité d'une fonctionnelle exponentielle du mouvement brownien qui intervient dans le cadnG de la diffusion unidimensionnelle aléatoire. Celle-ci apparaît notamment lorsque l'on s'intéresse à la distribution du flux de particules quitraverse un échantillon désordonné de taille finie, lorsque les particules diffusent classiquement, sous l'action d'une force aléatoire gelée distribuée comme un bruit blanc gaussien. Le spectre de

  11. Nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy: A quality-oriented approach

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R. ); Geiger, J.E. ); Heibel, R.E. ); Cotton, J.B. ); Sabol, A.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Quality assurance programs have been part of the nuclear utility management process since the publication of the draft of 10CFR50 Appendix B in the late 1960s. The unwritten operational philosophy of nuclear quality assurance organizations focused on compliance with federal regulations. Adverse experiences, including operational events and extended shutdowns, prompted the gradual adoption of isolated practices extending beyond compliance orientation. These practices have an orientation that accommodates a definition of quality, a perspective of the role of nuclear quality assurance organizations in the overall concept of defense-in-depth, a definition of the segments of the nuclear quality assurance mission, and recent advances in the understanding of self-assessment. Observation of these practices at various nuclear utilities resulted in a syntheses of practices and approaches into a coherent quality-oriented nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy that is not totally adopted at any one utility.

  12. Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa

    2002-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

  13. Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

    2000-01-01

    Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism. PMID:10997236

  14. Engineering Antifragile Systems: A Change In Design Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.

    2014-01-01

    While technology has made astounding advances in the last century, problems are confronting the engineering community that must be solved. Cost and schedule of producing large systems are increasing at an unsustainable rate and these systems often do not perform as intended. New systems are required that may not be achieved by current methods. To solve these problems, NASA is working to infuse concepts from Complexity Science into the engineering process. Some of these problems may be solved by a change in design philosophy. Instead of designing systems to meet known requirements that will always lead to fragile systems at some degree, systems should be designed wherever possible to be antifragile: designing cognitive cyberphysical systems that can learn from their experience, adapt to unforeseen events they face in their environment, and grow stronger in the face of adversity. Several examples are presented of on ongoing research efforts to employ this philosophy.

  15. The Philosophy of Science and its relation to Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Jon

    In this chapter I discuss connections between machine learning and the philosophy of science. First I consider the relationship between the two disciplines. There is a clear analogy between hypothesis choice in science and model selection in machine learning. While this analogy has been invoked to argue that the two disciplines are essentially doing the same thing and should merge, I maintain that the disciplines are distinct but related and that there is a dynamic interaction operating between the two: a series of mutually beneficial interactions that changes over time. I will introduce some particularly fruitful interactions, in particular the consequences of automated scientific discovery for the debate on inductivism versus falsificationism in the philosophy of science, and the importance of philosophical work on Bayesian epistemology and causality for contemporary machine learning. I will close by suggesting the locus of a possible future interaction: evidence integration.

  16. Diet, embodiment, and virtue in the mechanical philosophy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin E H

    2012-06-01

    This paper considers the relationship between diet, embodiment, nature and virtue in several seventeenth-century natural philosophers, all of whom sought to overcome or to radically reform inherited ideas about the self as a hylomorphic compound of form and matter, but who nonetheless were not entirely ready to discard the notion that the self is intimately united with the body. One implication of this intimate union, for them, is that what one does with the body, including what one puts into it, is directly relevant to the supreme end of achieving a virtuous life. I thus consider food--its preparation and its consumption--as a link between natural and moral philosophy in the early modern period, showing in particular the parallels between the search for the diet that is 'natural to man', on the one hand, and the project of establishing rules of virtue on the other. Key to discerning these parallels, I argue, is an understanding of early modern ideas about diet and eating as rooted in the Stoic notion of oikeiôsis, which may be translated as 'assimilation' or 'appropriation', and which, as recent work by Lisa Shapiro has shown, played an important role in early modern ideas about a bodily contribution to the human good. The most general thesis is that dietary questions were far more important in early modern philosophy than has yet been recognized: nearly every prominent natural philosopher was preoccupied with them. A narrower thesis is that this parallelism between natural philosophy and moral philosophy is reflected in the conception of cooking as both a fundamental physiological process ('coction') as well as the most basic form of social existence.

  17. Research philosophy and Socrates: rediscovering the birth of phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria; Johnson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Socrates can, to some extent, be credited with an original conception of what is now seen as 20th century phenomenology 'invented' by Heidegger. With phenomenology becoming more recognised as important in understanding health care and all its complexities, this article by Victoria Vivilaki and Martin Johnson provides a theoretical evaluation of some of the terminology and the underpinning philosophy used in recent phenomenological studies.

  18. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.

  19. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, St3eve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.

  20. Critical Issues in the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the philosophy of science and of specific sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology are well-developed fields with their own books and journals, the philosophy of astronomy and cosmology have received little systematic attention. At least six categories of problems may be identified in the astronomical context: 1) the nature of reasoning, including the roles of observation, theory, simulation, and analogy, as well as the limits of reasoning, starkly evident in the anthropic principle, fine-tuning, and multiverse controversies; 2) the often problematic nature of evidence and inference, especially since the objects of astronomical interest are for the most part beyond experiment and experience;3) the influence of metaphysical preconceptions and non-scientific worldviews on astronomy, evidenced, for example in the work of Arthur S. Eddington and many other astronomers; 4) the epistemological status of astronomy and its central concepts, including the process of discovery, the problems of classification, and the pitfalls of definition (as in planets); 5) the role of technology in shaping the discipline of astronomy and our view of the universe; and 6) the mutual interactions of astronomy and cosmology with society over time. Discussion of these issues should draw heavily on the history of astronomy as well as current research, and may reveal an evolution in approaches, techniques, and goals, perhaps with policy relevance. This endeavor should also utilize and synergize approaches and results from philosophy of science and of related sciences such as physics (e.g. discussions on the nature of space and time). Philosophers, historians and scientists should join this new endeavor. A Journal of the Philosophy of Astronomy and Cosmology (JPAC) could help focus attention on their studies.

  1. Self-disclosure. Reconciling psychoanalytic psychotherapy and alcoholics anonymous philosophy.

    PubMed

    Mallow, A J

    1998-01-01

    Therapists working in the addictions field and practicing from a psychoanalytic psychodynamic framework are often confronted with the patient's need to know, the demand for therapist self-disclosure. Consistent with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) principles, many patients state that they cannot be helped unless the therapist is revealing of their personal background. This paper discusses the theoretical roots of therapist self-disclosure and the AA philosophy and offers suggestions for how the two might be reconciled.

  2. J D Bernal: philosophy, politics and the science of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Helena M.

    2007-02-01

    This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position.

  3. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity. PMID:23078642

  4. Critical issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Fifty years after serious scientific research began in the field of exobiology, and forty years after serious historical research began on the subject of extraterrestrial life, this paper identifies and examines some of the most important issues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of what is today known as astrobiology. As in the philosophy of science in general, and in the philosophies of particular sciences, critical issues in the philosophy and sociology of astrobiology are both stimulated and illuminated by history. Among those issues are (1) epistemological issues such as the status of astrobiology as a science, the problematic nature of evidence and inference, and the limits of science; (2) metaphysical/scientific issues, including the question of defining the fundamental concepts of life, mind, intelligence, and culture in a universal context; the role of contingency and necessity in the origin of these fundamental phenomena; and whether or not the universe is in some sense fine-tuned for life and perhaps biocentric; (3) societal issues such as the theological, ethical, and worldview impacts of the discovery of microbial or intelligent life; and the question of whether the search for extraterrestrial life should be pursued at all, and with what precautions; and (4) issues related to the sociology of scientific knowledge, including the diverse attitudes and assumptions of different scientific communities and different cultures to the problem of life beyond Earth, the public "will to believe," and the formation of the discipline of astrobiology. All these overlapping issues are framed by the concept of cosmic evolution-the 13.7 billion year Master Narrative of the Universe-which may result in a physical, biological, or postbiological universe and determine the long-term destiny of humanity.

  5. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism. PMID:353452

  6. [A "dialogue" between the aesthetics of nursing and philosophy].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsiu; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2012-02-01

    Nursing aesthetics belong to the broader school of aesthetics, a branch of philosophy, as well as the nursing arts, an element of professional nursing. The philosophy of aesthetics recognizes the connection between an author and appreciators and identifies both substantive and abstract aesthetic experiences in interpersonal communication through the fine arts. Nursing aesthetics values the meaningful moments of patients, is sensitive to the influences of different circumstances and situations, and appreciates the unique qualities of humanness. Nursing aesthetics is emancipatory knowledge and involves empirical, ethical and personal knowing. The article is based on a search of OvidSP and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) database references using key words including aesthetic, aesthetics, art of nursing, or nursing aesthetics as well as a review of books related to aesthetics, knowledge construction, and nursing aesthetics. Authors determined definitions as defined by nursing experts and the applications thereof in clinical practice. This article aimed to illustrate that the ultimate concern of philosophy is "goodness" and that the foundation of caring behaviors is "love". In practice, nursing aesthetics is expressed through empathy, appreciation, inspiration and the therapeutic use of the self. Through aesthetic knowing and enhanced perceptual sensibility and reflection, nurses can transform intuitive knowing into art-acts and ultimately enhance nursing care quality.

  7. The relevance of Heidegger's philosophy of technology for biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Svenaeus, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    Heidegger's thoughts on modern technology have received much attention in many disciplines and fields, but, with a few exceptions, the influence has been sparse in biomedical ethics. The reason for this might be that Heidegger's position has been misinterpreted as being generally hostile towards modern science and technology, and the fact that Heidegger himself never subjected medical technologies to scrutiny but was concerned rather with industrial technology and information technology. In this paper, Heidegger's philosophy of modern technology is introduced and then brought to bear on medical technology. Its main relevance for biomedical ethics is found to be that the field needs to focus upon epistemological and ontological questions in the philosophy of medicine related to the structure and goal of medical practice. Heidegger's philosophy can help us to see how the scientific attitude in medicine must always be balanced by and integrated into a phenomenological way of understanding the life-world concerns of patients. The difference between the scientific and the phenomenological method in medicine is articulated by Heidegger as two different ways of studying the human body: as biological organism and as lived body. Medicine needs to acknowledge the priority of the lived body in addressing health as a way of being-in-the-world and not as the absence of disease only. A critical development of Heidegger's position can provide us with a criterion for distinguishing the uses of medical technologies that are compatible with such an endeavor from the technological projects that are not.

  8. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience. PMID:27083083

  9. The medical philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561-1626).

    PubMed

    Boss, J

    1978-01-01

    Francis Bacon's view of man is dualistic but, although he takes note of mental faculties, he makes the relation between mind and body, rather than the substance of mind, the basis for enquiry into mental processes and, more particularly, for the medically relevant study of mind. (He uses "mind" and "soul" as equivalent terms.) The healing of the body requires study of the body, and the ineffectiveness of physicians is due to their failure in this respect rather than to the body's complexity. To learn about the body requires clinical observation and recording, together with the comparison of bodies, experiments on living animals and attention to pathological changes. The aims of medicine should include not only the restoration of health but also the relief of suffering and they are not to be limited by putting aside a disease as incurable. To learn from treatment it must be fixed in its ordering with controlled and limited variation. Bacon has no separation of medicine from natural science; his philosophy of medicine is his general philosophy of the advancement of knowledge, but limited to a particular field of application. If medicine is separated from natural philosophy it is changed wholly or greatly into empiricism.

  10. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience.

  11. Philosophy and Physics by Inquiry in a liberal arts setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adam

    2008-05-01

    This talk will discuss a recent effort at Willamette University to hybridize the Physics By InquiryootnotetextPhysics by Inquiry, L.C. McDermott and the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington, Wiley (1996). curriculum with an introduction to philosophy of science. The nature of the Physics By Inquiry curriculum naturally lends itself to many interesting philosophical questions that often resulted in a positive feedback effect. However, philosophical questions sometimes bogged down progress on physics. We will discuss the unique challenges and opportunities associated with presenting philosophy of science side-by-side with the physics. The class covered parts of three modules: Electric Circuits, Kinematics, and Dynamics. On the whole, the class seems to have been successful both in teaching physics and in teaching philosophy of science. Preliminary pre-test/post-test data from the class will be presented, and suggestions for future improvements of this hybrid course will be discussed. Additionally, we will reflect on differences between implementation for teachers and implementation for liberal arts students.

  12. Cerebellum and cognition: viewed from philosophy of mind.

    PubMed

    Frings, M; Maschke, M; Timmann, D

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, it is believed, that the primary function of the cerebellum is to coordinate movement. During the past three decades, it has been controversially discussed, whether the cerebellum may also contribute to cognition and mental states like emotions. In this paper, no position relating to this controversy will be taken. Instead, the hypothesis of non-motor functions of the cerebellum will be viewed from the position of the philosophy of mind. The remarkably uniform microscopic structure and neuronal networks of the cerebellum have led to computer analogies by several authors. The main idea of functionalism, i.e., a theory within the philosophy of mind, is that the mental relates to the physical as computer software does to hardware. This raises the question, whether a cerebellar contribution to cognition and mental states would support functionalism in the philosophy of mind. No support of functionalism could be found in this study, investigating the classical philosophical arguments pro and con functionalism such as those of multiple realizability, the Chinese room and the explanatory gap, while taking the results of cerebellar research into account. On the other hand, philosophical reflection suggests a careful use of the phrases "cognitive dysmetria" (Andreasen et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:9985-90) in the context of mental illness and of "dysmetria of thought" (Schmahmann Arch Neurol. 1991;48:1178-87). According to the argument of the explanatory gap there is at present little support for the assumption that the phenomenal experiencing of an altered emotion can be reduced to the dysmetria of movement.

  13. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  14. [The averroism in the corpuscular philosophy of Petrus of Oleza].

    PubMed

    Barona, J L

    1995-01-01

    Oleza is an obstinate defender of Atomism in the Spanish scientific world of the XVIth century. He was the author of a Summa totius philosophiae et medicinae, published in 1536, five years after his death. Probably, Oleza's stay in Montpellier and Pisa conciliated his critical disposition towards Scholastic Galenism. His scientific thought must be connected not only with the flourishing Atomism of the first half of XVIth century, but also with Scholastic Aristotelism deriving from the Arabic transmission and from its main representative, Averroes. Oleza's natural philosophy of the human body is strongly influenced by Averroes' ideology. This article supplies new elements about his life based on investigations of archives.

  15. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  16. Laboratory for Atmospheres: Philosophy, Organization, Major Activities, and 1999 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheres is helping to answer questions related to climate, and climate change and other scientific questions about our planet and its neighbors. The Laboratory conducts a broad theoretical and experimental research program studying all aspects of the atmospheres of the Earth and other planets, including their structural, dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties. In this report,there is a statement of the labs philosophy and a description of it's role in NASA's mission. A broad description of the research and a summary of the scientists' major accomplishments in 1999 is also included. The report also presents useful information on human resources, scientific interactions, and outreach activities with the outside community.

  17. Public Health Education: Sources, Growth and Operational Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Nyswander, Dorothy B

    2015-01-01

    An historical overview of public health education: its sources, development and operational philosophy, the contributions of many disciplines, particularly social science, and key individuals such as Lewin are traced through the past half century. The emergence of health education as a "helping profession" and the expansion of its focus to broader "marketplaces" of change are highlighted. The state of the art today is reviewed and the functions of health educators described with emphasis on "obtaining people's participation" in programs to bring about change. Problems still existing, particularly professional training, are addressed.

  18. [The averroism in the corpuscular philosophy of Petrus of Oleza].

    PubMed

    Barona, J L

    1995-01-01

    Oleza is an obstinate defender of Atomism in the Spanish scientific world of the XVIth century. He was the author of a Summa totius philosophiae et medicinae, published in 1536, five years after his death. Probably, Oleza's stay in Montpellier and Pisa conciliated his critical disposition towards Scholastic Galenism. His scientific thought must be connected not only with the flourishing Atomism of the first half of XVIth century, but also with Scholastic Aristotelism deriving from the Arabic transmission and from its main representative, Averroes. Oleza's natural philosophy of the human body is strongly influenced by Averroes' ideology. This article supplies new elements about his life based on investigations of archives. PMID:11640505

  19. Philosophy, policies, and procedures - The three P's of flight-deck operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Standard operating procedures are drafted and provided to flightcrews to dictate the manner in which tasks are carried out. Failure to conform to Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is frequently listed as the cause of violations, incidents, and accidents. However, procedures are often designed piecemeal, rather than being based on a sound philosophy of operations and policies that follow from such a philosophy. A framework of philosophy, policies, and procedures is proposed.

  20. [How Can We Cuddle Up to Dying Patients? Attempts of Cancer Philosophy Clinic and Education].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    What is needed to treat problems about how can we cuddle up to dying patients is not scientific thinking but philosophical thinking. Cancer philosophy clinic is a place where both patients and medical staffs think about death and how to live until death. The author tries to manage cancer philosophy clinic with the idea of logotherapy and terminal art. The author also tries to educate medical students and other medical staffs in cancer philosophy.

  1. A Unscientific Physics: Hegel and Whitehead on the Philosophy of Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, David Knight

    The thesis of this dissertation is that nature is not merely the province of the natural sciences, and that contemporary philosophy could greatly benefit from a recovery of the Philosophy of Nature. Although philosophy has traditionally developed its own concept of nature, philosophers have recently come to dispute the ability of philosophy to contribute to natural knowledge, and to deny that there is any knowledge of nature beyond that offered by the empirical sciences. This dissertation is an attempt to isolate the particular problems and questions which form a philosophical idea of nature. This study investigates the work of G. W. F. Hegel and Alfred North Whitehead in this field. These two philosophers are especially relevant to this task because they took up these questions during an age after natural science had become separate and distinct from philosophy. The relationship between empirical science and philosophy is therefore a central concern in their work in this area. This investigation concludes that the natural sciences present an abstract and partial account of nature while Philosophy of Nature is largely an attempt to describe the rationality of the individual. Both Hegel and Whitehead feel the central problem of philosophy of nature is to explain how nature itself is the agent of its own rationality, and how notions such as subjectivity, value and rationality are part of all forms and levels of physical existence. The Philosophy of Nature is therefore central to many current fields of philosophical interest, such as the Philosophy of Science and Natural Knowledge, the Philosophy of Mind, Ethics and the Metaphysics of Morals, and offers an important response to the division between the sciences and the humanities. The first three chapters examine Whitehead's and Hegel's critiques of scientific understanding and the limitations of such an approach to nature. The latter three chapters then present the basic features of Hegel's and Whitehead's own work

  2. [How Can We Cuddle Up to Dying Patients? Attempts of Cancer Philosophy Clinic and Education].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    What is needed to treat problems about how can we cuddle up to dying patients is not scientific thinking but philosophical thinking. Cancer philosophy clinic is a place where both patients and medical staffs think about death and how to live until death. The author tries to manage cancer philosophy clinic with the idea of logotherapy and terminal art. The author also tries to educate medical students and other medical staffs in cancer philosophy. PMID:27097505

  3. Philosophy of chiropractic: lessons from the past — guidance for the future 1

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the argument will be made that present day “chiropractic philosophy” must be rejected as a professional obstacle. It is an unscientific relic of D.D. Palmer’s personal religious beliefs. A philosophy of chiropractic can only emerge from the application of philosophy of science to our scientific and clinical practices. This new philosophy should incorporate the general healing perspective of the ancient Coan tradition which will be described. This perspective can be made distinctively chiropractic by a synthesis with D.D. Palmer’s principle of Tone. Discussion will focus on how our philosophy can be developed to guide us into the 21st century.

  4. A framework for clinical teaching: A passion-centered philosophy.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Ferguson, Linda

    2010-11-01

    Clinical nurse educators are facing a number of new challenges in pediatric acute care settings that necessitate revisions to their teaching approaches. In this paper, we present a theoretical discussion of a philosophy of nursing education based on a passion for teaching that, when implemented by clinical nursing faculty, promotes positive learning environments in which nursing students feel supported, valued, and engaged. A revised leadership framework, as originally set out by Day (2004), is utilized to explore the essential philosophical underpinnings of passion that nurse educators may consider as they seek to promote positive student outcomes in clinical nursing education. Beatty et al. (2009) argued that there is a growing conviction that every teacher needs a carefully formulated teaching philosophy. Similarly, we contend that all clinical nurse educators critically evaluate their understanding of the meanings and experiences that motivate and frame their values of teaching. We suggest that teaching with passion promotes the development of a positive learning environment and lends itself to rewarding and successful learning experiences.

  5. Why Compulsory Science Education Should Not Include Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davson-Galle, P.

    2008-08-01

    Like many readers of this journal, I have long been an advocate of having science students introduced to philosophy of science. In particular, influenced by the Philosophy for Children movement founded by Matthew Lipman, I have advocated such an introduction as early as possible and have championed early secondary school as an appropriate place. Further, mainstream science curricula in a number of countries have, for some time now, supported such introductions (albeit of a more limited sort) under the banner of introducing students to the “Nature of Science”. In this paper, I explore a case against such introductions, partly in role as “Devil’s Advocate” and partly exploring genuine qualms that have come to disturb me. Generally speaking, my judgement is that no justification is available in terms of benefit to the individual or to society of sufficient weight to outweigh the loss of freedom of choice involved in such forced learning. One possible exception is a minimalist and intellectually passive “Nature of Science” introduction to some uncontroversial philosophical views about science.

  6. Can philosophy be of any use in counting statistics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Jörg W.

    1991-11-01

    "Philosophy has been defined as "an unusually obstinate attempt to think clearly"; I should define it rather as "an unusually ingenious attempt to think fallaciously".… The more profound the philosopher, the more intricate and subtle must his fallacies be in order to produce in him the desired state of intellectual acquiescence. That is why philosophy is obscure." (B. Russell [1]). On the basis of some examples discussed in detail, we examine some general statements, put forward by philosophically-minded physicists, to see if they are applicable to practical problems met in counting statistics and are of help in solving them. The outcome of this comparison, although admittedly based on a restricted sample, indicates that thought alone, even if it appears to be general, is nearly always too narrow in scope. The complex, and usually incompletely known, structure of a physical situation is too easily misconceived by a seemingly straightforward generalization. If an essential, but perhaps hidden, aspect has been overlooked, the model is inappropriate and deductions based on it are of no value. Physicists therefore seem well advised to mistrust arguments advanced with the claim that they are based on general reasoning. Philosophical conclusions — if one cannot resist drawing them — should be the outcome of serious physical investigations, both experimental and theoretical, rather than their starting point.

  7. A quantitative approach to evolution of music and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Vilson; Fabbri, Renato; Travieso, Gonzalo; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    The development of new statistical and computational methods is increasingly making it possible to bridge the gap between hard sciences and humanities. In this study, we propose an approach based on a quantitative evaluation of attributes of objects in fields of humanities, from which concepts such as dialectics and opposition are formally defined mathematically. As case studies, we analyzed the temporal evolution of classical music and philosophy by obtaining data for 8 features characterizing the corresponding fields for 7 well-known composers and philosophers, which were treated with multivariate statistics and pattern recognition methods. A bootstrap method was applied to avoid statistical bias caused by the small sample data set, with which hundreds of artificial composers and philosophers were generated, influenced by the 7 names originally chosen. Upon defining indices for opposition, skewness and counter-dialectics, we confirmed the intuitive analysis of historians in that classical music evolved according to a master-apprentice tradition, while in philosophy changes were driven by opposition. Though these case studies were meant only to show the possibility of treating phenomena in humanities quantitatively, including a quantitative measure of concepts such as dialectics and opposition, the results are encouraging for further application of the approach presented here to many other areas, since it is entirely generic.

  8. 'With woman' philosophy: examining the evidence, answering the questions.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Mary; Hodnett, Ellen

    2007-06-01

    'With woman', 'woman centred' and 'in partnership with women' are new terms associated with midwifery care in Australia, and the underlying philosophy has emerged both as an antidote to the medicalisation of pregnancy and in a bid to reacquaint women with their natural capacity to give birth successfully and without intervention. A reorientation of midwifery services in the 1990s, a shift towards midwifery-led care (MLC) and the subsequent introduction of direct entry midwifery programs all contributed to this new direction. Central concepts are a focus on the childbearing woman and a valuing of women's experiences. While this philosophical re-alignment has been applauded by many midwives in terms of maternal empowerment and improved autonomy for midwives, there are nonetheless some concerns that, with its emphasis on normality, midwifery-led care is in danger of becoming an exclusionary model. Particular concerns include meeting the needs of a growing cohort of women, those with 'high risk' pregnancies, and the educational adequacy of direct entry midwifery programs. To date, there has been no thorough evaluation of this emerging midwifery philosophy in Australia. In order to open the debate, this paper aims to initiate a discussion of 'with woman' midwifery care as it applies to Australian practice.

  9. "Plays Well with Others": The Engagement of Philosophy of Education with Other Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This essay takes up John White's argument for an engagement and collaboration of philosophy of education with other disciplines, and in particular with other forms of educational research. It examines the benefits and risks of "situated" or "embedded" philosophy as well as Hannah Arendt's claims about the separation…

  10. The Philosophy of Chemistry as a New Resource for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Labarca, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The philosophy of chemistry has offered new tools that can guide educators in deciding how to balance descriptive and theoretical chemistry. The philosophy of chemistry has positive effects on the way that chemistry is taught and learned and it also leads educators to reach a better understanding of their own scientific discipline.

  11. Reflections on Peters' View of the Nature and Purpose of Work in Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspin, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I describe the analytic approach adopted by Peters, his colleagues and followers of the "London line" in the 1960s and 1970s and argue that, even in those times, other approaches to philosophy of education were being valued and practised. I show that Peters and his colleagues later became aware of the need for philosophy of…

  12. Can Deweyan Pragmatist Aesthetics Provide a Robust Framework for the Philosophy for Children Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oral, Sevket Benhur

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that Dewey's pragmatist aesthetics, and in particular, his concept of "consummatory experience", should be engaged anew to rethink the merits of the Philosophy for Children (PFC) programme, which arose in the 1970s in the US as an innovative educational programme that aims to use philosophy to help school children (aged…

  13. "Major" Changes toward Philosophy and Theology: Interpreting a Recent Trend for Millennials in Catholic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Daniel P.; Cidade, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines emerging trends among those members of the Millennial generation who have dedicated a significant portion of their young-adult lives to the study of philosophy and theology at Catholic colleges and universities. Our analyses suggest that the number and percentage of Millennial undergraduates who earned degrees in philosophy or…

  14. 2007 Kneller Lecture, AESA Getting Lost: Social Science and/as Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This article probes how philosophical structures are immanent in empirical work and how philosophy might be understood when it is within the precincts of science. My interest is in both opening philosophy to disruption by a science that knows itself as inside history and opening science to the costs of its inability to tolerate the necessary lack…

  15. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective.…

  16. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership: Questioning Technological Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Mark David

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have emphasized that decisions about technology can be influenced by philosophy of technology assumptions, and have argued for research that critically questions technological determinist assumptions. Empirical studies of technology management in fields other than K-12 education provided evidence that philosophy of technology assumptions,…

  17. Developing a Successful Coaching Philosophy: A Step-by-Step Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mullem, Pete; Brunner, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The coaching profession demands a high level of accountability and responsibility for the coach. Challenged to achieve success on the scoreboard and promote the positive personal growth of the athlete, a coach seeks guidance from their coaching philosophy. A coaching philosophy is built on a set of standards by which a coach influences, teaches,…

  18. Sharing Outsider Thinking: Thinking (Differently) with Deleuze in Educational Philosophy and Curriculum Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Warren; Gough, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This essay performs a number of our collaborative responses to thinking (differently) with Deleuze in educational philosophy and curriculum inquiry. Deleuze "and Guattari" have inspired each of us in distinctive ways. Single-authored products include a series of narrative experiments or "rhizosemiotic play" in writing educational philosophy and…

  19. The Essay as a Pedagogical Form: Teacher Education and Stanley Cavell's Ordinary Language Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The view of philosophy of education as "practical philosophy" initiated by Wilfred Carr has been a focus of recent educational discourses. What "practical" means here is closely associated with the educative aspect of "philosophical practice" itself. This article attempts to explore another educative aspect of philosophical…

  20. The Doing of Philosophy in the Music Class: Some Practical Considerations--Response to Bennett Reimer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichling, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    A reply to Bennett Reimer's "The Doing of Philosophy in the Music Class: Some Practical Considerations" is presented. How the author of this article responds to Reimer's challenge depends in part on how they define philosophy in this context. Their thinking about music occurs in at least two different ways. She suggests that music possesses both…

  1. The Ideology of the American Dream: Two Competing Philosophies in Education, 1776-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forth 2 competing notions of the American Dream, 1 radical and 1 conservative (both put forth by Thomas Jefferson), as the basis for 2 competing public philosophies of American democracy and education. This article traces out the ecology of inequality that has determined the context of these 2 competing public philosophies,…

  2. The Effect of the Adoption of the Quality Philosophy by Teachers on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody Clark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the adoption of the Deming philosophy by teachers and use of the LtoJ[R] process resulted in greater academic achievement. Results of internal consistency analysis indicated that the instrument, the "Commitment to Quality Inventory for Educators," was a reliable measure of the Deming philosophy for…

  3. Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galili, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Historical excurse was suggested as a beneficial form of using the history and philosophy of science in the modules of learning materials developed within the History and Philosophy in Science Teaching project. The paper briefly describes the theoretical framework of the produced modules, addressing ontological and epistemological aspects of…

  4. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

  5. Opening Teachers' Minds to Philosophy: The Crucial Role of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Sue; Collins, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Why has the "Philosophy for Children" movement failed to make significant educational inroads in Australia, given the commitment and ongoing efforts of philosophers and educators alike who have worked hard in recent decades to bring philosophy to our schools? In this article we single out one factor as having particular importance,…

  6. Getting the Distance Right: Ideal and Nonideal Theory in Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    When the debate over the value of ideal and nonideal theory crosses from political philosophy into philosophy of education, do the implications of the debate shift, and, if so, how? In this piece, Amy Shuffelton considers the premise that no normative political theory, ideal or nonideal, is of any use to human beings unless it can be affiliated…

  7. Counter-Colonial and Philosophical Claims: An Indigenous Observation of Western Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Providing an indigenous opinion on anything is a difficult task. To be sure, there is a multitude of possible indigenous responses to dominant Western philosophy. My aim in this paper is to assess dominant analytic Western philosophy in light of the general insistence of most indigenous authors that indigenous metaphysics is holistic, and to make…

  8. "This Is My Truth, Tell Me Yours". Deconstructive Pragmatism as a Philosophy for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    One way to characterise pragmatism is to see it as a philosophy that placed communication at the heart of philosophical, educational and political thinking. Whereas the shift from consciousness to communication can be seen as a major innovation in modern philosophy, it is not without problems. This article highlights some of these problems and…

  9. What Does Philosophy Have to Offer Education, and Who Should Be Offering It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay Stanton Wortham explores how philosophy of education should both turn inward, engaging with concepts and arguments developed in academic philosophy, and outward, encouraging educational publics to apply philosophical approaches to educational policy and practice. He develops his account with reference to two recent ambitious…

  10. The Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport from Ancient Times to the Enlightenment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Duygu Harmandar; Yildiran, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    As an academic discipline, the philosophy of sport has been in existence for a relatively short period. Although the philosophy of sport as an academic endeavour is relatively young, the philosophical view of sport itself is not new. Although sport was a major activity according to the Greeks and Romans, it lost its importance during the Middle…

  11. Adult Education Philosophies Practiced by Agricultural Education Teachers in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Wright, Crystal B.; Lawrence, Layle D.; Odell, Kerry S.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 118 of 314 secondary agriculture teachers indicated that three-fourths teach adults; about two-thirds identified with the progressive education philosophy, 21% with behaviorism; nearly half had no formal training in teaching adults. Effect size results suggest they may not have clearly defined adult education philosophies. (Contains…

  12. A Characterisation of Practical Proposals To Teach the Philosophy of Science to Prospective Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo, Merce; Estany, Anna

    The philosophy of science is considered one of the important elements in the transformation of science education into the 21st century. This paper focuses on the integration of the philosophy of science into science teacher education by analyzing the theoretical framework of three didactical units. The first unit aims to teach a set of central…

  13. 21st Century African Philosophy of Adult and Human Resource Education in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    This paper will attempt to define a philosophy of adult education for the purpose of workforce development in Southern Africa. The different influences such as Ubuntu and communalism, indigenous education, diversity western philosophy, globalization and technology are explored in the context of the Southern African region.

  14. The Contemporary Development of Philosophy of Education in Mainland China and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenghong, Jin; Dan, Jau-wei

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces and analyses recent developments in philosophy of education in mainland China and Taiwan. Though Confucianism has very rich insights into education, philosophy of education as a discipline came to China only around 100 years ago. It reached its first climax in the 1920s and 1930s, but then went into decline for nearly half…

  15. Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creative Dialogue: A New Current in Interculturalism and Educational Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Daisaku Ikeda's (1928- ) philosophy and practice of intercultural dialogue--what I call "value-creative dialogue"--as a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy and theory. I use excerpts from Ikeda's writings to consider two aspects of his approach to dialogue. First, I locate his approach…

  16. The Philosophy of Information as an Underlying and Unifying Theory of Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomic, Taeda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Philosophical analyses of theoretical principles underlying these sub-domains reveal philosophy of information as underlying meta-theory of information science. Method: Conceptual research on the knowledge sub-domains in information science and philosophy and analysis of their mutual connection. Analysis: Similarities between…

  17. The Influence of Confucian Philosophy on Adult Learners Who Come from Confucian- Influenced Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Confucian philosophy in general and explores its influences on adult learners who come from Confucian-influenced societies. The Confucian philosophy is reviewed to four principles and found to have a strong influence on Confucian adults in learning. The implication of findings and recommendations are discussed.…

  18. Environmental philosophy 2.0: ethics and conservation biology for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Odenbaugh, Jay

    2014-03-01

    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar's Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare. PMID:24315772

  19. The Understanding of Curriculum Philosophy among Trainee Teachers in Regards to Soft Skills Embedment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Maharoff, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum philosophy may assist in learning practices that coincide with the philosophy of educational institution and community. This study was aimed to understand how the teacher trainees who pursued Bachelor of Teaching (PISMP) understand the embedment of soft skills into learning activities for core courses in Malaysian Institutes of Teacher…

  20. Revitalizing Theory in Library and Information Science: The Contribution of Process Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bonna

    2005-01-01

    Two main traditions now operate in philosophy, influencing the choice about which theories are appropriate in library and information science (LIS). A third tradition, known as process philosophy, gives prominence to human knowledge as an organically integrated, self-sustaining whole, thereby opening another avenue for the effort to revitalize…

  1. Pulling Back the Curtain: Relearning the History of the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Women have played an undeniable part in shaping the history of philosophy and philosophy of education for at least 1,000 years. Yet, current anthologies, encyclopedias, and textbooks in the field rarely recognize large numbers of women's works as consequential to our understanding of the development of educational topics and debates. This article,…

  2. Teaching Style Preferences and Educational Philosophy of Teacher Education Faculty at a State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Cindi H.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: An educational philosophy and teaching style provide a foundation for understanding and for guiding guide decisions about curriculum, teacher-learner relationship and professional practice. The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to describe the educational philosophies and teaching styles of the teacher…

  3. Realism, functions, and the a priori: Ernst Cassirer's philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Heis, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the main ideas of Cassirer's general philosophy of science, focusing on the two aspects of his thought that--in addition to being the most central ideas in his philosophy of science--have received the most attention from contemporary philosophers of science: his theory of the a priori aspects of physical theory, and his relation to scientific realism.

  4. Mathematics, Education, and Philosophy: An International Perspective. Studies in Mathematics Education Series: 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul, Ed.

    This book illustrates the breadth of theoretical and philosophical perspectives that can be brought to bear on mathematics and education. Part 1, "Reconceptualizing the Philosophy of Mathematics," contains the following chapters: (1) "Fresh Breezes in the Philosophy of Mathematics" (R. Hersh); (2) What Can the Sociologist of Knowledge Say About 2…

  5. Proceedings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, Michael A., Ed.; Blacker, David, Ed.; Cunningham, Craig, Ed.; Stark, Thomas I., Ed.

    These proceedings are composed of the papers presented at the 1997 and 1998 Annual Meetings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society. The 1997 papers include: "The Role of Cognitive Science in Philosophy of Education" (Jerome A. Popp); "On Accountability and Accreditation in Teacher Education: A Plea for Alternatives" (Gary D.…

  6. Philosophy and the Value of Education: A Reply to John Wilson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The author replies to John Wilson's comments on his paper "Political Doctrine, Philosophy, and the Value of Education: The Legacy of Isocrates and the Socratic Alternative." The author argues that he does not attempt to identify philosophy with the concept of education, and that Wilson has misrepresented the author's view of the content of…

  7. Peirce's Philosophy of Mathematical Education: Fostering Reasoning Abilities for Mathematical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    I articulate Charles S. Peirce's philosophy of mathematical education as related to his conception of mathematics, the nature of its method of inquiry, and especially, the reasoning abilities required for mathematical inquiry. The main thesis is that Peirce's philosophy of mathematical education primarily aims at fostering the development of the…

  8. What Is Philosophy for Children? From an Educational Experiment to Experimental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy seems to have gained solid ground in the hearts and minds of educational researchers and practitioners. We critique Philosophy for Children as an experimental programme aimed at improving children's thinking capacity, by questioning the concept of critique itself. What does it mean when an institutional framework like the school…

  9. Tradition and Modernization: Siting Philosophy for Children within the African Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndofirepi, Amasa Philip; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, we investigate the project of doing philosophy with children in Africa. While the philosophy for children program has its roots in the Anglo-Saxon world, we contend that it can sit well in Africa if given an African outlook. We challenge Eurocentric specialists, who are attempting a wholesale introduction of the…

  10. Orientation to Philosophy of Education: Locating the Field of Play for New Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, David P.

    1997-01-01

    An examination of four books on the philosophy of education presents four strategies for introducing students to the subject: treating it as the history of the philosophy of education; presenting it as a clash of ism's (e.g., realism, idealism, and rationalism); engaging students in critical dialog; and using a problem- or concept-oriented…

  11. From Places to Paths: "Learning for Sustainability," Teacher Education and a Philosophy of Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what thinking with a philosophy of "becoming" might produce in terms of conceptualising "Learning for Sustainability" ("LfS"), a recent development in Scottish educational policy. The paper posits that animism and the immanent materiality of a philosophy of becoming have…

  12. Case Studies, Ethics, Philosophy, and Liberal Learning for the Management Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Case studies can be an important methodology for ethics and philosophy in humanistic management and liberal education as well as in the social sciences because they integrate a deeper, reflective, philosophical, and ethical understanding of the organization. A case study approach based on philosophy of management contributes to putting into…

  13. This Is (Not) a Philosopher: On Educational Philosophy in an Age of Psychologisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is a renewed interest in philosophy as art-of-living. Several prominent authors have pointed out the return of the notion of the good life in philosophy, particularly understood as a form of normative ethics. Questions such as: how should I live have been taken up as a resistance against the dominances of a neo-liberal discourse in…

  14. Sociology, history, and philosophy in the Research Quarterly.

    PubMed

    Sage, George H; Dyreson, Mark S; Kretchmar, R Scott

    2005-06-01

    The accounts of our subdiscipline's contributions to The Research Quarterly are similar. Sociology, history, and philosophy operate at some distance from the biological sciences. The research methods used by scholars in each of our domains address distinctive issues related to objectivity and, thus, validity. Our contributions to The Research Quarterly have been modest, numbering about 240 articles, or slightly over 3 per volume. In short, we have enjoyed only a minority presence in The Research Quarterly during its 75 years of existence. Our stories, however, also diverge in important ways. Our research methods are different, and our relationships with our parent disciplines are not the same. In addition, our perceptions of The Research Quarterly as a potential repository for our respective publications vary considerably.

  15. Data fabrication and falsification and empiricist philosophy of science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2014-06-01

    Scientists have rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification that are enforced with significant punishments, such as loss of funding, termination of employment, or imprisonment. These rules pertain to data that describe observable and unobservable entities. In this commentary I argue that scientists would not adopt rules that impose harsh penalties on researchers for data fabrication or falsification unless they believed that an aim of scientific research is to develop true theories and hypotheses about entities that exist, including unobservable ones. This argument presents a challenge for constructive empiricists, such as van Fraassen. Constructive empiricists need to be able to explain why rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification do not threaten their philosophy of science.

  16. Introductory Comments on Philosophy and Constructivism in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    This article indicates something of the enormous influence of constructivism on contemporary science education. The article distinguishes educational constructivism (that has its origins in theories of children's learning), from constructivism in the philosophy of science (usually associated with instrumentalist views of scientific theory), and from constructivism in the sociology of science (of which the Edinburgh Strong Programme in the sociology of scientific knowledge is the best known example). It notes the expansion of educational constructivism from initial considerations of how children come to learn, to views about epistemology, educational theory, ethics, and the cognitive claims of science. From the learning-theory beginnings of constructivism, and at each stage of its growth, philosophical questions arise that deserve the attention of educators. Among other things, the article identifies some theoretical problems concerning constructivist teaching of the content of science.

  17. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  18. Data Fabrication and Falsification and Empiricist Philosophy of Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification that are enforced with significant punishments, such as loss of funding, termination of employment, or imprisonment. These rules pertain to data that describe observable and unobservable entities. In this commentary I argue that scientists would not adopt rules that impose harsh penalties on researchers for data fabrication or falsification unless they believed that an aim of scientific research is to develop true theories and hypotheses about entities that exist, including unobservable ones. This argument presents a challenge for constructive empiricists, such as van Fraassen. Constructive empiricists need to be able to explain why rules pertaining to data fabrication and falsification do not threaten their philosophy of science. PMID:23982326

  19. Incorporating CCSDS telemetry standards and philosophy on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Elson, Anne B.

    1995-01-01

    The Cassini project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is implementing a spacecraft telemetry system based on the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telemetry standards. Resolving the CCSDS concepts with a Ground Data System designed to handle time-division-multiplexed telemetry and also handling constraints unique to a deep-space planetary spacecraft (such as fixed downlink opportunities, small downlink rates and requirements for on-board data storage) have resulted in spacecraft and ground system design challenges. Solving these design challenges involved adapting and extending the CCSDS telemetry standards as well as changes to the spacecraft and ground system designs. The resulting spacecraft/ground system design is an example of how new ideas and philosophies can be incorporated into existing systems and design approaches without requiring significant rework. In addition, it shows that the CCSDS telemetry standards can be successfully applied to deep-space planetary spacecraft.

  20. Sleep and dreaming in Greek and Roman philosophy.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming have been with us since the beginning of recorded history. In Ancient Greece and Rome the predominant view of dreams was that they were divine in origin. This view was held not only in theory but also in practice with the establishment of various dream-oracles and dream interpretation manuals (Oneirocritica). However, it is also in the Greek and Roman writings, paralleling advances in philosophy and natural science, that we begin to see the first rationalistic accounts of dreaming. This paper reviews the evolution of such rational accounts focusing on the influence of Democritus, who provides us with the first rationalistic account of dreaming in history, and Aristotle, who provides us with the most explicit account of sleep and dreaming in the ancient world.

  1. Interdisciplinary research: a philosophy, art form, artifact or antidote?

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J G

    2000-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research has many faces--a philosophy, an art form, an artifact, and an antidote. It is all of these things because interdisciplinary research attempts to ask questions in ways that cut across disciplinary boundaries. This is not politically correct and universities especially find it difficult to manage interdisciplinarians and their projects. The author argues that interdisciplinary research has persisted as an alternative when traditional research approaches have failed to come up with answers to common problems. Interdisciplinary research will continue to survive as long as there are creative, risk-taking scientists who are dissatisfied with the political and organizational boundaries we establish around disciplines which limit our ability to learn about their commonalities. PMID:10885547

  2. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  3. Buying health: the costs of commercialism and an alternative philosophy.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Larry R; Churchill, Shelley C

    2013-08-01

    This paper argues that commercial forces have steadily encroached into our understanding of medicine and health in modern industrial societies. The impact on the delivery of personal medical services and on common ideas about food and nutrition is profound and largely deleterious to public health. A key component of commercialization is reductionism of medical services, health products and nutritional components into small, marketable units. This reductive force makes both medical services and nutritional components more costly and is corrosive to more holistic concepts of health. We compare commercial and holistic approaches to nutrition in detail and offer an alternative philosophy. Adopting this alternative will require sound public policies that rely less on marketing as a distribution system and that enfranchise individuals to be reflective on their use of medical services, their food and nutrition choices, and their larger health needs.

  4. Sociology, history, and philosophy in the Research Quarterly.

    PubMed

    Sage, George H; Dyreson, Mark S; Kretchmar, R Scott

    2005-06-01

    The accounts of our subdiscipline's contributions to The Research Quarterly are similar. Sociology, history, and philosophy operate at some distance from the biological sciences. The research methods used by scholars in each of our domains address distinctive issues related to objectivity and, thus, validity. Our contributions to The Research Quarterly have been modest, numbering about 240 articles, or slightly over 3 per volume. In short, we have enjoyed only a minority presence in The Research Quarterly during its 75 years of existence. Our stories, however, also diverge in important ways. Our research methods are different, and our relationships with our parent disciplines are not the same. In addition, our perceptions of The Research Quarterly as a potential repository for our respective publications vary considerably. PMID:16122133

  5. Dialogic Practice in Primary Schools: How Primary Head Teachers Plan to Embed Philosophy for Children into the Whole School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Thomas-Williams, Junnine

    2012-01-01

    The Philosophy for Children in Schools Project is an ongoing research project to explore the impact of philosophy for children (P4C) on classroom practice. This paper reports on the responses of head teachers, teachers and local educational authority (LA) officers in South Wales, UK, to the initial training programme in Philosophy for Children…

  6. The philosophy of chiropractic: an action research model of curriculum review

    PubMed Central

    Waalen, David; Watkins, Terry; Saranchuk, Ron

    1999-01-01

    The philosophy of chiropractic has always been regarded as an integral and indispensable component of the curriculum at chiropractic colleges. This study describes a review process in which instruments were designed to survey students and faculty to obtain information concerning curricular aspects of philosophy at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Approximately one half of the student body (N = 292) and sixty percent of the full-time and part-time faculty members (N = 66) responded to the surveys. The students who were surveyed indicated that philosophy was a very important part of their chiropractic education and they felt that their needs in this regard were not being met by the present program. Further, they perceived most faculty as being unappreciative of philosophy. The results from the faculty survey were at odds with the students’ perceptions and indicated that the faculty members were favourably disposed towards philosophy and felt that it should be an integral part of the students’ educational experience. The information gained from these surveys was subsequently used as a catalyst to stimulate discussion in a series of student/faculty focus groups on philosophy. These discussions helped to clarify some curricular philosophical issues and resulted in specific modifications to the philosophy program in the areas of content, format, faculty, and evaluation methods.

  7. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2009-01-01

    The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g) the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a) the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b) biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c) critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d) the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e) the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f) what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a) psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b) issues in psychiatric ethics; (c) social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a) antipsychiatry revisited; (b) basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c) psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d) conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  8. Testing Philosophy for ARIANE 5 Structures Qualification Through Recent Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louaas, E.; Chemoul, B.; Mourey, P.

    2004-08-01

    The Ariane5 structures qualification methodology has recently been improved especially in the frame of low frequency dynamic environments encountered during Ariane flights. For example, the 3D dynamic behaviour of the launcher taking into account all possible load cases at a given moment during flight, obliged us to modify our dynamic dimensioning rules so as to combine excitations coming from different launcher's axes: lateral and longitudinal. Therefore, standard monoaxial sine tests are no more considered as "direct qualifying tests". On top of that, more and more non linear systems are integrated in the launcher's stages. The objective is either to reduce the dynamic stresses locally (i.e. by using dampers or mechanical filters in order to prevent high amplification factors) or, to optimise the dynamic behaviour at the "system" launcher level (i.e.: the liquid oxygen tank friction damper system of Ariane new upper stage which has been developed in order to reduce the dynamic levels on the spacecrafts). The dynamic models have been improved consequently. And the dynamic tests, at different levels (several and single stages levels, elementary level), are necessary to validate these dynamic models including nonlinear elements. This paper presents, through some examples, the testing philosophy for Ariane5 structures qualification. It will show the necessary links between tests and theoretical models approaches. Vibration environments will mainly be covered. Nevertheless, acoustic and static testing philosophy for qualification will also be briefly mentioned. For these later cases, the mathematical models are necessary to justify the test configuration by providing correction factors so as to cover the different effects: adjacent structures, loading conditions, thermal gradients, temperatures, pressure... At the very end of the qualification process, the first flight results must validate the methodology. For that, the flight measurement plan is particularly

  9. [Philosophy of psychiatry and phenomenology of everyday life: The disruptions of ordinary experience in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Troubé, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions.

  10. A soul of truth in things erroneous: Popper's "amateurish" evolutionary philosophy in light of contemporary biology.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, Davide; Baravalle, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will critically assess Popper's evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper's evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper's ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be appreciated in their full biological and philosophical value.

  11. Language and Reality. Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to the Philosophy of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenburg, Brigitte

    2010-10-01

    The article investigates the way in which Peter Mittelstaedt has been contributing to the philosophy of physics for half a century. It is shown that he pursues a path between rationalism and empiricism in the sense of Erhard Scheibe’s philosophy of the physicists. Starting from Kant’s a priori he gives a rational reconstruction of the conceptual revolutions of 20th century physics. The central topic of his philosophy of physics is the quest for semantic self-consistency, which for quantum mechanics is a hard nut to crack.

  12. [Philosophy of psychiatry and phenomenology of everyday life: The disruptions of ordinary experience in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Troubé, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions. PMID:27550459

  13. Undergraduates study climate change science, philosophy, and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Frodeman, Robert L.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to participate in ongoing scientific research. Existing either as stand-alone summer programs or as supplementary components to existing NSF research grants, the REU program focuses on introducing aspiring young scientists to the delights and complexities of science. Global Climate Change and Society (GCCS) is an intensive, 8-week REU program that began a 3-year run in the summer of 2001.Developed by a philosopher at the Colorado School of Mines, and a planetary scientist at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colrado, GCCS is a unique experiment in research and pedagogy that introduces students to science by using a distinctive approach. Choosing as its topic the questions surrounding global climate change, the program explores the interwoven scientific, philosophical, and public policy issues that make the climate change debate such a volatile topic in contemporary society. Last summer, the program selected 12 undergraduates through a nationally advertised competition. Student interns came from diverse academic and cultural backgrounds and included physics, philosophy and public policy majors from elite liberal arts schools, major research institutions, and mainstream state universities. The program was held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), in Boulder, Colorado (Figure 1).

  14. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Theise, Neil D; Kafatos, Menas C

    2016-01-01

    The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a "hard problem," but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically. PMID:27489576

  15. Philosophy, medicine and healthcare: insights from the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Paola

    2014-09-01

    To contribute to our understanding of the relationship between philosophical ideas and medical and healthcare models. A diachronic analysis is put in place in order to evaluate, from an innovative perspective, the influence over the centuries on medical and healthcare models of two philosophical concepts, particularly relevant for health: how Man perceives his identity and how he relates to Nature. Five epochs are identified--the Archaic Age, Classical Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age, the 'Postmodern' Era--which can be seen, à la Foucault, as 'fragments between philosophical fractures'. From a historical background perspective, up to the early 1900s progress in medical and healthcare models has moved on a par with the evolution of philosophical debate. Following the Second World War, the Health Service started a series of reforms, provoked by anti-positivistic philosophical transformations. The three main reforms carried out however failed and the medical establishment remained anchored to a mechanical, reductionist approach, perfectly in line with the bureaucratic stance of the administrators. In this context, future scenarios are delineated and an anthropo-ecological model is proposed to re-align philosophy, medicine and health care. PMID:22535482

  16. Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia

    2016-05-01

    -1The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as core-idea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilot-study which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their "regime of competence" for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students' reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the "foundational" character that symmetry attained in twentieth-century physics. The delicate step of re-thinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentieth-century physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, on-line version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

  17. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization’s Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  18. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur?

    PubMed

    Pessina, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  19. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail.

  20. The art, science and philosophy of newborn care.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meharban

    2014-06-01

    Neonates truly constitute the foundation of a nation and no sensible government can afford to neglect their needs and rights. In the last 50 y, technology has revolutionized neonatology and we have moved from an exceedingly passive or "hands-off" philosophy to an extremely aggressive or mechanistic approach. Deaths during first 28 d of life account for over 60 % of all infant deaths and 40 % of all deaths of under-5 children. If we have to further reduce infant mortality rate in our country we must focus our strategies to improve health and survival of newborn babies. There should be equitable distribution of resources for the care of mothers and babies in the community and establishment of high-tech newborn care facilities. In 21st century, we must delink and sever our dependence on traditional birth attendants or dais and develop necessary infrastructure and facilities to ensure that every pregnant woman is provided with essential antenatal care and all deliveries take place at health care facilities and they are conducted by trained health care professionals. In the best pediatric tradition, there is a need for greater focus on preventive rather than curative health care strategies because a large number of neonatal deaths occur due to potentially preventable disorders like birth asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and infections. The art and science of neonatology should be integrated and we should follow a "middle path" and strike a balance between art and technology in the care of newborns.

  1. Healing relationships and the existential philosophy of Martin Buber

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John G; Scott, Rebecca G; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2009-01-01

    The dominant unspoken philosophical basis of medical care in the United States is a form of Cartesian reductionism that views the body as a machine and medical professionals as technicians whose job is to repair that machine. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for an alternative philosophy of medicine based on the concept of healing relationships between clinicians and patients. This is accomplished first by exploring the ethical and philosophical work of Pellegrino and Thomasma and then by connecting Martin Buber's philosophical work on the nature of relationships to an empirically derived model of the medical healing relationship. The Healing Relationship Model was developed by the authors through qualitative analysis of interviews of physicians and patients. Clinician-patient healing relationships are a special form of what Buber calls I-Thou relationships, characterized by dialog and mutuality, but a mutuality limited by the inherent asymmetry of the clinician-patient relationship. The Healing Relationship Model identifies three processes necessary for such relationships to develop and be sustained: Valuing, Appreciating Power and Abiding. We explore in detail how these processes, as well as other components of the model resonate with Buber's concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships. The resulting combined conceptual model illuminates the wholeness underlying the dual roles of clinicians as healers and providers of technical biomedicine. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that health care should be focused on healing, with I-Thou relationships at its core. PMID:19678950

  2. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur?

    PubMed

    Pessina, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism. PMID:24206246

  3. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution.

  4. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  5. Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.

    PubMed

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2005-06-01

    Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research. PMID:15909796

  6. Using History and Philosophy of Science to Promote Students' Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the effect of a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) based on the discovery of oxygen in promoting students' argumentation. It examines the written and oral arguments produced by 63 high school students (24 females and 39 males, 16-17 years old) in France during a complete TLS supervised by the same teacher. The data used in this analysis was derived from students' written responses, audio and video recordings, and written field notes. The first goal of this investigation was to provide evidence that an approach combining history and philosophy of science and argumentation could increase students' awareness of the relevance of experimentation and communication to scientific progress. The second goal was to assess the effectiveness of the TLS to engage students in argumentative classroom interactions (such as debates) relating to the discovery of oxygen at the end of the 18th century. The findings show that this historical case can be useful for promoting students' argumentation and is also appropriate for high school students. Future research should include students of other ages, other historical episodes and experiences in other parts of the world.

  7. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution. PMID:27149642

  8. Panpsychic organicism: Sewall Wright's philosophy for understanding complex genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Steffes, David M

    2007-01-01

    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great regularity, the special nature of genetic systems contributes to the animal phenotype a degree of spontaneity and novelty, creating unpredictable trait variations by virtue of gene interactions. As a result of his experimentation, as well as his keen interest in the philosophical literature of his day, Wright was inspired to see genetic systems as conscious, living organisms in their own right. Moreover, he decided that since genetic systems maintain ordered stability and cause unpredictable novelty in their organic wholes (the animal phenotype), it would be necessary for biologists to integrate techniques for studying causally ordered phenomena (experimental method) and chance phenomena (correlation method). From 1914 to 1921 Wright developed his "method of path coefficient" (or "path analysis"), a new procedure drawing from both laboratory experimentation and statistical correlation in order to analyze the relative influence of specific genetic interactions on phenotype variation. In this paper I aim to show how Wright's philosophy for understanding complex genetic systems (panpsychic organicism) logically motivated his 1914-1921 design of path analysis.

  9. Philosophy, medicine and healthcare: insights from the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Paola

    2014-09-01

    To contribute to our understanding of the relationship between philosophical ideas and medical and healthcare models. A diachronic analysis is put in place in order to evaluate, from an innovative perspective, the influence over the centuries on medical and healthcare models of two philosophical concepts, particularly relevant for health: how Man perceives his identity and how he relates to Nature. Five epochs are identified--the Archaic Age, Classical Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age, the 'Postmodern' Era--which can be seen, à la Foucault, as 'fragments between philosophical fractures'. From a historical background perspective, up to the early 1900s progress in medical and healthcare models has moved on a par with the evolution of philosophical debate. Following the Second World War, the Health Service started a series of reforms, provoked by anti-positivistic philosophical transformations. The three main reforms carried out however failed and the medical establishment remained anchored to a mechanical, reductionist approach, perfectly in line with the bureaucratic stance of the administrators. In this context, future scenarios are delineated and an anthropo-ecological model is proposed to re-align philosophy, medicine and health care.

  10. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Theise, Neil D; Kafatos, Menas C

    2016-01-01

    The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a "hard problem," but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically.

  11. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Theise, Neil D.; Kafatos, Menas C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a “hard problem,” but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically. PMID:27489576

  12. Lonergan's philosophy as grounding for cross-disciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Kane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly, nurses conduct scientific inquiry into complex health-care problems by collaborating on teams with researchers from other highly specialized fields. As cross-disciplinary research proliferates and becomes institutionalized globally, researchers will increasingly encounter the need to integrate their particular research perspectives within inquiries without sacrificing the potential contributions of their discipline-specific expertise. The work of the philosopher Bernard Lonergan (1904–1984) offers the necessary philosophical grounding. Here, I defend a role for philosophy in cross-disciplinary research and present selected ideas in Lonergan's work. These include: (1) a dynamic, normative pattern that each inquirer operates uniquely also forms the common core, or unity, in knowing; (2) the possibility of cross-disciplinary knowledge development is dependent on each researcher's consciousness of her or his attentiveness, intelligence, reasonableness, and responsibleness; and (3) shifts in researchers' viewpoints, or horizons, facilitate their collaborative inquiry and their grasp of the unity in knowing. The desire to know, shared by team members, drives their inquiry. Lonergan's stance is consistent with nursing values because it respects, but does not unconditionally privilege, any researcher or discipline. Arguments support a claim that Lonergan's perspective is well suited to guide nurse researchers participating on cross-disciplinary health research teams.

  13. Space Vehicle Powerdown Philosophies Derived from the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsey, Mark; Bailey, Brad

    2011-01-01

    In spaceflight, electrical power is a vital but limited resource. Almost every spacecraft system, from avionics to life support systems, relies on electrical power. Since power can be limited by the generation system s performance, available consumables, solar array shading, or heat rejection capability, vehicle power management is a critical consideration in spacecraft design, mission planning, and real-time operations. The purpose of this paper is to capture the powerdown philosophies used during the Space Shuttle Program. This paper will discuss how electrical equipment is managed real-time to adjust the overall vehicle power level to ensure that systems and consumables will support changing mission objectives, as well as how electrical equipment is managed following system anomalies. We will focus on the power related impacts of anomalies in the generation systems, air and liquid cooling systems, and significant environmental events such as a fire, decrease in cabin pressure, or micrometeoroid debris strike. Additionally, considerations for executing powerdowns by crew action or by ground commands from Mission Control will be presented. General lessons learned from nearly 30 years of Space Shuttle powerdowns will be discussed, including an in depth case-study of STS-117. During this International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission, a failure of computers controlling the ISS guidance, navigation, and control system required that the Space Shuttle s maneuvering system be used to maintain attitude control. A powerdown was performed to save power generation consumables, thus extending the docked mission duration and allowing more time to resolve the issue.

  14. History and Philosophy of Science as a Continuation of Science by Other Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hasok

    1999-01-01

    Argues that history and philosophy of science can investigate scientific questions that are excluded from science itself by working as a shadow discipline, complementing the specialist science in the production of knowledge about nature. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  15. A Pre-History of Educational Philosophy in the United States: 1861 to 1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Early stages of the development of educational philosophy in the United States involved the social reform movement of the 1890s, populism, progressivism, social science, literary history, muckraking, Hull House, and the work of Herbert Spencer and John Dewey. (SK)

  16. [The function of philosophy of science in the teaching of medical history].

    PubMed

    Li, Yaming

    2014-05-01

    The philosophy of science yields 3 important functions in the teaching of medical history. Firstly, by analyzing the development of medicine from the perspective of philosophy, we can integrate medical history into the history of human thought and clearly show the close connection between the development of humanity and the development of medical science. Secondly, philosophical analysis on the general rules of scientific discoveries involved in medical history can help medical students to understand the methodology in the research of sciences in history. Thirdly, philosophy of science offers new dimensions for understanding the relationship between medicine and the society. By making use of the relevant theory in scientific philosophy to explore the relationship between medicine and the society, the nature of medicine and the social nature and function of science can be further understood by medical students so as to exert an active role in the research and clinical work in the future.

  17. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.

  18. The Educational Philosophies of Training and Development Professors, Leaders, and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurgeon, Linda P.; Moore, Gary E.

    1997-01-01

    Training and development professors, leaders, and practitioners (n=500) identified their philosophies in a survey. Professors and leaders preferred progressivism first and behaviorism second. Practitioners chose behaviorism over progressivism. Radicalism was least preferred by all three. (SK)

  19. Payload test philosophy. [to provide confidence in Shuttle structural math models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, D.

    1979-01-01

    Shuttle payload test philosophy is discussed with reference to testing to provide confidence in Shuttle structural math models. Particular attention is given the Shuttle quarter-scale program and the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test Program.

  20. Meaning and Value: Human Action and Matrices of Relevance in Philosophies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanage, Sherman M.

    1976-01-01

    Works of A. Schutz, J. L. Austin, R. G. Collingwood, and J. Ortega y Gasset are sources for the philosophy of human action and relevance offered here to fill an alleged gap in educational theory. (GW)